Inhalation treatment for bronchitis: The request could not be satisfied
Nebulizer Bronchitis Treatment – Primary Care Medicine – Irvine, CA
Acute bronchitis is caused by an inflammation of the mucous membrane in your bronchial tubes. It can be quite irritating, causing bronchospasms and coughing fits that last for extended periods. With medical supervision, however, the use of a nebulizer can greatly reduce this inflammation and lead to a better overall quality of life.
What causes bronchitis?
Inflammation of your lungs’ mucous membrane can be caused by a combination or lifestyle and environmental factors. Secondhand smoke, dust, pollution, and smoking all contribute to bronchitis, as do allergens like pollen and ragweed.
Proper hand washing has been shown to play a large role in reducing your odds of infection..
Diagnosing bronchitis can only be done by a physician, however, he or she will likely ask about the following symptoms: blood in your sputum, excessive coughing, length of the cough, mucous, tight chest, and fever.
After listening to your lungs the doctor will either look for a chest x-ray to rule out any other problems like pneumonia or could culture your sputum to test for whooping cough, a bacterial infection, or allergies. Both of these tests help them narrow down what might be affecting you, thus allowing them to provide you with the best treatment possible.
Finally, a simple spirometry test will help the doctor assess your lung capacity to see how well they’re working. Using a basic disposable device, you’ll be asked to hold a mouthpiece to your lips and breathe out at hard as you can. A meter on the other end of the device will show what your lung capacity is.
The most important part of treating bronchitis is to get enough rest and drink fluids. Your body relies heavily on being well hydrated to keeps its cells alive and functioning. Don’t neglect it.
A cough suppressant might be prescribed to help you catch some shut-eye since oftentimes bronchitis interrupts sleep schedules. If you’re in pain a pain reliever could be prescribed. Additionally, sleeping next to a humidifier will help keep your nose and lungs moist.
Perhaps the single most effect method of treating bronchitis is the nebulizer. This method requires you to use a small machine to inhale steroids. These steroids calm the inflammation in your mucous membrane and allow your body to begin to heal. Nebulizer treatments drastically reduce coughing, sputum production, and chest tightness, allowing you to breathe easier.
If you’ve suffered from an excessive cough for weeks on end and haven’t experienced much relief from over the counter methods, nebulizer treatment might be just what you need to treat your bronchitis. It could offer the relief you’ve been searching for. Contact our experienced team to learn more about how we can help you decreased inflammation in your lungs and breathe easier, sooner.
Inhalers to Treat Bronchitis
Inhalers deliver medicines that can improve your ability to breathe. In bronchitis, they are usually prescribed only for chronic bronchitis and severe cases of acute bronchitis. Inhalers contain medicines that treat bronchitis symptoms in different ways and have various side effects.
Let’s review bronchitis first and then dive into the different inhaler treatments commonly prescribed for bronchitis.
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What Is Bronchitis?
During bronchitis, the bronchi, the tubes that lead from your mouth to your lungs, swell up and start producing protective mucus that triggers coughing. Bronchitis symptoms include:
- A cough that keeps you up at night
- A sore or tight chest from coughing
- A sore throat from coughing
- Lingering tiredness, headaches, and body aches
- A low-grade fever
There are two main kinds of bronchitis—acute and chronic. They differ based on what has triggered the swelling in the bronchi.
A viral or bacterial infection usually causes acute bronchitis. Your illness will likely start with a cold that lasts a few days, then develop into a long-lasting cough. The cough should be improving by around three weeks after the initial cold. Acute bronchitis is also called a chest cold.
Chronic bronchitis is usually caused by exposure to pollutants or irritants, like tobacco smoke. It can get worse over time, and so it needs to be treated. It is a type of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).
Chronic bronchitis is more likely to cause wheezing and a whistling or squeaking sound while breathing. While chronic bronchitis itself isn’t contagious, it can lead to frequent colds and flu and other respiratory illnesses that can spread to other people.
If you think you have acute bronchitis caused by an infection, you probably don’t need to see a doctor. These infections usually heal on their own and get better without prescription treatment or intervention. There are a couple of instances in which you probably should seek out care for acute bronchitis:
- A temperature above 100. 4 degrees Fahrenheit
- Bloody mucus comes up when coughing
- Wheezing or trouble breathing
- More than three weeks of symptoms without improvement
- A cough that goes away and comes back
For chronic bronchitis, you’ll want to see a doctor and get treatment before your symptoms get worse and limit your breathing further.
When you see a doctor for either chronic bronchitis or complications of acute bronchitis, they will do a visual examination of your throat, feel your lymph nodes in your neck for swelling, and listen to your lungs with their stethoscope.
They may do lab tests, including blood tests and lung function tests, and imaging tests, like a chest X-ray or computed tomography (CT) scan to check if bronchitis has become pneumonia. They’ll ask you about your medical history, family history, and your symptoms.
Treatment for acute bronchitis typically includes rest, drinking fluids, and using a humidifier to keep your breathing passages clear. If your coughing is disrupting sleep, you can use cough suppressants or expectorants (formulations that contain the active ingredient guaifenesin) from the drugstore to relieve it.
For a sore throat, you can suck on lozenges, hard candy, or ice pops. If you have pain or a fever, try over-the-counter pain relievers to feel better, including:
- Tylenol (acetaminophen)
- Advil (ibuprofen)
- Aleve (naproxen)
Antibiotics are discouraged for acute bronchitis because only a small percentage of cases are caused by bacteria rather than viruses. When appropriate, an antibiotic might help your body fight off the bacteria causing the infection but won’t help break up mucus or soothe night coughing.
If you have excessive wheezing, trouble breathing, or have chronic bronchitis, your doctor may prescribe you one or more inhalers as a treatment option for your bronchitis. Inhalers deliver medicine right into your lungs, where they can help reduce swelling and open up your bronchi.
There are various options for inhalants that your doctor may prescribe, based on your condition, your infection, and your long-term prognosis. These inhaled medications act in different ways and have different side effects.
Most of these inhaled medications are prescribed for chronic bronchitis or COPD, which gets progressively more severe and can be deadly. Which medications you’re prescribed will depend on how severe your chronic bronchitis is.
Short-acting beta-2 agonists like albuterol may be used for bronchitis when the patient is wheezing or having trouble breathing. This might happen with either chronic or acute bronchitis.
Beta-2 agonists relieve the symptoms of wheezing and trouble breathing by acting as a bronchodilator—widening the opening of the bronchi so they let more air into your lungs.
A Cochrane report updated in 2015 suggests that regular prescription of beta-2 agonists isn’t useful for most acute bronchitis patients and is not useful in children with bronchitis. They do seem to help patients with wheezing or whose swollen bronchi are obstructing their breathing. They can help these patients breathe easier.
Side effects of these medications include tremors, shakiness, and nervousness.
Inhaled corticosteroids are sometimes prescribed for chronic bronchitis and COPD. They are not used as monotherapy for COPD. They are used in conjunction with long-acting bronchodilators for severe disease (FEV1 <50%) or patients with frequent exacerbations.
They work by reducing inflammation in the lungs, preventing symptoms like wheezing, shortness of breath, coughing, and tightness in the chest.
A review found that high-dose inhaled corticosteroids can improve symptoms in those with chronic bronchitis as a part of COPD. They can slow down the rate of decline in quality of life and reduce the frequency of attacks. But they do not have a consistent long-term benefit in decreasing the loss of breathing capacity or risk of death.
Side effects of inhaled steroids include thrush in the mouth, hoarseness, and increased risk of developing pneumonia.
Long-Acting Beta-2 Agonists
Long-acting beta-2 agonists are used for moderate-to-severe chronic bronchitis when it interferes with the ability of the patient to breathe. Instead of the short-acting beta-2 agonists, which are used only during an attack, these prescription inhalers are used daily to prevent flare-ups.
They act on the muscles in the lungs to relax them, opening the airways. Long-acting beta-2 agonists are often prescribed in combination with inhaled steroids for daily preventive treatment for chronic bronchitis and COPD.
Side effects of long-acting beta-2 agonists are similar to those of short-acting beta-2 agonists. They include tremors, shakiness, and nervousness, along with headache, increased heart rate, dizziness, anxiety, and a rash.
Sometimes inhaled medications given in the hospital or at home are delivered through a nebulizer, which lets a patient inhale the medication as a mist. A nebulizer can provide medication through a mask and doesn’t require the coordinated breathing of an inhaler.
They’re sometimes recommended for asthma, chronic bronchitis, and COPD patients who have a very low ability to breathe in. A nebulizer could deliver any of the above inhaler medications if that works better for you. The medications would have the same side effects as taken through an inhaler.
A Word From Verywell
Cases of acute bronchitis usually clear up without these types of medications. Chronic bronchitis may be managed in a number of ways by a health professional, which is why it’s important to maintain a relationship with your provider and manage your condition appropriately.
