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Infected stomach lining: Gastritis – Symptoms and causes


Gastritis: Symptoms, causes, and treatments

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Gastritis is an inflammation of the stomach lining that can lead to upper abdominal pain, breathing problems, and other symptoms. Possible causes include bacteria and some autoimmune conditions.

Gastritis can come on suddenly, causing noticeable symptoms that may quickly resolve without treatment. Chronic gastritis, however, may go unnoticed. Without treatment, it can also lead to complications over time.

Helicobacter pylori bacteria are the most common cause of gastritis worldwide. In other cases, the inflammation is due to irritation, which might result from the use of alcohol or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), for example.

Chronic gastritis is a common problem. In fact, sources estimate that more than 50% of people worldwide have it to some degree. This is an important public health concern, as the condition is linked with complications such as stomach ulcers and stomach cancer.

This article looks at the symptoms, causes, and treatments associated with gastritis and provides tips about what to eat and what to avoid to help ease the symptoms.

One person with gastritis may have no noticeable symptoms, while another may have severe symptoms.

Typically, people report a sharp, stabbing, or burning pain in the upper-center or upper-left abdomen. The pain often radiates to the back.

Other common symptoms include bloating and nausea. When gastritis causes vomiting, the vomit may be clear, yellow, or green.

Some symptoms of severe gastritis include:

  • shortness of breath
  • chest pain
  • vomit that contains blood
  • severe stomach pain
  • foul-smelling bowel movements

A person needs urgent medical attention for any of the following symptoms:

  • a rapid heartbeat
  • excessive sweating
  • shortness of breath
  • abdominal pain with a fever
  • vomit that contains blood
  • a large amount of yellow or green vomit
  • black or bloody stool
  • dizziness and fainting

Gastritis occurs when the protective lining of the stomach weakens, allowing digestive juices to damage it. This leads to inflammation.

Gastritis can be chronic, developing slowly and lasting for a long time, or acute, developing and resolving quickly.

The condition can also be erosive or nonerosive. Erosive gastritis is severe and causes the stomach lining to wear down. It may come on suddenly or develop over time. Nonerosive gastritis, on the other hand, causes changes to the stomach lining rather than a gradual breakdown.

There are also subtypes. For example, acute stress gastritis is erosive, and it develops in response to changes due to critical illness.

Some potential causes of gastritis may include the following.

H. pylori bacteria

Most commonly, gastritis is due to H. pylori bacteria. Around 35% of people in the U.S. have these bacteria in their bodies.

Irritating substances

Reactive gastritis, which is caused by irritants, is also relatively common. It affects around 15% of people in the U.S.

NSAIDs such as ibuprofen (Advil) and some other common pain relief drugs can cause stomach irritation and gastritis. NSAIDs represent the most common cause of stomach ulcers.

Some other irritants that may be responsible for this issue include alcohol and bile.

Autoimmune conditions

Autoimmune conditions can lead to gastritis. For example, in people with autoimmune atrophic gastritis, the immune system attacks the stomach lining.

Damage to the stomach

Physical trauma or damage to the stomach lining can also lead to gastritis.

For example, a person who has undergone surgery to remove part of their stomach may develop postgastrectomy gastritis, which causes the lining to degenerate.

The mechanisms behind this issue are still unclear, but postgastrectomy gastritis may stem from increased acid reflux, reactions from the vagal nerve, or a reduction in the number of acids triggered by hormones.

Other causes

Dietary factors do not usually cause gastritis, but food allergies and celiac disease can contribute to it.

Some types of gastritis that stem from other issues include:

  • Infectious gastritis not caused by H. pylori: Viruses and fungi can cause gastritis in people with immune conditions or other long-term illnesses.
  • Radiation gastritis: When the abdomen has exposure to radiation, it can irritate the stomach lining.
  • Eosinophilic gastritis: This can result from an allergic reaction.
  • Ménétrier disease: This is rare. It involves the development of thick folds and cysts on the stomach wall.

Some people, including older adults and individuals with compromised immune function, are more likely to develop gastritis.

Many health issues and factors such as smoking can also increase the risk of developing this condition.

Some risk factors for gastritis include:

  • smoking
  • high levels of stress
  • excessive use of alcohol or cocaine
  • swallowing corrosives or foreign objects
  • a history of chronic vomiting
  • a vitamin B12 deficiency
  • routine use of NSAIDs
  • regular use of prescription steroids, chemotherapy, potassium supplements, or iron supplements
  • exposure to radiation, either as a treatment option or by contamination
  • bile reflux after stomach surgery
  • an autoimmune condition, such as Hashimoto’s thyroiditis or type 1 diabetes
  • HIV
  • Crohn’s disease

Other infections that can increase the risk of gastritis include tuberculosis and syphilis.

H. pylori can spread in many different ways. For example, contaminated food, water, or cutlery may play a role.

Chronic gastritis can increase the risk of other gastrointestinal conditions, including stomach ulcers, or peptic ulcers, and bleeding in the stomach.

Certain types of gastritis, including autoimmune atrophic gastritis and H. pylori gastritis, can reduce the body’s ability to absorb iron from the blood. Autoimmune atrophic gastritis can also affect vitamin B12 absorption, which can lead to anemia.

In addition, having H. pylori gastritis may slightly increase the risk of developing stomach cancer.

