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Inflamed chest bone: Costochondritis – Symptoms and causes


Rheumatoid Arthritis, Chest and Rib Pain: What Is Costochondritis?| EverydayHealth

Costochondritis is caused by inflammation of the cartilage that connects your breastbone, also known as your sternum, to your ribs. The pain associated with this condition can closely mimic a heart attack or other cardiac problems, but research published in the German journal Der Internist suggests that as many as 50 percent of all chest pains are caused by musculoskeletal disorders.

RELATED: What Does Arthritis Pain Feel Like?

Common Causes of Costochondritis

There are rubbery segments of cartilage — called costosternal joints — that attach the ribs to the breastbone, and chest pain can occur when the cartilage in those joints gets inflamed. “Costochondritis is typically a result of some sort of mechanical stress, like you coughed too hard or you reached too far and pulled something,” says Harry L. Gewanter, MD, a pediatric rheumatologist in Richmond, Virginia. For example, chest pain symptoms could occur after you physically strain yourself moving furniture. While these symptoms can be extremely painful, the condition is not life-threatening.

Sharp Pain and Pressure: Costochondritis Symptoms Can Be Scary

The hallmark symptom of costochondritis is pain in the chest wall of varying intensity, and it tends to be described as “sharp,” “aching,” or “pressure-like,” according to research published in the journal American Family Physician. The pain can become even worse with upper body movement or by breathing deeply, since it involves joints that flex when you inhale. Although the second to fifth costochondral joints of the ribs are most frequently affected — and especially ribs three and four — it can impact any of the seven rib junctions. Pain can take place in multiple sites, but it’s most frequently unilateral, which means it takes place on only one side of the body. “It can feel like someone stuck a knife in you, and it can take your breath away,” says Dr. Gewanter.

RELATED: Do Your Chest and Ribs Hurt? The Culprit Could Be Psoriatic Arthritis

Naturally, intense symptoms can be scary, as Kelly O’Neill describes in her blog, Rheumatoid Arthritis Warrior. This is especially the case if you don’t understand the cause or haven’t experienced it before. But there’s a good chance that the cause behind the pain isn’t serious.

Recognizing and Diagnosing Costochondritis

X-rays don’t show soft tissue well and there’s not a blood test for it, so costochondritis is typically diagnosed by a doctor through a physical exam. Older adults experiencing these symptoms may need to get an EKG to rule out the possibility of cardiac problems.

RELATED: Mystery Symptoms That Could Be Rheumatoid Arthritis

According to Costochondritis, StatPearls medical education book published in January 2021, “The most important part of the diagnosis of costochondritis is ensuring other, more deadly causes of chest pain have been ruled out. ” These can include acute coronary syndrome, pneumothorax, pneumonia, aortic dissection, pulmonary embolism, or an esophageal perforation.

The Costochondritis–Rheumatoid Arthritis Connection

Costochondritis isn’t directly related to RA, but inflammation from RA can be a reason for damage to the rib cartilage. “Costochondritis also happens in people with rheumatic diseases because their joints aren’t working properly, so they can move the wrong way and tweak their bodies even further,” says Gewanter. “It’s a biomechanical issue, and it can become a house of cards.”

While the chest pain may be related to an inflammatory disease, such as rheumatoid arthritis or ankylosing spondylitis, it can also be partially caused by noninflammatory conditions, such as fibromyalgia.

Costochondritis Is Not the Same as Tietze Syndrome

Costochondritis is often confused with Tietze syndrome, a similar but less common disorder that typically involves swelling of the second or third rib that can last for months. According to the American Family Physican review, Tietze syndrome typically affects people who are younger than 40 and is considered rare, while costochondritis is more common and can affect children, teens, and adults, says Gewanter. In fact, he says, “the rib cages of kids are extra flexible, so that increases the opportunity to irritate the costochondral junctions.” Local swelling is typically present with Tietze’s, while it is not with costochondritis, though the RA advocate O’Neill notes inconspicuous swelling with her costochondritis. “In reality, whatever you want to call it, both conditions are treated in essentially the same way,” says Gewanter. Tietze syndrome can subside without treatment, but over-the-counter pain medication may be used.

How Costochondritis Chest Pain Is Treated

Treatment typically takes the form of oral pain relievers — typically either Tylenol (acetaminophen) or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), such as Advil or Motrin (ibuprofen). Ice or heating pads can help, says Gewanter, as can minimizing activities that provoke your symptoms. Cough suppressants can also help reduce discomfort, and sometimes physical therapy is used to help diminish soreness.

Easing Pain and Other Symptoms of Costochondritis

Some people find relief by splinting the chest using an Ace wrap or something similar to try to minimize chest movement, he says. “But there really is no great way to treat it, outside of time,” says Gewanter.

RELATED: Home Remedies and Alternative Treatments for Rheumatoid Arthritis

There’s also no real way of knowing how long the pain will last, though the American Family Physician report says that it can last from weeks to months, though for some it may last for a year. “Patients with costochondritis should be educated and reassured that this is a benign condition that will eventually resolve itself,” the journal states, sometimes without any treatment at all.

Causes and when to see a doctor

Sternum pain is pain or discomfort in the area of the chest that contains the sternum and the cartilage connecting it to the ribs. The sternum is located near the heart, so many people experiencing sternum pain may confuse it with more general chest pain.

Some people experiencing sternum pain worry they may be having a heart attack. However, in most cases, sternum pain is unrelated to the heart and caused primarily due to problems with the sternum itself or the nearby cartilage.

In this article, learn about the causes of sternum pain and the differences between sternum pain and heart problems.

The sternum is sometimes known as the breastbone. This flat bone sits at the front of the chest and connects to the ribs with cartilage.

The sternum is part of the rib cage, a series of bones that protects the heart and lungs from injuries.

Share on PinterestThe sternum is located at the front of the chest and is connected to the ribs.

Sternum pain is usually caused by problems with the muscles and bones near the sternum and not the sternum itself.

Pain felt just behind or below the sternum is called substernal pain and is sometimes caused by gastrointestinal problems.

Some of the most common causes of sternum and substernal pain are:


Costochondritis is the most common cause of sternum pain and occurs when the cartilage between the sternum and ribs becomes inflamed and irritated.

Costochondritis can sometimes occur as the result of osteoarthritis but may also happen for no apparent reason.

The symptoms of costochondritis include:

  • sharp pain on the side of the sternum area
  • pain that worsens with a deep breath or a cough
  • discomfort in the ribs

Costochondritis is usually not a cause for concern. However, people experiencing symptoms of costochondritis may want to consult a doctor if their symptoms worsen or do not go away.

Sternoclavicular joint injury

The sternoclavicular joint connects the top of the sternum to the collarbone. Injuries to this joint generally cause pain and discomfort at the top of the sternum in the upper chest area.

People experiencing sternum pain due to a sternoclavicular joint injury will often experience the following:

  • mild pain or swelling in the upper chest area
  • difficulty or pain when moving the shoulder
  • popping or clicking around the joint

Collarbone injuries

Share on PinterestCollarbone injuries may lead to long-lasting pain or limited movement in the shoulder and upper chest.