Lifestyle changes, like quitting smoking or reducing your exposure to secondhand smoke or other irritants, can also help prevent your chronic bronchitis from getting worse and reduce your need for inhalers and other treatments.
Physical activity can help strengthen your lungs, so talk to your doctor about your options. Prevent future infections by getting vaccines for the flu and pneumonia.
Humidifiers, Clear Fluids, and More
When you’re coughing nonstop with bronchitis, you might look for anything you can do to make it stop. Besides a cough suppressant, which can have side effects like drowsiness, dizziness, or dry mouth, a few other things can help you feel better.
Avoid Things That Bother Your Lungs
Staying away from substances like smoke, chemical fumes, dust, and air pollution is the best way to both prevent and treat bronchitis. If you smoke and are having trouble quitting, talk with your doctor about what might work for you. If you can’t stay away from the other substances — if you work around them, for example — wear a mask and open windows when possible.
Get Plenty of Rest
The infection and cough that come with bronchitis can make you very tired. Listen to your body and get as much rest as you can, especially over the first few days. If a nighttime cough keeps you awake, use an extra pillow to prop up your head and keep mucus from settling in the back of your throat.
Drink Clear Fluids
When you have bronchitis, it’s important to loosen the mucus in your chest so you can cough it up and breathe more easily. The best way to thin mucus is to drink plenty of fluids like water, diluted fruit juices, herbal tea, and clear soups. Aim for eight to 12 glasses a day. Try to stay away from alcohol and caffeine.
Breathe in Steam
This is another way to loosen mucus so it can move out of your body faster. To make a steam bowl,pour hot water into a large, heatproof bowl. ( Be very careful not to get burned and do not use water that is very hot especially around children.) Drape a towel over your head and lean over the bowl, making a tent with the towel to keep in the steam. Breathe in the vapors for up to 10 minutes. You also might take a hot shower or sit in a steamy bathroom.
Use a Humidifier
A cold- or warm-mist humidifier in your bedroom puts moisture in the air while you sleep, which will help clear the mucus. Make sure to clean your humidifier often to clear out bacteria and mold.
Gargle With Salt Water
This can get rid of some of the mucus that coats and irritates your throat. Dissolve 1 teaspoon of salt in a glass of warm water. Spit it out after gargling. You can do this several times a day to make your throat feel better.
Quiet a Cough
Honey has been used as medicine since ancient times. When you eat it on its own or stir it into warm herbal tea, it can help with the irritating cough that often comes with bronchitis and soothe a sore throat, too. But don’t give honey to children younger than 1 year old because it can cause infant botulism, a very serious kind of food poisoning.
Bronchitis Symptoms & Treatment
Bronchitis vs. Pneumonia: How are they Different?
What is bronchitis?
Bronchitis occurs when the bronchioles (air-carrying tubes in the lungs) are inflamed and make too much mucus. There are two basic types of bronchitis:
- Chronic bronchitis is defined as cough productive of sputum that persists for three months out of the year for at least two consecutive years. The cough and inflammation may be caused by initial respiratory infection or illness, exposure to tobacco smoke or other irritating substances in the air. Chronic bronchitis can cause airflow obstruction and then is grouped under the term chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).
- Acute or short-term bronchitis is more common and usually is caused by a viral infection. Episodes of acute bronchitis can be related to and made worse by smoking. Acute bronchitis could last for 10 to 14 days, possibly causing symptoms for three weeks.
Excess mucus in the bronchial tubes
What is the difference between bronchitis and pneumonia?
In terms of symptoms, these two diseases may seem very similar. Both cause cough, fever, fatigue, and a heavy feeling in your chest. Bronchitis can sometimes progress to pneumonia.
Despite similarities, the conditions are different. First, bronchitis involves the bronchial tubes, while pneumonia affects the alveoli, or the air sacs in the lungs. Second, pneumonia symptoms are usually much worse. In addition, pneumonia can be life-threatening, especially in older people and other vulnerable groups.
If your symptoms do not get better in a week or so, it is best to contact your doctor.
Symptoms and Causes
What causes bronchitis?
Usually, acute bronchitis is brought on by a viral infection, though it may also be caused by a bacterial infection. The flu and colds are examples of viral infections.
Chronic bronchitis is usually, but not always, caused by smoking tobacco. It can also be caused by exposure to secondhand cigarette smoke, air pollution, dust, or toxic gases. Your risk can be increased by family history of bronchitis, having asthma and allergies, and having gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD).
What are the symptoms of bronchitis?
Symptoms of bronchitis include:
- A cough that is frequent and produces mucus.
- A lack of energy.
- A wheezing sound when breathing (may or may not be present).
- A fever (may or may not be present).
- Shortness of breath.
Is bronchitis contagious?
Acute bronchitis can be contagious because it is usually caused by infection with a virus or bacteria. Chronic bronchitis is not likely to be contagious because it is a condition usually caused by long-term irritation of airways.
How long are you contagious if you have acute bronchitis?
If you have begun taking antibiotics for bronchitis, you usually stop being contagious 24 hours after starting the medication. If you have a viral form of bronchitis, antibiotics will not work. You will be contagious for at least a few days and possibly for as long as a week.
How is acute bronchitis spread?
If bronchitis is caused by a viral or bacterial infection, it is spread the same ways that colds are spread—by germs traveling through the air when someone coughs or sneezes. You can breathe the germs in if you are close enough. You could also touch something that has germs on it, like a door, and then transfer the germs by touching your nose, mouth or eyes. That is why good hand washing practices are important for adults and children.
Diagnosis and Tests
How is bronchitis diagnosed?
Your healthcare provider will do a physical examination and take a medical history. They may ask if you have had a cold recently, how long your cough has lasted, and if you produce mucus when you cough. In addition, they may order a chest X-ray, tests for viruses in your upper respiratory secretions or blood tests.
Management and Treatment
How is bronchitis treated?
The treatment for bronchitis depends on what type you have. If you have acute bronchitis, you might not need any treatment. Or you might use over-the-counter drugs that break up mucus or that treat fever or pain. If you have a bacterial infection, your doctor might prescribe antibiotics.
If you have chronic bronchitis, treatment will be different. Chronic bronchitis, considered to be chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), is not curable. Symptoms can be treated using a variety of methods, including drugs, oxygen therapy, pulmonary rehabilitation, surgery, or a combination of these. Your doctor might prescribe a mucus clearing device, also called an airway clearance device, to help you bring up mucus easily.
What medications are used to treat chronic bronchitis/COPD?
Drug classes that may be used to treat chronic bronchitis/COPD include:
- Antibiotics to treat worsening coughs, breathlessness, and mucus production caused by infections.
- Anti-inflammatory drugs, such as corticosteroids (also called steroids), to reduce swelling and mucus output. Steroids can have many different types of side effects, including swelling in feet and hands, mood changes, increased appetite and weight gain, trouble sleeping, and more serious ones such as diabetes, higher risk of infections, osteoporosis, and cataracts.
- Bronchodilators to keep muscles around the airways relaxed so that airways stay open. There are long-acting and short-acting bronchodilators. Short-acting products are often called rescue drugs because they act quickly, but wear off in a couple of hours.
- Combination drugs that contain a mix of steroids and long- or short-acting bronchodilators
How can I take care of myself?
If you have bronchitis, you might consider these home remedies:
- Drink fluids every one to two hours, unless your doctor has restricted your fluid intake.
- Don’t smoke. Stay away from all kinds of smoke.
- Relieve body aches by taking aspirin or acetaminophen.
- Follow your doctor’s instructions on ways to help you clear your mucus.
- If you have a cough that is severe or keeps you from sleeping, your doctor may prescribe a cough medicine to suppress (or quiet) your cough. If you have a dry cough or difficulty coughing out the mucus, your doctor may also prescribe an expectorant to help loosen and cough out the mucus.
- If you have a moist, productive cough (with mucus), note how often you cough, as well as the color and amount of the sputum (mucus). Report this to your doctor.
- Use a humidifier.
- Try herbal teas or lemon water with 1-2 tablespoons of honey to provide comfort.
What can I do to reduce my risk of getting bronchitis?
- Don’t smoke.
- Insist that others do not smoke in your home.
- Stay away from or try to reduce your time around things that irritate your airway (nose, throat, and lungs). Irritants can include dust, mold, pet dander, air pollution, smoke, and cleaners.
- If you catch a cold, get plenty of rest.
- Take your medicine exactly the way your doctor tells you.
- Eat a healthy diet.
- Wash your hands often. Use soap and water. If you are not able to use soap and water, use a hand sanitizer that contains alcohol.
- Make sure you are up-to-date on the flu and pneumonia vaccines.
Outlook / Prognosis
What is the outlook for people with bronchitis?
People who have acute bronchitis generally have very few problems with their recovery as long as they get the treatment they need. You can expect to stay home from work or school for a few days while you are recovering.
