Human endocrine organs: The Endocrine System and Glands of the Human Body: Function and Disorders
What Is an Endocrinologist? What Does a Diabetes Doctor Do?
Endocrinologists are doctors who specialize in glands and the hormones they make. They deal with metabolism, or all the biochemical processes that make your body work, including how your body changes food into energy and how it grows.
They may work with adults or kids. When they specialize in treating children, they’re called pediatric endocrinologists.
What Do Endocrinologists Do?
They cover a lot of ground, diagnosing and treating conditions that affect your:
- Adrenals, glands that sit on top of your kidneys and help to control things like your blood pressure, metabolism, stress response, and sex hormones
- Bone metabolism, like osteoporosis
- Hypothalamus, the part of your brain that controls body temperature, hunger, and thirst
- Pancreas, which makes insulin and other substances for digestion
- Parathyroids, small glands in your neck that control the calcium in your blood
- Pituitary, a pea-sized gland at the base of your brain that keeps your hormones balanced
- Reproductive glands (gonads): ovaries in women, testes in men
- Thyroid, a butterfly-shaped gland in your neck that controls your metabolism, energy, and brain growth and development
Endocrinologists are licensed internal medicine doctors who have passed an additional certification exam.
They go to college for 4 years, then medical school for 4 more years. Afterward, they work in hospitals and clinics as residents for 3 years to get experience treating people. They’ll spend another 2 or 3 years training specifically in endocrinology.
The whole process usually takes at least 10 years.
Where to Find One
An endocrinologist can work in:
- A medical practice with other endocrinologists
- A group with different kinds of doctors
You can search for one on the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists website.
Some don’t see patients. They may work in universities or medical schools, where they teach medical students and residents or do research.
When to See an Endocrinologist for Diabetes
Your regular doctor can treat diabetes, but they might refer you to an endocrinologist when:
- You’re brand new to diabetes and need to learn how to manage it.
- They don’t have a lot of experience treating diabetes.
- You take a lot of shots or use an insulin pump.
- Your diabetes has gotten tough to manage, or your treatment isn’t working.
- You have complications from diabetes.
You can always ask to go to an endocrinologist, too, even though your doctor doesn’t suggest it first. When you see one, you’ll still need to visit your primary doctor as well. They’ll work together.
Appointments With Your Diabetes Doctor
Your endocrinologist will ask you about how you feel, what you’re doing to manage your diabetes, and any trouble you’re having.
Take your blood glucose journal or logs with you, and let your endocrinologist know what’s been going on with you. What’s changed since the last time you saw them?
- Eating differently
- Working out more or less
- Been sick lately
- Started taking any medicines, vitamins, or supplements
Chances are they’ll want to check your blood pressure and your feet and test your blood glucose, urine, and cholesterol.
If you take insulin, you should probably see your diabetes doctor every 3 or 4 months. Otherwise, you can go a little longer between visits, every 4 to 6 months. You may have to go more often when your diabetes isn’t under control, you have complications, or you have new symptoms or they get worse.
10 Ways to Stop Stress Now
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Pituitary Gland Disorder Causes & Treatments
What Is Hypopituitarism?
Hypopituitarism is a condition in which your pituitary gland (a small gland at the base of the brain) doesn’t make one or more of its hormones, or not enough of them. This condition may be the result of disease in the pituitary or hypothalamus (a part of the brain that contains hormones that control the pituitary gland). When there is low or no production of all the pituitary hormones, the condition is called panhypopituitarism. This condition may affect both children or adults.
The pituitary gland sends signals to other glands, for example the thyroid gland, to make hormones, such as thyroid hormone. The hormones made by the pituitary gland and other glands have a big impact on bodily functions, such as growth, reproduction, blood pressure, and metabolism. When one or more of these hormones isn’t produced as it should be, your body’s normal functions can be affected. Some of the problems with hormones, such as with cortisol or thyroid hormone, may need immediate treatment. Others aren’t life-threatening problems.
The pituitary gland makes several hormones. Some important ones include:
- Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) is a hormone that stimulates the adrenal glands (glands located above or on top of the kidneys that produce hormones). ACTH triggers the adrenal glands to release a hormone called cortisol, which regulates metabolism and blood pressure.
- Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) is a hormone that stimulates production and secretion of thyroid hormones from the thyroid gland (a gland in the hormone system). Thyroid hormone regulates the body’s metabolism and is important in growth and development.
- Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) are hormones that control sexual function in males and females. LH and FSH are also known as gonadotropins. They act on the ovaries or testes to stimulate sex hormone production- estrogen from ovaries and testosterone from testes.
- Growth hormone (GH) is a hormone that stimulates normal growth of bones and tissues.
- Prolactin is a hormone that stimulates milk production and female breast growth.
- Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) is a hormone that controls water loss by the kidneys.
- Oxytocin tells a woman’s uterus to contract during childbirth and signals milk to release so the baby can feed. It also helps sperm move in men. Oxytocin also plays a part in the parent-child bond, sexual arousal, and feelings of trust.
In hypopituitarism, one or more of these pituitary hormones is missing. The lack of hormone results in a loss of function of the gland or organ that it controls.
A loss of function in or damage to your pituitary gland or hypothalamus results in low or absent hormones. You might have this because of:
- Infections such as meningitis, or various other conditions.
- Head injuries
- Stroke or bleeding into the brain
- Inflammation caused by abnormal immune system response
- Severe loss of blood during childbirth
- Genetic mutation
In some cases, the cause is unknown.
Some people may have no symptoms or a gradual onset of symptoms. In other people, the symptoms may be sudden and dramatic. The symptoms depend on the cause, how fast they come on, and the hormone that is involved.
- ACTH deficiency: Symptoms include fatigue, low blood pressure, weight loss, weakness, depression, nausea, or vomiting.
- TSH deficiency: Symptoms include constipation, weight gain, sensitivity to cold, decreased energy, and muscle weakness or aching.
- FSH and LH deficiency: In women, symptoms include irregular or stopped menstrual periods and infertility. In men, symptoms include loss of body and facial hair, weakness, lack of interest in sexual activity, erectile dysfunction, and infertility.
- GH deficiency: In children, symptoms include short height, fat around the waist and in the face, and poor overall growth. In adults, symptoms include low energy, decreased strength and exercise tolerance, weight gain, decreased muscle mass, and feelings of anxiety or depression.
- Prolactin deficiency: In women, symptoms include lack of milk production. No symptoms are seen in men.
- ADH deficiency: Symptoms include increased thirst and urination.