The following can help a doctor diagnose gastritis:

  • conducting a physical examination
  • taking the person’s medical history and noting their current symptoms
  • checking for the presence of H. pylori using blood, breath, or stool testing
  • performing endoscopy
  • performing electrocardiography

In some cases, a doctor can diagnose gastritis with X-rays of the esophagus, stomach, and small intestine. They might refer to these X-rays as an upper gastrointestinal series or a barium swallow.

The doctor may also request:

  • evaluations of kidney and liver function
  • a test for anemia
  • gallbladder and pancreas function tests
  • pregnancy tests

If these are inconclusive, the doctor may perform upper endoscopy. This involves inserting a thin, flexible, illuminated tube down through the mouth and throat and into the stomach to perform a visual examination.

Although diet and nutrition do not typically cause gastritis, alcohol, food allergies, and some supplements can contribute to it.

Making dietary changes is not a main treatment of gastritis, except when gastritis stems from celiac disease or food allergies.

That said, some people find that eating certain foods helps with their symptoms, and doing so may also help the body get rid of H. pylori bacteria.

Foods to eat and avoid

Eating fewer foods that can irritate the stomach — such as spicy, acidic, or fried foods — may help manage gastritis, as can eating smaller, more frequent meals.

Get some diet tips for gastritis and stomach ulcers here.

Scientists have yet to fully explore the many issues that may cause gastritis. Because some causes remain unknown, it may be impossible to prevent the issue.

However, a person can try to reduce their risk by:

  • maintaining good hand hygiene and eating well-cooked foods
  • avoiding medications that can irritate the stomach
  • avoiding smoking and consuming alcohol

Gastritis is inflammation of the stomach lining, and infection with H. pylori bacteria is the most common cause.

If a person does not receive treatment, gastritis can lead to complications, such as stomach ulcers or vitamin deficiencies. Untreated gastritis may also increase the risk of developing stomach cancer.

Depending on the cause of the inflammation and whether it is acute or chronic, treatment may involve OTC or prescription medications, antibiotics, and dietary changes.

How to spot H.

pylori – an infection that can cause gastritis and ulcers | Digestive


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September 14, 2022


Shreeju Shrestha, M. S.N., APRN, FNP-BC

Internal Medicine – Digestive and Liver Diseases

H. pylori is a common bacteria found in the stomach. Breath tests are one way we check for it.

Helicobacter pylori, or H. pylori, are common bacteria that infect billions of people worldwide. They are the leading cause of ulcers and gastritis (inflammation of the stomach lining). But approximately 80% of infected people worldwide will never develop symptoms – a phenomenon that researchers are still learning about.

H. pylori live in the digestive tracts of approximately two thirds of the world’s population, including one third of people in the U.S. The bacteria produce the enzyme urea, which neutralizes gastric acid in the stomach.

Over time, urea breaks down the stomach lining, causing gastritis and ulcers – painful, nonhealing wounds in the stomach lining. If left untreated, chronic gastritis can increase the risk of stomach cancer.

Infection typically occurs during childhood – in the U.S., fewer than 5% of children younger than 10 carry the bacteria. Infection is more common in developing countries with fewer water and food safety restrictions. Person-to-person transmission can occur through contact with an infected person’s fecal material, stomach contents, or mouth.

While approximately 5 billion people worldwide have H. pylori bacteria in their stomach, only about 20% of infected people have noticeable symptoms such as:

  • Aching or burning stomach pain
  • Bloating
  • Frequent burping
  • Loss of appetite
  • Nausea
  • Unintentional weight loss

Though H. pylori infection can’t be prevented, it is treatable with antibiotics. Using common sense approaches to food safety and interpersonal contact – and getting care when you notice symptoms – can help reduce your risk of infection and serious complications.

How H. pylori is diagnosed

H. pylori symptoms can initially seem similar to gastrointestinal reflux disease (GERD) and other digestive conditions. To determine whether your symptoms are caused by H. pylori, your doctor will use one of three tests to check for the presence of the bacteria in your stomach:

  • Breath tests are the least invasive option and involve drinking a liquid solution and then blowing into a bag, which we check for the presence of urea. If urea is present, your symptoms may be caused by an H. pylori infection.
  • Fecal stool tests are minimally invasive and involve examining a stool sample for proteins associated with H. pylori (called an antigen test).
  • Upper endoscopies are typically only recommended for patients with severe symptoms, or when other test results are inconclusive. After providing a sedative to help you relax (you’ll be awake but you won’t remember the exam, like a colonoscopy), the doctor then threads a long, flexible tube with a tiny camera down the esophagus into the stomach. This allows the doctor to see any problems in the stomach and take a tissue sample, or biopsy, which is analyzed for the presence of H. pylori.

Testing may be repeated after treatment to confirm the bacteria have been eliminated. Some patients appear to have a natural resistance to H. pylori infection. More research is needed to understand why some people are more susceptible to developing ulcers or gastritis due to these bacteria.

Related reading: Gut health hacks on TikTok: What really works to improve digestive function

Treating H. pylori infections

For patients who develop symptoms, H. pylori infection is treatable with antibiotics that are designed to kill bacteria.

Usually, we prescribe a three- or four-drug course – combining medications has proven effective in getting rid of the bacteria. These courses include one or two antibiotics like amoxicillin, clarithromycin, metronidazole, and tetracycline.

Most patients also take a proton pump inhibitor (PPI) medication, which reduces the stomach’s ability to produce acid. PPIs include lansoprazole, omeprazole, and others. Sometimes doctors also prescribe bismuth subsalicylate (Pepto-Bismol) to help protect the stomach lining.

Patients take the medications for approximately 14 days. Side effects can include abdominal pain, diarrhea, and headache. It is important to finish taking all the medications to ensure the bacteria are fully controlled.