While the collarbone itself is not part of the sternum, it is connected to the sternum by cartilage. Injuries to the collarbone may cause pain in the sternum area.

Collarbone injuries are often the result of trauma, such as a car accident or sports injury, although infections or arthritis can also cause them.

Symptoms of a collarbone injury include:

  • severe pain when raising the arm
  • bruising or swelling in the upper chest area
  • abnormal positioning or sagging of the shoulder
  • clicking and grinding in the shoulder joint


Hernias may not be an obvious cause of pain near the chest. However, a hiatal hernia may cause substernal pain.

A hiatal hernia happens when the stomach moves out of its normal position up past the diaphragm and into the chest. Symptoms of a hiatal hernia include:

  • frequent burping
  • heartburn
  • vomiting blood
  • a feeling of fullness
  • trouble swallowing

People with substernal pain and symptoms of a hiatal hernia should see a doctor for prompt treatment.

Sternum fracture

Like a fracture in other parts of the body, sternum fractures can cause a lot of pain. Sternum fractures usually occur as a direct result of trauma, such as a car accident or sports injury.

People who believe they may have a sternum fracture should seek immediate medical attention, as the heart and lungs may also be injured.

Symptoms of a sternum fracture include:

  • pain during inhaling or coughing
  • swelling over the sternum
  • difficulty breathing

Acid reflux or GERD

Acid reflux happens when stomach acid wears away the lining of the windpipe (esophagus). This happens primarily in people with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD).

Acid reflux may cause substernal pain and discomfort in the chest and is generally accompanied by a burning feeling.

Pain in this region can also be caused by inflammation or a spasm of the windpipe. People with GERD should talk to their doctor about how to prevent further damage to this area.

Muscular strain or bruise

The sternum and ribs have many muscles attached to them. These muscles can be pulled or strained by severe coughing or strenuous activity involving the arms or torso.

Injuries or trauma can result in bruising to these muscles, which may cause them to ache.

Share on PinterestSternum pain is usually caused by muscles or bones surrounding the sternum.

Symptoms of sternum pain vary depending on the cause. The most common symptom is discomfort and pain in the center of the chest, which is the location of the sternum.

Other associated symptoms may include:

  • pain or discomfort in the ribs
  • pain that worsens during deep breathing or coughing
  • mild, aching pain in the upper chest
  • swelling in the upper chest
  • stiffness in the shoulder joints
  • severe pain when raising the arms
  • signs of collarbone trauma, such as bruising or swelling
  • difficulty breathing
  • grinding or popping sensation in joints near the sternum
  • frequent belching
  • heartburn
  • feeling too full
  • throwing up blood

Sternum pain vs.

heart attack

People experiencing any kind of chest pain may worry they are having a heart attack. However, sternum pain differs from heart attack pain.

People who are having a heart attack experience specific signs before the heart attack itself, whereas most sternum pain starts suddenly.

A heart attack also occurs with the following symptoms:

  • pressure, squeezing, or fullness in the center of the chest
  • sweating
  • nausea
  • shortness of breath
  • lightheadedness

However, anyone who thinks they are having a heart attack should seek immediate medical attention.

While sternum pain is not usually serious, there are some causes of sternum pain that require immediate medical attention.

A person should seek emergency medical attention if the pain:

  • started as a result of direct trauma
  • is accompanied by heart attack symptoms
  • is persistent and does not improve over time
  • is accompanied by intense vomiting or vomiting blood

A person should also speak to a doctor if the pain in their sternum gets worse or does not improve over time.

Read the article in Spanish.

Tietze Syndrome – NORD (National Organization for Rare Disorders)

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Gijsbers E, Knaap SFC. Clinical presentation and chiropractic treatment of Tietze syndrome: a 34-year-old female with left-sided chest pain. J Chiropr Med. 2011;10:60-63. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3110396/

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Fioravanti A, Tofi C, Volterrani L, Marcolongo R. Malignant lymphoma presenting as Tietze’s syndrome. Arthritis Rheum. 2002;47:229-230. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12115149

Thongngarm T, Lemos LB, Lawhon N, Harisdangkul V, et al. Malignant tumor with chest wall pain mimicking Tietze’s syndrome. Clin Rheumatol. 2001;20:276-78. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11529637

Kamel M, Kotob H. Ultrasonographic assessment of local steroid injection in Tietze’s syndrome. Br J Rheumatol. 1997;36:547-50. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9189056

Costochondritis and Arthritis: Understanding Symptoms and Treatment

If you’re like me, you probably won’t have heard of costochondritis until you or someone you know is diagnosed with it. I speak from experience because costochondritis, an inflammation of the segments of cartilage — called costosternal joints — that connect the ribs to the breastbone, wasn’t even on my radar when I went to the emergency room late one recent night with pain and tightness in my chest.

Turns out I’m far from the first person with costochondritis to show up in the ER thinking they might be having a heart attack. According to one study, 30 percent of patients who went to the ER with chest pain had costochondritis.


Costochondritis and Arthritis: What’s the Link?

Costochondritis is not as common as inflammation in the joints of the hands, elbows, knees, or feet, but if you have inflammatory arthritis like rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, or psoriatic arthritis, you may also be more likely to get costochondritis.

“When you have a condition that predisposes you to inflammation over multiple joints, you have increased susceptibility to developing it,” says Vinicius Domingues, MD, a rheumatologist in Daytona Beach, Florida, and medical advisor for CreakyJoints.

Though costochondritis can happen at any age, it is more common in people over 40 and, like inflammatory arthritis, it affects women more than men — 70 percent versus 30 percent.


Symptoms of Costochondritis

The most common symptom of costochondritis is pain and tenderness in the chest that’s typically described as sharp, aching, or pressure-like.

The ribs and breastbone connect in seven different places and pain can occur at any of them or even at more than one location.   Costochondritis often occurs on just one side and frequently on the left side, which is why it’s often mistaken as a symptom of a heart attack.

One tipoff that it’s not a cardiac event is that your chest is painful to the touch (something that doesn’t happen when you’re having a heart attack). My doctor diagnosed my costochondritis by pressing on my chest, which hurt like hell.

Other clues it’s costochondritis: Pain is often exacerbated by upper body movement and deep breathing, even if it’s just reaching up into a high cupboard or blow-drying your hair (yes, again, I speak from experience). Moving the arm on the affected side will usually also cause pain.

But remember: Any time you experience chest pain, you should seek medical attention. Don’t attempt to assess for yourself whether or not you may be having costochondritis, a heart attack, or something else.


Causes of Costochondritis

If you live with a form of inflammatory arthritis, that may be all it takes for the costochondral joint to become inflamed. Other reasons for costochondritis include:


  • Strain from coughing
  • Injury to your chest
  • Infections, including respiratory tract infections or post-op infections
  • Physical strain from repeated exercise or sudden exertion

According to my doctor it doesn’t take much to develop costochondritis from exertion. Because I developed costochondritis around the holidays, she asked if I’d recently lifted a turkey. I traced it to a vigorous workout on the elliptical machine followed the next day by some strenuous yardwork.


Treatment for Costochondritis

The pain from costochondritis often goes away on its own in a few days or weeks, but it can also take up to a few months or longer. It’s unusual for costochondritis to become chronic, says Dr. Domingues.