- Oxytocin hormone deficiency: Women may have a hard time breastfeeding because of difficulty with milk letdown. Low oxytocin may also trigger symptoms of depression.
Call the doctor or health care practitioner if any of the above symptoms develop.
The doctor or health care practitioner may do blood tests to determine which hormone level is low and to rule out other causes. Test you may have include:
- ACTH (Cortrosyn) stimulation test
- TSH and thyroxine test
- FSH and LH and either estradiol or testosterone (whichever is appropriate for the patient)
- Prolactin test
- GH stimulation test
- Stimulation or suppression testing (tests that check your hormone levels after you take certain medications)
- Vision tests
You may get an MRI or CT scan of the pituitary gland may to find whether a tumor is present.
In children, X-rays of the hands may be taken to determine if bones are growing normally.
Medical treatment consists of hormone replacement therapy and treatment of the underlying cause.
Drugs used to treat hypopituitarism replace the hormone of which you don’t have enough:
- Glucocorticoids (for example, hydrocortisone) are used to treat adrenal insufficiency resulting from ACTH deficiency.
- Thyroid hormone replacement therapy is used for hypothyroidism (a condition in which thyroid production is low). Drugs, such as levothyroxine (for example, Synthroid, Levoxyl), may be used. In the drug’s active form, it influences growth and development of tissues.
- Sex hormone deficiency is treated with sex-appropriate hormones such as testosterone or estrogen.
- Growth hormone (GH) replacement therapy is used for children as appropriate. Growth hormone stimulates linear growth and growth of skeletal muscle and organs. GH therapy may also be used in adults, but it will not make them grow taller. Examples include somapacitan-beco (Sogroya) or somatropin (Humatrope or Genotropin).
- Fertility hormones such as gonadotropin can help jumpstart ovulation or sperm production if you’re dealing with infertility.
If a tumor is involved, you may need surgery, depending on its type and location.
If hormone replacement therapy works, the prognosis is good. Complications are often related to the underlying disease.
Checkups with the doctor or health care practitioner are important. The doctor may need to adjust the dose of hormone replacement therapy.
Human endocrine system – Gojimo
In case you weren’t already sure the human endocrine system is the collection of glands that produce hormones that regulate a number of factors within the body including metabolism, growth, reproduction, sleep and mood among others!
There are six major endocrine glands in the human system: 1) Pituitary gland 2) Adrenal glands 3) Thyroid gland 4) Pancreas 5) Ovaries 6) Testes.
Endocrine glands secrete hormones directly into the bloodstream, which are carried around the body in the blood plasma. They can therefore have an effect on whichever organs the blood passes through, so their effects are widespread and long-lasting in comparison to the effects of the nervous system.
In this section you basically need to know quite a few different hormones and how they impact the human body, so let’s get stuck in:
The antidiuretic hormone (ADH) is secreted into the bloodstream by the pituitary gland and increases reabsorption of water in the collecting ducts of nephrons in the kidneys.
Adrenaline is secreted by, you’ve guessed it, the adrenal gland. Adrenaline stimulates the fight or flight response. Adrenaline causes your heart rate to increase, heart stroke volume to increase, pupils to dilate, hairs to stand on end, the brain to become more alert, blood to be redirected from organs to muscles and the liver to convert glycogen into glucose. All these responses prepare the body to either fight, or run away from a perceived threat.
Depending on how much revision you do, it’s likely you’ll have an adrenaline rush before you sit your exam – but it’s probably best not to go down the flight response route!
Insulin is secreted from the pancreas gland. High blood glucose (e.g. after a meal) stimulates the pancreas to secrete insulin into the blood, which causes the liver to convert glucose into a storage molecule called glycogen. This lowers blood glucose levels, which stimulates the pancreas to stop or decrease insulin production. This is an example of negative feedback, which is found in many biological systems involved in homeostasis.
The testes secrete testosterone and they help regulate male puberty (pubic, underarm and facial hair growth, increased aggression, muscle growth and penis growth).
Alternatively women secrete progesterone and oestrogen from the ovaries, both of which are involved in the menstrual cycle.
Oestrogen helps rebuild the uterus lining just after menstruation and also brings about ovulation on day 14 of the cycle, while progesterone is only released after ovulation (from day 14 onwards) and acts to maintain the lining of the uterus in case fertilisation occurs.
Once progesterone levels drop off near the end of the cycle, the uterus lining degrades and menstruation begins anew. Both hormones are also involved in female puberty and development of secondary sexual characteristics such as the widening of hips, growth of pubic and underarm hair and the development of a sex drive.
Exploring the Endocrine System
The next two weeks will concentrate on the human biology,
which includes the different organs and systems in humans. Students should
be familiar with the structure of the human body, as well as the different
tissues that combine to make different organs such as the heart and lungs.
In addition, students should know the organs that combine into systems
such as the skeletal system or digestive system. Each student should
be familiar with the interior of his or her own body.
Human bodies vary slightly from person to person, not
only in the visible aspects of size and shape but also in the placement
of internal organs. Human bodies, however, follow a general pattern
and no part of the human body works in isolation. Each body part
does its job, day and night, supported and aided by all the other organs.
It is important for students to understand their bodies in order to take
care of them. The sixth graders need to understand how their bodies
grow. Students are at an age when many changes will be taking place.
A factual presentation of their bodies’ structure will help them not only
understand but cope with the changes that they will experience.
Endocrine glands control many of the body’s functions through
chemical substances called hormones. Endocrine glands are ductless,
pouring hormones directly into the bloodstream. Some organs, such
as the pancreas, produce hormones. The hormones produced by
the glands of the endocrine system signal the body to grow, sleep, eat,
and provide changes needed for reproduction.
The glands of the endocrine system include the pituitary, thymus,
thyroid, and adrenal. On the worksheet the students can locate these
glands. The thymus gland controls activities of the spleen and the
lymph glands which are important in the immune system. The thyroid
gland produces a hormone that regulates the metabolic rate. Each
of the adrenal glands provide hormones for emotions such as fright or anger.
This reaction is responsible for the extraordinary feats of strength that
people sometimes perform in emergencies.
The pituitary gland is important because it produces many growth
hormones that are used throughout life. The hormones in the pituitary
signal to the male and female reproductive parts to start developing the
adult male and female characteristics. The hypothalamus gland regulates
the output of the pituitary gland. It is the pituitary that signals
the testes (male gland) to produce testosterone which tells a male body
to grow hair, increase bone growth, have greater muscle strength, and a
deeper voice. The hormones, estrogen and progesterone from the pituitary
gland, regulate the work of the female’s ovaries. Estrogens are important
in the development of the adult female. Progesterone along with estrogen
is needed to prepare a female body for pregnancy.