Although chronic bronchitis/COPD cannot be cured, its symptoms can be treated and your quality of life can be improved. Your prognosis, or outlook, for the future will depend on how well your lungs are functioning and your symptoms. It will also depend on how well you respond to and follow your treatment plan.
When should I see my healthcare provider?
It is often difficult to know whether you have a cold, bronchitis, or pneumonia because symptoms are similar. See your healthcare provider if you have:
- A cold that lasts more than two to three weeks.
- A fever greater than 102° F.
- A fever that lasts more than five days.
- A cough that produces blood.
- Any shortness of breath or wheezing.
- A change in the color of mucus.
If you have chronic bronchitis/COPD, choose lifestyle and activity changes that promote mental and physical health. Tips include:
- Working as long as you are able to do so.
- Managing your emotional health. Talk to a counselor if you need to do so. Make positive changes, like going outside, staying involved with friends and hobbies, getting a good night’s sleep and following suggestions of your healthcare provider.
- Being a partner in your healthcare plan.
- Asking for support from family and friends.
- Managing stress by exercising and practicing relaxation methods.
- Eating well.
Home remedies and when to see a doctor
Bronchitis is a condition where the lining of the bronchial tubes in the lungs becomes inflamed.
Bronchitis can be acute or chronic. Most cases of acute bronchitis will clear up without medical treatment or the need for antibiotics.
Chronic bronchitis is more severe and difficult to treat.
Some people find the following home remedies and lifestyle changes helpful for bronchitis:
1. Getting plenty of rest
Share on PinterestA good night’s sleep can repair tissue damage, increase energy levels, and assist recovery from bronchitis.
One of the main symptoms of bronchitis is fatigue. The infection and the persistent cough that comes with it can cause extreme tiredness.
Research has shown that sleeping may boost the immune system and aid recovery from infection.
Sleep helps the body to repair tissue damage and generate new tissue, release important hormones, and renew energy.
To assist sleeping, use more pillows to raise the head. This sleeping position can help to soothe breathing and clear mucus from the chest.
The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute recommend that adults need 7-8 hours of sleep per day and children around 10-12 hours per day. Getting enough sleep will help fight infection and assist recovery from bronchitis.
2. Drinking enough fluid
Bronchitis is a lower respiratory tract infection of the airways and lungs. Doctors often advise people with respiratory infections to increase their fluid intake.
People with bronchitis can become dehydrated due to increased fluid loss from fever, rapid breathing, runny nose, vomiting, and diarrhea. Dehydration can lead to dizziness, confusion, headache, and more discomfort in the mouth and throat.
Drinking enough fluid with bronchitis can help:
- avoid dehydration
- reduce mucus thickness
- loosen nasal mucus
- moisten the throat
Fluid can include water, juice, herbal tea, soup, and the water in foods.
However, research has not proved or disproved the recommendation to increase fluids for respiratory infections, such as bronchitis. However, hydration does compensate for lost fluid.
3. Using a humidifier
Humidifiers increase moisture levels in a room by emitting water vapor or steam.
Low humidity and cold temperatures have been connected with an increase in respiratory tract infections. Low humidity can also irritate nasal passages and the throat, and cause itchy eyes and dry skin.
Inhaling heated and humidified air may help loosen mucus and encourage it to drain away.
Various humidifiers are available to purchase online.
People using a humidifier should make sure the unit is properly maintained and humidity levels are monitored. Dirty humidifiers are a breeding ground for mold or bacteria. Too high humidity can cause respiratory problems as well as triggering allergy and asthma flare-ups.
People without a humidifier can increase water in the air by boiling it on the stove for 5 minutes every hour. They can also add a few drops of peppermint or eucalyptus essential oils and hang their head over the bowl or pan of boiling water for a few minutes to relieve symptoms. Placing a towel over the head helps keep in moisture.
Smoking is the leading cause of chronic bronchitis. Stopping smoking and avoiding secondhand smoke may improve a person’s quality of life.
Smoking damages the bronchial tubes and breaks down the body’s defense against infection. Inhaling smoke can trigger severe fits of coughing if a person has bronchitis.
Quitting smoking altogether or cutting down limits damage to the bronchial tubes and helps faster healing. A person who quits smoking is less likely to get acute bronchitis in the future.
People should also stay away from other irritants that may trigger bronchitis, such as dust, chemicals in household products, and air pollution. Filters in air conditioning and heating systems should be changed as recommended by manufacturers.
5. Following a healthful diet
To alleviate symptoms of bronchitis and manage the condition, the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute recommend lifestyle changes that include following a healthful diet.
A healthful diet consists of fruits, vegetables, and whole grains as well as lean meats, poultry, fish, beans, eggs, and nuts. It also includes fat-free or low-fat dairy products and limits saturated and trans fats, cholesterol, salt, and added sugars.
Eating a healthful diet keeps a person’s immune system working. Not eating a balanced diet can lead to a person’s immune functions being impaired. This damage is caused by an insufficient intake of energy and macronutrients, as well as a lack of specific micronutrients.
6. Treating body aches and pains
Taking over-the-counter medications such as aspirin, acetaminophen, or ibuprofen can help relieve symptoms of bronchitis, such as fever, headache, and aches and pains.
Aspirin should not be given to children or teenagers, unless advised by a doctor, due to the associated risk of Reye’s syndrome.
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), such as aspirin and ibuprofen, can be hazardous for people with asthma and should be avoided.
7. Avoiding over-the-counter cough suppressants
Share on PinterestHoney and lemon tea may be equally as effective as over-the-counter cough medicines in reducing a dry cough.
There are two main types of over-the-counter cough medicines:
- Cough suppressants, which reduce a dry cough by blocking the coughing reflex.
- Cough expectorants, which help thin and bring up mucus from a wet cough and lubricate the respiratory tract.
It is not recommended that people use cough suppressants for a cough that brings up mucus. When the lining of the bronchial tubes is inflamed by irritants, excess mucus is produced, causing frequent coughing. Coughing up the mucus helps to remove the irritants from the lungs and airways.
A 2014 Cochrane review found no good evidence for or against the effectiveness of over-the-counter cough medicines.
There is little evidence to suggest that cough medicines are any more effective than home remedies. A home remedy of honey and lemon is likely to have the same outcome.
It is not recommended to give infants up to 12 months of age honey due to the risk of infant botulism.
8. Using pursed-lip breathing
People with chronic bronchitis often breathe fast. A breathing method called pursed-lip breathing may help slow down the breathing pace and control shortness of breath.
The method works by reducing how often a breath is taken, which keeps the airways open for a longer period. Since pursed-lip breathing lets more air flow in and out of the lungs, it allows the person to be more physically active.
To do pursed-lip breathing, a person should first take a breath in through the nostrils for two counts. They should then breathe out slowly and gently through slightly pursed lips, as if going to kiss someone, while counting to four.
9. Soothing a sore throat
A common symptom of bronchitis is a sore throat. There are many ways to soothe a sore throat including:
- gargling saltwater
- drinking cool or warm fluids
- eating cool and soft foods
- sucking lozenges, hard candy, ice cubes, or ice pops. Lozenges can be purchased in pharmacies or online.
- using over-the-counter lozenges and sprays, which can be purchased online.
- taking over-the-counter pain relievers
Caregivers should not give children under 4 years anything small and hard to suck due to the risk of choking.
10. Taking nutrition and dietary supplements
There is some evidence that supplements may benefit people with bronchitis. People should get advice from a healthcare provider when considering supplements. Some supplements interact with medicines or have side effects.
N-acetylcysteine (NAC) is a derivative of the amino acid L-cysteine. One review found that NAC could help prevent sudden worsening of chronic bronchitis symptoms.
Probiotics are live microorganisms. When consumed as food or supplements, they are thought to maintain or restore beneficial bacteria in the digestive tract.
Probiotics may regulate the immune system. Probiotics have been shown to be better than placebo in preventing respiratory tract infections and may have a beneficial effect on the duration and severity of symptoms in acute bronchitis.
Different probiotic supplements are available to purchase in health food stores and online.
Home remedies for bronchitis: How they work, types
Despite clear evidence that antibiotics are ineffective for the treatment of acute bronchitis, a 2014 study showed the rate of prescribing them for the condition was still 71 percent.
Luckily, there are home remedies that can help ease acute and chronic bronchitis.
Using a humidifier
Share on PinterestWarm drinks such as tea may make coughing easier and the use of ginger in tea is recommended as it is an anti-inflammatory.
Keeping the air in the home or workplace moist helps to loosen mucus in the airways and reduce coughing. The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute recommend a cool-mist humidifier or steam vaporizer to do this.
A 2014 study indicates that long-term humidification therapy is a cost-effective treatment for people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) or bronchiectasis. However, researchers cautioned that more investigation was necessary.