Treatment includes rest, ice or moist heat (if you can stand the cold, Dr. Domingues suggests alternating each for 20 minutes a few times a day), and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as ibuprofen, naproxen, and aspirin. Here are answers to common patient questions about taking NSAIDs.

Of course, refrain from any physical activity that makes the pain worse. I found the pain from costochondritis to be exhausting so I laid quietly in bed on my stomach as much as possible (laying on my back seemed to exacerbate the pain). It took about a week for my pain to go away completely. If yours persists, physical therapy and/or steroid injections can help. The good news: By all accounts, these remedies are rarely necessary.


Track Your Arthritis Symptoms

Use our ArthritisPower app to track your symptoms and disease activity and share your results with your doctor. Learn more and sign up here.


Keep Reading


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Costochondritis: Overview and More

Costochondritis is a condition that causes chest pain due to inflammation of the cartilage and bones in the rib cage. Costochondritis pain is the result of inflammation at the junction of the rib bone and breastbone (sternum). At this junction, there is cartilage joining these bones that can become irritated and inflamed.

Depending on the extent of the inflammation, costochondritis can cause pain ranging from mild to severe. Mild costochondritis can manifest with chest tenderness with touch. Severe costochondritis can cause shooting pains down the arms as well as chest pain that is severe enough to affect daily living. Costochondritis can often go away on its own but in some cases require treatment.

Verywell / Gary Ferster


Most people with costochondritis experience pain over the front of the upper chest, around the area of the breastbone. Costochondritis pain is characterized by the following features:

  • It often occurs on the left side of the breastbone.
  • The pain is typically described as sharp, aching, or pressing.
  • It typically affects more than one rib.
  • The discomfort worsens with a deep breath, cough, exercise, or activity.

Because numerous nerve branches extend from the chest, the pain may not only be centered around the breastbone but also radiate to the shoulder, arms, back, or abdomen, especially when coughing. This is referred to as referred or radiating pain.

Symptoms of costochondritis may mimic other conditions, including a heart attack. 

When to Call 911

Seek emergency care if you experience the following symptoms consistent with a heart attack:

  • Uncomfortable pressure, squeezing, fullness, or pain in the center or left side of the chest that lasts for more than a few minutes or that goes away and comes back
  • Pain or discomfort in the jaw, neck, or back
  • Pain or discomfort in one or both arms or shoulders
  • Shortness of breath
  • Dizziness, lightheadedness, or fainting
  • Weakness
  • Nausea or vomiting
  • Cold sweats

Tietze Syndrome 

A related condition called Tietze syndrome causes pain at one rib (usually the second rib) and is often accompanied by redness and swelling. The pain may come on suddenly or gradually and spread to the arms and shoulders. The pain will also worsen with physical activity, sneezing, or coughing.

Tietze syndrome differs from costochondritis because it causes swelling. Furthermore, Tietze syndrome pain will resolve without any treatment, even though the swelling may persist.


Although the exact number of people affected by costochondritis is unknown, some studies suggest that as many as 10% of people will experience musculoskeletal chest pain consistent with costochondritis. It can affect both children and adults and, for reasons unknown, is seen more often in women and Hispanics.

In adults, costochondritis is one of the more common causes of acute chest pain along with chest wall pain and reflux esophagitis, according to a 2013 study in American Family Physician.

It is often difficult to identify a single cause of costochondritis. Some of the conditions associated with costochondritis include:

Because there is a strong connection between inflammation and heart health, people with inflammatory conditions should inform their doctors about any new chest pain.

A 2018 study in Current Pharmaceutical Design reported that heart problems are closely linked to chronic inflammatory disorders and are today the leading cause of death in people with inflammatory joint disease. 


A doctor or emergency room physician will perform a physical exam before making a diagnosis. They will ask about symptoms and family history. The doctor will also access pain levels by pressing on the rib cage and look for other signs of inflammation or infection. 

X-rays and blood work will be ordered to rule out other possible causes for your symptoms. If there are abnormal cardiac signs or respiratory symptoms, the doctor may also request an electrocardiogram (ECG) or chest X-ray to look for heart disease or a lung infection like pneumonia.


Costochondritis usually goes away on its own, but symptoms may last for weeks or months in some people. Treatment typically focuses on pain relief.  Costochondritis usually responds well to some simple interventions, including: 

  • Rest: To decrease the inflammation, you will need to avoid activities that cause pain and exacerbation of costochondritis symptoms. Exercise, deep breathing, and any strain on the muscles of the chest may worsen the symptoms and slow the healing process. As a rule of thumb, avoid or limit activities that worsen your symptoms.
  • Heat application: Applying hot packs to the chest can help relieve symptoms of costochondritis. Apply heat several times each day, especially before activities. While ice application can help with most inflammatory conditions, applying ice to the chest can be quite uncomfortable.
  • Anti-inflammatory medications: Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medications (such as Motrin or Advil) help with two aspects of costochondritis. Firstly, they are analgesic and help decrease pain. Secondly, these medications actively decrease inflammation, which is the primary concern with costochondritis. Check with your doctor before taking any anti-inflammatory drugs as they have potential side effects.

Normally, the treatment of costochondritis will lead to complete resolution of symptoms, but there are instances where pain from costochondritis can be chronic. In cases like these, your doctor may decide to treat you with cortisone injections after other treatments have failed to provide relief.

In addition to symptomatic treatment, the treatment of the underlying condition (such as an infection, rheumatoid arthritis, or fibromyalgia) will also usually relieve costochondritis symptoms.

A Word From Verywell 

Chest pain and pressure that involve the neck, jaw, shoulder, or arm are signs of a medical emergency and should never be ignored.

Costochondritis lasting for more than three months and is significantly affecting your quality of life should be brought to the attention of your doctor, who can determine its cause and offer treatment options.  

Costochondritis – Illnesses & conditions

Costochondritis is the medical term for inflammation of the cartilage that joins your ribs to your breastbone (sternum). This area is known as the costochondral joint.

Cartilage is tough but flexible connective tissue found throughout the body, including in the joints between bones. It acts as a shock absorber, cushioning the joints.

Costochondritis may improve on its own after a few weeks, although it can last for several months or more. The condition doesn’t lead to any permanent problems, but may sometimes relapse.

Tietze’s syndrome

Costochondritis may be confused with a separate condition called Tietze’s syndrome. Both conditions involve inflammation of the costochondral joint and can cause very similar symptoms.

However, Tietze’s syndrome is much less common and often causes chest swelling, which may last after any pain and tenderness has gone.

Costochondritis also tends to affect adults aged 40 or over, whereas Tietze’s syndrome usually affects young adults under 40.

As the conditions are very similar, most of the information below also applies to Tietze’s syndrome.

Signs and symptoms

When the costochondral joint becomes inflamed it can result in sharp chest pain and tenderness, which may develop gradually or start suddenly.

The pain may be made worse by:

  • a particular posture – such as lying down
  • pressure on your chest – such as wearing a seatbelt or hugging someone
  • deep breathing, coughing and sneezing
  • physical activity

When to seek medical help

It can be difficult to tell the difference between the chest pain associated with costochondritis and pain caused by more serious conditions, such as a heart attack.

