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I have a cough and runny nose: Coughing, Runny Nose, No Fever, and More

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Coughing, Runny Nose, No Fever, and More

What Are the Symptoms of a Cold?

Symptoms of a cold can be felt about 1-4 days after catching a cold virus. They start with a burning feeling in the nose or throat, followed by sneezing, a runny nose, and a feeling of being tired and unwell. This is the period when you are most contagious — you can pass the cold to others — so it’s best to stay home and rest.

For the first few days, the nose teems with watery nasal secretions. Later, these become thicker and yellower or greener. You may get a mild cough. It won’t get much worse, but it is likely to last into the second week of your illness. If you suffer from chronic bronchitis or asthma, a cold will make it worse.

Because the common cold weakens your immune system, it can increase the risk of a bacterial super infection of your sinuses, inner ear or lungs. Community acquired pneumonias can start as a common cold. If symptoms get worse, rather than better, after 3-7 days, you may have acquired a bacterial infection.  These symptoms can also be caused by a cold virus other than a rhinovirus.

Continued

Usually there is no fever; in fact, fever and more severe symptoms may indicate that you have the flu rather than a cold.

Cold symptoms typically last for about 3 days. At that point the worst is over, but you may feel congested for a week or more.

Except in newborns, colds themselves are not dangerous. They usually go away in 4 to 10 days without any special medicine. Unfortunately, colds do wear down your body’s resistance, making you more susceptible to bacterial infections.

If your cold is nasty enough, seek medical attention. Your doctor likely will examine your throat, lungs, and ears. If your doctor suspects strep throat, they will take a culture and determine if you have an infection and may need antibiotics. If they suspect pneumonia, you will need a chest X-ray.

Call Your Doctor About a Cold If:

  • You notice an inability to swallow
  • You have a sore throat for more than 2 or 3 days, particularly if it seems to be worsening
  • You have an earache
  • You have a stiff neck or sensitivity to bright lights
  • You’re pregnant or nursing
  • Your newborn or infant has cold symptoms
  • Your throat hurts and your temperature is 101 degrees F or higher
  • Your cold symptoms worsen after the third day; you may have a secondary bacterial infection

Allergies, Cold, Flu or COVID-19? How to Tell the Difference

In today’s world, with every sneeze, cough or tickle in the throat, many people wonder: Do I have COVID-19? For the millions of allergy suffers around the country, this question becomes a little more complex — allergies or COVID-19 (also known as the coronavirus), or perhaps a cold or the flu? Following are ways to tell if you are suffering from allergies, a cold or the flu, or if you should call you physician and get tested for COVID-19.

For any non-emergency health concern, contact your physician or visit an urgent care center where doctors can examine you and determine the best treatment. COVID-19 symptoms vary broadly and can range from mild to severe.

Allergies

Allergy symptoms range from mild to severe and can occur seasonally or be present year-long. In patients with asthma, allergies can cause a cough, wheeze and shortness of breath. Allergies are caused by your immune system overreacting to normal things in your environment — such as pollen, dust, mold, pet dander — and are not contagious. Medications can typically treat your symptoms and allergy immunotherapy — allergy shots — can often help patients find long-term relief.

Common Allergy Symptoms

  • Sneezing
  • Runny or stuffy nose
  • Itchy or watery eyes
  • Itchy nose or ears
  • Post-nasal drip (which can sometimes cause a mild sore throat)
  • Mild fatigue

COVID-19

The coronavirus (COVID-19) is a viral illness spread through droplets via coughing, sneezing, and close personal contact. Symptoms typically start between 2-14 days after exposure and will typically resolve within ~14 days after onset, whether the symptoms are mild, moderate or severe. It is important to note that if you have received the COVID-19 vaccine, it is still possible you can get COVID-19. If you are vaccinated and test positive for COVID-19, your symptoms are expected to be milder.

Common COVID-19 Symptoms

  • Fever
  • Dry cough
  • Shortness of breath
  • Intense fatigue, body aches
  • Loss of smell

Key Points to Determine Allergies or COVID-19 Infection

1) Time line and past history.

  • Often people with allergies have a history of seasonal allergies.
  • Allergy symptoms tend to be more long-lasting than viral symptoms.

2) Allergy symptoms often respond to allergy medications.
3) Allergies typically make people itchy. Itchiness is not a symptom of viral illness.
4) Patients with allergies do not develop a fever. Often people with COVID-19 do.
5) Patients with allergies may also have asthma, which can cause coughing, shortness of breath, chest tightness and wheezing. COVID-19 typically does not cause wheezing.

 

Allergies, Cold, Flu, or COVID-19 Checklist

Use this handy chart to identify your symptoms and help determine what health issue you may be suffering from.

COMMON SYMPTOMS FOR ALLERGIES, COLD, FLU & COVID-19
















SYMPTOMS ALLERGIES COLD FLU COVID-19
Body Aches Rarely
Chills No No
Fever No Rarely
Headache Sometimes Sometimes Sometimes
Nasal Congestion Sometimes Sometimes
Runny Nose Sometimes Rarely
Sneezing Sometimes Rarely
Itchy/Watery Eyes No No No
Dry Cough Sometimes
Shortness of Breath Sometimes Sometimes Sometimes
Wheezing Sometimes Sometimes Sometimes Sometimes
Loss of Smell Mild Rarely Rarely
Sore Throat Sometimes Sometimes
Nausea, Vomiting, Diarrhea No Sometimes Sometimes Sometimes

For any medical issue, it is best to contact your physician or visit an urgent care center where medical experts can examine you and determine the best treatment. Emerson Hospital offers COVID-19 testing with a physician’s order. Read our COVID-19 testing FAQs.

This information was provided by Dr. Sara Narayan, allergist with Allergy West.

Emerson Podcast: Allergies or COVID-19? How to Tell the Difference

Dr. Sara Narayan, an Allergist with Allergy West, affiliated with Emerson Hospital, explains the difference between allergies and COVID-19.

 

Visit our podcast page to find the latest episode or subscribe to the Health Works Here Podcast on Apple Podcasts, Spotify, Google Podcasts, and wherever podcasts can be heard.

Support Emerson Hospital

Thank you for reading our article on COVID-19 symptoms. As a community hospital we rely on the support of our community to continue to provide our local health care needs. We welcome your help in fostering a healthy community. If this content has helped you in an way, please consider making an online gift to Emerson Hospital so that we can continue to support our community’s health needs.

Related Articles

COVID-19 or Anxiety? | Emerson Hospital

There is no denying it — we are living in a very anxious time and are on higher alert than normal. With COVID-19 rates rising throughout the country, plans for traditional festive gatherings gone awry due to health protocols, the prospect of facing a long, cold, dark winter during the pandemic — and so many people having been directly impacted by COVID-19 — there is indeed a lot to be anxious about.

Some people might wonder if their symptoms of worry or anxiety may instead be symptoms of COVID-19.

According to Emerson’s Behavioral Health team, this question is very common and very appropriate. We met with Tony Piro, MSW, Director of Operations for Emerson’s Behavioral Health team, to explore this some more. According to Tony, here are some symptoms of anxiety or worry that might also present as symptoms of COVID-19:

  • Shortness of breath
  • Fatigue
  • Headaches
  • Nausea or vomiting

Reviewing each of these symptoms through the lens of anxiety/worry:

  • Shortness of breath: People who have common or temporary anxiety/worry do not usually experience shortness of breath. Shortness of breath can occur in people who are having an anxiety attack or an anxiety disorder. Shortness of breath is a sign of COVID-19 and might indicate that the virus symptoms are worsening. You should seek medical care if you experience shortness of breath.
  • Fatigue: This can be a symptom of worry or depression, as well as a symptom of COVID-19. It is best to monitor your symptoms and pay attention to when the fatigue started, how severe the fatigue is (would you describe your fatigue as “extreme” and prevents you from carrying about your normal routine, or are you able to function ok with it?) if fatigue is accompanied by other symptoms such as a fever, you should contact your doctor. Fatigue can be a symptom of many different things, including worry or simply not getting enough sleep — your doctor can determine if you should be evaluated.
  • Headaches: Headaches due to anxiety or worry might be a dull pain, severe, or a migraine. As with fatigue, pay attention to your headache symptoms and note if the headache is accompanied by other symptoms. Some people with COVID-19 experience a very severe, debilitating headache lasting several days.
  • Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea: Typically, people who have mild anxiety or worry do not experience nausea, vomiting or diarrhea. These symptoms can be signs of an anxiety disorder. They are also symptoms that can appear in respiratory illnesses, including COVID-19.