About 20% of patients have antibiotic-resistant H. pylori, which require re-treatment with higher doses of medication for a longer period. UT Southwestern offers the latest treatments for antibiotic-resistant H. pylori infection. Advanced oral medications are designed to eliminate bacteria and protozoa – small lifeforms that can cause severe diarrhea and inflammation.

Tips to reduce the risk of infection

Some of the clean hygiene strategies we focused on during the COVID-19 pandemic, such as washing our hands frequently for at least 20 seconds, can help reduce the chances of a h. pylori infection.

Preventative measures to keep bacteria from entering your body include washing your hands thoroughly for at least 20 seconds after using the toilet and before eating. H. pylori has been found in raw food samples, so reduce your chances of encountering H. pylori bacteria by practicing proper food hygiene. This includes steps such as:

  • Cleaning cutting boards, counter tops, and dishes with hot, soapy water when they are soiled
  • Using hot, soapy water and paper towels or clean cloths when wiping kitchen spills and surfaces
  • Washing cloths often in the hot cycle on the washing machine
  • Washing cooking surfaces and utensils often with hot, soapy water

If you don’t have access to a source of safe drinking water, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevent (CDC) recommends boiling it for 1-3 minutes to kill bacteria, viruses, and parasites. Allow the water to cool before drinking. Boiled water can be stored in a sanitary container with a tight lid.

Don’t ignore gastric symptoms

Studies show most people on earth have H. pylori bacteria in their body. There are more than 1,000 other species of bacteria living in the human gut, too, and most of these get along with us and each other very well.

If you’re not experiencing symptoms, there’s no need to worry. But if you do have chronic gastritis or gut pain, talk with your doctor – most conditions that cause digestive symptoms can be safely treated, and getting the right care can help reduce your risk of complications from long-term infection.

To talk with a digestive health expert, call 214-645-8300 or request an appointment online.

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Causes, symptoms, diagnosis and treatment


  • 1 Chronic gastritis associated with Helicobacter pylori: symptoms, causes and treatment
    • 1.1 Chronic gastritis and Helicobacter pylori
    • 1.2 What is chronic gastritis and Helicobacter pylori?
      • 1.2.1 Chronic gastritis
      • 1.2.2 Helicobacter Pylori
    • 1.3 Causes of chronic gastritis and Helicobacter Pylori
    • 1.4 Symptoms of chronic gastritis and Helicobacter pylori infection
    • 1. 5 Diagnosis of chronic gastritis and Helicobacter pylori bacteria: how to make a diagnosis?
      • 1.5.1 Clinical manifestations of chronic gastritis and Helicobacter Pylori
      • 1.5.2 Instrumental diagnostic methods
      • 1.5.3 Laboratory diagnostic methods
    • 1.6 The role of research in diagnosis chronic gastritis and infection with Helicobacter Pylori
    • 1.7 How is chronic gastritis and Helicobacter pylori infection treated?
    • 1.8 Prevention measures for chronic gastritis and Helicobacter Pylori
    • infection

    • 1.9 Possible complications of chronic gastritis and Helicobacter Pylori
    • infection

    • 1.10 Differences between chronic gastritis and Helicobacter Pylori
        gastric ulcer 9 0005 1.10.1 Chronic gastritis
      • 1.10.2 Gastric ulcer caused by Helicobacter Pylori
    • 1.11 Exclusion of foods from the diet in chronic gastritis and Helicobacter Pylori infection
    • 1.12 Maintaining a healthy stomach: prevention of gastritis and Helicobacter Pylori infection
      • 1. 12.1 Prevention of gastritis
      • 5 1.13 Related videos:
      • 1.14 Q&A:
          • 1.14 .0.1 What is chronic gastritis?
          • What is the role of Helicobacter Pylori in the development of chronic gastritis?
          • What symptoms accompany chronic gastritis?
          • How is chronic gastritis diagnosed?
          • How is chronic gastritis treated?
          • What complications can arise in case of delayed treatment of chronic gastritis?

    Chronic gastritis caused by the bacterium Helicobacter pylori, symptoms and treatment. The importance of timely contacting a doctor to prevent complications. A detailed description of the causes and methods for diagnosing gastritis associated with this bacterium.

    Chronic gastritis is a disease of the stomach that can present with symptoms ranging from mild stomach discomfort to soreness and vomiting. Although gastritis can be caused by many factors, one of the most common causes is the bacterium Helicobacter pylori.
    Helicobacter pylori is a Gram-negative bacterium that can reside in the stomach and cause gastritis, peptic ulcers, and even stomach cancer. Also, its presence in the stomach can lead to a decrease in the protective properties of the gastric mucosa and worsening of digestion.
    In this article we will look at the main symptoms of chronic gastritis, its causes and methods of diagnosis. We will also analyze the main approaches to the treatment of this disease, including the need to treat the bacterium Helicobacter Pylori. However, before starting the treatment of gastritis, it is necessary to undergo an examination and consultation with a specialist.

    Chronic gastritis and Helicobacter Pylori

    Chronic gastritis is a common disease of the gastric mucosa. One of the reasons for the development of chronic gastritis is the presence of the bacterium Helicobacter Pylori. This bacterium can enter the stomach through the digestive system and cause inflammation of the mucous membrane.

    Symptoms of chronic gastritis caused by the bacterium Helicobacter pylori include stomach pain, nausea, vomiting, dyspepsia and bloating. Often, patients also report morning stomach pains that improve after eating.