However, a heart attack usually causes more widespread pain and additional symptoms, such as breathlessness, nausea and sweating.

If you, or someone you’re with, experiences sudden chest pain and you think there’s a possibility it could be a heart attack, dial 999 immediately and ask for an ambulance.

If you’ve had chest pain for a while, don’t ignore it. Make an appointment to see your GP so they can investigate the cause.

Causes of costochondritis

Inflammation is the body’s natural response to infection, irritation or injury.

It’s not known exactly why the costochondral joint becomes inflamed, but in some cases it’s been linked to:

  • severe coughing – which strains your chest area
  • an injury to your chest
  • physical strain from repeated exercise or sudden exertion that you’re not used to – such as moving furniture
  • an infection – including respiratory tract infections (RTIs) and wound infections
  • wear and tear – your chest moves in and out 20 to 30 times a minute, and over time this motion can lead to discomfort in these joints

Diagnosing costochondritis

If you have symptoms of costochondritis, your GP will examine and touch the upper chest area around your costochondral joint. They’ll ask you when and where your pain occurs and look at your recent medical history.

Before a diagnosis can be confirmed, some tests may need to be carried out to rule out other possible causes of your chest pain.

These may include:

  • an electrocardiogram (ECG) – which records the rhythms and electrical activity of your heart
  • a blood test to check for signs of underlying inflammation
  • a chest X-ray

If no other condition is suspected or found, a diagnosis of costrochondritis may be made.

Treating costochondritis

Costochondritis often gets better after a few weeks, but self-help measures and medication can manage the symptoms.


Costochondritis can be aggravated by any activity that places stress on your chest area, such as strenuous exercise or even simple movements like reaching up to a high cupboard.

Any activity that makes the pain in your chest area worse should be avoided until the inflammation in your ribs and cartilage has improved.

You may also find it soothing to regularly apply heat to the painful area – for example, using a cloth or flannel that’s been warmed with hot water.


Painkillers, such as paracetamol, can be used to ease mild to moderate pain.

Taking a type of medication called a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) – such as ibuprofen and naproxen – two or three times a day can also help control the pain and swelling. 

Aspirin is also a suitable alternative, but shouldn’t be given to children under 16 years old.

These medications are available from pharmacies without a prescription, but you should make sure you carefully read the instructions that come with them before use.

NSAIDs aren’t suitable for people with certain health conditions, including:

Contact your GP if your symptoms get worse despite resting and taking painkillers, as you may benefit from treatment with corticosteroids. 

Corticosteroid injections

Corticosteroids are powerful medicines that can help reduce pain and swelling. They can be injected into and around your costochondral joint to help relieve the symptoms of costochondritis.

Corticosteroid injections may be recommended if your pain is severe, or if NSAIDs are unsuitable or ineffective.

They may be given by your GP, or you may need to be referred to a specialist called a rheumatologist.

Having too many corticosteroid injections can damage your costochondral joint, so you may only be able to have this type of treatment once every few months if you continue to experience pain.

Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS)

TENS is a method of pain relief where a mild electric current is delivered to the affected area using a small, battery-operated device. 

The electrical impulses can reduce the pain signals going to the spinal cord and brain, which may help relieve pain and relax muscles.

They may also stimulate the production of endorphins, which are the body’s natural painkillers.

Although TENS may be used to help relieve pain in a wide range of conditions, it doesn’t work for everyone.

There isn’t enough good-quality scientific evidence to say for sure whether TENS is a reliable method of pain relief. Speak to your GP if you’re considering TENS.

Read more about transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS).

90,000 What is chest myositis and how does it arise? What muscles are affected?

Myositis of the muscles of the chest is an inflammatory process in the muscles of the chest, in which painful lumps (are foci of inflammation) and pain occur. The rib cage is an anatomical structure that consists of the sternum, ribs, spine, and associated muscles. Myositis is an inflammatory process that by definition affects muscle tissue. Although, in some cases, it can spread to other places, for example, to the pleura – a film of connective tissue that lines the chest from the inside.

Why does myositis of the pectoral muscles occur?

Various diseases can lead to the inflammatory process. Root reasons:

  • Infections, among which influenza and ARVI are leading. In this case, myositis is considered as a complication of an infectious disease.
  • Parasitosis. Parasites that live in the body can also cause breast myositis. But this rarely happens.
  • Poisoning by certain substances.Another rather rare reason.
  • Features of the profession. Some people are forced to stay in positions that damage the pectoral muscles and develop inflammation in them. This category includes violinists, pianists, drivers.
  • Muscle injuries. Common causes: mechanical injury, frequent convulsions.
  • Bacterial infection. Causes the most severe form of myositis, when a focus of purulent inflammation occurs in the muscle tissue.This is manifested by severe pain, fever, worsening of the condition, and malaise. The infection can spread to the pleura, lungs, and other organs. The disease can develop after injuries, non-compliance with the rules of asepsis and antiseptics during medical procedures.

When chest pains are concerned, it is difficult to immediately understand what is their cause. Often, in the first place, the suspicion falls not on the myositis of the pectoral muscles, but on problems with the heart, spine, intercostal neuralgia.An experienced doctor will be able to understand why the symptoms have arisen and will prescribe the correct treatment.

What are the forms of thoracic myositis?

Myositis of the thoracic region can be acute or chronic. In the acute form of the disease, rather severe chest pains are troubling. If not treated, over time, the course of the pathology becomes chronic. The pain becomes less severe, and the person often ceases to notice it altogether. Aggravation occurs during a cold, a long stay in an uncomfortable position, a change in weather.
Chest myositis can occur on the left or right, or on both sides. When left-sided, it can mimic heart disease.

There are also two specific chronic forms of the disease in which different muscle groups are affected: polymyositis and dermatomyositis.

Treatment of myositis of the chest

The neurologist prescribes the treatment of the disease individually for each patient.
First of all, you need to identify and eliminate the cause. If viruses are to blame, as a rule, specific antiviral treatment is not required.They carry out standard measures for colds, after a while, recovery occurs. They fight bacteria with antibiotics, and parasites with antiparasitic agents. In case of chronic trauma, rest is recommended, then – the correct organization of work and rest.

General principles of treatment of different forms of chest myositis :

  • In the acute form of the disease, rest must be ensured. The damaged muscles must be kept warm, usually the chest is wrapped in woolen cloth.
  • To relieve pain, pain relievers are used from the group of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs: such as diclofenac, ibuprofen.
  • In some forms of myositis, finalgon and other warming ointments have a good effect.
  • When the temperature rises, antipyretic drugs are used.
  • Physiotherapy, massage, physiotherapy exercises are also used.

With a purulent form of the disease, it is often necessary to resort to surgical treatment: the abscess is opened and cleaned.

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The main manifestations of myositis of the muscles of the chest are pain in the affected muscles and painful lumps, which correspond to the foci of inflammation. The disease can take two forms:

  • In acute myositis , symptoms appear quickly, suddenly, usually during infection, after prolonged muscle tension, trauma.
  • In the chronic form of , manifestations increase gradually, it can be the result of untreated acute inflammation in the muscles.