The best advice is to take notes about your symptoms and call your doctor. Here are some things to note if you experience symptoms:

  • When did symptoms start?
  • How long have they lasted/have they worsened over time?
  • Have the symptoms affected your daily life?
  • Are they accompanied by other symptoms?
  • Has your lifestyle contributed to your symptoms? For example, if you have been up late watching TV for many nights in a row, this might contribute to fatigue.

Your physician does not want you to worry alone. With some symptoms of anxiety overlapping with some symptoms of COVID-19, it is best to ask your physician for their advice. They will evaluate you and let you know if you should be tested for COVID-19.

Keep in mind that rates of anxiety/worry in the general population are more common than COVID-19, and the pandemic has resulted in even higher rates of anxiety/worry. You are in good hands with your physician or your local urgent care center. It is always best to get symptoms checked out by a medical professional.  

 

Podcast: Mental Health and COVID-19

Tony Piro discusses mental health and COVID-19 and how to take care of yourself and your loved ones.

 

Common Cold | Antibiotic Use

Risk Factors

Many factors can increase your risk for catching a cold, including:

  • Close contact with someone who has a cold
  • Season (colds are more common during the fall and winter, but it is possible to get a cold any time of the year)
  • Age (infants and young children have more colds per year than adults)

Symptoms

Symptoms of a cold usually peak within 2 to 3 days and can include:

  • Sneezing
  • Stuffy nose
  • Runny nose
  • Sore throat
  • Coughing
  • Mucus dripping down your throat (post-nasal drip)
  • Watery eyes
  • Fever (although most people with colds do not have fever)

When viruses that cause colds first infect the nose and air-filled pockets in the face (sinuses), the nose makes clear mucus. This helps wash the viruses from the nose and sinuses. After 2 or 3 days, mucus may change to a white, yellow, or green color. This is normal and does not mean you need an antibiotic.

Some symptoms, particularly runny nose, stuffy nose, and cough, can last for up to 10 to 14 days, but those symptoms should be improving during that time.

When to Seek Medical Care

See a doctor if you have:

  • Difficulty breathing or fast breathing
  • Dehydration
  • Fever that lasts longer than 4 days
  • Symptoms that last more than 10 days without improvement
  • Symptoms, such as fever or cough, that improve but then return or worsen
  • Worsening of chronic medical conditions

This list is not all-inclusive. Please see a doctor for any symptom that is severe or concerning.

Because colds can have similar symptoms to flu, it can be difficult to tell the difference between the two illnesses based on symptoms alone. Flu and the common cold are both respiratory illnesses, but they are caused by different viruses.

In general, flu is worse than a cold, and symptoms are more intense. People with colds are more likely to have a runny or stuffy nose. Colds generally do not result in serious health problems, such as pneumonia, bacterial infections, or hospitalizations. Flu can have very serious associated complications.

Cold, Flu or COVID-19? Here’s How to Tell the Difference

You wake up one morning feeling under the weather. While in previous years you may have chalked up a sore throat or body aches to a run-of-the-mill cold or flu, this year’s COVID-19 pandemic adds a new element of concern to getting sick.

“There is significant overlap between symptoms of influenza and COVID,” says Laraine Washer, medical director of infection prevention and epidemiology at Michigan Medicine. “Both can present with fevers, chills, cough, muscle/body aches, fatigue and headache.”

Here, Washer offers advice to follow during this unique cold and flu season.

Is it a cold, the flu or COVID?

Cold symptoms are mild and the common cold tends not to be associated with fever or headache.  

Congestion/runny nose is common for the common cold and would be uncommon to be the only symptom for influenza. Congestion/runny nose can be a symptom of a COVID infection and might be the only symptom in mild cases.

SEE ALSO: Seeking Medical Care During COVID-19

Flu symptoms are often of rapid onset. COVID symptoms can be of rapid or more gradual onset. 

Says Washer, one symptom that is more unique to a COVID infection is the loss of taste or smell. 

Should I get a test?

Washer says that in many settings, the only way to tell the difference between COVID and influenza is by testing. “The differentiation can be very important as there are isolation requirements to prevent transmission of COVID and antivirals that can be used for influenza,” she explains.

If you have fever/chills, new cough or new shortness of breath, you should stay home and arrange to be tested for COVID.

If you have two or more of the following symptoms: 

  • headache,

  • new muscle aches,

  • new upper respiratory symptoms (congestions, runny nose, sore throat),

  • new loss of taste or smell, new nausea/vomiting/diarrhea,

  • or new rash,

you should consider COVID testing.   If you have had a known close contact exposure to someone with COVID, you should be tested even if you have one mild symptom.  If you are a Michigan Medicine patient, you can call the COVID hotline (734-763-6336). There is a low threshold for COVID testing given risk of transmission to others.  Once influenza season begins, your doctor may also wish to test you for flu.

Should I call the doctor?

If you have any chronic medical conditions or are over the age of 65, you are at higher risk of getting a severe COVID infection and should call your doctor. Call your doctor for a fever that does not go down with fever reducing medicine (do not use aspirin as it is contraindicated in influenza) or any severe symptoms or symptoms that get worse over time.

MORE FROM THE LAB: Subscribe to our weekly newsletter

Should I go to the emergency room?

Go the emergency department if you have chest pain or pressure, confusion, difficulty breathing or blue discoloration to your lips or face.

Some good news is that social distancing and wearing masks may mean a milder flu season. “Flu and other respiratory illnesses were reduced in the Southern Hemisphere, whose flu season typically stretches from May to November,” says Washer.

Getting a flu shot this year is particularly important to reduce the potential for a twin pandemic of influenza and COVID, which could further overwhelm the healthcare system.

Adds Dr. Washer, “Continue to social distance, avoid large gatherings and wear your mask! And get and use a thermometer.”

SEE ALSO: Keeping Our Patients Safe During COVID-19

Runny Nose: Symptoms, Causes & Treatment



Overview

What’s a runny nose?

A runny nose is mucus dripping or “running” out of your nose. It can be caused by colder outdoor temperatures, a cold, flu or allergies.

“Rhinorrhea,” a term often used alongside the phrase “runny nose,” is the thin, mostly clear discharge you might see. Another term you might often see is “Rhinitis.” Rhinitis is the inflammation of your nasal tissues.

When a cold virus or an allergen such as pollen or dust first enters your body, it irritates the lining of your nose and sinuses (or air-filled pockets around the face) and your nose starts to make a lot of clear mucus. This mucus traps the bacteria, virus or allergens and helps flush them out of your nose and sinuses.

After two or three days, the mucus may change color and become white or yellow. Sometimes the mucus may also turn a greenish color. All of this is normal and does not mean an infection is present.

How does your nose work to protect your body?

Your breathing process starts in your nose. Air gets into your lungs through your nose. It helps filter, humidify, warm or cool the air that comes through it so that the air that gets to your lungs is clean.

A special lining of mucosa, or a moist tissue, covers the area inside your nose and consists of many mucus-producing glands. As bacteria, allergens, dust or other harmful particles come into the nose, the mucus traps them. Mucus contains antibodies, or enzymes, which kill unwanted bacteria and viruses.

The mucosa lining also includes cilia, tiny hair-like structures. The cilia are continually in motion and move the collected harmful particles and the mucus that they are trapped in through your nose into the back of your throat. It’s then swallowed and destroyed by the acid in your stomach. Mucus and particles can also be coughed up or sneezed out.

When outdoor temperatures turn cold, the pace of this process slows down. Many times, the mucus stays in your nose and then drips or dribbles out.

Why is mucus an important part of the airway system?

Mucus is needed to keep your airway moist and working properly. Not only does mucus stop harmful particles from getting into your lungs, but it also contains antibodies to help destroy bacteria. If too much mucus is produced, your body wants to get rid of it, leading to coughing and spitting the extra mucus out and blowing it out of your nose.



Possible Causes

Why does a runny nose happen? What causes a runny nose?

Your runny nose may have one or more of several causes. Possible causes include:

  • Allergies.
  • Cold temperatures.
  • Common cold.
  • Flu.
  • Gustatory rhinitis, a form of nonallergic rhinitis that causes a runny nose when you eat certain foods.

Is a runny nose a symptom of COVID-19?

Yes: “congestion or runny nose.” Other common symptoms include:

  • Cough.
  • Shortness of breath or difficulty breathing.
  • Fever or chills.
  • Fatigue.
  • Headache.
  • New loss of taste or smell.
  • Muscle or body aches.
  • Sore throat.
  • Diarrhea.
  • Nausea or vomiting.