    Treatment of chronic gastritis caused by the bacterium Helicobacter pylori involves the use of antibiotics in combination with anti-inflammatory drugs. The course of treatment may vary depending on the type of bacteria and the degree of damage to the mucous membrane.

    • Early treatment of chronic gastritis caused by the bacterium Helicobacter pylori helps prevent stomach ulcers and stomach cancer risk;
    • For the prevention of the disease, it is necessary to observe hygiene measures for hand hygiene, proper eating habits and avoid alcohol and smoking;
    • Occasionally, moderate physical activity can help reduce the risk of chronic gastritis caused by the bacterium Helicobacter pylori.

    What is chronic gastritis and Helicobacter Pylori?

    Chronic gastritis

    Chronic gastritis is an inflammatory disease of the gastric mucosa that occurs when cells of the gastric mucosa are damaged or due to indigestion. Chronic gastritis may be asymptomatic, but may also present with the following symptoms: nausea, bloating, stomach pain, and other manifestations of dyspepsia.

    Helicobacter Pylori

    The bacterium Helicobacter pylori is a gram-negative, spiral-shaped microorganism that can reside in the stomach and cause chronic gastritis, peptic ulcers of the stomach and duodenum. It sets itself up on the gastric mucosa and damages the epithelium and blocks the secretion of hydrochloric acid, which causes gastrointestinal upset. Helicobacter pylori is spread through contact with infected people or contaminated food and water.

    Causes of chronic gastritis and Helicobacter Pylori

    Chronic gastritis is an inflammatory disease of the stomach that can lead to the development of peptic ulcers and even stomach cancer. One of the main risk factors for the development of chronic gastritis is the bacterium Helicobacter pylori.

    In addition to Helicobacter pylori, other factors such as unhealthy diet, alcohol and smoking, stress and genetic predisposition can also influence the development of chronic gastritis.

    1. Unhealthy diet: Eating fatty, spicy, salty and canned foods, and not eating regularly can increase the risk of developing chronic gastritis.
    2. Drinking alcohol and smoking: these bad habits can damage the stomach lining and increase the effect of Helicobacter pylori.
    3. Stress: emotional stress can increase stomach acid levels and increase the symptoms of chronic gastritis.
    4. Genetic predisposition: The presence of a genetic predisposition may increase the risk of developing chronic gastritis.

    Symptoms of chronic gastritis and Helicobacter Pylori infection

    Chronic gastritis is mainly manifested by a painful feeling in the stomach, which worsens after eating. There may also be a feeling of heaviness and loss of appetite.

    Helicobacter pylori infection can cause stomach discomfort such as a bitter taste in the mouth, belching, nausea, and epigastric pain.

    When both problems are present, the symptoms increase, there is a change in taste, dyspepsia and soreness in digestion.

    However, there is a possibility that Helicobacter pylori infection may be asymptomatic, so the decision to conduct a diagnosis should be made on the basis of consultation with a doctor and examination.

    • pain in stomach;
    • pinching in the epigastric region;
    • change in appetite;
    • belching;
    • nausea;

    In chronic gastritis, symptoms may be more pronounced in the morning and worsen during the day, and in Helicobacter Pylori infection, they may appear after eating, especially those rich in fat.

    Diagnosis of chronic gastritis and Helicobacter pylori bacteria: how to make a diagnosis?

    Clinical manifestations of chronic gastritis and Helicobacter Pylori

    Chronic gastritis is a disease that can occur without symptoms, but many patients may experience various complaints:

    • epigastric pain and discomfort;
    • heartburn and belching;
    • increased gas and bloating;
    • loss of appetite and weight loss;
    • nausea and vomiting.

    However, the presence of these symptoms does not always indicate the presence of chronic gastritis and Helicobacter Pylori. Therefore, it is necessary to conduct an examination of the patient.

    Diagnostic tests

    Chronic gastritis and Helicobacter Pylori diagnostic tests include the following:

    • gastroscopy – allows you to directly visualize the gastric mucosa and take a biopsy for further research
    • urease test – is carried out on the basis of the fact that the bacterium Helicobacter Pylori releases urease into the environment, which makes it possible to detect its presence in biopsy specimens or in gastric lavages
    • study of stomach acidity – performed to assess the functional state of the stomach and detect acidity disorders

    Laboratory diagnostic methods

    Laboratory methods for diagnosing chronic gastritis and Helicobacter Pylori include:

    • blood test for antibodies to Helicobacter Pylori – detects the presence of bacteria in the body, but is not always a definitive method, since antibodies can remain in the blood after the infection has been cured
    • fecal antigen for Helicobacter Pylori – allows you to determine the presence of bacteria in the intestine and detect infection

    The role of research in the diagnosis of chronic gastritis and Helicobacter Pylori infection

    Chronic gastritis is a disease that can be caused by various factors. Helicobacter pylori infection is one of the main causes of this disease. For the successful diagnosis of a possible infection, as well as determining the degree of development of gastritis and an individual approach to treatment, it is necessary to conduct research.

    • Examination of the stomach. This study allows the doctor to see possible changes in the structure of the gastric wall, to find out the presence of an ulcer or tumor, and also to determine the nature of the digestive system.
    • Gastroduodenoscopy. This study allows you to examine the gastric wall in more detail, determine the presence of inflammation and ulcers.
    • Breath test for Helicobacter Pylori. This test allows you to determine the presence of the bacterium Helicobacter Pylori in the patient’s body and evaluate the effectiveness of the treatment.
    • Helicobacter pylori antibody blood test. This test is performed to determine the presence of antibodies to the bacterium Helicobacter Pylori in the patient’s blood. It can be positive both in the case of active infection and after treatment.
    • Histological examination of a biopsy of the gastric mucosa. Allows you to determine the degree of inflammation of the gastric mucosa and the presence of pathological changes in possible diseases.