Characteristic symptoms of chest myositis

The main symptom of chest myositis is pain. Its intensity is gradually increasing. Painful sensations intensify during awkward movements, deep breaths, prolonged stay in a tense uncomfortable position. When feeling the chest in the area of ​​the affected muscles, soreness is noted.

Sometimes swelling, swelling, redness of the skin can be found at the site of the lesion. This symptom is most typical for purulent myositis. In this case, the patient feels weakness, malaise, his body temperature rises.

Protective muscle tension occurs – it helps to restrict movement and reduce pain.

Pain in the muscles can go away for several days, but then a relapse occurs, most often it is provoked by infections, hypothermia, trauma, tension.

Affected muscles become weak, with chronic course they decrease in size over time – their atrophy develops.

How is chest myositis diagnosed?

Usually, the first thing the patient gets to see a therapist, because he does not know why he began to worry about chest pains and other symptoms. Suspecting the neurological nature of the disease, the doctor directs the patient for a consultation with a neurologist.

A neurologist will ask you about your symptoms, about when and how they occurred, how they changed over time, what you were sick with during your life, what chronic diseases you currently suffer from.A neurological examination will be performed. The doctor will press on specific points on your chest to determine soreness.

Further, to clarify the diagnosis and exclude other diseases, an examination will be assigned, which may include the following diagnostic methods:

  • A blood test for enzymes, an increase in the level of which indicates damage to muscle tissue.
  • Magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography, X-ray – help to detect foci of pathological changes in muscles, bones, organs of the chest.
  • Electromyography is a study that evaluates the conduction of electrical impulses in muscles.
  • Muscle biopsy – the doctor takes a fragment of suspicious tissue and sends it to the laboratory for analysis. This helps diagnose certain forms of myositis, such as dermatomyositis.

What diseases are differential diagnostics of signs of myositis of the chest carried out with?
Similar chest pains and other symptoms described above can occur with other conditions, such as:

  • angina pectoris and other heart diseases;
  • diseases of the lungs and pleura – films of connective tissue that cover them;
  • intercostal neuralgia;
  • osteochondrosis of the thoracic spine.

Pectoralis minor syndrome: symptoms and treatment of the disease in Moscow, make an appointment

Small pectoral muscle syndrome

The syndrome of the pectoralis minor is that this muscle infringes on the nerves and vessels located next to it.

Pectoralis minor syndrome is also called Wright syndrome, Wright-Mendlovich syndrome, or hyperabduction syndrome. It was described in 1945 by two American doctors, Wright and Mendlovich, independently of each other.The word “hyperabduction” means a significant extension of the arm to the side.

The pectoralis minor muscle is located on the ribs, just below the collarbone. It has the shape of an elongated triangle, the apex of which is directed towards the shoulder joint, and the base towards the sternum. Nerves and blood vessels pass directly under the muscle, more precisely, between the muscle and the ribs. They run from the cervical spine to the arm to provide innervation and blood supply to the arm. This arrangement of the neurovascular bundle, when it lies on the ribs, and is covered with muscle on top, resembles a tunnel.With a spasm or shortening of the pectoralis minor muscle, in this tunnel, between the muscle and the ribs, an infringement of the neurovascular bundle occurs – this is the pectoralis minor syndrome or Wright Mendlovich’s syndrome. And at its core, this is a tunnel syndrome. It can occur with prolonged abduction of the arm to the side, when the muscle stretches and presses the bundle to the ribs. This is possible during surgery, drip, deep sleep, or during certain types of work that require this hand position. Significant abduction of the hand – hyperabduction – gave another name to this syndrome – hyperabduction syndrome.

Symptoms of the pectoralis minor syndrome

The symptoms of pectoralis minor syndrome are caused by two things – pain in the muscle itself and compression of the nerves and blood vessels under the muscle. Let’s analyze each one separately.

Symptoms of the pectoralis minor syndrome, caused by compression of nerves and blood vessels, are manifested by numbness of the hand, feeling of “needles” and “goosebumps” in it; paleness and swelling of the fingers, decreased pulse in the radial artery.

Muscle pain symptoms of pectoralis minor syndrome are most often caused by myofascial pectoral muscle syndrome. Myofascial syndrome is a pathology in which small altered areas appear in the muscle – trigger points. Trigger points in the pectoralis minor muscle can exist latently for a long time – in a dormant mode. But as soon as they are activated, pain immediately arises. Physical overload, sudden movement, uncomfortable posture, hypothermia and stress can activate the trigger point.

Myofascial syndrome of the pectoral muscles is characterized by pain in the chest, shoulder joint and on the back of the hand – sometimes from the shoulder to the fingers of the hand, inclusive. These painful symptoms of pectoralis syndrome are often confused with intercostal neuralgia, breast disease, and heart attack. You can use nitroglycerin to distinguish a heart attack from muscle pain. It will relieve a heart attack, but not muscle pain. A completely reliable way to diagnose Wright-Mendlovich syndrome is the Wright test.For this, the palm must be placed on the back of the head, and the elbow, as much as possible, must be taken to the side. The test is considered positive if after half a minute – a minute the pain and other symptoms intensify. However, do not forget that any self-diagnosis and self-medication is unreliable. Therefore, it is better to trust the professionals.

Treatment of pectoralis minor syndrome

Treatment of pectoralis minor syndrome is divided into main and auxiliary. The main one is soft manual therapy.It is fundamentally different from conventional manual therapy not only in its safety and higher efficiency. Its main advantage is that it perfectly copes with muscle clamps. With the help of special muscle-fascial techniques, gentle manual therapy relaxes tense muscles and eliminates not only the symptoms, but also the very cause of pectoralis syndrome.

Treatment of pectoralis minor syndrome is carried out by a chiropractor. Better if it is a chiropractor-neurologist.He will be able to conduct a better and more detailed examination, diagnosis and treatment of your problem. Moreover, advanced and chronic cases may require additional prescription of drugs, physiotherapy or exercise therapy. In general, the tactics of treatment and the timing of recovery largely depend on whether we are dealing with a “fresh” or chronic case of pectoralis minor syndrome. Keep this in mind, do not run and take care of yourself.

90,039 90,000 injuries, bruises, strains, ruptures – Treatment and rehabilitation – Department of Traumatology – State Hospital of the Central Clinical Hospital of the Russian Academy of Sciences

The pectoralis major muscle is the main relief of the chest, it is formed from the largest clusters of fibers.It is a very strong and powerful muscle. The pectoralis major muscle consists of three parts or bundles: sternocostal, clavicular and abdominal (abdominal). All three of its parts merge together and form one short flat tendon, which is attached to the humerus just below the greater tubercle. It is responsible for the ability to make movements with the hand in front of the chest (rotation of the arm inward, lowering the raised arm, bringing the shoulder (arm) to the body), and also participates in the act of breathing as an additional muscle. Injuries to the pectoralis major muscle are extremely rare and usually occur in weightlifting athletes and people doing hard physical work, usually men.

Types of injuries: bruises, sprains, ruptures

Classification of injuries of the pectoralis major muscle:

  1. Contusion or sprain of muscle
  2. Partial rupture
  3. Complete break:
    • detachment of the tendon from the place of attachment to the humerus
    • rupture at the junction of muscle into tendon
    • rupture of the muscle fibers themselves
    • avulsion of the tendon of the pectoralis major muscle with bone block
    • separation from the place of attachment to the sternum, ribs

The main causes of injury.