What other symptoms may come with a runny nose?

Postnasal drip is a side effect of too much mucus. It occurs when the mucus goes down the back of your throat and is swallowed, which may lead to a cough or sore throat.

Sometimes, a runny nose and a congested, or stuffy, nose are seen together. Congestion occurs when the tissues lining the nose become swollen and make it difficult to breathe. The swelling is due to inflamed blood vessels. Mucus may begin to run out of your nose.

A runny nose due to a cold or flu may be accompanied by fatigue, sore throat, cough, facial pressure and sometimes fever.

A runny nose due to allergies may be accompanied by sneezing and itchy, watery eyes.

Can a runny nose cause a sore throat?

Yes.

Can a runny nose cause an ear infection?

Rhinitis, the inflammation of your nasal tissues, can sometimes have complications including a middle ear infection.

Is a runny nose contagious?

A runny nose itself is not contagious, but it is often a symptom of a condition like the common cold, which can be passed from person to person.



Care and Treatment

How do I stop my runny nose?

Your runny nose will likely stop on its own. Generally, it doesn’t need treatment. But, there are exceptions.

What kind of healthcare provider can treat my runny nose?

If treatment is necessary, your primary healthcare provider can help. If it turns out that your runny nose is a symptom of a more serious condition, your healthcare provider might refer you to an Ear, Nose and Throat specialist.

When should I contact a healthcare provider to treat a runny nose?

A runny nose will typically go away on its own. However, a healthcare provider should be contacted if:

  • The symptoms continue for more than 10 days and there is no improvement.
  • Symptoms are severe or unusual.
  • Drainage from your young child’s nose comes from only one side and is green, bloody or foul-smelling, or if you have other reason to believe there may be a foreign object stuck in their nose.

Your healthcare provider will perform a physical examination to make sure the runny nose is not a symptom of a more serious condition.

How do I get rid of my runny nose? What medicines should I try?

Prescription medicines, such as antibiotics are not needed to treat a runny nose, which usually gets better on its own. Sometimes, an over-the-counter decongestant medicine may help adults, but might not be appropriate if you have certain conditions or take other medications. Check with your healthcare provider to see what over-the-counter medicines are appropriate for you.

Typically, the best treatment for a runny nose includes:

  • Rest.
  • Drink plenty of fluids, especially water.
  • Use a saline nasal spray to help relieve symptoms. Limit the use of decongestant nasal sprays to no longer than a few days, as instructed on package labels.
  • A cool-mist humidifier at your bedside can combat congestion worsened by dry winter air.

Unless recommended by your healthcare provider, don’t give over-the-counter cold medicines to a child under age four.

What treatment is recommended for a runny nose due to an allergy?

  • Stay indoors when the pollen count is high, usually in the early morning and on windy days.
  • Keep windows closed during allergy season, and use air conditioning whenever possible.
  • Wear a dust mask if working outdoors. Change clothing and take a shower right away after coming indoors.
  • Avoid contact with cats and dogs if you are sensitive to animal dander.

Also, there are many safe and effective over-the-counter medications available to help control allergy symptoms, such as nasal steroid sprays and oral antihistamines. If the symptoms are severe, your healthcare provider may recommend prescription medications, or refer you to an allergist for testing and targeted therapy.

What are some simple home remedies to treat a runny nose?

Over-the-counter saline (saltwater) drops can be gently squirted into your nostrils to loosen the mucus in your nose. The liquid and mucus can then be suctioned out of your nose with a rubber syringe, or bulb.

Other home remedies you can try include:

  • Essential oils.
  • Drinking hot teas.
  • Facial steam.
  • Hot shower.
  • Neti pot.
  • Spicy foods.

Can a runny nose be prevented?

Practicing good hygiene is important and can often help stop germs from spreading. A runny nose is a symptom of some contagious conditions. Here are some simple tips to stop such germs from spreading:

  • Wash your hands often.
  • Throw away used tissues after blowing or wiping your nose.
  • Keep away from those who have colds or infections.
  • Eat healthily and exercise regularly to help boost your immune system.
  • Cough and sneeze into the inside of your elbow, not into your hand.
  • Clean and disinfect common surfaces such as tables and countertops, toys, door handles and bathroom fixtures.



When to Call the Doctor

When does a runny nose need to be treated by a healthcare provider?

Again, your runny nose should go away on its own. However, if the symptoms are severe, they last more than 10 days, or if you’re taking care of a child whose drainage only comes from one side, gets green or blood or foul-smelling, then you should see a healthcare provider.

A note from Cleveland Clinic

Who hasn’t had a runny nose? Getting a dripping or “runny” nose in the cold or when you have a cold, the flu or allergies is common. It usually doesn’t mean there’s an infection or something serious. Remember to use good hygiene practices to prevent a runny nose or similar issues. See a healthcare provider if your or your child’s runny nose seems unusual.

Why Most Sore Throats, Coughs & Runny Noses Don’t Need Antibiotics

If your child has a sore throat, cough, or runny nose, you might expect the doctor to prescribe antibiotics. But most of the time, children don’t need antibiotics to treat a respiratory illness. In fact, antibiotics can do more harm than good. Here’s why:

Antibiotics fight bacteria, not viruses.

If your child has a bacterial infection, antibiotics may help. But if your child has a virus, antibiotics will not help your child feel better or keep others from getting sick.

  • The common cold and flu are both viruses.

  • Chest colds, such as bronchitis, are also usually caused by viruses. Bronchitis is a cough with a lot of thick, sticky phlegm or mucus. Cigarette smoke and particles in the air can also cause bronchitis. But bacteria are not usually the cause.

  • Most sinus infections (sinusitis) are also caused by viruses. The symptoms are a lot of mucus in the nose and post-nasal drip. Mucus that is colored does not necessarily mean your child has a bacterial infection.

Antibiotics do not help treat viruses and some infections.

Some cases of the flu are both viral and bacterial. For these cases, antibiotics may be needed. Sometimes bacteria can cause sinus infections, but even then the infection usually clears up on its own in a week or so. Many common ear infections also clear up on their own without antibiotics.

Some sore throats, like strep throat, are bacterial infections. Symptoms include fever, redness, and trouble swallowing. However, most children who have these symptoms do not have strep throat. Your child should have a strep test to confirm that it’s strep, and then, if they’re needed, the doctor will prescribe antibiotics.

Antibiotics have risks.

Side effects from antibiotics are a common reason that children go to the emergency room. These medicines can cause diarrhea or vomiting, and about 5 in 100 children have allergies to them. Some allergic reactions can be serious and life threatening. The misuse and overuse of antibiotics encourages bacteria to change, so that medicines don’t work as well to get rid of them. This is called “antibiotic resistance.” When bacteria are resistant to the medicines used to treat them, it’s easier for infections to spread from person to person. Antibiotic-resistant infections are also more expensive to treat and harder to cure.

When used incorrectly, antibiotics waste money.

Most antibiotics do not cost a lot. But money spent on medicines that are not needed is money wasted. In severe cases, infections that are resistant to antibiotics can cost thousands of dollars to treat.

When does your child need antibiotics?

Your child may need antibiotics if:

  • A cough does not get better in 14 days.

  • A bacterial form of pneumonia or whooping cough (pertussis) is diagnosed.

  • Symptoms of a sinus infection do not get better in 10 days, or they get better and then worse again.

  • Your child has a yellow-green nasal discharge and a fever of at least 102° F for several days in a row.

  • Your child has strep throat, based on a rapid strep test or a throat culture. If strep is not diagnosed with a test, antibiotics should not be given. No test is needed if your child has a runny nose and cough as well as a sore throat. Those are symptoms of a different virus.

  • For infants younger than 3 months of age, call your pediatrician for any fever above 100.4° F. Very young infants can have serious infections that might need antibiotics.

Editor’s Note: The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) released a list of specific tests or treatments that are commonly given to children, but are not always necessary, as part of the Choosing Wisely® campaign, an initiative of the ABIM Foundation. Antibiotics and cough and cold medicines were identified; the full list gives more detail as to the reasons for taking a closer look at each treatment, and cites evidence related to each recommendation.

Additional Information & Resources:

90,000

What does a cough and a runny nose without fever say?

Viral or bacterial infections

Laryngitis, pharyngitis, tracheitis, bronchitis are most often observed as seasonal diseases of the upper respiratory tract caused by pathogenic viruses and bacteria. But if the body is weakened and its resistance to infections is reduced, these diseases can develop at any time of the year.