- If you feel the students lack an understanding,
we suggest you do some of the exercises for the lower grades. Use the
Human biology slideshow to review all the systems.
- Go over the worksheet with the student. See what parts
they know already before showing them the location of each of the organ.
Please note, that students at this age will giggle, but if taught in
a straight forward scientific way, the giggles will turn into curiosity.
- Students will undoubtedly have questions. We suggest
that you have available books on the human body. You may want
students to do a research paper. It is so important for them to realize
that their bodies are human machines with all parts working together to
produce an effective and efficient product.
The Endocrine System – Human Nutrition: 2020 Edition
University of Hawai‘i at Mānoa Food Science and Human Nutrition Program and Human Nutrition Program
Figure 2.19 The Endocrine System
“Major Endocrine Glands” by National Cancer Institute / Public Domain
The functions of the endocrine system are intricately connected to the body’s nutrition. This organ system is responsible for regulating appetite, nutrient absorption, nutrient storage, and nutrient usage, in addition to other functions, such as reproduction. The glands in the endocrine system are the pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenals, thymus, pineal, pancreas, ovaries, and testes. The glands secrete hormones, which are biological molecules that regulate cellular processes in other target tissues, so they require transportation by the circulatory system. Adequate nutrition is critical for the functioning of all the glands in the endocrine system. A protein deficiency impairs gonadal-hormone release, preventing reproduction. Athletic teenage girls with very little body fat often do not menstruate. Children who are malnourished usually do not produce enough growth hormone and fail to reach normal height for their age group. Probably the most popularized connection between nutrition and the functions of the endocrine system is that unhealthy dietary patterns are linked to obesity and the development of Type 2 diabetes. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimates that twenty-six million Americans have Type 2 diabetes as of 2011. This is 8.3 percent of the US population. Counties with the highest incidence of obesity also have the highest incidence of Type 2 diabetes. To see how the rise in obesity in this country is paralleled by the rise in Type 2 diabetes, review this report by the CDC.
What is the causal relationship between overnutrition and Type 2 diabetes? The prevailing theory is that the overconsumption of high-fat and high-sugar foods causes changes in muscle, fat, and liver cells that leads to a diminished response from the pancreatic hormone insulin. These cells are called “insulin-resistant.” Insulin is released after a meal and instructs the liver and other tissues to take up glucose and fatty acids that are circulating in the blood. When cells are resistant to insulin they do not take up enough glucose and fatty acids, so glucose and fatty acids remain at high concentrations in the blood. The chronic elevation of glucose and fatty acids in the blood also causes damage to other tissues over time, so that people who have Type 2 diabetes are at increased risk for cardiovascular disease, kidney disease, nerve damage, and eye disease.
Do your part to slow the rising tide of obesity and Type 2 diabetes in this country. On the individual level, improve your own family’s diet; at the local community level, support the development of more nutritious school lunch programs; and at the national level, support your nation’s nutrition goals. Visit the CDC Diabetes Public Health Resource website at https://www.cdc.gov/diabetes/. It provides information on education resources, projects, and programs, and spotlights news on diabetes. For helpful information on obesity, visit https://www.cdc.gov/obesity/. The CDC also has workplace web-based resources with the mission of designing work sites that prevent obesity. See https://www. cdc.gov/workplacehealthpromotion/index.html or more details.
Technology Note: The second edition of the Human Nutrition Open Educational Resource (OER) textbook features interactive learning activities. These activities are available in the web-based textbook and not available in the downloadable versions (EPUB, Digital PDF, Print_PDF, or Open Document).
Learning activities may be used across various mobile devices, however, for the best user experience it is strongly recommended that users complete these activities using a desktop or laptop computer and in Google Chrome.
Endocrine System – Human Biology
Figure 22.1 A Child Catches a Falling Leaf Hormones of the endocrine system coordinate and control growth, metabolism, temperature regulation, the stress response, reproduction, and many other functions. (credit: “seenthroughmylense”/flickr. com)
You may never have thought of it this way, but when you send a text message to two friends to meet you at the restaurant six, you’re sending digital signals that (you hope) will affect their behavior—even though they are some distance away. Similarly, certain cells send chemical signals to other cells in the body that influence their behavior. This long-distance intercellular communication, coordination, and control is critical for homeostasis, and it is the fundamental function of the endocrine system.
After studying this chapter, you will be able to:
- Identify the contributions of the endocrine system to homeostasis
- Summarize the site of production, regulation, and effects of the hormones of the pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, and adrenal glands, and the pancreas, gonads, and kidneys.
The endocrine system produces hormones that function to control and regulate many different body processes. The endocrine system coordinates with the nervous system to control the functions of the other organ systems and to maintain homeostasis. Cells of the endocrine system produce chemical signals called hormones. These cells may compose endocrine glands, may be tissues or may be located in organs or tissues that have functions in addition to hormone production. Hormones circulate throughout the body and stimulate a response in cells that have receptors able to bind with them. The changes brought about in the receiving cells affect the functioning of the organ targeted by the hormone. Many of the hormones are secreted in response to signals from the nervous system, thus the two systems act in concert to effect changes in the body.
Maintaining homeostasis within the body requires the coordination of many different systems and organs. One mechanism of communication between neighboring cells, and between cells and tissues in distant parts of the body, occurs through the release of chemicals called hormones. Hormones are released into the blood, which carries them to their target cells where they elicit a response. The cells that secrete hormones are often located in specific organs, called endocrine glands, and the cells, tissues, and organs that secrete hormones make up the endocrine system. Examples of endocrine organs include the pancreas, which produces the hormones insulin and glucagon to regulate blood-glucose levels, the adrenal glands, which produce hormones such as epinephrine and norepinephrine that regulate responses to stress, and the thyroid gland, which produces thyroid hormones that regulate metabolic rates.
The endocrine glands differ from the exocrine glands. Exocrine glands secrete chemicals through ducts that lead outside the gland (not to the blood). For example, sweat produced by sweat glands is released into ducts that carry sweat to the surface of the skin. The pancreas has both endocrine and exocrine functions because besides releasing hormones into the blood. It also produces digestive juices, which are carried by ducts into the small intestine.