COPD is an umbrella term for a number of lung conditions including bronchitis and bronchiectasis, which is a condition where the airways become abnormally wide.
If a person with one of these conditions uses a humidifier, it should be regularly cleaned, according to the manufacturer’s guidelines, to kill bacteria and other pathogens that make symptoms worse.
Drinking warm liquids
Warm water, tea, and other hot drinks help to thin mucus, making coughing easier.
A 2008 study suggests that hot beverages can provide “immediate and sustained relief from symptoms of a runny nose, cough, sneezing, sore throat, chilliness, and tiredness“.
Ginger tea may also help bronchitis symptoms, as ginger is a natural anti-inflammatory.
Wearing a face mask in cold weather
Being hit by sudden cold air can increase a cough. Covering up the mouth and nose before going outside in cold weather can help to reduce coughing and shortness of breath. Cold-air face masks are available, or the mouth can be covered with a scarf or other item of clothing.
Honey is often used as a natural remedy for a cough, and it is said to have both antiviral and antibacterial properties.
Research into the effectiveness of honey for respiratory tract infections indicates it may be an effective home treatment.
A 2007 study looked at how well dark honey worked for children with bronchitis. While the children who took the honey experienced greater symptom relief than those taking the placebo, the clinical benefit was small. Honey should not be given to children under 1 year.
Pursed-lip breathing techniques
A breathing technique known as pursed-lip breathing may benefit people with bronchitis, as well as those with COPD.
The COPD Foundation advise that this technique helps people breathe easier by:
- keeping airways open longer
- slowing down breathing
- helping the lungs eliminate stale, trapped air
- improving the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide
- increasing the time that can be spent on certain activities
Pursed-lip breathing involves inhaling through the nose for 2 seconds, before puckering the lips and exhaling slowly through the mouth for 4 to 6 seconds.
Share on PinterestEssential oils such as eucalyptus may help to reduce airway inflammation.
Many people with bronchitis or COPD use essential oils to ease symptoms, particularly inflammation and breathing difficulties.
Some research suggests airway inflammation can be reduced by using myrtol, eucalyptus oil, or orange oil, with myrtol oil showing additional benefits against inflammation.
An animal study also found that oil from the flower Zataria multiflora reduced inflammation in guinea pigs with COPD.
Other essential oils which may help ease the breathing difficulties associated with bronchitis include:
- tea tree
Essential oils can be inhaled directly or used in a diffuser. Never take essential oils internally or apply them directly to the skin. To use on the skin, mix them with a carrier oil, such as mineral oil or sweet almond oil. Usually, it is 3-5 drops per 1 ounce of carrier oil.
Ginseng is a popular herbal remedy extracted from the fleshy roots of various slow-growing perennial plants.
In some research, ginseng extract was found to reduce the number of bacteria in the lungs of people with chronic bronchitis, who were having an attack of acute bronchitis.
Ginseng also has anti-inflammatory qualities, which may help it quell inflammation in the bronchial tubes.
This supplement is a modified version of the amino acid cysteine. It may help to reduce both the frequency and severity of coughing. NAC may also thin the mucus in the bronchi, allowing it to be eliminated from the body more easily.
An analysis of 13 studies on NAC for chronic bronchitis or COPD suggests that people with chronic bronchitis and an airway obstruction benefit from 1,200 milligrams (mg) per day. Those with bronchitis without an airway obstruction see benefits from a regular dose of 600 mg daily.
According to the Vitamin D Council, many studies indicate that people who have low levels of the vitamin are more prone to respiratory infections, including COPD.
Other research suggests that those who have high vitamin D levels experience shorter bouts of respiratory infections or milder symptoms.
However, the evidence is mixed when it comes to taking vitamin D to treat respiratory infections. Nonetheless, vitamin D is important for overall health and supplementation is a low-risk approach to bronchitis treatment.
If you choose to use supplements, essential oils, or herbs, be aware that these are not monitored by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for safety, quality, purity, or packaging. Choose to buy from a company you trust.
Read on for some more information about bronchitis.
There are two types of bronchitis known as acute and chronic.
Acute bronchitis, or a chest cold, is a common condition which can develop from a cold or respiratory infection. People tend to recover from acute bronchitis within 10 to 14 days.
Chronic bronchitis is characterized by a constant irritation of the bronchi that lasts 3 months or more, or recurrent episodes of bronchitis for at least 2 years. In 2015, 9 million Americans were diagnosed with chronic bronchitis.
Symptoms of chronic bronchitis may worsen periodically, which indicates acute bronchitis in conjunction with the chronic condition.
The causes of bronchitis vary depending on the type.
Acute bronchitis is most commonly caused by a virus, particularly those that cause cold and flu. Viruses do not respond to antibiotic treatment, and so antibiotics should not be prescribed to someone who has acute bronchitis caused by a virus.
Smoking is the most common cause of chronic bronchitis, although air pollution or dust can be a factor in some cases.
Share on PinterestA very large percentage of people who develop bronchitis have a history of smoking.
Several risk factors are linked with the onset of bronchitis, including:
- Poor immunity: People with lowered immunity are more vulnerable to bronchitis. Factors which reduce immunity include illness, viral infection, and age. Older adults and young children are at greater risk.
- Smoking: Cigarette smoke can irritate the lining of the bronchial tubes, which can result in bronchitis. More than 90 percent of people diagnosed with chronic bronchitis have a history of smoking. However, even passive smoke can be a risk factor. A 2012 study found that exposure to passive smoking at work almost doubled the risk of chronic bronchitis, while passive smoking at home increased the risk by 2.5 times.
- Other irritants: Continued exposure to grains, chemicals, dust, and fabric is known to cause irritation to the delicate lining of the bronchi.
- Heartburn: The acid that rises due to heartburn causes inflammation in the bronchial tubes.
The most common symptoms of bronchitis are:
- difficulty breathing
- mucus exhaustion
- generalized discomfort in the chest
- low-grade fever
People with acute bronchitis may also have had other symptoms consistent with cold or flu that contributed to the development of bronchitis. Examples of such symptoms include:
Approximately 1 in 20 cases of bronchitis result in pneumonia. In addition, repeated episodes of bronchitis can indicate COPD.
There are several steps to take to reduce the risk of developing acute or chronic bronchitis:
- Avoid irritants: If contact with lung irritants is unavoidable, take steps to reduce exposure. For example, increase ventilation or wear a mask.
- Quit smoking: Cutting out tobacco and avoiding exposure to secondhand smoke will help.
- Improve immunity: Addressing underlying health conditions, eating a balanced diet, working out, reducing stress, and getting enough sleep all help.
- Limit exposure to bacteria and viruses where possible: Do this by washing hands frequently.
- Discuss vaccinations with a doctor: These may reduce the risk of bronchitis.
Chronic Bronchitis | Symptoms of Bronchitis
What is chronic bronchitis?
Chronic bronchitis is a type of COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease). COPD is a group of lung diseases that make it hard to breathe and get worse over time. The other main type of COPD is emphysema. Most people with COPD have both emphysema and chronic bronchitis, but how severe each type is can be different from person to person.
Chronic bronchitis is inflammation (swelling) and irritation of the bronchial tubes. These tubes are the airways that carry air to and from the air sacs in your lungs. The irritation of the tubes causes mucus to build up. This mucus and the swelling of the tubes make it harder for your lungs to move oxygen in and carbon dioxide out of your body.
What causes chronic bronchitis?
The cause of chronic bronchitis is usually long-term exposure to irritants that damage your lungs and airways. In the United States, cigarette smoke is the main cause. Pipe, cigar, and other types of tobacco smoke can also cause chronic bronchitis, especially if you inhale them.
Exposure to other inhaled irritants can contribute to chronic bronchitis. These include secondhand smoke, air pollution, and chemical fumes or dusts from the environment or workplace.
Rarely, a genetic condition called alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency can play a role in causing chronic bronchitis.
Who is at risk for chronic bronchitis?
The risk factors for chronic bronchitis include
- Smoking. This the main risk factor. Up to 75% of people who have chronic bronchitis smoke or used to smoke.
- Long-term exposure to other lung irritants, such as secondhand smoke, air pollution, and chemical fumes and dusts from the environment or workplace.
- Age. Most people who have chronic bronchitis are at least 40 years old when their symptoms begin.
- Genetics. This includes alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency, which is a genetic condition. Also, smokers who get chronic bronchitis are more likely to get it if they have a family history of COPD.
What are the symptoms of chronic bronchitis?
At first, you may have no symptoms or only mild symptoms. As the disease gets worse, your symptoms usually become more severe. They can include
- Frequent coughing or a cough that produces a lot mucus
- A whistling or squeaky sound when you breathe
- Shortness of breath, especially with physical activity
- Tightness in your chest
Some people with chronic bronchitis get frequent respiratory infections such as colds and the flu. In severe cases, chronic bronchitis can cause weight loss, weakness in your lower muscles, and swelling in your ankles, feet, or legs.