    In general, tests are a necessary step in the diagnosis of chronic gastritis and Helicobacter Pylori infection. Conducting all the necessary studies will help determine the causes of the disease, assess the degree of development and choose the most effective method of treatment.

    How is chronic gastritis and Helicobacter pylori infection treated?

    Chronic gastritis with Helicobacter pylori infection is treated in combination with antibiotic therapy and agents that protect the gastric mucosa.

    The selection of treatment and dosages is carried out individually, depending on the degree of damage to the mucous membrane of the stomach and intestines, the symptoms of the disease, the age of the patient and the presence of his concomitant diseases.

    • Antibacterial therapy is carried out in a course of two weeks. All drugs are taken strictly according to the doctor’s prescription.
    • Gastric protectants help reduce acidity and protect the stomach wall from the aggressive effects of gastric juices. These drugs are used in a course for one to two months.
    • After treatment, it is necessary to monitor the condition of the gastric mucosa and conduct additional studies, if necessary.

    Often, with chronic gastritis, in addition to competent treatment, it is necessary to lead a healthy lifestyle, avoid stress, smoking, alcohol and take care of proper nutrition. This will help you get rid of the disease faster and reduce the risk of its recurrence in the future.

    Measures to prevent chronic gastritis and Helicobacter Pylori infection

    Chronic gastritis and Helicobacter Pylori infection can be prevented by taking certain preventive measures.

    • Follow a healthy diet. Avoid spicy and fatty foods, smoking and drinking alcohol as they increase the risk of gastritis and Helicobacter pylori infection.
    • Wash your hands regularly. Helicobacter pylori infection is transmitted through food, water and dirty hands, so it is important to practice good hygiene and wash your hands before eating and after visiting public places.
    • Avoid contact with people who have Helicobacter pylori infection. If there is contact with an infected person, then it is better to carry out disinfection procedures for kitchen utensils and utensils.
    • Take regular health care steps. Boost your immune system as this will help fight many infectious diseases, including Helicobacter Pylori infection.

    By following prevention guidelines and making sure you don’t have Helicobacter Pylori infection, chronic gastritis and its complications can be prevented.

    Possible complications of chronic gastritis and Helicobacter Pylori infection

    Untimely or incorrect treatment of gastritis caused by Helicobacter pylori infection can lead to the development of serious complications that will greatly affect the patient’s quality of life.

    • Gastric or duodenal ulcer is the most common complication of Helicobacter pylori infection. It occurs due to damage to the mucous membrane of the gastrointestinal tract, which ceases to protect against acid exposure. An ulcer can be a disease that is common to any age and leads to bleeding, perforation and other unpleasant consequences.
    • Gastroesophageal reflux – may also occur with chronic gastritis and Helicobacter pylori infection. This is a pathological condition in which food and gastric juice from the stomach rises into the esophagus, causing burns and pain. In severe cases, it can lead to the development of esophageal cancer.
    • Malabsorption syndrome – may occur due to impaired digestion and absorption of food caused by infection with Helicobacter pylori and prolonged gastritis. It manifests itself in the form of a violation of the absorption of fats, proteins, carbohydrates and vitamins, which leads to a weakening of the body and the development of various diseases.

    It should be remembered that the complications of chronic gastritis and Helicobacter Pylori infection can be very serious and dangerous to health. Therefore, a timely visit to a doctor and proper treatment is necessary.

    Differences between chronic gastritis and gastric ulcer caused by Helicobacter Pylori

    Chronic gastritis

    Chronic gastritis is an inflammatory disease of the gastric mucosa that may occur without symptoms or be accompanied by a feeling of heaviness and pain in the upper abdomen. It can have a variety of causes, including stomach defenses, immune disorders, and infections such as Helicobacter pylori.

    Chronic gastritis can lead to digestive problems, lack of appetite and constant fatigue. Some people may also experience nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea.

    Helicobacter pylori gastric ulcer

    Gastric ulcer is a deep ulcer in the gastric mucosa that is often caused by infection with the bacterium Helicobacter pylori. An ulcer can also occur from the use of certain medications, such as aspirin and NSAIDs.

    Chronic gastritis Gastric ulcer due to Helicobacter pylori

    Inflammation of the gastric mucosa Ulcer in the gastric mucosa
    May be symptomatic or without symptoms Often accompanied by burning in the chest and pain in the upper abdomen
    May have various causes, including Helicobacter Pylori infections Often caused by Helicobacter Pylori infection or drug use

    Exclusion of foods from the diet in chronic gastritis and Helicobacter Pylori infection

    In chronic gastritis and Helicobacter Pylori infection, foods that can increase the acidity of the stomach and mucous membranes should be excluded from the diet.

    These foods include: spicy and fatty foods, chicken and pork, fatty fish, raw vegetables and fruits, coffee, alcoholic beverages, chocolate, cranberries, and many others.

    Exclusion of such products from the diet will reduce the load on the stomach and facilitate the work of the digestive organ. It is also very important to monitor the diet, adhere to the correct time intervals between meals and not overeat.