How Hormones Work
Hormones cause changes in target cells by binding to specific cell-surface or intracellular hormone receptors, proteins embedded in the cell membrane or floating in the cytoplasm with a binding site that matches a binding site on the hormone molecule. In this way, even though hormones circulate throughout the body and come into contact with many different cell types, they only affect cells that possess the necessary receptors. Receptors for a specific hormone may be found on or in many different cells or may be limited to a small number of specialized cells. For example, thyroid hormones act on many different tissue types, stimulating metabolic activity throughout the body. Cells can have many receptors for the same hormone but often also possess receptors for different types of hormones. The number of receptors that respond to a hormone determines the cell’s sensitivity to that hormone, and the resulting cellular response. Additionally, the number of receptors available to respond to a hormone can change over time, resulting in increased or decreased cell sensitivity.
The endocrine glands secrete hormones into the surrounding interstitial fluid; those hormones then diffuse into blood and are carried to various organs and tissues within the body. The endocrine glands include the pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal glands, gonads, pineal, and pancreas.
The pituitary gland is located at the base of the brain (Figure 22.2a). It is attached to the hypothalamus. The posterior lobe stores and releases oxytocin and antidiuretic hormone (ADH) produced by the hypothalamus. Oxytocin stimulates uterine contractions during childbirth, and it also stimulates milk letdown by the mammary glands (starts the milk flowing) during nursing. ADH stimulates the kidneys to save water from the urine. This returns more water to the blood and increases blood pressure. The anterior lobe responds to hormones produced by the hypothalamus by producing its own hormones, most of which regulate other hormone-producing glands.
Figure 22.2 (a) The pituitary gland sits at the base of the brain, just above the brain stem. (b) The parathyroid glands are located on the posterior of the thyroid gland. (c) The adrenal glands are on top of the kidneys. d) The pancreas is found between the stomach and the small intestine. (credit: modification of work by NCI, NIH)
The anterior pituitary produces six hormones: growth hormone, prolactin, thyroid-stimulating hormone, adrenocorticotropic hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and luteinizing hormone (LH). Growth hormone stimulates cellular activities like protein synthesis that promote growth. Prolactin stimulates the production of milk by the mammary glands. The other hormones produced by the anterior pituitary regulate the production of hormones by other endocrine tissues (Table 22.1). The posterior pituitary is significantly different in structure from the anterior pituitary. It is a part of the brain, extending down from the hypothalamus, and contains mostly nerve fibers that extend from the hypothalamus to the posterior pituitary.
The thyroid gland is located in the neck, just below the larynx and in front of the trachea (Figure 22.2b). It is a butterfly-shaped gland with two lobes that are connected. The thyroid gland synthesizes the hormone thyroxine, which is also known as T4 because it contains four atoms of iodine, and triiodothyronine, also known as T3 because it contains three atoms of iodine. T3 and T4 are released by the thyroid in response to thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) produced by the anterior pituitary, and both T3 and T4 have the effect of stimulating metabolic activity in the body and increasing energy use. A third hormone, calcitonin, is also produced by the thyroid. Calcitonin is released in response to rising calcium ion concentrations in the blood and has the effect of reducing those levels.
Most people have four parathyroid glands; however, the number can vary from two to six. These glands are located on the posterior surface of the thyroid gland (Figure 22.2b). The parathyroid glands produce parathyroid hormone, which increases blood calcium concentrations when calcium ion levels fall below normal.
The adrenal glands are located on top of each kidney (Figure 22.2c). The adrenal glands consist of an outer adrenal cortex and an inner adrenal medulla. These regions secrete different hormones.
The adrenal cortex produces aldosterone, cortisol, and androgens. Aldosterone regulates the concentration of sodium and potassium ions in the blood. Aldosterone release from the adrenal cortex is stimulated by a decrease in blood concentrations of sodium ions, blood volume, or blood pressure, or by an increase in blood potassium levels. Cortisol helps maintain proper blood-glucose levels between meals. Cortisol also controls the response to stress by increasing glucose synthesis from fats and proteins and interacting with epinephrine to cause vasoconstriction. Androgens are sex hormones that are produced in small amounts by the adrenal cortex. They do not normally affect sexual characteristics and may supplement sex hormones released from the gonads.
The adrenal medulla secretes epinephrine (adrenaline) and norepinephrine (noradrenaline). Epinephrine and norepinephrine cause immediate, short-term changes in response to stressors, inducing the so-called fight-or-flight response. The responses include increased heart rate, breathing rate, cardiac muscle contractions, and blood-glucose levels. They also accelerate the breakdown of glucose in skeletal muscles and stored fats in adipose tissue, and redirect blood flow toward skeletal muscles and away from skin and viscera. The release of epinephrine and norepinephrine is stimulated by neural impulses from the sympathetic nervous system that originate from the hypothalamus.
The pancreas is an elongated organ located between the stomach and the proximal portion of the small intestine (Figure 22.2d). It contains both exocrine cells that excrete digestive enzymes and endocrine cells that release hormones. The endocrine cells of the pancreas form clusters called pancreatic islets or the islets of Langerhans. Among the cell types in each pancreatic islet are the alpha cells, which produce the hormone glucagon, and the beta cells, which produce the hormone insulin. These hormones regulate blood-glucose levels. Alpha cells release glucagon as blood-glucose levels decline in order to increase the glucose back up to normal. When blood-glucose levels rise, beta cells release insulin to decrease the blood glucose to normal. Glucagon causes the release of glucose to the blood from the liver, and insulin facilitates the uptake of glucose by the body’s cells.
The gonads (testes in the male and ovaries in the female)produce steroid hormones, which are made from cholesterol. The testes produce androgens, testosterone being the most prominent, which allow for the development of secondary sex characteristics and the production of sperm cells. The ovaries produce estrogen and progesterone, which cause secondary sex characteristics, regulate production of eggs, control pregnancy, and prepare the body for childbirth.