How is chronic bronchitis diagnosed?
Your health care provider may use many tools to make a diagnosis:
- A medical history, which includes asking about your symptoms
- A family history
- Various tests, such as lung function tests, a chest x-ray or CT scan, and blood tests
What are the treatments for chronic bronchitis?
There is no cure for chronic bronchitis. However, treatments can help with symptoms, slow the progress of the disease, and improve your ability to stay active. There are also treatments to prevent or treat complications of the disease. Treatments include
- Lifestyle changes, such as
- Quitting smoking if you are a smoker. This is the most important step you can take to treat chronic bronchitis.
- Avoiding secondhand smoke and places where you might breathe in other lung irritants
- Ask your health care provider for an eating plan that will meet your nutritional needs. Also ask about how much physical activity you can do. Physical activity can strengthen the muscles that help you breathe and improve your overall wellness.
- Medicines, such as
- Bronchodilators, which relax the muscles around your airways. This helps open your airways and makes breathing easier. Most bronchodilators are taken through an inhaler. In more severe cases, the inhaler may also contain steroids to reduce inflammation.
- Vaccines for the flu and pneumococcal pneumonia, since people with chronic bronchitis are at higher risk for serious problems from these diseases.
- Antibiotics if you get a bacterial or viral lung infection
- Oxygen therapy, if you have severe chronic bronchitis and low levels of oxygen in your blood. Oxygen therapy can help you breathe better. You may need extra oxygen all the time or only at certain times.
- Pulmonary rehabilitation, which is a program that helps improve the well-being of people who have chronic breathing problems. It may include
- An exercise program
- Disease management training
- Nutritional counseling
- Psychological counseling
- A lung transplant, as a last resort for people who have severe symptoms that have not gotten better with medicines
If you have chronic bronchitis, it’s important to know when and where to get help for your symptoms. You should get emergency care if you have severe symptoms, such as trouble catching your breath or talking. Call your health care provider if your symptoms are getting worse or if you have signs of an infection, such as a fever.
Can chronic bronchitis be prevented?
Since smoking causes most cases of chronic bronchitis, the best way to prevent it is to not smoke. It’s also important to try to avoid lung irritants such as secondhand smoke, air pollution, chemical fumes, and dusts.
NIH: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute
Main groups of drugs used in nebulizer therapy
Immunomodulators are widely used for the prevention and treatment of viral diseases of the respiratory tract. The most popular of these is interferon. And although its traditional use (dripping into the nose 6-7 times a day) made it not the most convenient for working people, the use of a nebulizer radically saves the situation! Interferon through a nebulizer is used only 1-2 times a day, while providing a sufficient therapeutic effect.It is applied from 3 to 10 days.
The most common manifestation of inflammatory diseases of the respiratory system is cough. And the vast majority of traditional and home remedies for coughs work after ingestion. In this case, medicinal substances make a long way from the oral cavity to the respiratory organs – the stomach, the portal vein system, the liver and the splitting of some of the drugs in it, the inferior vena cava, the right atrium and ventricle, the pulmonary circulation, where the blood is enriched with oxygen, the left the atrium and ventricle, from where blood with a drug for the respiratory system enters all tissues and organs of a person.The circulatory system of the bronchial tree accounts for only 1% of cardiac output. One can imagine what a tiny part of the drug will get to where it is needed, and what a huge part of it will get to where it is not expected at all! The use of modern Microlife compressor nebulizers ensures that the drugs are delivered directly to the lesion. And, returning to the topic of cough, modern medicine can offer a number of substances used for coughing through a nebulizer.First of all, these are expectorant drugs.
- Ambroxol (ambrohexal, lazolvan) is widely used for dry and wet coughs, stimulates the formation of mucus. If, when taken orally, it should be taken three times a day, then with an inhalation method of administration, the frequency of administration is reduced to two times a day.
- Acetylcysteine (fluimucil) – used only for viscous, difficult to separate sputum. The frequency of administration when administered through a nebulizer is also reduced from three to two times a day.
- Mineral waters (Borjomi, Narzan), physiological NaCl solution – are simpler, more affordable, but less effective substitutes for drugs in the treatment of cough. They moisturize the mucous membranes of the respiratory tract and promote better sputum discharge.
- Antibiotics and antiseptics. Microbial diseases of the ENT organs (sinusitis, laryngitis, etc.), bronchitis, complications of COPD and other diseases of the respiratory tract of bacterial etiology require the use of antibacterial drugs.Accepted through a nebulizer:
- Fluimucil-Antibiotic IT (acetylcysteine + thiamphenicol) is a very successful combination of expectorant and antibacterial drugs. Frequency of admission – twice a day for 7-10 days.
- Aminoglycazides (gentamicin, amikacin, etc.) are powerful tools for influencing the microbial flora. Despite the fact that when administered through a nebulizer, the bioavailability of aminoglycazides is significantly reduced, which leads to a decrease in the risk of side effects, these drugs should be used only in stationary conditions under the supervision of medical personnel.The most widely used in this group are antiseptic drugs. They are used for sinusitis, pharyngitis, adenoiditis, laryngitis, sore throat and many other diseases.
- The most significant antiseptics are Miramistin 0.01%, chlorhexidine, iodinol, dioxidine 1%.
- Rotokan (1:50) has good antiseptic and anti-inflammatory properties.
- If Staphylococcus aureus is sown in a smear from the mucous membranes, inhalations of a 2% oil solution of chlorophyll lipt 2-3 times a day through the nose for 5-7 minutes, no more than 10 inhalations, have a good effect.
The use of oils in inhalation therapy raises the most questions both among physicians and among people without medical education. First of all, let’s figure out why oils are needed in the human respiratory tract at all? Oil inhalations are mainly used for chronic atrophic diseases of the ENT organs, they have a protective effect. Covering a thin layer of the mucous membrane of the respiratory tract, oil particles create temporary rest for it, protect its surface from mechanical and chemical irritation, drying out, prevent the absorption of various harmful substances into the body through it, and have a deodorizing effect.Some oils have an antiseptic effect and contain vitamin complexes.
Therapeutic effects of oils: emollient, analgesic, trophic, anti-inflammatory, protect the mucous membrane from irritating physical and chemical effects.
There is no sense in treating other respiratory diseases with oils. In pediatrics, oil inhalations are not used, so it is difficult and sometimes impossible for a child to control his breathing and breathe only through his nose, and when inhaling oils through the mouth (especially with frequent and prolonged periods) there is a risk of oleomas (“oil plugs”) forming in small bronchi, which can cause severe pneumonia.
Vegetable oils are used for inhalation. they are most completely broken down and absorbed in the lungs. Among them, the most popular oils are rosehip, sea buckthorn, chlorophyllipt, peach, almond, eucalyptus, etc.) – 1-2 ml for 5-10 minutes for inhalation of 5-10 procedures.
Bronchodilators. Around the world, the number of patients suffering from bronchial asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is growing every year.
Bronchospasm plays an important role in the pathogenesis of these diseases.Bronchospasm also occurs in bronchiolitis – complications of acute respiratory infections and influenza.
For relief of bronchospasm, there are several groups of drugs that dilate the bronchi:
- b-2 agonists. Fenoterol in the form of a ready-made solution under the trade name Berotek (0.1%)
- M-anticholinergics. Ipratropium bromide – ready-made solution for inhalation, trade name Atrovent
- Combined preparations. Fenoterol, combined with ipratropium bromide – trade name Berodual – the best choice in pediatrics (fenoterol is 2 times less) Magnesium sulfate (1 ml 25% + 2 ml fizr-ra)
Only saline can be used as a solvent, i.e.because hypotonic solution in bronchial asthma can provoke bronchospasm.
In conclusion, I would like to remind you that this article is an overview, and not guidelines for self-medication. A doctor should prescribe treatment for both respiratory diseases and other organs and systems.
90,000 Pulmonology: Bronchitis – diagnosis and treatment in St. Petersburg, price
Bronchitis is an inflammatory process that affects the trachea and bronchi.Depending on the causes of development, the nature of the course and possible complications
There are 2 forms of bronchitis: acute and chronic.
Acute bronchitis is characterized by sudden development, acute course and, most importantly, reversibility of the process.
Chronic bronchitis – long-term, progressive inflammation of the airways with an undulating course (alternating stages of exacerbation and remission), leading to a decrease in physical activity due to an increase in respiratory failure.
Reasons for the development of bronchitis
It is believed that in most cases, the cause of the development of bronchitis is an infection: a virus, bacteria, atypical microorganisms. But this is actually only true for acute inflammation. For chronic bronchitis, infection is the cause of inflammation only in 10-12% of cases: in most cases, these are long-term mixed (viral-bacterial) infections with a severe course. The main reason for the development of a chronic inflammatory process is the long-term effect on the mucous membrane of the bronchi of inorganic irritants: tobacco smoke (80% of cases!), Dust, unfavorable climatic conditions.