    Instead of forbidden foods in the diet, it is recommended to increase the amount of vegetables and fruits, lean meat, fish, boiled porridge, jelly and natural yoghurts. It is also helpful to drink non-carbonated mineral water and herbal teas that soothe the stomach, such as lemon balm, chamomile, and ginger.

    Maintaining a Healthy Stomach: Preventing Gastritis and Helicobacter Pylori Infection

    Chronic gastritis and Helicobacter Pylori infection can be a serious health problem, but there are several ways to maintain a healthy stomach and avoid these diseases.

    Prevention of gastritis

    • Avoid smoking and drinking alcohol as this may increase the risk of gastritis.
    • Watch your diet, include vegetables, fruits, protein and complex carbohydrates.
    • Avoid overeating and fatty, spicy, smoked and canned foods.
    • Eat slowly, chew your food thoroughly, and don’t eat on the go.
    • Do not take essential medicines on an empty stomach and do not overuse medicines that can irritate the stomach lining.

    Prevention of Helicobacter Pylori infection

    • Practice good hygiene, wash your hands thoroughly and do not share other people’s plates, glasses or utensils.
    • Avoid contact with infected people and do not go to public places when the infection is high.
    • Monitor the quality of drinking water and food, avoid eating raw fish and meat.

    Remember that prevention is the best way to avoid a problem. However, if you develop symptoms of gastritis or a Helicobacter pylori infection, contact your doctor immediately and follow his recommendations for diagnosis and treatment.

    Related videos:


    What is chronic gastritis?

    Chronic gastritis is an inflammatory disease of the gastric mucosa that lasts for a long time and can lead to the development of ulcers or even gastric cancer.

    What is the role of Helicobacter Pylori in the development of chronic gastritis?

    Helicobacter pylori is the main cause of chronic gastritis. This bacterium inhabits the gastric mucosa and penetrates the protective mucus layer, resulting in inflammation and damage to the mucosa.

    What symptoms accompany chronic gastritis?

    Symptoms of chronic gastritis include: pain and discomfort in the abdomen, heartburn, belching, nausea, vomiting, anemia, loss of appetite and weight, decreased energy.

    How is chronic gastritis diagnosed?

    To diagnose chronic gastritis, methods such as endoscopy, a biopsy of the gastric mucosa, a blood test for the presence of antibodies to the bacterium Helicobacter Pylori are used.

    How is chronic gastritis treated?

    The treatment of chronic gastritis depends on its form and cause. Commonly prescribed drugs to reduce the acidity of the stomach, antibiotics to kill Helicobacter pylori bacteria, and a diet that limits the consumption of spicy, fatty and acidic foods.

    What complications can arise in case of delayed treatment of chronic gastritis?

    Delayed treatment of chronic gastritis can lead to the development of stomach ulcers, stomach cancer, stomach bleeding, anemia, damage to the esophagus, etc.

    Gastritis of the stomach: symptoms and signs, causes, treatment and prevention

    What is it

    Gastritis – translated from Latin -gaster stomach + suffix -itis – inflammation. In Russian – gastritis. It occurs with the gastric mucosa and leads to disruption of its work, changes in the wall and serious complications.

    The stomach is an amazing organ. It produces up to two to three liters of hydrochloric acid per day. With the work of his muscles, he grinds, grinds food. It is far from sterile, so it is decontaminated in the acidic environment of the stomach. It may seem strange that this environment does not corrode him from the inside. Here’s how it works.

    All because of the balance of aggressive and protective factors of the stomach. His friends include cells that secrete mucus and bicarbonate – in a simple way, soda. These substances create a layer between the mucous membrane and the acid in the stomach cavity. This barrier protects the stomach from damage. In the cavity of the stomach, the environment is sharply acidic, and under the layer of mucus, the environment is already neutral. Further along the path of the acid, cells line up that do not allow the acid to be absorbed into the thickness of the wall. It is also important to note the high restorative activity of the stomach – the cells of the mucosa are completely renewed in 2-7 days. This is directly related to the blood supply to the stomach wall. The blood, rich in oxygen and nutrients, supplies the mucosa with everything necessary and keeps it in a healthy state.

    A hydrochloric acid, stress, alcohol, smoking, infections, frequent snacking, coarse spicy foods are factors that undermine the healthy functioning of the stomach. As long as the defense mechanisms and factors of aggression are in balance, the body has time to recover – but this cannot go on forever. Sooner or later, compensatory mechanisms fail, the cup with aggressive factors outweighs – symptoms appear, the disease debuts.

    A person complains of pain in the upper abdomen, heaviness after eating, impaired stool, more often in the form of constipation, heartburn, sour eructation. General symptoms are added to the symptoms of damage to the gastrointestinal tract: a person becomes irritable, feels weak, and a decrease in interest in life.

    “In the CIS countries, it is still believed that gastritis is manifested by pain,” says Lahta Clinic gastroenterologist Sergey Medvedko . – In fact, this is an absolutely asymptomatic disease, since there are no pain receptors in the mucous membrane. In most cases, pain or a feeling of fullness is functional dyspepsia, a completely different disease.

    1. What is the usual reason

    Back in the middle of the nineteenth century, doctors were looking for the cause of gastritis. For a long time, the theory of increased stomach acid formation was dominant. In the 80s of the last century, two Australian scientists – Robin Warren and Barry Marshall, examining people with gastritis, isolated a spiral-shaped bacterium – Helicobacter pylori . To confirm her involvement in the occurrence of the infection, Barry Marshall took a desperate step – an experiment with self-infection. He drank a culture of Helicobacter pylori, , after which the scientist developed gastritis. For their work in 2006 they were awarded the Nobel Prize.