The kidneys also possess endocrine function. Erythropoietin (EPO) is released by kidneys in response to low blood oxygen levels. EPO triggers an increase in the rate of production of red blood cells in the red bone marrow. EPO has been used by athletes (e.g. cyclists) to improve performance because more RBCs mean more oxygen can be transported. However, EPO doping has its risks, because it thickens the blood and increases strain on the heart; it also increases the risk of blood clots and therefore heart attacks and stroke.
|Endocrine Glands and Their Associated Hormones|
|Endocrine Gland||Associated Hormones||Effect|
|Pituitary (anterior)||growth hormone||promotes growth of body tissues|
|prolactin||promotes milk production|
|thyroid-stimulating hormone||stimulates thyroid hormone release|
|adrenocorticotropic hormone||stimulates hormone release by adrenal cortex|
|follicle-stimulating hormone||stimulates gamete production|
|luteinizing hormone||stimulates androgen production by gonads in males; stimulates ovulation and production of estrogen and progesterone in females|
|Pituitary (posterior)||antidiuretic hormone||stimulates water reabsorption by kidneys|
|oxytocin||stimulates uterine contractions during childbirth and milk letdown during nursing|
|Thyroid||thyroxine (T4), triiodothyronine (T3)||stimulate metabolism|
|calcitonin||reduces blood Ca2+ levels|
|Parathyroid||parathyroid hormone||increases blood Ca2+ levels|
|Adrenal (cortex)||aldosterone||increases blood Na+ levels and decreases blood K+ levels|
|cortisol||increases blood-glucose levels, helps deal with stress|
|Adrenal (medulla)||epinephrine, norepinephrine||stimulate fight-or-flight response|
|Pancreas||insulin||reduces blood-glucose levels|
|glucagon||increases blood-glucose levels|
||erythropoietin||increases red blood cell production by the bone marrow|
Table 22. 1 Endocrine organs and the hormones they secrete.
Hormone production and release are primarily controlled by negative feedback, as described in the discussion on homeostasis. In this way, the concentration of hormones in blood is maintained within a narrow range. For example, the anterior pituitary signals the thyroid to release thyroid hormones. Increasing levels of these hormones in the blood then give feedback to the hypothalamus and anterior pituitary to inhibit further signaling to the thyroid gland (Figure 22.3).
Figure 22.3 The anterior pituitary stimulates the thyroid gland to release thyroid hormones T3 and T4. Increasing levels of these hormones in the blood result in feedback to the hypothalamus and anterior pituitary to inhibit further signaling to the thyroid gland. (credit: modification of work by Mikael Häggström)
Adapted from Openstax Human Biology
90,000 Human hormones, their effect on the body and the causes of hormone dysfunctions
19 December 2013
The cells of the endocrine glands produce juices (secretions of the glands) containing substances specific for each endocrine organ called hormones and release them directly into the bloodstream. This is their difference from exocrine glands, which secrete their secret into a duct that extends to the outer surface of the body (salivary, sweat glands, stomach, lungs).
Hormones are a chemical that enters the bloodstream and reaches various organs through the bloodstream, where it stimulates or decreases the activity of other cells, called target cells. Through target cells, hormones have an effect on almost all vital functions of the human body.
The body’s endocrine glands (endocrine glands) include:
- thyroid gland;
- parathyroid gland;
- pancreas (insular part) gland;
- adrenal glands;
- testicles (testes) in men;
- ovaries in women;
- pituitary gland;
In addition, hormones are produced by organs that are not endocrine glands. This is the heart, liver, brain.
More than 60 different hormones are currently known. Most hormones cannot be stored or stored in the body. The only exceptions are thyroglobulin in the thyroid gland, the reserves of which are sufficient for two days, and vitamin D, which can be stored in the liver. Therefore, for the normal existence of the human body, the production of hormones must be carried out constantly.The amount of hormones produced by the endocrine glands (endocrine glands) depends on the time of day, sleep or wakefulness, age, mental and physical condition of the person.
Some hormones enter the bloodstream in a pulse mode – in portions. From the sites of synthesis, hormones are transported to target cells with blood flow. Some hormones are transported by attaching to special transport carrier proteins.
Hormones are excreted from the body in small amounts unchanged with bile and urine, and most of them are processed in the liver and excreted in bile.
The main center that regulates the production of hormones by the endocrine glands and their release into the blood is the hypothalamus, located in the brain. It produces liberin hormones, which stimulate another central endocrine organ – the pituitary gland. In the pituitary gland, under the action of the hypothalamic liberins, its own hormones are produced – tropines, which stimulate the production of hormones by the endocrine glands. It is these hormones – hormones of the endocrine glands that are the main active link in this chain.In turn, the hormones of the endocrine glands have the opposite effect on the hypothalamic-pituitary system. With an increase in the concentration of the hormone in the blood, the amount of liberins in the hypothalamus decreases, then the tropines regulated by them in the pituitary gland and, ultimately, the production of the hormone itself decreases, which thus regulates its production.
This feedback scheme does not describe all the complex regulation of hormones in the body, since a huge number of factors still matter.If necessary, the regulation of the amount of hormones and their action occurs very quickly.
Why are hormone functions impaired?
Dysfunction of hormones in the body can be caused by the following reasons.
- Hormone deficiency. It occurs with a decrease in the production of hormones by the endocrine gland for various reasons: infections, heart attacks, autoimmune processes, tumors, hereditary diseases.
- Excess hormone. It occurs with excess production and release of hormones into the bloodstream.The reasons for this may be excessive synthesis of hormones by the endocrine gland, the production of hormones by other tissues (usually in malignant degeneration), increased production of hormones by tissues from its precursor, and iatrogenic reasons, when an excess of a hormone is introduced when hormones are prescribed as a drug.
- Synthesis of abnormal hormones by the endocrine glands. This happens more often with congenital genetic abnormalities.
- Hormone resistance. In this case, the tissues of the body do not give the usual reaction to a normal or increased amount of the hormone in the blood. Resistance (immunity) of tissues to a hormone has various reasons: hereditary nature, a defect in tissue receptors, the appearance of antibodies to hormones.
There are diseases that immediately affect many endocrine organs (Schmidt’s syndrome, multiple endocrine neoplasia of MEN, lipodystrophy). This makes the diagnosis and treatment of endocrine diseases even more challenging.
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Doctors-endocrinologists of our medical center have extensive practical experience with endocrine pathology, carry out a complete diagnosis of diseases of the endocrine system, and, if necessary, prescribe treatment.
Special programs for the management of patients with endocrine system pathology have been developed and are successfully applied.
The network of clinics “Medicine for You” provides:
- A complete study of the body’s hormonal levels.
- Ultrasound of the endocrine glands, including the thyroid gland
- Selection of corrective treatment for compensation of type I and II diabetes mellitus
- Treatment of complications in patients with diabetes mellitus
- Obesity Treatment
- Diagnosis and treatment of thyroid diseases
- Corrective therapy of climacteric syndrome
- Diagnosis and treatment of endocrine disorders in infertility in men and women.
When choosing treatment methods, our doctors take into account all the characteristics of a person – his age, gender, lifestyle, and much more. In addition, the doctor will definitely give recommendations on proper nutrition.