Allergic reactions, including to animal hair or plant pollen

In this case, the cough is caused by inflammation that develops under the influence of special substances.They are produced in the human body in response to contact with substances that the immune system mistakenly perceives as foreign and / or disease-causing.

Contact with the mucous membrane of the nose and throat of dust, aerosols, smoke

Under these circumstances, mechanical, thermal or chemical irritation of the mucous membrane of the upper respiratory tract is observed. This leads to a dry cough.

Overgrowth of adenoids

An increase in lymphoid tissue in the nasopharynx interferes with normal breathing through the nose, which forces the patient to breathe through the mouth and leads to dryness of the mucous membrane and perspiration.In addition, adenoids increase the likelihood of developing upper respiratory infections.

Taking certain medications

Some drugs, such as those used to lower blood pressure, have a dry cough as a side effect.

Hormonal changes in the body, especially in women during pregnancy

Thyroid dysfunctions often cause cough, which is similar to bronchial. And during the carrying of a child, all functions of the female body undergo changes, and coughing may be among the temporary disturbances.

Vascular dysfunction, vasomotor rhinitis and associated cough

Disruption of blood supply to the nasopharyngeal mucosa leads to its drying out, thinning and weakening of protective functions. As a result, a cough may develop, caused by mucosal irritation or infection.

Ingestion of a foreign body

One of the functions of a strong cough is to remove foreign particles and objects from the respiratory tract that interfere with normal breathing.In this case, the cough plays its role in cleansing the bronchi and is not accompanied by a fever or runny nose.

first symptoms and recommendations for prevention

What are the symptoms of COVID-19?

The most common symptoms of COVID-19 are fever, fatigue and dry cough. Some patients may have various pains, nasal congestion, runny nose, pharyngitis, or diarrhea. As a rule, these symptoms develop gradually and are mild.Some infected individuals do not develop any symptoms or feel unwell. In most people (about 80%), the disease ends with recovery, and no specific therapeutic measures are required.

In about one in six cases of COVID-19, severe symptoms develop with the development of respiratory failure. Older people and those with pre-existing medical conditions such as hypertension, heart disease, or diabetes are more likely to develop severe illness.The fatal outcome of the disease was noted in about 2% of cases. If you have a fever, cough, or shortness of breath, seek medical attention.

How does the virus spread?

You can get 2019 ‑ nCoV from other people if they are infected with the virus. The disease can be spread from person to person through small droplets released from the nose or mouth of a COVID-19 patient when they cough or sneeze. These drops fall on objects and surfaces surrounding a person.Other people can become infected by first touching such objects or surfaces and then touching their eyes, nose, or mouth.

Can you get COVID-19 from someone who has no symptoms?

The virus mainly spreads through droplets released from the respiratory tract of a person when they cough or sneeze. The risk of infection from a person with no symptoms is extremely low. On the other hand, many people have very mild symptoms of COVID-19.This is especially true in the early stages of the disease. Thus, there is a risk of transmission of COVID-19 from a person who does not feel sick and has only a mild cough.

How can I protect myself and prevent the spread of the disease?

In most cases, the disease is characterized by a mild course and ends with recovery, although there are complications. You can protect your health and the health of others by observing the following rules:

– Regularly clean your hands with alcohol or soap. If there is a virus on the surface of the hands, then rubbing the hands with an alcohol-based product or washing them with soap will kill it;

– keep at least one meter away from coughing or sneezing people;

– If possible, do not touch your eyes, nose and mouth with your hands. Hands touch many surfaces, and a virus can get on them. Once on the hands, viral particles can enter the eyes, nose or mouth. From these parts of the body, the virus can invade the body and cause disease;

– both you and those around you should strictly follow the rules of respiratory hygiene.To do this, cover your mouth or nose with the bend of your elbow or tissue when you cough or sneeze. Throw away the used napkin immediately;

– If you are not feeling well, stay at home. If you have a fever, cough, or difficulty breathing, seek medical attention as soon as possible. Follow the directions from your local health authority.

How likely is it that I will contract COVID-19?

The degree of risk is determined by the region of your residence, the geography of recently visited places. The risk of contracting the infection is higher in regions with a large number of diagnosed cases of COVID-19. Currently, 95% of all COVID-19 cases occur in China, mainly in Hubei province. In most other regions, the risk of contracting COVID-19 remains low, but it is important to keep an eye on the current situation and infection preparedness activities in your area.

Should I be afraid of COVID-19?

In most cases, COVID-19 is characterized by a mild course, but some people are extremely difficult to carry the infection.In more rare cases, the disease can be fatal. The risk group most likely includes the elderly, as well as people with pre-existing medical conditions (for example, arterial hypertension, heart disease or diabetes).

Are antibiotics effective in preventing and treating 2019 ‑ nCoV infection?

No. Antibiotics do not work against viruses, they are only active against bacterial infections. COVID-19 is viral in nature, so antibiotics are ineffective. Antibiotics should not be used to prevent or treat COVID-19. Their use is allowed only as directed by a doctor for the treatment of a bacterial infection.

Is there a vaccine, drug or treatment for COVID-2019?

Currently not. However, sick people need help to relieve symptoms. People with a severe course of the disease are hospitalized. Thanks to therapeutic measures aimed at supporting vital functions, the disease ends in recovery in most patients.

Should I wear a mask to protect myself?

People without respiratory symptoms such as coughing do not need to wear a medical mask. WHO recommends wearing a mask for people who have symptoms of COVID-19 or who are caring for people with symptoms such as cough or high fever.

Mask should only be worn by healthcare professionals, caregivers and persons with respiratory symptoms such as fever and cough.

How long is the incubation period for COVID-19?

The incubation period is the period of time between infection and the onset of clinical symptoms of the disease. According to most estimates, the incubation period for COVID-19 ranges from 1 to 14 days, and is most often around five days. These estimates will be updated as new data become available.

Can I get COVID-19 from a pet?

No, to date there is no evidence of 2019-nCoV infection in companion pets (cats, dogs) or their spread of the virus.

How long does the virus survive on surfaces?

The survival time of the 2019-nCoV virus on surfaces has not yet been precisely established, but it is assumed that in this parameter it is similar to other members of the coronavirus family. According to research (including preliminary data on the causative agent COVID-19), the virus can survive on surfaces from several hours to several days. Specific timing depends on a number of conditions (for example, type of surface, temperature and humidity of the environment).

If you suspect a surface may be infected with a virus, treat it with a normal disinfectant to kill germs and protect yourself and others. Remember to wash your hands with alcohol or soap and water. Do not touch your eyes, mouth, or nose.

What won’t help fight COVID-2019?

– smoking;
– taking traditional herbal medicine;
– wearing several masks at the same time;
– Self-medication, in particular with antibiotics.

How to treat a lingering cough in an adult

According to the literature, the cause of chronic cough may be postnasal syndrome, or postnasal flow syndrome. It is a consequence of a number of ENT diseases, for example, inflammation of the nasal mucosa of various nature (allergic, viral, bacterial nature, rhinitis of pregnancy, rhinitis medicamentosa) 6.7 .

All these diseases are accompanied by increased formation of secretions (secretions) in the nasal cavity. Part of the secretion flows down the back of the pharynx into the lower respiratory tract, where the cough receptors are located. The secret irritates them, which contributes to the appearance of the cough reflex 6 .

In addition, the developing inflammation of the mucous membrane of the posterior wall of the pharynx and larynx further increases the sensitivity of the cough receptors 6 .

Typical symptoms of postnasal syndrome are mucus dripping down the throat, constant urge to cough, hoarseness, nasal congestion.Cough occurs only in 20% of patients 6 .

Thus, the cough in postnasal syndrome is unproductive, dry, but patients most often perceive it as wet. This sensation is due to the presence of mucus flowing down from the nasopharynx in the upper respiratory tract 10 .

Treatment
In case of a cough reflex, which appears against the background of postnasal syndrome, the underlying disease must be treated 7 .

Cold.What is important to know about her? – In the vast majority of cases, the common cold is a viral infection of the upper respiratory tract, which leads to inflammation of the mucous membrane lining this part of the respiratory tract. – Articles about health

Common symptoms are rhinorrhea (runny nose), sneezing, pharyngitis (sore throat).
A viral infection, which we call the “cold,” can often be treated without medication by resting, drinking plenty of fluids, and some over-the-counter medications to relieve certain symptoms. So far, there are no drugs that are effective against causative agents of colds.