    Initially, the idea that Helicobacter pylori, causes gastritis met with a wave of resistance, denial, and even the selfless experience of the experimenter did not remove the questions. People were sure that the environment of the stomach was sterile, that not a single microorganism could survive in hydrochloric acid.

    But it turned out that Helicobacter pylori is adapted to life in such difficult conditions. It secretes a special enzyme – urease, which creates a cloud of ammonia around the bacterium, enveloping and protecting Helicobacter. The acid is neutralized by this protective cloud. In addition, ammonia itself directly negatively affects the gastric mucosa, damages it.

    Next, the bacterium wants to settle down, gain a foothold on the mucous membrane – for this it penetrates into the upper layer of the stomach wall – the epithelium, as if by a drill, penetrates into its thickness, from which the cells of the mucous membrane are damaged and local inflammation occurs, up to cell death.

    In addition, Helicobacter releases substances, waste products, toxins that damage cells, cause inflammation and poison the body.

    In itself, the detection of Helicobacter pylori in the stomach does not always indicate that the bacterium was the cause of the disease. In absolutely healthy people who are not susceptible at the gene level to Helicobacter pylori, this pathogen is found. But it is not able to attach to the wall of the stomach and form colonies in it, damage and even more so destroy cells. Just a random passenger who does not require attention. For diagnosis – gastritis caused by Helicobacter pylori, , in addition to isolating the pathogen, the doctor must find changes in the stomach tissues during endoscopic and histological studies.

    In patients with gastritis, gastric and duodenal ulcers, up to 90% of cases are detected Helicobacter pylori . The remaining 9.9% are gastritis caused by other causes. And this one-tenth of a percent includes the lucky ones who are not susceptible to this microorganism.

    Other risk factors

    Alcohol is caustic. It irritates the stomach lining and stimulates excess acid production. And if a person abuses alcohol, his behavior and discipline are disturbed. Even if he is prescribed good drugs, between a bottle of vodka and a pack of antibiotics, he will choose an antibiotic, but only once. Having decided that this treatment is over, the next choice will be obvious. Moreover, alcohol is incompatible with most drugs for the treatment of gastritis.

    Nicotine , which enters the body, regardless of the type of delivery, be it hookah, cigarettes or electronic analogues, is similar to the body’s nervous system mediator – acetylcholine, which is responsible for many reactions: heart palpitations, pupil dilation, increased salivation. In particular, it triggers the production of hydrochloric acid by the stomach.

    “Smoking and alcohol are the enemies of the stomach, even if there are no diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, these habits should be excluded,” emphasizes Sergey Medvedko .

    Each smoking session is perceived by the body as a meal, a cascade of physiological reactions is triggered – the release of saliva to wet the food bolus, the release of enzymes involved in digestion, and finally, hydrochloric acid is released. But there is one caveat – food is not supplied, the body is working in vain, so the acid acts on an empty stomach.

    Smoking has been shown to reduce bicarbonate excretion – the protective buffer between the stomach and acid is reduced.

    All this leads to damage to the mucosa and can lead to serious consequences.

    Japanese researchers have found that smokers are twice as likely to develop ulcers than non-smokers.

    We must not forget about stress . Although it seems insignificant and far-fetched – “there is a plug in every barrel.” Nevertheless, it makes a significant contribution to the development of gastritis.

    The scientist Hans Selye was the first to introduce the concept of “stress” into medicine. A person responds in the same way to any situation. First comes the phase of anxiety, the primary affect, the reaction called “fight and flight” by physiologists. Adrenaline and cortisol are released into the blood, the body mobilizes all the forces to respond to the stimulus – students prepare for the exam on sleepless nights, but they come to the test as cheerful as cucumbers. Then comes the phase of stability – adaptation to stress comes: the exam is passed.

    But it happens when stress becomes chronic, maladaptation sets in, a phase of exhaustion – the body’s forces are exhausted due to the constant impact of a problem that cannot be solved. Stress hormones lead to a deterioration in tissue healing, worsen the blood supply to the stomach, lead to an outweighing of protein breakdown over synthesis, no protein – no building materials for cells – no strength to restore the mucosa.

    The scientist found that in this case, the tissue of the adrenal glands grows, the number of immune cells in the blood decreases, and ulcers form along the gastrointestinal tract – these changes were called the “Selye Triad”.

    An example of such a development of events is patients in the intensive care unit who, in addition to the main disease, which is severe, develop ulcers of the stomach, duodenum and further along the intestine.

    We must not forget about the toxic effect of some drugs. Uncontrolled use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs – painkillers – leads to the formation of stress ulcers. This is due to the fact that pain, inflammation, swelling and spasm develop under the action of a special enzyme from the cyclooxygenase class. Conventional anti-inflammatory drugs block all types of this enzyme. Yes, analgesics relieve pain, but in addition they turn off the enzymes that are responsible for the regenerative abilities of the gastric mucosa – ulcers form. We have already talked about the choice of anti-inflammatory drugs in detail.

    Scientists have established a connection between inflammation of the stomach and taking antidepressants, namely a group of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. In synergy with Helicobacter or NSAIDs, the risk of bleeding is doubled.

    Gastritis is called a disease of students for a reason. Improper nutrition leaves its mark on the health of the stomach and the body as a whole. So a jumping daily routine, occasional snacks, frequent overeating or vice versa, dissatisfaction with hunger, addiction to very hot food – for example, burning tea, or cold food – ice cream, an unbalanced diet – all this has a bad effect on the stomach, causes mechanical irritation, disrupts well-functioning work, leads to inflammation and ulceration.