We are engaged in the diagnosis and treatment of all disorders of the endocrine system.
Endocrinology is a branch of medical science that studies the endocrine system, its structure, functioning, diseases. The human endocrine system consists of several endocrine glands, which are located in different parts of the body.The endocrine system includes: the sex glands, thyroid gland, adrenal glands, pituitary gland, islets of the pancreas, thymus and pineal gland. These endocrine glands are small in size, but they release chemicals into the bloodstream – hormones that affect various systems, organs and tissues of the body. Every organ of a person, including the brain, heart, lungs, skin, is connected with the endocrine glands and is exposed to hormones. It is obvious that the correct functioning of the endocrine system is a prerequisite for the health of the whole organism, and disruption of their work can have very serious consequences.
Diseases of the endocrine glands often have symptoms at first glance associated with the work of other organs: for example, fatigue, irritability, dizziness, which are often fought with sedatives, can be caused by dysfunction of the thyroid gland, and excess weight, which is unsuccessfully trying to overcome diet and fitness, it is associated with various disorders of the endocrine system, for example, the hypothalamic region of the brain. An examination by an endocrinologist and in the treatment of infertility is necessary, the cause of which is very often endocrine disorders.
There may be the following disorders in the functioning of the endocrine system:
– Hormone deficiency, which occurs when the production of hormones by the endocrine gland decreases for various reasons: infections, autoimmune processes, tumors, hereditary diseases.
– An excess of hormones occurs when they are overproduced and released into the bloodstream. The reasons for this may be various diseases, as well as excessive administration of hubbubs by drugs.
– Synthesis of abnormal hormones by the endocrine glands.This happens more often with congenital genetic abnormalities.
– Immunity to hormones. In this case, the tissues of the body do not give the usual reaction to a normal or increased amount of the hormone in the blood.
You will be trained to independently normalize your blood sugar level, determine the presence of initial signs of late complications of diabetes mellitus and treat them using modern methods.
Endocrine tumors | University ClinicFreiburg
What is a neuroendocrine tumor (NET)?
For the most part, malignant cells of the neuroendocrine tumor (NET) are formed from cells of the neural plates and in their characteristics are similar to the endocrine glandular cells, which are responsible for the production of certain hormones that control, for example, the digestion process. The classic name is “carcinoid”. This disease is rare – it accounts for 0.5 – 2% of all tumor diseases; she has no typical age limit.
A characteristic feature is the secretion of serotonin and other hormones, in connection with which the so-called carcinoid syndrome can occur.
Along with hereditary characteristics due to various syndromes, i.e. due to the genetic component, it has not yet been possible to determine any other risk factors and causes of the disease.
Since with NET it is possible to degenerate different types of cells that perform different functions in the body of a healthy person, the symptoms can be very different.In addition to nonspecific symptoms such as abdominal pain, constipation and anemia, there may be specific symptoms such as acromegaly (marked enlargement of the hands, feet, skull, or protruding parts of the body), Cushing’s syndrome, or frequent gastrointestinal ulcers
In descending order, NETs affect the appendix (cecum), small intestine, rectum, and bronchi. In the presence of metastases in the liver, the already mentioned carcinoid syndrome often appears, the signs of which are: redness of the face, diarrhea, narrowing of the bronchi, lowering blood pressure, etc.
The doctor, during a visit to him, will conduct a detailed conversation with the patient, and a thorough examination. After that, various laboratory parameters and the level of hormones in the patient’s blood will be determined. Then imaging methods will be applied, which include: X-ray, ultrasound, if possible, computed or magnetic resonance imaging (CT / MRI), skeletal scintigraphy, and especially – positron emission tomography (PET).
Often, as part of an endoscopic examination or with the help of computed tomography of the gastrointestinal tract, a tissue sample is taken from the affected organ for further examination and a pathological conclusion.
Therapy often requires a multifaceted approach, i.e. it is necessary to use different methods of treatment. The following methods are used: surgery, radiation therapy, nuclear medicine methods, somatostatin analogs, interferon, and, if possible, chemotherapy.
Treatment of endocrine system diseases and metabolic disorders in the sanatorium
Treatment of endocrine system diseases and metabolic disorders in the sanatorium
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One of the most severe chronic diseases is a violation of the activity of the endocrine glands and metabolic processes. Because of this, all organs and systems of a person suffer, since their work is regulated by hormones. With pathologies of the thyroid and pancreas, disruptions in the production of basic hormones and enzymes occur. Most often, this leads to fluctuations in blood sugar levels. Diabetes mellitus develops. Dysfunctions of the thyroid gland are also dangerous, in which diseases such as hypothyroidism, thyrotoxicosis and other diseases develop.
It is best to treat endocrine system diseases and metabolic disorders in a sanatorium.Favorable climatic conditions, psychological atmosphere and unique mineral waters in the Shakhtar sanatorium help to improve the functioning of the thyroid and pancreas, normalize blood sugar levels and activate metabolic processes. After a course of treatment in a sanatorium, 98% of patients feel improvements: weight decreases, mood and sleep improve, and exacerbations stop.
Treatment of diabetes mellitus in the sanatorium
Treatment at the Shakhtar sanatorium is based on the action of mineral water. It is most effective for metabolic disorders and the functions of the endocrine glands. A good result is achieved in the treatment of diabetes mellitus in a sanatorium. Patients feel better, they can reduce the dose of antihyperglycemic drugs, as the level of glycated hemoglobin is normalized. This is achieved with the help of a special diet, drinking mineral waters, iodine-bromine baths, therapeutic showers, mud applications, massage, exercise therapy and hardware procedures.
Normalization of the thyroid gland in the sanatorium
For patients with excessive and insufficient thyroid function, all physiotherapy procedures are contraindicated.But they are also provided with effective assistance at the Shakhtar sanatorium. For this are used:
- climatic factors;
- mineral waters for external and internal use;
- special diet;
- mode of physical activity;
These and other procedures help to establish metabolism and restore the function of the thyroid gland.
Treatment of obesity in the sanatorium
With the normalization of metabolic processes, a gradual but stable weight loss occurs.Sanatorium Shakhtar has many effective methods of obesity treatment. A 2-3 week course of treatment helps to lose 5 to 20 kg. For this, patients are offered:
- special meals;
- special daily regimen;
- physical activity – exercise therapy pool, nordic walking;
- ozone therapy;
- different types of massage.