Smoking “helps” the development of colds, including in the presence of children, as it paralyzes the ciliated cells (ciliated epithelium), which ensure the purity of the respiratory tract. Colds can spread through the hands, not just through the air. To prevent the spread of viruses, do not touch your eyes, mouth and nose, and often wash your hands when you are sick or in contact with a sick person.

Some other diseases are similar in symptomatology to colds, but require immediate medical attention and special medications. If you have a high fever (temperature over 38.0 ° C), accompanied by chills and a cough with thick mucus, or if coughing and deep breathing cause severe chest pain, you may have pneumonia. An urgent need to consult a doctor to establish a diagnosis and initiate appropriate treatment.

The safest, best, and cheapest way to treat a cold is to do almost nothing at all and let the illness go away on its own. Take medications to relieve individual symptoms as needed.

How to treat a cold

Drug-free therapy

The best way to treat colds without medication is to drink plenty of fluids, at least 8 to 10 glasses of soft drinks (preferably warm or hot), rest, and stop smoking. The only means that can in any way try to resist viruses are interferons (effective when used in the first – second day of illness, then useless) and KIP (Complex immunoglobulin drug) – effective when taken simultaneously with food during the first 3 to 5 days of illness …

In case of rhinorrhea (if a stream is flowing from the nose), it is not necessary to use medications, but rather to be patient, since with rhinorrhea drainage of mucus takes place, expelling the infection from the body, therefore, no medications should be taken. However, if rhinorrhea lasts more than a week, see your doctor.

For the same reason, it is not necessary to treat a productive cough (when when coughing something is taken out).

If the symptoms cannot be stopped by these measures, and these symptoms interfere with normal functioning, then the following safest and most effective remedies are recommended.

If your nose is blocked, especially if you cannot breathe freely, use nasal drops or spray containing oxymetazoline hydrochloride (for example, AFRIN), xylometazoline hydrochloride (for example, NASAL SPRAY OTRIVIN) or phenylephrine hydrochloride (for example, drops or spray for the nose of NEO-SYNEPHRINE). But do not use them for more than three days.

In case of “nasal congestion”, do not use any oral decongestants (tablets, syrups).These medicines can raise your heart rate and blood pressure. In addition, they act as stimulants and worsen the process of falling asleep. When using a spray or nasal drops for 1 – 3 days (no more), 25 times less of the drug enters your body and, moreover, enters the nose, that is, where it is needed, and is not distributed throughout the body as is the case with oral medication.

For fever, headaches and body aches, use aspirin or paracetamol if necessary (paracetamol is preferred in children).

Cough is a necessary evil

The lungs are constantly self-cleaning to ensure effective breathing. Normally, mucus lines the walls of the lungs and protects them from foreign particles (smoke, dust, viruses). The cilia of the ciliated epithelium push mucus with adhering particles out of the lungs. Coughing helps to remove unwanted substances from the lungs more quickly.

Cough is beneficial as long as it removes unwanted substances such as phlegm (mucus) from the airways and lungs.This cough is called a productive cough and often occurs with colds, bronchitis and pneumonia. On the other hand, a dry, hacking (unproductive) cough can be annoying and interfere with sleep. A cough can also be one of the symptoms of a chronic illness such as asthma, or it can be caused by cigarette smoke.

A productive cough is part of the recovery process from colds and flu. Every effort should be made to remove unwanted material from the lungs by “releasing” phlegm.This is the purpose of the expectorant, which liquefies the secretions so much that they are cleared more easily by coughing (expectoration). The best expectorant is water, especially in warm liquids such as soup, which looses phlegm and helps moisturize the airways. A humid environment also contributes to this. Drink plenty of fluids and, if possible, humidify the air in your home with a humidifier or by evaporating water using an evaporator. In winter, you can simply put a tray of water on the radiator.Doctors of the old school recommend, for the same purpose, the use of enzymes (mezim, panzinorm, festal) because of the pepsin they contain. Even if this is something wrong from a modern scientific point of view, regarding cough, then taking enzymes for a cold is still useful, since it accelerates the recovery of the body, or rather the pancreas, which suffers with any cold (the so-called reactive pancreatitis).

An unproductive cough, a dry cough that does not expel phlegm, can be treated with antitussive drugs.If you have a cough that interferes with your sleep or severely weakens your body, you can also use one of these remedies. One-component antitussive drugs should be used. Rest and plenty of fluids are also recommended when treating coughs.
Codeine, which is present in many prescription antitussives, is not recommended for coughing. Codeine is addictive and can contribute to constipation.

When coughing, if the phlegm (mucus) turns greenish, yellow, or takes on a foul smell, if the cough is accompanied by intense fever lasting several days, or if coughing or deep breathing causes severe chest pain or shortness of breath develops, consult a doctor.Any of these symptoms could indicate pneumonia. If you cough up blood, see a doctor immediately.

Fever, headache and muscle aches The common cold is sometimes accompanied by fever, headache and muscle aches. These symptoms are best managed without medication, with rest and fluid intake, or with aspirin or paracetamol.

It is not recommended to give aspirin for fever to a patient younger than 40: he may have the flu, not a cold.People who take aspirin for the flu (or chickenpox) are at an increased risk of developing Reye’s syndrome. This is a rather rare, but fatal disease, the victims of which, if they survive, remain disabled for life.
Consult a doctor if your body temperature rises above 39.4 ° C, or if a fever with a temperature above 38 ° C lasts more than four days. In these cases, the patient apparently does not have a cold.

Seek medical attention if:

  • Fever with a temperature above 38.3 ° C, accompanied by chills and cough with expectoration of thick mucus (especially greenish or foul-smelling)
  • Acute chest pain on deep inspiration
  • Symptoms, that do not improve within seven days
  • Fever with a temperature above 39.4 0 C
  • Hemoptysis
  • Sore throat with one of the following:
  1. Pus (yellowish white spots) on the tonsils or in the throat
  2. Fever with a temperature above 38.3 0 C
  3. Enlarged or tender lymph nodes on the front of the neck
  4. Contact with a patient who has a documented case of tonsillitis or diphtheria
  5. Rash, which appears during or after pharyngitis
  6. A history of rheumatic fever, rheumatism, cardiovascular – vascular system, kidney disease, chronic lung disease such as emphysema or chronic bronchitis.

Why there is a “lingering” cough

Sometimes the above recipes “fail” – cough, malaise continues after 2 or more weeks from the onset of acute respiratory infections (colds). If this happens, you need to do tests and call a doctor.

In the overwhelming majority of cases, this is an “attack” of a new infection on an organism weakened by a cold. These infections have different names and fight them in different ways. Most often, mycoplasma “attacks”, in the second place are cases of “aggression” of pneumocystis.Sometimes mycoplasma and pneumocystis combine and bring the patient to a constant temperature of 37-38 degrees, severe sweating, poor sleep (cough does not allow sleep, wakes up), weakness (asthenia).

Less often, a lingering cough is caused by fungi (candida) or chlamydia (usually pulmonary). Another cause of this cough can be tuberculosis. In infants, similar phenomena can occur due to cytomegalovirus.

Any of these infections, if incorrectly diagnosed and treated, can severely impair quality of life.Bronchitis is most common, but pneumonia can also develop. In the United States, 40% of bronchitis in children is mycoplasma. The main alarming symptom is a long-term (more than 2 weeks) persistent cough. Sometimes mycoplasma, pneumocystis, chlamydia and cytomegalovirus “stick” to children with bronchial asthma, asthmatic bronchitis – attacks become more frequent. After diagnosing and treating these infections, children forget about bronchial asthma for a long time.

The resistance of these microorganisms in the external environment is low – they quickly die, therefore the main method of infection is close household contact.People can become infected with mycoplasmosis or pneumocystosis (less often chlamydia) in any “close” group – at work, at the institute, in kindergarten, at school, in the yard, in regular guests, from constantly coughing relatives.

“Candidal” cough usually occurs as a consequence of excessive or improper use of antibacterial drugs, such as biseptol, bactrim, septrim, ampicillin, ampiox, etc.

In the current economic and, therefore, social environment, tuberculosis, as a “disease of the poor,” can overtake you in public transport, and in a shop, and at a train station.The only thing that calms down is that although there are many “infectious” people, it is quite difficult to get infected with a short contact. It is better to start the diagnosis of tuberculosis at a polyclinic phthisiatrician or in a tuberculosis dispensary at the place of residence. In difficult cases, or if you do not want to go to the dispensary, you can use the possibilities of paid diagnostics – the determination of bacteria by PCR or the detection of the level of antibodies to mycobacterium tuberculosis.