The risk factors for the development of the disease include age (over 50), smoking, work in hazardous industrial conditions, frequent hypothermia, alcoholism.
Symptoms of the disease
They can vary significantly depending on the cause and form of the inflammatory process. But the main symptom in all cases will be cough.
- Acute bronchitis is characterized by a sudden increase in body temperature to 37.5-39 o C, accompanied by symptoms of intoxication of the body (general weakness, sweating, chills, headache).Further cough joins. Depending on the causative agent of the disease, the nature of the cough may vary. With a viral or atypical infection, a dry (without sputum discharge) develops, most often a paroxysmal cough. In the future, the evolution of cough from dry to wet (with sputum discharge) is noted, accompanied by a decrease in the intensity and frequency of seizures. The appearance of yellowish, greenish sputum, accompanied by an unpleasant taste or smell, is characteristic of a bacterial infection.
- In chronic bronchitis, the clinical picture depends on the stage of the process. In the initial stages, most patients do not consider themselves sick at all, and the recurrent cough is explained by work in hazardous production conditions or smoking tobacco. They are characterized by periodic cough with the separation of a small amount of light (mucous) or yellowish (mucopurulent) sputum, mainly in the morning. Sometimes a cough appears when inhaling cold air, tobacco smoke.With the progression of the disease, more bronchi are affected (from large to smaller), which leads to the appearance and further increase of shortness of breath (respiratory failure). At first, patients notice the appearance of shortness of breath with the usual exertion. But in the later stages of the process, shortness of breath becomes constant and does not go away even in complete rest. During periods of exacerbation of chronic bronchitis, an increase in body temperature is noted, accompanied by symptoms of intoxication (see above), an increase in the intensity of cough, and a change in the nature of sputum.
A mandatory study is a general (clinical) blood test, which allows you to assess the degree of activity and the nature of the inflammatory process. It is also necessary to study sputum (if any), which includes a cytological study (counting cellular elements), culture on nutrient media for microflora (with mandatory determination of sensitivity to antibacterial drugs), according to indications – a study for acid-fast bacteria.Sometimes, to clarify the pathogen, a blood test is carried out for antibodies (immunoglobulins) to atypical infections or a smear from the throat. When a doctor suspects pneumonia, a chest X-ray is taken (in one, two or three projections).
In case of chronic bronchitis (or suspicion of them), an additional examination is carried out:
Study of the function of external respiration (spirography), which allows to assess the degree of damage to the respiratory tract (large, medium and small bronchi, bronchioles).To determine the reversibility of the process and differential diagnosis with bronchial asthma, the study is supplemented with a respiratory test with an inhaled bronchodilator (“Salbutamol”, “Berotek”, “Berodual”).
Video bronchoscopy – endoscopic examination of large and medium bronchi. A diagnostic FBS is distinguished, which allows to assess the severity of the inflammatory process, to exclude oncopathology, to take washings (if it is impossible to study sputum), and therapeutic (washing and cleansing the respiratory tract from thick, difficult to separate mucous and purulent sputum).
Treatment can be divided into medication (medication-related) and non-medication.
Non-drug treatment includes a sparing regimen (bed or half-bed), plentiful warm drink (at least 2 liters per day, and with fever above 38 90 103 about 90 104 C – up to 3-3.5 l / day), food with a sufficient protein content and vitamins. In chronic bronchitis, breathing exercises (for example, according to the Strelnikova method), physiotherapy methods of exposure (halochamber, inhalation with alkaline mineral waters) also have a positive effect.
In drug treatment, etiotropic therapy is distinguished (aimed at destroying the infectious agent) and symptomatic (aimed at relieving the symptoms of the disease). Etiotropic therapy (antiviral, antibacterial, antimycotic drugs) should be prescribed by the attending physician based on the individual clinical picture, the results of an objective examination, laboratory and instrumental examination methods. Self-medication is not permissible, since an incorrectly selected drug will postpone seeking medical attention, which will lead to the progression of the disease; and an incorrect dosage regimen of a medicinal product can be the cause of an overdose or the appearance of a particularly dangerous microflora that is resistant to the action of known antibacterial agents.
Symptomatic therapy includes:
Antipyretic drugs (with an increase in body temperature to 38 90 103 about 90 104 C and more).
Expectorant drugs (to ease the discharge of phlegm). The dose of the drug is selected individually.
Bronchodilator drugs (to reduce shortness of breath), among which are inhaled drugs and tablets.Tablet formulations are more convenient to take, while inhalers have an early onset of action and fewer side effects.
It must be remembered that each drug has its own side effects and contraindications! Antipyretic drugs will normalize body temperature, but can provoke an exacerbation in people with stomach diseases. Expectorant drugs in the absence of phlegm will aggravate a dry cough.And pill bronchodilators can cause complications in people with heart rhythm disturbances. Prevention of bronchitis includes various methods, which is associated with a variety of factors in the development of bronchitis.
For the prevention of acute bronchitis, it is important to take immuno-strengthening drugs, as well as to vaccinate people at risk: over 50 years old, suffering from chronic diseases of internal organs, constantly communicating with people and taking anticoagulant drugs for a long time.
For the prevention of chronic bronchitis, it is also very important to maintain a healthy lifestyle (rejection of bad habits, good balanced nutrition, rational physical activity, walks in the fresh air), exclusion of exposure to harmful environmental factors (smoke, dust, gas, temperature changes).
If you suspect bronchitis, you should immediately consult a doctor (therapist, pulmonologist) for examination and selection of individual therapy.This will reduce the time of illness, avoid a number of complications (pneumonia, lung abscess) and reduce the risk of developing chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, pulmonary emphysema, bronchiectasis.
Rehabilitation after bronchitis in adults
Bronchitis is an infectious disease, the clinical picture of which depends on the pathogen, the size of the lesion of the bronchopulmonary apparatus and the drugs used in treatment. In this case, a decrease in immunity occurs, which in turn can lead to a relapse of the disease or its transition to a chronic state.Therefore, when treating bronchitis, the doctor individually selects a full range of measures aimed at the speedy recovery of the patient.
Methods of rehabilitation
- Physical activity: hiking in a forested area, skiing. But you should not immediately start intensive training, in the first days it is enough to walk a distance of 3 km. At the same time, it is not recommended to go outside in wet and windy weather or if the air temperature has dropped to -15 degrees.
- Exercise therapy and breathing exercises. The set of exercises is selected by the doctor, he also controls the technique of execution, determines the level of load and gradually increases it.
- Physiotherapy, in particular inhalation, electrophoresis, laser treatment, magnetic therapy.
- Massage is most effective in combination with physiotherapy exercises. The procedure improves the drainage function of the lungs, blood circulation and gas exchange.
- Proper nutrition.If necessary, the doctor will prescribe a diet. It allows you to restore strength and normalize bowel function, especially if the patient has had bronchitis and has been taking antibiotics for a long time.
An individual rehabilitation program for each patient should be drawn up by a doctor, taking into account the patient’s age, the characteristics of the disease and the presence of concomitant pathologies. After lowering the temperature and stopping the acute period, it is necessary to start classes in parallel with antibiotic therapy and continue them until complete recovery.
Adult patients can make an appointment with a doctor at the Rehabilitation Clinic in Khamovniki, and our specialist will draw up a rehabilitation program so that you can return to your usual way of life as soon as possible. As a rule, treatment takes place within the framework of a day hospital. Find out more by phone in Moscow: +7 495 488-89-25.
Tasks of recovery after bronchitis
In case of bronchitis due to the inflammatory process, respiratory function is impaired, therefore the rehabilitation period consists of several stages:
- Anti-inflammatory treatment (prescription of antibiotic therapy, NSAIDs).
- Restoration of the drainage function of the bronchi (taking mucolytics, nebulizer and inhalation therapy, massage).
- Improvement of blood and lymph circulation (prescription of antiplatelet agents, medical massage, physiotherapy procedures).
- Strengthening the muscular system in the bronchi (breathing exercises and exercise therapy).
- Immunity enhancement (complete dietary nutrition, prescription of vitamins and immunomodulators).
All of the above measures are aimed at preventing the recurrence of bronchitis and eliminating the residual manifestations of the disease.
90,000 Bronchitis. Treatment of bronchitis in a child. Inhalation for bronchitis
What is bronchitis and what causes it
In case of bronchitis, the mucous membranes of the bronchi are inflamed, the secretion of sputum increases, and breathing becomes difficult. The disease is common in children as well as in immunocompromised adults. Among the causes of the disease, the following can be noted:
- Viruses (influenza, adenoviruses, etc.).
- Bacteria (Streptococcus, Haemophilus influenzae, Staphylococcus, etc.).
- Allergens (dust, pollen, pet hair, etc.).