High professionalism of the staff of the sanatorium ensures a comfortable stay here for every patient.Anyone who has fluctuations in blood sugar or thyroid hormones, who has a slow metabolism and accumulates excess body fat should come to Shakhtar. Mineral water “Essentuki” works wonders – after the course of treatment, the patient feels a significant improvement in the quality of life.
Diabetes Treatment Program
Tours from 12 days
Prevention of complications in patients with type 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus.
90,000 2.21. Human organs and tissues, blood and its components, samples of human biological materials / ConsultantPlus
2. 21. Human organs and tissues, blood and its components,
samples of human biological materials
EAEU nomenclature of goods subject to foreign trade code
1. Allogeneic tissues (pancreas, thyroid gland, parathyroid gland, pituitary gland and other endocrine tissues)
of 3001 90 200 0
2. Hematopoietic stem cells
of 3001 90 200 0
of 3001 90 200 0
of 3001 90 200 0
5. Complex heart – lungs
of 3001 90 200 0
of 3001 90 200 0
7. Bone marrow
of 3001 90 200 0
8. Human blood and its components
out of 3002 12,000 3
out of 3002 12,000 4
out of 3002 12,000 5
of 3002 13,000 0
of 3002 14,000 0
out of 3002 90 100 0
(as amended by the decision of the Board of the Eurasian Economic Commission of 15.11.2016 N 145)
9. Multivisceral complexes (liver – kidney; liver – kidney – adrenal glands – part of the gastrointestinal tract; kidney – pancreas)
of 3001 90 200 0
10.Liver and its parts
of 3001 90 200 0
11. The pancreas alone or in combination with other organs
of 3001 90 200 0
of 3001 90 200 0
of 3001 90 200 0
of 3001 90 200 0
of 3001 90 200 0
16. Fragments of the intestine
of 3001 90 200 0
17. Bones, bone fragments with cortical layer
of 3001 90 200 0
of 3001 90 200 0
19. Upper limb and its fragments
of 3001 90 200 0
of 3001 90 200 0
21. Bones of the cranial vault
of 3001 90 200 0
of 3001 90 200 0
23. Lower limb and its fragments
of 3001 90 200 0
24. Vessels and sections of the vascular bed
of 3001 90 200 0
of 3001 90 200 0
26. Dura mater
of 3001 90 200 0
of 3001 90 200 0
28. Sex cells and embryos
of 3001 90 200 0
29. Samples of human biological materials (samples of cells, tissues, biological fluids, secretions, human waste products, physiological and pathological secretions, smears, washes, scrapings)
of 0511 99 853 9
of 0511 99 859 9
out of 3002 12,000 5
of 3002 13,000 0
of 3002 14,000 0
out of 3002 90 100 0
(as amended bydecisions of the Board of the Eurasian Economic Commission of 15.11.2016 N 145)
Notes to the section: 1. For the purposes of this section, it is necessary to be guided by both the EAEU nomenclature of goods subject to foreign trade code and the name of the goods.
2. Export from the customs territory of the Eurasian Economic Union of samples of human biological materials not intended for therapeutic and diagnostic purposes, including for blood transfusion or transplantation, is carried out in accordance with the export control legislation of a member state of the Eurasian Economic Union.
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90,000 Diagnostics and treatment of pituitary diseases – reception of an endocrinologist at VESNA Clinic
Functions of the pituitary gland
Hormones, which are synthesized in the pituitary gland, affect the work of other endocrine glands, reducing or increasing their activity. The activity of the pituitary gland itself is regulated by the hypothalamus. Thus, both of these organs together regulate the work of the adrenal glands, thyroid gland, gonads, promote lactation in women, and also affect the growth and development of the body, the formation of bone tissue, and water balance.
The main causes of pathologies of the pituitary gland
Reasons for a decrease in the synthesis of pituitary hormones:
- violation of the blood supply to the brain tissues;
- congenital underdevelopment of the pituitary gland;
- severe blood loss;
- hemorrhage in the pituitary gland;
- autoimmune diseases;
- malignant neoplasms, metastases;
- skull trauma;
- meningitis, encephalitis;
- radiation therapy;
- brain surgeries;
- pituitary macroadenoma, compressing the remaining healthy tissue;
- severe course of certain viral pathologies, malaria, syphilitic or tuberculosis infections.
The main reason for the increased synthesis is the pituitary adenoma. The cells of this benign tumor produce certain hormones in excess. In this case, the tumor compresses the pituitary gland, which can lead to a decrease in the synthesis of other hormones.
The most common diseases of the pituitary gland
Most often, a violation of the pituitary gland is associated with benign tumors – adenomas. Such tumors can be hormonally active and produce certain hormones, or hormonally inactive and not produce anything.Clinically, this pathology manifests itself in different ways depending on which hormones the tumor produces or does not produce anything at all, as well as depending on the size of the tumor. A tumor can increase the production of some hormones of the pituitary gland and suppress the synthesis of others, which leads to hormonal disruption in the body. In some cases, the pathological process is asymptomatic, therefore, a neoplasm in the pituitary gland is detected by chance when performing an MRI or CT scan of the brain.
This disease develops when too much growth hormone is synthesized in children and adolescents.At this age, the growth zone at the ends of the bones is not yet closed, so they begin to grow rapidly in length. A person with gigantism is tall (from 195 centimeters and above), the length of the limbs is increased. Following the bone tissue, muscles begin to grow. For their normal operation, increased blood supply is required, the heart cannot cope with the increased loads, as a result, a person develops cardiovascular diseases. In addition, underdevelopment of the genitals is often observed with gigantism.
The disease usually occurs in people aged 30-50 years and is associated with increased synthesis of growth hormone. At this age, such an increase no longer affects the growth of bones in length, since the growth zone is closed. Therefore, the bone tissue begins to grow in width, which leads to deformation and thickening of parts of the body, especially the limbs. The facial features become rough, the jaw is massive. The skin darkens and coarsens, the size of the tongue may increase, the voice becomes hoarse, vision decreases.As a result of an increase in the size of the heart, heart failure develops. Pathological changes develop slowly, so they remain invisible for a long time.
Short stature (dwarf)
Occurs when there is a lack of growth hormone in childhood. In women suffering from nanism, growth does not exceed 120 centimeters, in men – 130 centimeters.
This is a whole complex of symptoms caused by excessive synthesis of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) by the pituitary gland, which in turn stimulates the increased production of glucocorticoid hormones by the adrenal glands.The main signs of this pathological condition: obesity of the upper body (the limbs remain thin at the same time), an edematous “moon-like” face, thin skin, a decrease in muscle mass, a tendency to bruise, stretch marks on the skin. Concomitant diseases develop gradually: osteoporosis, arterial hypertension, impaired glucose tolerance and diabetes mellitus.