Diagnosis of mycoplasmosis, pneumocystosis, chlamydia, candidiasis and cytomegalovirus is rather complicated – there are no signs characteristic of only one disease, and the microbes themselves are so small that they cannot be detected by conventional microscopy.Mycoplasmosis, pneumocystosis, chlamydia, candidiasis and cytomegalovirus infection (CMVi) are detected either by smears examined by DNA diagnostics methods, such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR), or by immunofluorescence (which is less reliable), or by examining blood from a vein to the presence of antibodies to these pathogens.

There are no “home” remedies for these diseases, but modern antibacterial drugs are highly effective – the cure rate reaches 95%.
Preventive measures.Without studying the immune status in the cold season, you can drink 2-3 courses of herbal adaptogens – ginseng, eleutherococcus. The drugs are taken in the morning and afternoon, and in the evening, to relieve daytime stress and improve sleep, soothing herbal decoctions are needed – valerian, motherwort.

In order not to get sick during an epidemic of viral diseases, in addition to vitamins and adaptogens, it is good to take homeopathic medicines Griphel, Antigrippin, Influcid. The flu shot, which is given every year, will protect you from this illness.Vaccination with the influenza vaccine must be done before the onset of the influenza epidemic, so that immunity can be developed. It makes no sense to get a flu shot in the midst of an epidemic, or when a person is already sick, since the vaccine will not protect against the disease.
For people who often suffer from otitis media, tonsillitis, bronchitis, there are drugs that protect against staphylococci, streptococci, hemophilus influenzae, Klebsiella. This is Ribomunil, Bronchomunal. It is better to entrust the selection of a prevention scheme to a doctor.

If someone in the family is sick, the rest should take preventive measures.It would be nice to arrange finely chopped or crushed garlic on saucers in the apartment. You can put it in a pre-scalded teapot and breathe through the spout. Drink Tonsilgon or Antiseptin.

Inhalation of anti-inflammatory herbs – St. John’s wort, sage, eucalyptus or propolis inhalation – can also increase the body’s defenses. As an inhaler, you can use a regular teapot – brew the herb with boiling water and inhale through the spout. You can use ready-made preparations – oils, solutions and tinctures – eucalyptus, propolis, fir oil, “Eucabal”, “Doctor MOM”, “Bronchicum”.The most convenient inhaler is the Russian ultrasonic “Monsoon”.

Multivitamins (Mul-Titabs, Unicap, Centrum and others) can be used as a prophylaxis for weakening the immune system. Yeast preparations (yeast extract “Favorite”, pangamin, etc.) have a good general strengthening effect. Multivitamin and yeast preparations are especially needed in autumn and spring, when there is a natural weakening of the immune system.

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signs, symptoms, treatment and prevention

Influenza is a severe viral infection that affects men, women and children of all ages and nationalities.Flu epidemics occur every year, usually during the colder months of the year. In terms of the number of cases in the world, influenza and ARVI rank first, the share in the structure of infectious diseases reaches 95%.

Influenza and acute respiratory viral infections, gradually undermining health, reduce the average life expectancy of a person by several years. In a severe course of influenza, irreversible damage to the cardiovascular system, respiratory organs, central nervous system often occurs, provoking diseases of the heart and blood vessels, pneumonia, tracheobronchitis, meningoencephalitis.

The greatest victims of the flu are among the elderly population groups suffering from chronic diseases.

The flu virus is very easily transmitted:

  • The most common route of transmission is airborne.
  • A household transmission route is also possible, for example, through household items.

When coughing, sneezing, talking from the nasopharynx of a patient or a virus carrier, particles of saliva, mucus, sputum with pathogenic microflora, including influenza viruses, are thrown out.An infected area with a maximum concentration of aerosol particles is formed around the patient. Their dispersion range usually does not exceed 2 – 3 m.

What is ARVI? What is the difference from the flu?

The term “acute respiratory disease” (ARI) or “acute respiratory viral infection” (ARVI) covers a large number of diseases, in many ways similar to each other. Their main similarity lies in the transmission route (they enter the body together with the inhaled air through the mouth and nasopharynx) and in the set of symptoms:

  • The patient has a fever, sore throat, cough, chills, muscle pain and headache for several days.
  • The most common symptom of respiratory illness is a runny nose; it is caused by a number of related viruses known as rhinoviruses.

Upon recovery, all these symptoms disappear and do not leave any traces behind.

Basically, pathogens of acute respiratory infections are transmitted from person to person through the cough or sneezing of the patient. Anyone who comes into close contact (approximately 1 meter) with another person with ARVI symptoms is at risk of exposure to potentially infectious inhaled droplets.Viruses can enter the body (eyes, nose or mouth) through the hands when they come into contact with an infected surface.

Good personal hygiene can help prevent the spread of respiratory pathogens.

Flu signs and symptoms Signs and symptoms of SARS
  1. Influenza comes unexpectedly and completely takes over your body in a matter of hours;
  2. Influenza is characterized by a sharp increase in temperature (in some cases up to 40.5 degrees), increased sensitivity to light, aches throughout the body, as well as pain: headaches and muscle pains;
  3. On the first day of illness with influenza, there is no runny nose, which is characteristic only of this virus;
  4. The most active phase of influenza falls on the third to fifth day of illness, and the final recovery falls on the 8-10th day.
  5. Considering that influenza infection affects blood vessels, it is for this reason that hemorrhages are possible: gingival and nasal.
  1. The disease comes on gradually and most often begins with fatigue and an external manifestation of the virus, for example, a runny nose;
  2. The next day after the activation of the disease, a dryish cough appears, which eventually transforms into a wet (expectorant) cough.

Differences between coronavirus COVID-19, colds and flu

As you know, the new coronavirus infection COVID-19 is transmitted mainly by airborne droplets.She is characterized by the presence of clinical symptoms of acute respiratory viral infections (you can find a detailed educational program from Sevzdrav at the link – https://sevdz.ru/mednavigator/profilaktika/koronavirus/).

Important! COVID-19 is sometimes asymptomatic, but this does not make the carrier of the virus less infectious. Especially in such cases, people with chronic diseases suffer.

Visual infographics from Rospotrebnadzor:

Basic recommendations for the prevention of influenza and ARVI for the population

Prevention measures are especially important to observe now – during a pandemic of a new coronavirus infection.

The self-isolation regime has been canceled, but the pandemic has not disappeared anywhere! We all need to think about our health and the health of the people around us.

  • Avoid close contact with people who seem unhealthy, exhibit fever (fever) and cough.
  • Avoid crowded places or shorten time spent in crowded places.
  • Try not to touch your mouth and nose.
  • Observe hand hyena – wash your hands more often with soap and water or use an alcohol-based hand sanitizer, especially if you touch your mouth or nose.
  • Increase the flow of fresh air into living quarters, open windows as often as possible.
  • Use masks when in contact with a sick person.
  • Follow a healthy lifestyle, including adequate sleep, eating “healthy” foods, and being physically active.

Preventive immunization of the population (vaccination) is the best prevention of influenza. In turn, the main danger of refusing to vaccinate is the possibility of getting the flu through contact with a sick person.In addition, a person who has not been vaccinated is potentially dangerous to others, as he is a likely carrier of an infectious disease.

In detail: why vaccination is needed and where to get a flu shot in Sevastopol.

Recommendations for persons with ARVI symptoms

  • If you feel unwell, stay at home and follow the doctor’s recommendations, if possible, keep at a distance from healthy people (1 meter).
  • Rest and drink plenty of fluids.
  • Cover your mouth and nose when coughing or sneezing with a handkerchief or other suitable material. Dispose of this material immediately after use or wash it. Wash your hands immediately after contact with respiratory secretions!
  • A mask should be worn if you are in the common area of ​​the house near other people.
  • Tell your family and friends about the illness.

Important! Medical masks

Recommendations for the use of protective medical masks:

  • The wearing of medical masks is mandatory for those who have close contact with a sick patient.
  • Carefully wear the mask so that it covers your mouth and nose, and tie it tightly so that there are as few gaps as possible between your face and mask.
  • When using the mask, be careful not to touch it.
  • When touching a used mask, for example when removing it, wash your hands with soap and water or using an alcohol-based hand sanitizer.
  • Replace the used mask with a new clean, dry mask as soon as the used mask becomes damp (damp).
  • Do not reuse disposable masks.
  • Throw away disposable masks after each use and dispose of them immediately after removal.