  • Excessive physical activity (for example, when playing sports (working with dumbbells or a barbell))
  • Lifting weights, falling (when stretching)
  • Direct blow to the chest
  • Taking stimulants (steroids)
  • Muscle fatigue and microtrauma

Symptoms of trauma.

  • Onset of pain, weakness and burning sensation
  • Decreased mobility of the shoulder girdle
  • Puffiness, swelling and hematoma occurs
  • Typical muscle tearing sound – click or clap (at the time of injury)
  • There is muscle deformation and violation of its natural contours (in case of complete rupture)


Diagnosis of tendon injuries includes:

  • Medical examination by a doctor
  • X-ray examination
  • Ultrasound examination (ultrasound)
  • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)

Specialists to contact if these symptoms appear:

Treatment and recovery.

In case of any damage to the pectoralis major muscle, it is necessary to contact the traumatology department for qualified help.

When stretching the muscles, conservative treatment is used. The patient must be provided with complete rest, apply cold to the injured area, the doctor prescribes the intake of painkillers and warming ointments. The duration of rehabilitation depends on the severity of the injury (from 3 weeks to 3 months). During the recovery period, the patient is prescribed moderate physical activity, massage, reflexology. If all recommendations are followed, complete recovery is observed.

Surgical treatment is preferable for partial and complete tendon rupture. The choice of the type of surgery depends on the location of the tear. The main task of any surgery is to connect the tendon to the bone.

Rehabilitation includes:

  • application of a fixation bandage (immobilization of the shoulder joint)
  • cryotherapy
  • taking painkillers
  • physiotherapy exercises
  • intensive massage.

You can make an appointment with doctors in Moscow at the Central Clinical Hospital of the Russian Academy of Sciences.

Cost of admission

// Place the cost of an appointment with a traumatologist-orthopedist, rheumatologist, surgeon

For qualified medical help in Moscow, you can contact the Central Clinical Hospital of the Russian Academy of Sciences.

Chest myositis symptoms – Omega Clinic Kiev

Chest myositis is an inflammatory disease that affects the muscles of the same name, accompanied by painful sensations, as well as compaction in the muscles.The disease makes itself felt with acute pain in the chest area and can be caused by various reasons – from hypothermia to infection in the body. This disease often affects women in their fifties and older.

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Body movements and sharp turns aggravate pain, the pain radiates to the upper limbs, neck, shoulders.Usually this ailment is chronic and can lead to atrophy of the chest muscles.

Symptoms of this type of myositis can also occur with hypothermia, as a result of being in a draft, injury or excessive physical exertion.

Symptoms and manifestations of myositis of the chest

Quite often, the cause of the disease is a variety of infectious diseases – influenza, ARVI, that is, diseases that were carried by a person “on his feet”, and then gave complications in the form of an illness.Sometimes this type of myositis develops under the influence of toxic substances or as a result of parasitic exposure. However, such cases are rare.

In rare cases, this type of myositis is caused by local muscle infection. Then the disease turns into a purulent form of myositis. It is one of the most severe forms. This can happen if an infection has got into a deep wound or specific medical procedures were carried out without observing hygiene rules.

Traditionally, myositis is a “occupational” disease of PC operators, athletes, drivers – all those who have to be in the same position for a long time.Only a qualified vertebrologist can correctly diagnose “chest myositis”. However, this disease has a number of symptoms that may indicate it:

  • the site affected by myositis swells slightly, may become edematous;
  • the skin of the chest turns red;
  • the temperature rises;
  • severe forms are accompanied by inflammation of the muscles of the larynx, pharynx;
  • headache appears;
  • cough and shortness of breath;
  • increasing the sensitivity of the skin;
  • body turns, tilts are accompanied by pain;
  • the pain becomes worse in the cold;
  • chest muscles do not stop hurting even after rest.

Usually myositis is manifested by local pains, their strength and intensity gradually increase. When moving, due to the contraction of the affected muscles, the pain increases. Also, discomfort increases with palpation of muscles, especially nodules that have formed as a result of myositis.

Causes of the appearance of myositis of the chest

For proper treatment, it is very important to establish the causes of each specific disease. In particular, chest myositis can result from:

  • toxic effects on the body;
  • injuries suffered;
  • parasitic infections;
  • infectious diseases;
  • occupational diseases.

Types and stages of development of chest myositis

The stages of the disease can be distinguished only conditionally, since the development of acute myositis may indicate that the disease has developed to a chronic form. That is why it is so important to carry out diagnostics at the first visible manifestations of the disease. This will avoid many possible problems in the treatment of the disease at a later stage. In the clinic “Omega-Kiev” qualified doctors-vertebrologists will help to detect the problem at the earliest stage of development.

Three main stages of chest myositis can be conventionally distinguished:

  1. The disease usually manifests itself in an acute form. The patient experiences a sharp pain in the chest area, it is difficult for him to bend, turn the body. The site of the lesion is characterized by an increase in temperature, and an increase in the general body temperature is also possible.
  2. The disease often becomes chronic. The affected area hurts on palpation, nodules form on the muscles, which also hurt when pressed.In the chronic form of myositis of the chest, muscle pain occurs with regularity. Painful sensations do not disappear even after a period of complete rest, intensifying at night.
  3. Chronic myositis of the muscles of the chest leads to restriction of movement of the patient. Soreness and tension of the muscles gradually causes their partial atrophy. In some cases, complete atrophy of the affected muscles is possible.

Also, two forms of the disease should be noted – namely, dermatomyositis and polymyositis.

90,000 Chest pain

Chest pain can have a variety of causes. Fortunately, this localization of pain makes a person cautious and encourages them to see a doctor.

Most often, chest pain is caused by diseases of the spine – prolonged static load at the computer, lack of physical activity, damage to the vertebrae of the thoracic spine. If nerve roots are pinched by them, even the smallest movement can cause severe stabbing pain.Sudden chest pain occurs when lifting heavy objects. Such an effort is especially dangerous for people with osteoporosis, because the vertebrae can break, causing an extremely serious problem.

The pain threshold can vary depending on the emotional state.

If pain occurs in a person who is frozen, soaked in the rain or in a draft, it may indicate intercostal neuralgia , herpes zoster caused by herpes zoster .After several days, small, yellowish, burning bubbles appear on the aching intercostal space. After about a week, they disappear and the pain goes away, however, for a long time, increased sensitivity to touch may persist, and only recently has it become possible to eliminate it with the help of medications.

Pain, especially when inhaling deeply, can be caused by the pleura, the sheath of the lungs rich in nerve endings. Pain occurs, for example, in severe pneumonia, when fluid begins to accumulate in the inflamed pleural cavity .The doctor determines the cause by listening to the chest and X-ray examination.

Some young people have congenital vesicles on the outer surface of the lungs. Bursting, they z fill the pleural cavity with air, which compresses the lungs, causing pain and difficulty in breathing. In this case, surgical intervention is often necessary.