This is a sharp decrease in the function of the adenohypophysis in women after childbirth, which occurs as a result of pituitary necrosis. The death of tissues occurs due to difficult childbirth with severe bleeding, as a result of which blood pressure drops sharply and the volume of circulating blood decreases. Lactation in Sheehan’s syndrome does not occur, a woman develops cachexia, hair loss in the axillary region and pubis is possible, and it is also possible to develop acute adrenal insufficiency, manifested by a sharp decrease in blood pressure, nausea, vomiting, weakness, and palpitations. Without timely assistance, this condition can be fatal.
A disease that develops due to insufficient secretion of antidiuretic hormone (vasopressin) by the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland. The cause of this disease can be tumors of the pituitary gland and hypothalamus, impaired blood supply in the hypothalamic-pituitary region, traumatic brain injury.
This disease is manifested by thirst, frequent urination and electrolyte disturbances.
If the tumor is hormonally inactive, but at the same time large enough (more than 1-2 cm), then the following symptoms may come to the fore: headaches, thirst, complete or partial loss of visual fields.
Diagnosis of pituitary pathologies includes the following steps:
- consultation of an endocrinologist, if necessary – a neurosurgeon;
- neurological and physical examination, study of the patient’s anamnesis;
- X-ray of the skull – performed to exclude infectious diseases of the brain and identify tumor formations;
- MRI, CT – using these high-precision methods, specialists determine the exact size and localization of the neoplasm, which is extremely important to know when preparing for surgery;
- blood test for pituitary hormones.
If necessary, the doctor may prescribe additional examinations.
Therapy of pathologies of the pituitary gland can be conservative or operative. With a reduced synthesis of pituitary hormones, hormone replacement therapy is indicated, which, as a rule, is lifelong. In case of excessive synthesis, the patient can be offered surgical treatment, or drugs that suppress the activity or production of the target hormone are prescribed.
Surgical treatment is usually indicated for adenoma and other neoplasms.In addition, radiation therapy is used to relieve the symptoms of the disease and suppress the growth of neoplasms according to indications. In some types of hormone-dependent adenomas, as well as in the presence of contraindications to surgical treatment, drug therapy is used, which helps to suppress hormonal hypersecretion, and in some cases leads to a decrease in tumor size. Hormonally inactive tumors of small size without symptoms of compression of the optic nerves require dynamic monitoring without the use of surgical treatment.
Disorders in the work of the pituitary gland pose a serious danger to human health and can lead to the development of a number of serious diseases. Timely diagnosis and proper treatment are the keys to longevity and good health.
90,000 Endocrine diseases – diagnostics and treatment in Moscow, price
The article was checked by a general practitioner Lisina M. S. is for general informational purposes only and does not replace specialist advice.
For recommendations on diagnosis and treatment, a doctor’s consultation is required.
Endocrine diseases relate to the work of the endocrine glands, and in recent years their frequency has increased. This also applies to diseases of the thyroid gland, and diabetes mellitus, and other serious disorders.
Experts note that the manifestations of endocrine problems are diverse, therefore, they are often found not by endocrinologists, but by doctors of other specialties. In particular, many patients come with anxiety to a therapist who can refer the patient to the necessary examination.
Therapists of the Yauza Clinical Hospital work in close cooperation with experienced endocrinologists, who in each case prescribe an individual treatment regimen. The therapist continues to observe the patient throughout the treatment, monitoring its effectiveness.
Main causes of endocrinological diseases
Often, doctors find it difficult to quickly name the cause of the development of endocrine disease, because there are many factors causing pathology.Moreover, in some cases, the cause of the disease remains unknown there.
The main factors that lead to the development of endocrine disorders include the following:
- tumors of gland tissues
- infectious diseases
- hereditary factor
- chronic diseases of other organs and systems
- cardiovascular failure
- surgical interventions
- taking a number of drugs
Since the hormones produced by the endocrine glands regulate the work of other organs and systems, endocrine diseases disrupt metabolism and symptoms that are characteristic, for example, of diseases of the skin, kidneys, etc.In general, this makes diagnosis difficult.
Most common endocrine disorders
Diabetes mellitus – a chronic disease associated with metabolic disorders, in which the body produces insufficient insulin or decreases its effectiveness with increased glucose levels.
Diabetes insipidus (diabetes insipidus) – a disease associated with the inability of the kidneys to concentrate urine and reabsorb water, which is caused by the absence or decrease in the secretion of the antidiuretic hormone vasopressin, or the immunity to it of the epithelium of the renal tubules.
Obesity is a disease characterized by excessive deposition of adipose tissue in the body. The main symptoms of primary obesity: fatigue, apathy, weakness, drowsiness, shortness of breath, increased appetite, dry skin or, conversely, sweating, fungal diseases, skin inflammation, hypersecretion of gastric juice.
The symptoms of secondary obesity are determined by the underlying disease.
Osteoporosis is a progressive systemic disease in which the structure of bone tissue is disturbed, its density decreases due to partial resorption of bone substance.Bones become fragile and prone to fracture, even under light loads.
Thyrotoxicosis (hyperthyroidism) – a condition caused by an excessive content of thyroid hormones in the body, which leads to metabolic disorders, functions of the nervous and cardiovascular systems.
Thyroiditis – inflammation of the thyroid gland, which is manifested by pain when swallowing and moving the head back, an increase in the size of the neck, soreness of the lymph nodes, fever, throbbing pain in the ears, tachycardia, chills.
Diagnostics and treatment of endocrine diseases in the Clinical Hospital on Yauza
Doctors of the therapy department of the Clinical Hospital on Yauza have all the facilities for high-quality diagnostics of endocrine diseases. As a rule, for a comprehensive diagnosis, it is necessary to conduct laboratory tests of urine and blood, to do special hormonal studies, as well as ultrasound, and, if necessary, CT, MRI and ECG. All these opportunities are available at the Clinical Hospital on Yauza.
After examination and establishment of a preliminary diagnosis, the therapist usually refers the patient to a consultation with an endocrinologist, who clarifies the diagnosis and prescribes the optimal treatment. In this case, the patient remains under the supervision of the therapist until the end of the treatment.
Cost of services
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Bova A.A. Functional diagnostics in the practice of a therapist: a guide for doctors // MIA. 2007.
Golofeevsky V.Yu. Classification of diseases of internal organs and methods of therapeutic research: a guide for medical students.