Recommendations for patient care at home

  • Isolate the patient from others, at least 1 meter away from others.
  • Cover your mouth and nose when treating patients with masks.
  • Wash hands thoroughly with soap and water after each contact with an infected person. Allocate separate towels for each family member.
  • In addition to the caregiver, the patient should not be visited by any other visitor.
  • Whenever possible, only one adult in the home should be involved in caring for the sick.
  • Avoid being cared for by a pregnant woman.
  • Ventilate the patient’s room at all times.
  • Keep the area clean using detergents.

Advice for parents of sick children

  • If your child is ill, seek medical attention from a doctor.
  • Leave the sick child at home unless he or she needs medical attention.
  • Give your child plenty of fluids (juice, water).
  • Create a comfortable environment for your child, peace is essential.
  • If your child has a fever, sore throat, and body aches, you can give him antipyretic drugs that the doctor prescribes for the age of the patient.
  • Keep tissues and waste basket within reach of the patient.
  • Teach children to wash their hands often with soap and water for 20 seconds. Parents should also follow this procedure, which will serve as a good example for the children.
  • Teach children to cough and sneeze into a tissue or hand.Parents should also follow this procedure, which will serve as a good example for the children.
  • Teach children not to come closer than one and a half to two meters to sick people.
  • Children who are ill should stay at home (not attending preschool and schools) and keep their distance from other people until their condition improves.
  • Refrain from frequent visits to crowded places.
  • If your child has had contact with someone with the flu, ask your doctor if you need antiviral medication to prevent the illness.

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How to treat a runny nose and sore throat without fever. How to relieve nasal congestion with high blood pressure?

An unpleasant tickling in the throat along with coughing fits is an unpleasant symptom. It can appear unexpectedly: during a conversation, after eating, at night. There is a desire to drink water, cough.Sucking on a cough lozenge can provide quick, noticeable relief.

Causes of runny nose and sore throat

Perspiration along with dry cough is caused by internal and external factors. External – dusty dirty air, exhaust gases, dry indoor climate. A common cause of constant irritation of the mucous membranes is smoking.

Factors provoking perspiration and runny nose:

  • Inflammatory and infectious diseases of the respiratory tract – laryngitis, tonsillitis, pharyngitis, others.The throat is usually red, pain when swallowing, hoarseness may appear. Treatment should be specific, so see your doctor.
  • Acute respiratory viral infections are the scourge of the autumn and winter periods. The group includes parainfluenza, influenza, and other viruses that affect the respiratory tract. Ways of infection – airborne, contact.
  • Allergies are a common cause of perspiration and discomfort, dry cough attacks. It develops as a result of contact with allergens, itching, runny nose, lacrimation are possible.
  • Damage to the pharynx by mechanical, thermal irritants occurs as a result of exposure to hard, scratching food pieces. In addition to perspiration, there is no discomfort.
  • Dusty dry air in the room – if you constantly sit in a room with an unfavorable microclimate, the throat will turn red and it will begin to tickle. The mucous membrane becomes more susceptible to the effects of infectious agents.

To get rid of the symptoms, to permanently improve your well-being, you need to find out the causes of the problem and eliminate them.With a runny nose, sore throat as a result of mechanical damage to the mucous membranes, contact with dust, allergens, washing helps well. Moisturizing the nasal passages is an important component of complex therapy for ARVI, allergies, infections.

Why perspiration and runny nose can occur without fever

A runny nose and sore throat without fever can result from improper treatment of respiratory viral infections. Untreated rhinitis is the main cause of persistent exacerbations.Long-term use of vasoconstrictors is dangerous. Such funds bring relief, but after 2-3 weeks of continuous use, they disrupt the normal functioning of the vessels of the nasal passages.

There will be no temperature in case of allergies, mechanical damage to the mucous membranes. Prolonged stay in a dusty room causes a state of weakness, as with ARVI, but also not accompanied by an increase in body temperature.

Advantages of Aqualor

Aqualor is a means for irrigation and rinsing of the nose and throat, which is sea water that has retained its natural composition and all natural healing properties.For the production of Aqualor, innovative * technologies are used. Aqualor has a natural composition.

You can choose different forms of release, types of irrigation. Pay attention to the classification of products, taking into account the age category: infants, toddlers from 6, 12, 24 months and adults. All products are suitable for adult patients.

Features of Aqualor preparations:

  • Convenient to use – you can rinse your nose from any convenient angle.Each can comes with an ergonomically shaped nozzle for continuous spray.
  • No preservatives in the composition, maximum preservation of the beneficial properties of sea water. The natural composition is safe, does not cause side effects.
  • Not addictive. The tool can be used for a long time. At the moment, Aqualor’s lineup includes 13 different products that take into account the recommendations of specialists, the requests of patients of all groups.The solutions relieve congestion, pain, wash mucous membranes, help activate the immune system, and remove itching in the nose. Forms of release – from 15 to 150 ml.

Prevention

To reduce the risks of contracting ARVI, improve health, and prevent the development of unpleasant symptoms such as perspiration and runny nose, follow the rules:

  • Avoid crowded areas during cold season.
  • Always dress for the weather, avoid hypothermia, overheating.
  • Wash your hands after outdoors.
  • Take vitamins.
  • Lead a healthy lifestyle, move more, give up bad habits.
  • Use a respirator mask.
  • Use folk and pharmaceutical remedies that increase immunity.

Regular washing or irrigation of the nasal mucosa with Aqualor means protection from chronic rhinitis.Such procedures prevent chronic diseases by mechanically removing pathogens. During the cold season, with a constant stay in dry rooms, manipulations can be carried out regularly (at least twice a day – in the morning and in the evening).

How to treat a runny nose with hypertension

Arterial hypertension (abbreviated as AH) is the most common cardiovascular pathology in the world. To a greater extent, representatives of the stronger sex are susceptible to it: it is diagnosed in 48% of men in the Russian Federation and 40% of women.A chronic condition can significantly reduce the quality of life and lead to death.

What is hypertension, how to treat rhinitis with this diagnosis

The main danger of hypertensive patients after not knowing about their condition is taking medications, which further exacerbate the problem. Harmless for healthy people, vasoconstrictor drops from the common cold can cause a sharp jump in pressure in a patient with a diagnosis of hypertension and cause a crisis.Therefore, you need to regularly undergo comprehensive examinations, read the annotations for medicines, urgently take action in case of deterioration. Increased pressure with nasal congestion is a determining factor when choosing a treatment regimen. If the runny nose is not severe, the state of health and general well-being are stable, unnecessary medications should not be taken. A suitable option is rinsing the nasal cavity.

Why you shouldn’t use vasoconstrictor drugs

A runny nose with hypertension most often develops against the background of a cold, the body temperature does not always rise.It is highly undesirable to use vasoconstrictors for hypertensive patients – they increase blood pressure. Antipyretic drugs are allowed in case of high fever.

Drops with a vasoconstrictor effect, which quickly relieve puffiness and reduce the manifestations of rhinitis, are contraindicated with increased pressure, since they additionally increase it. There is an addictive effect: after a month, the drops stop helping, all the symptoms of a cold disappear, but nasal congestion remains.

How to be treated

With hypertension, all drugs containing phenylephrine derivatives are completely prohibited. They contain a constricting blood vessel and a blood pressure-increasing component, so the health risks outweigh the potential benefits. In some cases, taking the drug is possible, but subject to strict adherence to the terms, the dosages recommended by the doctor cannot be exceeded.

As a rule, in order not to risk, experts prescribe special expensive drops and / or rinsing for hypertensive patients with a cold.Isotonic sea water solution has a special mineral composition. It corresponds to the composition of the physiological fluids of the human body. As a result of rinsing the nose, the water-electrolyte balance is restored, the mucous membrane is moistened, the symptoms of rhinitis disappear. Additionally, sea water nourishes cells, relieves inflammation. Gradually, the composition of the secret, the protective functions of the mucous membrane are restored, the person feels relief.

There are rinsing agents that only solve therapeutic problems, but most can be used for prophylactic purposes.Mechanical removal of microbes from the nasal mucosa quickly relieves unpleasant symptoms in ARVI, allergies, helps to restore normal health after staying in dusty rooms, contact with harmful factors.

Advantages of Aqualor

Aqualor is a seawater-based nasal rinse solution. It contains and preserves all the healing properties of natural sources. The mineral composition is balanced, the concentration of salts is optimal for mucous membranes.