- Toxic substances (aldehydes, nitrogen oxide, hydrochloric acid, etc.).
A high likelihood of developing bronchitis concerns active and passive smokers, people with reduced immune defenses or genetic predisposition, as well as those who are exposed to adverse environmental factors at home or at work.
What types of bronchitis are
The disease is detected in two main forms:
- Acute .Acute bronchitis is accompanied by a wet cough and sputum production. The disease lasts 1.5-2 weeks in the absence of complications.
- Chronic form . A progressive disease in which there is a change in the bronchial structure, a weakening of the basic functions of the bronchi. Chronic bronchitis is diagnosed if the disease is regular and lasts at least 3 months a year for 2 years in a row. For this form of bronchitis, treatment includes, in addition to the standard therapy regimen, general improvement of the body.
Acute bronchitis occurs in children in the following forms:
- Simple. The bronchial mucosa is affected. Symptoms of acute bronchitis are present.
- Obstructive. Hearing wheezing, whistles. Breathing quickened, labored.
- Bronchiolitis. Inflammation of the bronchioles, which is accompanied by rapid breathing (40-50 breaths per minute). Heart palpitations may occur.
How to treat bronchitis – depends on the type of disease, the characteristics of the course of the disease and the patient’s condition.
Symptoms of bronchitis in children and adults
Bronchitis in children and adults is accompanied by a dry cough, which turns into a wet cough on days 2-3 of the disease. If bronchitis is of infectious origin, the following symptomatic picture is observed:
- Increase in body temperature.
- Breathing is hard, wheezing is heard, in some cases – shortness of breath and shortness of breath.
- Weakness, general malaise.
- Discomfort in the chest.
Moist cough in bronchitis accompanied by sputum secretion. The nature of the disease and the presence of complications are determined by the color of the sputum.
- White and transparent white sputum indicates a normal course of the disease.
- A yellow discharge often indicates the presence of a bacterial infection.
- Green secret appears with the development of pneumonia, fungal infection, lung abscess.
- Brown discharge is a sign of chronic bronchitis or severe lung disease.Before treating bronchitis, you need to see a doctor for an accurate diagnosis.
If diagnosed with bronchitis
Treatment of bronchitis by means of a nebulizer is highly effective, since the medicinal drug enters the bronchi directly and begins to act. Inhalation for bronchitis is prescribed by a doctor in accordance with the characteristics of the patient’s disease. The general scheme for the treatment of bronchitis is as follows.
- Inhalation antiseptic for bronchitis Dekasan ® (1-2 containers per session, use according to instructions). Inhalations are carried out 2 times a day for 4-7 days.
- In case of bronchitis in adults and children, Lorde® Hyal can be used from birth – it will improve the secretion of sputum. Inhalation should be performed 2 times a day for 4-7 days.
- Other preparations for inhalation (antipyretic, vasoconstrictor, etc.)- as prescribed by the therapist).
Berodual. Benefits of Combined Inhalation Bronchodilator Therapy :: DIFFICULT PATIENT
Central Research Institute of Tuberculosis, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, Moscow
The need for the appointment of bronchodilators arises in patients suffering from acute and chronic diseases of the respiratory system, which are accompanied by impaired airway patency. The arsenal of bronchodilators consists of drugs of three pharmacological groups: b-adrenoagonists, anticholinergics and methylxanthines.The advantages and disadvantages of drugs of each of these groups are well known and should be taken into account when choosing a treatment for a particular patient. Quite often, the action of one bronchodilator drug is not enough to achieve the effect, and there is a need for the simultaneous administration of bronchodilators with different mechanisms of action. The choice of a combination of drugs should always take into account not only the synergism of action, but also the possibility of enhancing undesirable effects from the combined use of various agents.For example, the possibility of enhancing the cardiotoxic effect with the simultaneous administration of b-adrenoagonists and methylxanthines is well known. The choice of the optimal route of administration of the bronchodilator is important, and in this regard, there is undoubtedly the advantage of the inhalation route, which is acceptable for b-adrenoagonists and anticholinergics. In addition, the appointment of combination therapy should be justified from the point of view of increasing the cost of treatment.
An example of a successful combination of bronchodilators for inhalation use is Berodual, which contains a selective b2-adrenergic agonist fenoterol hydrobromide and an M-cholinergic receptor blocker ipratropium bromide.Fenoterol relaxes the smooth muscles of the bronchi and blood vessels, it prevents the development of bronchospasm caused by the effects of histamine, methacholine, cold air and allergens. The drug also inhibits the release of inflammatory mediators from mast cells. In addition, high doses of fenoterol increase mucociliary transport. Fenoterol also exhibits respiratory stimulant properties. The effect of fenoterol on cardiac activity, manifested by an increase in the frequency and strength of heart contractions, is due to the stimulation of b-adrenergic receptors of the heart and is not significantly expressed in therapeutic doses.Ipratropium bromide effectively eliminates bronchospasm associated with the influence of the vagus nerve, reduces the secretion of bronchial glands. When administered by inhalation, the drug causes bronchodilation, mainly due to local rather than systemic anticholinergic action. Ipratropium bromide does not adversely affect mucus secretion in the respiratory tract, mucociliary clearance and gas exchange.
The idea of creating a combined bronchodilator, two components of which would have an effect on different mechanisms of bronchospasm, turned out to be successful and ensured the successful use of the drug for many years.
The properties of Berodual have been comprehensively studied in numerous studies, most of which were carried out in the early years of its use.
It was shown that the combination of fenoterol hydrobromide / ipratropium bromide in patients with bronchial asthma on the very first day led to a pronounced bronchodilator effect, which persisted for 3 months and did not cause tachyphylaxis .
Comparison of the results of both single use and long-term treatment with salbutamol and a combination of fenoterol hydrobromide / ipratropium bromide in patients with additional inhalation of a bronchodilator) and patient compliance [2-4].
The ability of Berodual to reduce the severity of induced cough in both healthy volunteers and asthmatics was more pronounced in comparison with ipratropium and oxitropium .
Comparison of the effectiveness of combined preparations of fenoterol hydrobromide / ipratropium bromide containing different doses of the components (Berodual – 50 μg fenoterol, 20 μg ipratropium and Duovent – 100 μg and 40 μg, respectively) in patients with stable bronchial asthma was carried out in order to determine the optimal dosage regimen.The results of the use of both drugs, 2 doses 4 times a day for 3 months, showed the identity of the effect of both drugs on the parameters of peak flow and spirography .
Three-month use of fenoterol hydrobromide / ipratropium bromide (Duovent) in patients with COPD over 60 years old showed a clear decrease in symptoms, improved bronchial patency, no tachyphylaxis and pronounced adverse effects, including from the cardiovascular system .
In our country, the experience of using Berodual has more than a quarter-century history. The drug has established itself as a safe and highly effective bronchodilator [8-9].
The main indications for the appointment of Berodual (as follows from the instructions for use of the drug) are: “prevention and symptomatic treatment of obstructive airway diseases with reversible bronchospasm: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), bronchial asthma (BA), chronic bronchitis”.
Infringement of the airway patency caused by inflammation is observed not only in such widespread and thoroughly studied diseases as COPD and AD, but also in a number of other diseases. Broncho-obstructive syndrome caused by paraspecific inflammation occurs in acute bronchitis, pneumonia, active pulmonary tuberculosis and its residual changes, exogenous allergic alveolitis, pulmonary eosinopholias, and sarcoidosis of the respiratory system.Undeservedly little attention is paid to the problem of studying violations of bronchial patency in the above diseases, and in medical practice the question of the need for bronchodilator therapy arises only in cases of pronounced disorders leading to respiratory failure.
Many years of practical experience in the use of Berodual indicates that in addition to the diseases mentioned in the instructions, the drug is highly effective in a number of other conditions accompanied by bronchial obstruction.Berodual could also find use for the treatment of broncho-obstructive syndrome, which is detected in many diseases of the respiratory system that are not included in the list of indications for prescribing the drug.
In a series of studies, it was shown that in acute bronchitis, broncho-obstructive disorders are quite often observed, and for their rapid elimination, it is advisable to prescribe short-acting β-agonists or a combination of fenoterol / ipratropium [10-13].
Obstruction of small bronchi is one of the serious causes of protracted pneumonia.In cases of impaired bronchial patency, a prolonged course of pneumonia occurs 2.6 times more often than in patients with normal airway patency [14, 15].
Broncho-obstructive syndrome occurs in at least 1/3 of patients with tuberculosis who do not have concomitant broncho-obstructive diseases . It has been shown that the use of Berodual in the complex treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis patients with broncho-obstructive syndrome of inhalation of Berodual reduces the severity of respiratory symptoms, leads to a significant increase in FEV1, makes it possible to accelerate sputum abacillation by 14.8-16.8%, increases the patient’s quality of life by 19.6 -29.6% [17, 18].