    A study was conducted at Izhevsk Medical University, which showed that eating in eateries, eating dry food led twice as many students to gastritis than those who had a balanced diet – 38.7% versus 23.8%, respectively.

    It happens that reflux gastritis develops after an operation to remove the stomach. The contents of the duodenum are thrown into the stump of the stomach and cause the degeneration of its mucosa into the intestinal epithelium – scientifically – “intestinal metaplasia”. But the intestinal epithelium is not designed to cope with acid, gastritis, ulcers and other complications quickly occur.

    Why is it dangerous

    One of the terrible complications of long-term gastritis is a stomach ulcer. This is a mucosal defect that penetrates the thickness of the stomach wall, the acid affects not only the epithelium, but also muscle fibers and blood vessels. Because of this, the risk of bleeding from an ulcer increases – and this is a life-threatening condition.

    The body is trying to patch up the gap, close the defect in the gastric mucosa. Cells actively divide, grow, and acid, Helicobacter and other risk factors kill them again. These processes lead first to cellular degeneration, the appearance of atypical cells, and then to malignancy – the transition to cancer. This process is called the Correa cascade: gastritis – atrophy – intestinal metaplasia – dysplasia – adenocarcinoma. Studies have shown that stomach cancer develops in 3-4% of people who are infected with Helicobacter pylori. Those who were not infected did not develop cancer.

    “The main task pursued by a doctor when prescribing anti-Helicobacter pylori treatment is to prevent cancer, to deliver a preventive blow that will not allow cells to degenerate into malignant ones,” explains candidate of medical sciences, GMS Clinic gastroenterologist Andrey Farber . Planned treatment is necessary for everyone who has Helicobacter pylori ”.

    Also, the stomach is actively involved in the absorption of iron, the absorption of vitamin B 12, which are involved in hematopoiesis, and the proper maturation of red blood cells. Cells in the stomach produce an enzyme that protects vitamin B-12 from acid attack and promotes its absorption in the small intestine. And the iron that comes with food becomes active in the acidic environment of the stomach, and is more easily absorbed by the body. Due to inflammation during gastritis, these processes are disrupted, there is a lack of elements for the growth of red blood cells and other blood cells – anemia or anemia develops.

    How to prevent

    When a patient visits a doctor, the main task of the clinician is to find the cause, to figure out why certain complaints appeared. In the case of gastritis, doctors resort to the tactic “test-and-treat” , that is, diagnose and treat. The doctor will find the culprit and apply the best tactics.

    Most often, a gastroenterologist deals with Helicobacter pylori, after tests that confirm the infection, treatment is prescribed. It has been proven that after expulsion – “eradication” of bacteria from the digestive tract, the development of gastric cancer was 0% after a ten-year observation, while in infected patients, gastritis degenerated into cancer in 4% of cases.

    “Helicobacter pylori eradication is carried out in a planned manner. Absolute indications for treatment are peptic ulcer, MALT-lymphoma, burdened heredity for gastric cancer and the need for long-term prescription of NSAIDs and drugs that reduce acid production, ”emphasizes Sergey Medvedko .

    MALT lymphoma is a malignant cancer. derived from lymphoid tissue. Infection with Helicobacter pylori results in a cross-over immune response against one’s own cells instead of removing the bacterium. These disorders lead to rebirth, lymphoma occurs. For its reverse development, there is nothing better than to remove Helicobacter pylori, is more effective and less dangerous than surgical treatments.

    We must not forget about family members who can also be infected with Helicobacter pylori. The whole family should be tested for the infection and, if the result is positive, be treated.

    “Most often the patient does not live alone, there are close relatives. A husband has a wife, and a wife has a husband. These are people who have the closest contact with each other, which means that the risk of infection with Helicobacter pylori is extremely high for them, says Andrey Farber . It is necessary to treat both spouses, even if the second does not have any symptoms, otherwise there will be no point in treatment.”

    No less important aspect in the prevention of gastritis is nutrition. Its main principle is the balance of proteins, fats and carbohydrates. If possible, you should avoid the systematic use of fried, salty, spicy, various sodas. Yes, nothing will happen with a one-time violation, but constant eating of fast food will not lead to good things. According to Sergei Medvedko, gastritis does not arise from food, and a full-fledged diet of the Mediterranean type is enough to maintain health, since modern gastroenterologists rarely prescribe diets, if they do. We have already written about this in more detail.

    “Moms are absolutely right not to buy chips, crackers, snacks and soda for their children at every whim. When eating such foods that contain a lot of dyes, flavor enhancers, preservatives, pathological processes in the stomach accelerate, especially in childhood, notes Andrey Farber . It is necessary to cultivate a culture of nutrition, these products exacerbate diseases of the stomach and intestines.”

    Important to remember

    • More than half of adults live with symptoms of gastritis, but only 5% seek medical help
    • In the first place among the causes of gastritis is Helicobacter pylori infection, up to 60% of the Russian population is a carrier of this bacterium
    • Gastritis is a harbinger of serious complications. It can develop into a stomach or duodenal ulcer. Often leads to B-12 deficiency anemia. A neglected state threatens to degenerate into stomach cancer
    • Anti-inflammatory and antipyretic drugs should be chosen according to our recommendations – many of these drugs are dangerous for the stomach
    • Action plan: if similar complaints appear, go to an appointment with a general practitioner or gastroenterologist who will prescribe an examination and treatment.