Sudden difficulty in breathing, a feeling of heaviness and pain in the chest and anxiety may be due to thromboembolism caused by a clotted pulmonary artery thrombus.Thromboembolism is more common in bedridden patients with chronic venous insufficiency, especially with venous inflammation, fibrillation, and after long flights.

A pronounced cause of chest pain is pulmonary tumor , if it has formed near the pleura rich in nerves.

Induced by gastric reflux pain and burning sensation behind the breastbone after eating increases when bending over and in the supine position, when stomach acid enters the esophagus.

Often, pain in the area of ​​the heart, especially in young people, is caused by emotional experiences and vegetative dystonia. In this case, you need to rest and take sedatives.

It is most important to timely determine diseases of the heart vessels , usually accompanied by pressing, choking pain behind the sternum, often with shortness of breath and irregular heartbeat. An attack of angina pectoris , triggered by stress or exercise, can last from 3 to 20 minutes.She is considered a harbinger of a heart attack, although, fortunately, this catastrophe does not always occur. If an angina attack begins during exercise, the pain usually goes away when you are calm. This is helped by nitroglycerin, which dilates blood vessels. The impact should be felt in 4 minutes. If the pain persists, you should definitely call an ambulance!

At myocardial infarction tearing, burning pain lasts most often 20-30 minutes, but sometimes 2-3 hours. When an atherosclerotic plaque ruptures, a thrombus occurs, and part of the heart is not supplied with blood, i.e.That is, it is not supplied with oxygen and nutrients.

Medical assistance must be received within 2-6 hours, because cells are gradually dying. The faster circulation is resumed, the more of the heart muscle can be saved.

For vasodilatation, a stent may need to be placed or bypass surgery performed.

In case of severe chest pain, it is imperative to call an ambulance – often every minute is important.

In other cases, a consultation is required

therapist .

List of symptoms 90,000 Chest cancer – symptoms and signs

Contents of the article:

Features of breast cancer

The chest is made up of many organs, including bones and soft tissues, as well as the lungs and pleura, heart and mediastinal organs (esophagus, trachea, thymus, thoracic lymphatic duct, pericardium), vessels, nerves, lymph nodes. All of them can be affected by malignant tumors.The most common type of malignant lesion of the chest cavity is lung cancer. Other types of tumors are less common and can be primary (occur directly in the chest cavity) or secondary (occur when tumors metastasize). In addition to the organs of the chest cavity, cancerous lesions can occur in the area of ​​the pleura, diaphragm or sternum, which limit the chest cavity Source:
V.M. Karpov, A.F. Lazarev
Prevalence of multiple primary malignant neoplasms with damage to the chest organs //
Russian Journal of Oncology, 2015, No. 5, p.53-56.

The severity, growth rate and prognosis for treatment depend on the specific type of cancer and organ affected.

Types of oncological diseases of the chest cavity

Malignant neoplasms of the chest cavity are divided into groups:

  • Lung cancer . There are several types of malignant lung lesions – non-small cell, accounting for up to 80% of all types of cancer, small cell carcinomas, adenocarcinoma, large cell carcinoma.
  • Respiratory tract cancer . It includes carcinoid tumors of the respiratory tract and cystadenoid, mucoepithelioid carcinomas of the bronchi.
  • Neoplasms in the mediastinum . These include malignant lesions of the intrathoracic, extrathoracic lymph nodes, esophageal cancer and thymic tumors.
  • Disorders of the heart and blood vessels . Primary and metastatic cancers are possible.
  • Pleural neoplasms .Especially dangerous is pleural mesothelioma and malignant fibrous tumor.
  • Formations of the chest wall with damage to bones, mesenchymal tissues and cartilage . The most common malignant tumors are multiple myeloma and chondrosarcoma.

Causes of breast cancer

The exact cause of the development of different types of breast cancer has not yet been determined. There are a number of factors that increase the risk of tumor lesions in the chest.These include:

  • Genetic predisposition. In families where cancer of various localization is common, the likelihood of tumors of the chest cavity is higher. This is due to the inheritance of defective genes that control cell division.
  • Smoking is especially relevant for lung cancer, although it is also detected in non-smokers. Alcohol intake plays a role, especially for esophageal cancer. The joint intake of alcohol and smoking increases the risk several times.
  • Poor diet and deficiency of vitamin A, zinc, molybdenum increases the risk of certain types of cancer.Being overweight and esophageal reflux increases your risk of developing esophageal cancer.
  • Chronic inflammation increases the risk of developing tumors of the chest cavity, including cancer of the heart and blood vessels, lymph nodes, lungs and esophagus.

First signs, symptoms of tumors of the chest cavity

For a long time, cancers of the chest cavity have no symptoms. As tumors grow in size, three groups of signs may appear:

  • symptoms of compression of organs adjacent to the affected organs, signs of cancer growth into tissues and adjacent organs;
  • common symptoms of chest cancer;
  • specific signs typical of a certain neoplasm.

For example, lesions in the mediastinum can cause pain similar to angina pectoris. Pain may radiate to the shoulder, arm or neck, possibly impaired swallowing and breathing Source:
Saynak M, Veeramachaneni NK, Hubbs JL, Okumuş D, Marks LB
Solitary Fibrous Tumors of Chest: Another Look with the Oncologic Perspective // ​​
Balkan Med J. 2017 May 5; 34 (3): 188-199. doi: 10.4274 / balkanmedj.2017.0350. Epub 2017 Apr 6.

Common symptoms can be identified among the key features of chest tumors:

  • development of shortness of breath on exertion or at rest;
  • the appearance of a cough with phlegm, which can be stained with blood;
  • pain during deep inhalation or exhalation;
  • noises, wheezing when breathing;
  • frequent bronchitis, pneumonia;
  • violation of the general condition – weight loss, lack of appetite, severe weakness, nausea.

For certain types of cancer, special symptoms are typical – dysphagia (impaired swallowing), pruritus, decreased blood glucose levels.

Diagnostics of chest cavity cancer

It is possible to detect breast cancer from the earliest stages. The medical center “CM-Clinic” is equipped with everything necessary for the fastest and most accurate diagnosis, including histological and biochemical studies in its own laboratory. Used in the diagnostic process:

  • Radiography for the detection of large tumors, bone and lung lesions.The method helps to determine the affected area for more targeted research.
  • MRI or CT diagnostics allows you to determine the exact size of the tumor, the involvement of adjacent structures, vessels, bones, cartilage.
  • Diagnostic thoracoscopy is indicated for pleural lesions or suspected metastases, complications of lung cancer.
  • Bronchoscopy is indicated for examining the bronchial tree, clarifying the localization of the tumor, taking material for histological examination.
  • Various options for sputum examination in order to exclude concomitant pathologies, to identify tumor cells.
  • Pleurocentesis and sampling of pleural fluid for examination (sometimes performed for therapeutic purposes).
  • Biopsy of tumor sites, affected lymph nodes with determination of the type of cancer and its histochemical characteristics Source:
    M.I. Davydov, D.G. Zaridze
    Screening of malignant tumors //
    Bulletin of theN.N. Blokhin “, 2014, vol. 25, No. 3-4, p. 5-16.