The most frequent and pronounced disorders of the mechanics of respiration in patients with sarcoidosis of the respiratory system is impaired patency of the bronchi and air distribution in the lungs, which play an important role in reducing the ventilation capacity of the lungs and increasing energy consumption for ventilation. A decrease in FEV1 was found in 20.4% of patients with active sarcoidosis of the respiratory system .
Signs of impaired airway patency, expressed in a decrease in the FEV1 / VC ratio in various clinical variants of exogenous allergic alveolitis of poultry farmers were detected in 13-36% of patients, and this decrease was significant – within 55.2 ± 10.8% – 56 ± 14.2% .
Thus, the experience gained to date with the use of Berodual and information on the presence of airway obstruction in a number of respiratory diseases make it possible to expand the list of indications for prescribing the drug and include acute bronchitis, pneumonia, pulmonary tuberculosis and exogenous allergic alveolitis accompanied by broncho-obstructive syndrome. …
The creators of Berodual regularly modify the forms of its release, taking into account the requirements of the time. In accordance with modern environmental safety standards, at the end of the 20th century, a new AIM was developed – Berodual N, containing tetrafluoroethane, safe for the ozone layer, as a propellant.Numerous comparative studies of freon and CFC-free MDI Berodual did not reveal significant differences in their efficacy and safety for patients [21-23]. In addition, the new generation MDIs do not have a cooling effect on the mucous membrane of the respiratory tract, which was characteristic of freon-containing inhalers.
The undoubted advantage of Berodual is the possibility of using it in the form of a solution for inhalation using a nebulizer. Nebulizer inhalation of Berodual’s solution is widely used in intensive care of patients with exacerbations of bronchial asthma and COPD of any severity, and is also prescribed for planned treatment in cases where patients cannot fully use a metered-dose inhaler (small children, elderly patients, etc.).) [24, 25]. Indications for the use of Berodual’s solution through a nebulizer arise in cases of the need to use high doses of bronchodilators, difficulty in coordinating inhalation and injecting the drug from the MDI, with FEV1 Berodual is convenient for use in both clinical and outpatient practice. The high level of safety of Berodual makes it possible to use it widely in young children and elderly patients .
Berodual can be used for concomitant diseases of the cardiovascular system.After inhalation of the drug, even in high doses, as a rule, cardiotoxic reactions are not observed. The results of nebulizer therapy with Berodual in patients with exacerbations of bronchial asthma and concomitant diseases of the cardiovascular system (coronary artery disease, hypertension) showed that the drug did not have a noticeable cardiotoxic effect .
There is an experience of successful application of nebulizer inhalation Berodual in patients with COPD who were on mechanical ventilation .
The safety of Berodual’s use has been proven by the results of many studies, however, it is necessary to remember about the features of drug interactions, the presence of a number of contraindications to the use of the drug and the possibility of undesirable effects.
The components of Berodual are well compatible with each other in the AIM and solution for a nebulizer. The simultaneous use of other b-adrenergic agonists, anticholinergics of systemic action, xanthine derivatives (for example, theophylline) can enhance not only the bronchodilatory effect, but also the side effects of Berodual. A significant weakening of the bronchodilating effect of Berodual is possible with the simultaneous use of b-blockers. The hypokalemia associated with the use of b-adrenergic agonists can be exacerbated by the simultaneous use of xanthine derivatives, steroids and diuretics.This fact should be given special attention in the treatment of patients with severe obstructive airways disease. Hypokalemia may increase the risk of arrhythmias in patients receiving digoxin. In addition, hypoxia can exacerbate the negative effects of hypokalemia on heart rate. In such cases, it is recommended to monitor the level of potassium in the blood serum. Caution should be exercised in prescribing b-adrenergic drugs to patients receiving MAO inhibitors and tricyclic antidepressants, since these drugs can enhance the effect of b-adrenergic drugs.Inhalation of halogenated hydrocarbon anesthetics, for example, halothane, trichlorethylene or enflurane, increases the effect of b-adrenergic drugs on the cardiovascular system. The combined use of Berodual with glucocorticosteroids increases the effectiveness of therapy.
It is undesirable to prescribe Berodual to patients with hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy, tachyarrhythmia, hypersensitivity to fenoterol hydrobromide, atropine-like drugs or other components of the drug.Care should be taken to prescribe the drug for angle-closure glaucoma, coronary insufficiency, arterial hypertension, diabetes mellitus, recent myocardial infarction, severe organic diseases of the heart and blood vessels, hyperthyroidism, pheochromocytoma, prostatic hyperplasia, bladder neck obstruction, cystic fibrosis, in the 1st trimester pregnancy, during breastfeeding. Consideration should be given to the possibility of the inhibitory effect of Berodual on the contractile activity of the uterus.
The most common adverse effects are hand tremors, nervousness, dry mouth and taste changes; less often headache, dizziness, tachycardia are noted, especially in patients with aggravating factors.
Symptoms of an overdose of Berodual are usually associated with excessive stimulation of b-adrenergic receptors by fenoterol. Most likely the appearance of a palpitations, small tremors of skeletal muscles, arterial hypo- or hypertension, an increase in the difference between systolic and diastolic blood pressure, extrasystole, angina pectoris, arrhythmias and a feeling of flushing of the face, increased bronchial obstruction.The use of fenoterol in high doses can lead to stimulation of b1-adrenergic receptors, affect metabolism: cause lipolysis, glycogenolysis, hyperglycemia and hypokalemia (due to increased absorption of potassium by skeletal muscles), inhibit the contractile activity of the uterus. Possible symptoms of an overdose caused by ipratropium bromide (such as dry mouth, impaired accommodation of the eyes) are mild and transient, which is explained by the wide therapeutic range of doses of this drug and its local use.
Berodual’s dosage forms are constantly being improved taking into account the changing requirements of medical practice. Along with the transition to CFC-free forms of AIM, a direction is developing to create original propellant-free dosing systems, for example, Respimat. The study of the effectiveness of inhalation therapy with Berodual in patients with bronchial asthma and COPD using Respimat in comparison with freon AIM showed that the safety profile when using both inhalation devices was the same, and the effect of the introduction of 50 μg fenoterol / 20 μg ipratropium through Respimat was equivalent to that of twice the higher dose administered with the aid of the AIM, i.e.That is, the high economic efficiency of the use of a new inhalation device has been proven [30-31].
Long-term experience of using Berodual in patients with broncho-obstructive diseases suggests that, despite the emergence of new combinations of long-acting bronchodilators, this original combined drug has not lost its value and will remain in clinical and outpatient practice for a long time.
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Plastic bronchitis associated with corrected heart disease in a child | Kamaltynova
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90,000 Treatment of chronic obstructive bronchitis
Bronchitis is an infectious disease accompanied by diffuse inflammation of the bronchi. The main symptom of the disease is coughing.
If the illness lasts less than three weeks, they speak of acute bronchitis. If the symptoms of bronchitis appear for at least three months within a year for two years or more, you can safely diagnose chronic bronchitis.
If the onset of the disease is accompanied by shortness of breath, then they talk about obstructive bronchitis.
Reasons for the development of bronchitis
Bronchitis is an infectious disease. Bronchitis can be caused by bacterial, viral, or atypical flora.
The main bacterial pathogens of bronchitis: staphylococci, pneumococci, streptococci.
Pathogens of viral bronchitis: influenza virus, respiratory syncytial infection, adenovirus, parainfluenza, etc.
Atypical pathogens of bronchitis: chlamydia (Chlamydia pneumonia), mycoplasma (Mycoplasma pneumonia).They are called atypical due to the fact that in their biological characteristics they occupy an intermediate position between bacteria and viruses. Like viruses, they spend most of their life cycle inside the cell, but the characteristics of the cells are much like bacteria.
Very rarely, a fungal infection is the cause of bronchitis.
There is often a combination of different pathogens. For example, the disease begins as a viral infection, and then pathogens of a bacterial nature join.At the same time, viruses, as it were, open the gates for bacteria, create favorable conditions for their reproduction. This variant of the course is the most common, which is confirmed by a sharp rise in the incidence in the autumn and winter periods of time, when there is a seasonal spread of viral infections.
A necessary condition for the development of bronchitis is a decrease in the activity of the patient’s immune system, which normally ensures the body’s immunity to infectious diseases.
Risk factors for infection are considered to be age over 50, smoking, work in hazardous work conditions, frequent hypothermia, alcoholism, chronic diseases of internal organs in the stage of decompensation.
Spa treatment of chronic obstructive and non-obstructive bronchitis
As you know, the influence of climate on the course of respiratory diseases has been proven for a long time. Several centuries ago, for the treatment of chronic pulmonary diseases, doctors advised patients to change their place of residence, more often to climatic zones near the seas. These facts eloquently indicate that the best medicine for the treatment of respiratory organs is spa treatment.