Aqualor’s advantages:

  • Ease of use (simple, convenient spraying, use of a cylinder at any angle, availability of special nozzles of various types).
  • Safe, natural composition without preservatives (the product contains a full set of minerals, trace elements that are in sea water, no chemicals).
  • Lack of addiction.

Rinsing the nasal cavity with Aqualor helps to mechanically remove pathogenic organisms, irrigate, improve the condition of the mucous membrane, and quickly relieve the state of health.Suitable for the prevention, treatment or complex treatment of colds, acute respiratory viral infections, infectious diseases. Aqualor is prescribed for children from birth and for adults.

Aqualor is one of the most popular drugs on the market. Previously, in the treatment of rhinitis, independent solutions were often used, but this was not due to their high effectiveness, but to the lack of alternatives. When preparing a solution at home, it is difficult to accurately calculate the concentration of active substances. A weak remedy will be ineffective, a highly concentrated one may cause side effects.Bottled water is not ideal for mucous membranes, tap water with bleach will further irritate. Therefore, do not risk your health, choose a ready-made natural and non-addictive drug – Aqualor nasal rinsing solution.

The line includes 13 products that are created taking into account the recommendations of specialists and the needs of patients.

  1. * Aqualor contains unique products in the line, as of 23.09.2019 – Aqualor Protect is the only one with a similar composition on the Russian pharmaceutical market (http://www.roszdravnadzor.ru/; https://grls.rosminzdrav.ru/)
  2. The bottle of the dosed spray Aqualor Protect is equipped with a device that protects the medical device from contamination and does not require the addition of preservatives (instructions for use of the Aqualor Protect medical device, RZN 2018/7113 dated 04/05/2018)
  3. The BOV-balloon system for under-metered Aqualor sprays prevents the penetration of contaminants and microorganisms into the balloon during the entire use thanks to a special valve, allows you to create continuous spraying when using the balloon at any angle (instructions for use of the Aqualor baby medical product, RZN 2016/5064 from 29.11.2016)
  4. The new nozzles of Aqualor under-metered sprays have a wide tip to prevent deep penetration into the nose and reduce the risk of injury, a recess on the sprayer for a finger for more comfortable use, and a built-in valve to control the first opening. The non-removable nozzle is firmly fixed on the cylinder, will not fall off during use.

There are contraindications. It is necessary to consult a specialist and read the instructions for use.

Cold. The author of the article: pediatrician Olga Anatolyevna Sidinkova.

03 December 2019

Family Health Magazine

Very often, when we have
runny nose or sore throat, fever rises, we diagnose ourselves: flu!
But don’t jump to conclusions.There are others
viral infections that are similar in symptoms to the flu.
Autumn and early spring are seasons of high humidity and a sharp increase in the number of colds. But really
it is impossible to put a barrier by this far from
harmless ailments? Only an integrated approach will help to maintain health.
to the prevention of colds.
Earlier, colds were united in the group of “acute respiratory diseases (ARI)”, now medical scientists
believe that the more correct name “sharp
respiratory viral infections ”
(ARVI).There are adenoviruses, parainfluenza,
respiratory syncytial viruses. All of them
differ in their structure and biological properties, and diseases have
symptoms characteristic of each ARVI.
Typical symptoms of a cold are general weakness, malaise, chest pain
cage, dry cough, or cough with phlegm, fever. Like this
you can describe the symptoms of each of the colds, including such a terrible viral infection as the flu:

  • if you suffer from severe headaches,
    “Aches” joints and muscles throughout the body
    weakness spreads, and the nerves seem to be bare, the temperature is about 39 ° C, in the throat
    itching, the nose is stuffy, but there is no runny nose as such, which means you have the flu;
  • if the nose is running, but the state of health is quite bearable and the temperature is not higher than 37 ° C
    – You have contracted a rhinovirus infection,
    or in other words, you have a common cold;
  • if the voice is hoarse and constantly bothers
    “Barking cough” means you are sick
    laryngitis – inflammation of the larynx.And the parainfluenza virus brought it with him;
  • if in the process of the appearance of the first signs of malaise it became difficult for you
    breathe, first a dry, painful, and then with phlegm cough and
    the temperature does not want to decrease in any way
    – it means that you have bronchitis, which may have become a consequence of the flu;
  • if on the 2nd or 3rd day the feeling of cramps increased to chills, cough and runny nose
    in one or both eyes, tonsils
    and the throat is grayish or white
    film, and the lymph nodes have noticeably increased, you should know: you have become a victim of an adenovirus infection, or, simply put,
    sore throats.

One of the pressing problems in pediatrics is the treatment of colds.

PREVENTION AND TREATMENT
COLD DISEASES IN CHILDREN.

Vaccination is a promising area of ​​modern prevention of colds, as well as
use of special tools for
rinsing the nasal cavity. The action of this
method is aimed at cleansing and moisturizing the nasal mucosa, normalizing
the protective function of the ciliated epithelium,
preventing the formation of crusts, facilitating nasal breathing.As before, prevention is subdivided into specific and non-specific. Both have great
importance, since they reduce not only the incidence of respiratory infections, but also the number of bacterial complications.
Components of nonspecific prophylaxis: mucosal therapy
upper respiratory tract using
saline solutions, antiviral drugs, immunomodulators, inducers
interferons with antiviral activity, homeopathic medicines with proven efficacy, herbal medicines and vitamins (anaferon,
strepsils, nurofen, etc.).
Prevention of colds
aims to strengthen the respiratory system and normalize the function of the external
breathing. Prevention of colds improves tissue elasticity
lungs, normalizes gas exchange between blood and air, increases bronchial
conductivity. And also the prevention of colds has a general strengthening effect on the entire body and stimulates immune processes.
Prevention of colds
– this is a whole complex of measures, which, only with regular and systematic use, can eliminate frequent morbidity.First of all, it is,
hardening, of course. And also, these are activities
on exercise equipment (exercise bike, treadmill), walking, running, swimming and special physiotherapy exercises.
Separately, it should be said about physiotherapy exercises. Physiotherapy exercises as prevention of colds has
very great value.
Vulnerable “risk group” is
a group of frequently ill children. Frequently ill children endure during the year from 6 to
12 episodes of respiratory morbidity, which causes the development of secondary immunological insufficiency, the formation of chronic pathology
bronchopulmonary system and ENT organs,
allergopathology, etc.Often sick children are prescribed
analysis of the immune status. Based on the analyzes received, drugs are prescribed. One of the main goals is to reduce the number of people with frequent illnesses.
children. In the treatment of such children, drugs are used that are capable of sanitizing the nasopharynx and upper respiratory
paths. The most important condition for the speedy
recovery is the care and attention from the parents, the psychological climate in the family, living conditions
and food.
In the treatment of colds
Nowadays, nebulizers are actively used, which are special
metered-dose aerosol inhalers,
which are very easy to use.If the child has an inflamed mucous membrane and there is swelling in the nose, then in the first days
antihistamines are prescribed.
For colds, it is necessary
plentiful sweet and sour drink. Exist
special procedures to warm up
baby’s hands, feet with the help of special baby creams, or inhalation procedures based on extracts of medicinal plants. But if the child has
allergic diseases are necessary
already other drugs. Do not neglect the old forgotten method, which
may be effective – mustard plasters in sunflower oil.WHAT MISTAKES CAN BE COMMITTED BY
Trying to get rid of
A CHILD’S NOSE STOPPED?
One of the main mistakes is untimely access to a doctor and treatment.
runny nose by their own methods, which is fraught with complications. To the health of the child
should be treated with all the attention and care and consult a specialist doctor.

COMPLICATIONS IN COLD
DISEASES.

Leading complication
are occupied by acute viral and bacterial
pneumonia.The second most frequent place is occupied by complications from ENT organs
(sinusitis, otitis media, frontal sinusitis, sinusitis). Most often, exacerbation of the existing chronic pathology of the upper respiratory
pathways and lungs (chronic sinusitis,
tone zillitis, chronic bronchitis, bronchial asthma) develop against the background of ARVI,
as well as exacerbations of herpes-viral chronic persistent in the body
infections. Very often there is a complication on
ear is otitis media. Distinguish between acute medium,
chronic purulent, exudative medium, adhesive otitis media.With sinusitis in children, nasal congestion, pain in the forehead, weakness,
lethargy and high fever. To reduce edema and swelling of the mucous membrane, vasoconstrictors are instilled into the nose.
funds either use antibiotic therapy. Nasal lavage and physiotherapy techniques are recommended
treatment.