Chest cancer treatment

Based on the diagnostic data, the final diagnosis, stage of cancer, its type and specific localization are established. Patient management tactics are developed individually, taking into account age and diagnosis, comorbidities and general condition Source:
Semenova EA, Nagel R, Berns A
Origins, genetic landscape, and emerging therapies of small cell lung cancer //
Genes Dev. 2015 Jul 15; 29 (14): 1447-62.doi: 10.1101 / gad.263145.115.

If possible, surgical removal of the tumor with pre- or postoperative use of conservative techniques is used. These include:

  • Chemotherapy . Before surgery, it helps to shrink the tumor to make it easier to remove. After – to suppress the remaining cancer cells.
  • Targeted therapy is aimed at combating a specific type of cancer, for example, small cell lung carcinoma.
  • Radiation therapy is indicated to suppress the growth of malignant cells in inoperable forms or to prepare for surgery.

Symptomatic treatment, plastic surgery is also carried out, in case of running processes, palliative therapy is indicated.

The treatment protocol for each patient is drawn up on the basis of international and domestic clinical guidelines, modern drugs and methods of surgical intervention are used, which reduce the risk of side effects, having proven efficacy with the minimum possible impact on the patient’s body.

Predictions for chest cancer

With early detection of lung cancer, about 80% of patients live for more than 5 years, with other breast tumors, prognosis depends on the form of cancer and the stage of its detection. The smaller the tumor and the damage to the surrounding tissues, the higher the chances of favorable outcomes Source:
V.V. Starinsky, L.M. Alexandrova,
O.P. Gretsova
Lung cancer: epidemiology, prevention //
Medicine in Kuzbass, 2014, pp. 30-31.

The risk of recurrence for tumors of the chest cavity is low; to prevent recurrent episodes of cancer, doctors conduct long-term follow-up with follow-up examinations.


  • V.M. Karpov, A.F. Lazarev. The prevalence of multiple primary malignant neoplasms with lesions of the chest organs // Russian Journal of Oncology, 2015, No. 5, pp. 53-56.
  • M.I. Davydov, D.G. Zaridze. Screening of malignant tumors // Bulletin of the Federal State Budgetary Scientific Institution “Russian Oncology Center named after N.N. Blokhin “, 2014, vol. 25, No. 3-4, p. 5-16.
  • V.V. Starinsky, L.M. Alexandrova, O. P. Gretsova. Lung cancer: epidemiology, prevention // Medicine in Kuzbass, 2014, p.30-31.
  • Saynak M, Veeramachaneni NK, Hubbs JL, Okumuş D, Marks LB. Solitary Fibrous Tumors of Chest: Another Look with the Oncologic Perspective // ​​Balkan Med J. 2017 May 5; 34 (3): 188-199. doi: 10.4274 / balkanmedj.2017.0350. Epub 2017 Apr 6.
  • Semenova EA, Nagel R, Berns A. Origins, genetic landscape, and emerging therapies of small cell lung cancer // Genes Dev. 2015 Jul 15; 29 (14): 1447-62. doi: 10.1101 / gad.263145.115.

The information in this article is provided for reference purposes and does not replace the advice of a qualified professional.Do not self-medicate! At the first signs of the disease, you should consult a doctor.

How lemons help to recognize early signs of breast cancer

Photo author, Worldwide Breast Cancer

Photo caption,

Various signs of breast cancer shown in the example of lemons

We think we know what are symptoms of breast cancer, but only until you have to feel your own breast – for preventive purposes.

Then we are lost in conjecture: what is it here for me – a seal? Do I need to worry if dimples appear on the skin, and what exactly should you pay attention to?

This is exactly what the young designer Corinne Beaumont, the author of the Know Your Lemons campaign, was thinking about, which has been shared 32 thousand times on Facebook in recent days.

Both of Corinne’s grandmothers died of breast cancer at the age of 40 and 62, and when she herself began to look for some information about the first symptoms of this disease and what to look for, she found very little useful.

Then she decided to come up with some simple guide, and so lemons became her visual metaphors for the various conditions of the mammary glands.

By placing them in a box containing a dozen eggs, Corinne wanted to create a simple, playful image that, firstly, could help women overcome their fear of this disease, and secondly, it would be understandable to absolutely everyone – even the illiterate.

“Some don’t want to talk about it and don’t even want to look at their breasts,” says the artist.And often the women filmed on medical posters don’t look like normal women. ”

Two years ago, Corinne quit her main job to concentrate fully on the Worldwide Breast Cancer charity she founded.

Everyone understands

This educational campaign has already been launched in the USA, Spain, Turkey and Lebanon and has been translated into 16 languages ​​

Despite the fact that the “Know by lemons” campaign has existed since 2003, it has become widely known only this year after being shared on social media by Erin Smith Chiese.

She was diagnosed with grade 4 breast cancer after she herself noticed the dents on her chest – all thanks to the “lemon instructions” showing how and what it looks like.

“If I hadn’t accidentally come across a picture where everything is visible in nature, then I would not know what to look for,” Erin wrote on social networks.

Many women say that “Know by lemons” is a simple, visual and at the same time vivid guide, helping to communicate in a simple way that important that is sometimes lost behind many incomprehensible words.

Photo by Science Photo Library

Photo caption,

Doctors urge women to regularly check their breasts for changes

A recent survey of thousands of women by the British charity Breast Cancer Care found that a third of women do not regularly check their breast for signs and symptoms of cancer.

While 96% of women know that a lump in the breast can be a symptom of cancer, more than 25% do not know that it can also be an inverted nipple.

It is a lump or lump in the breast that is most often noticed by women, according to the official website of the National Health Service NHS Choices.

In 9 out of 10 cases, these lumps are not cancerous, but to be sure of this, you must definitely see a doctor.

You should also watch for symptoms such as a change in the location of the nipple or the appearance of dents or uneven surfaces on the breast.

Early signs

As Professor of Surgery Giant Wadia of the University College London Cancer Department explains, dents in the skin of the chest or flattening of the chest, especially when the arm is raised or when the trunk is tilted forward, are important early symptoms.

“This is one of the main signs that can be seen at an early stage, along with bloody discharge from the nipple or discharge from only one duct,” says the professor.

Symptoms such as suddenly visible veins or inflammation of the mammary glands are rare, and sores on the skin of the breast or the appearance of a porous patch of skin that looks like an orange peel and large bumps are signs that the disease is in an advanced stage …

“Lemons in an egg box attract interest in this topic, and people can better remember some specific signs. But usually women just find an” invisible “lump in their breasts – this is the most common and often the only symptom, “explains Professor Vadia.

Do not go crazy

But what is important to know is how exactly your breasts look and feel – experts say.

Any change in size or shape, induration or “ball” in any part of the breast must be taken seriously.

At the same time, Nurse Jen Murphy of Breast Cancer Care says she doesn’t want women to go crazy about it.

“The main thing is that everyone knows what their own breasts look like. You can do a self-examination, for example, by applying cream,” she says.

Cancer Research UK also points out that even the discovery of a symptom does not mean breast cancer.

“An inverted nipple, nipple discharge, or a rash can all occur for other medical reasons.However, if you find any changes, then you need to go to the doctor, because if it turns out that it is cancer, then you will have a better chance of a cure, “the experts point out.