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Hair Loss? It May Be Iron Deficiency

May 17, 2006 – If you’re losing hair, you may have an iron deficiency.

A review of 40 years of research shows that iron deficiency has a much closer link to hair loss than most doctors realize. It may be the key to restoring hair growth, Cleveland Clinic dermatologists find.

“We believe that treatment for hair loss is enhanced when iron deficiency, with or without anemia, is treated,” Leonid Benjamin Trost, MD; Wilma Fowler Bergfeld, MD; and Ellen Calogeras, RD, MPH, write in the May issue of the Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology.

It’s a controversial issue. Not every study shows a link between iron deficiency and hair loss. Trost says there’s not enough hard evidence — yet — to make iron-deficiency screening a routine procedure for people with hair loss.

But study researcher Bergfeld has been doing this for years. And she’s finding that whatever the cause of hair loss — for both women and men — having too little iron in the blood makes it worse.

“What Dr. Bergfeld has found in decades of experience, is when she treats patients for iron deficiency –even in the absence of anemia — it can maximize their ability to regrow hair,” Trost tells WebMD. “It is not the silver bullet for baldness, but it can definitely help maximize how a patient regrows hair.”

The Cleveland Clinic isn’t alone in doing this. George Cotsarelis, director of the University of Pennsylvania Hair and Scalp Clinic, has studied iron supplementation in women with various forms of hair loss.

“From our clinic’s experience, it is clear to me that if you replenish hair-loss patients’ iron stores with iron supplements, they are more likely to regrow hair, or at least stop hair shedding,” Cotsarelis tells WebMD. “And they don’t have to be anemic. That is the biggest mistake doctors make.”

An even bigger mistake would be for balding people to take iron supplements on their own. Unless you have iron deficiency — diagnosed by a doctor — iron supplements can lead to a very dangerous condition from iron overload.

Hair Loss May Be a Symptom of Serious Illness

A sensitive way to check total body iron stores is to measure the amount of ferritin in the blood. Ferritin is a protein that plays an important role in iron storage. As a general rule, the less ferritin in the blood, the less iron a body has stored up.

Cotsarelis and Trost say that what most doctors consider to be a normal ferritin level is, in fact, too low. Ferritin levels of 10-15 ng/mL are within the “normal” range. Cotsarelis says a ferritin level of at least 50 ng/mL is needed to help replenish hair. Trost and Bergfeld shoot for 70 ng/mL.

“Doctors see ferritin levels in the normal range, and don’t do anything,” Cotsarelis says. “But the normal range is wrong, I think. The normal range for women is 10-120 ng/ML, and for men it is 30-250 ng/mL. Why should a man’s be lower than a woman’s? Mostly because women are iron deficient. It is almost a public health problem. Hair loss is only an indication of this.”

Cotsarelis and colleagues have found that women with hair loss have significantly lower iron stores than women without hair loss. Surprisingly, this was particularly true for women with alopecia areata, a form of hair loss caused by haywire immune responses.

“Our theory is that lower iron levels decrease the threshold for developing hair loss of any kind in genetically predisposed individuals,” Cotsarelis says. “So people prone to develop even hereditary hair loss, if their iron levels are low, it accelerates that process. We think it’s because the hair follicles grow so much, they require a lot of iron.”

Women who frequently have heavy menstrual periods often become iron deficient. “If you have a healthy woman with hair loss, you can assume iron deficiency,” Trost says.

Iron deficiency is less common in men and postmenopausal women than in women of childbearing age. But it’s something Cotsarelis and Trost see often in people with hair loss. Especially when it gets to the point of anemia, iron deficiency can be a symptom of very serious illness. It’s important for a doctor to find out why this is happening.

“If you have a man or a postmenopausal woman with iron-deficiency anemia, you need to do a workup to find out why,” Trost says. “Say you have a 55-year-old man with iron-deficiency anemia — it could be caused by bleeding due to colon cancer. Believe it or not, someone can come in complaining of hair loss, and find out it is something serious.”

Don’t Take Iron Supplements Without Doctor Visit

Iron supplements are not a cure for baldness. But as part of a multipronged approach, Cotsarelis and Trost say, supplements can be a big help.

So is a diet full of iron-rich foods, such as tofu, lentils, beans, oysters, spinach, prunes, raisins, and, yes, lean beef. Learn more about the connection between your diet and alopecia.

Trost says he and Bergfeld usually recommend these foods, plus supplementation with ferrous sulfate, 325 milligrams per day taken on an empty stomach.

It’s not an easy supplement to take.

“Iron supplements cause constipation and gastrointestinal upset,” Cotsarelis says. “We try different preparations, but they but all seem to have similar problems. And there is some anecdotal evidence that orange juice, vitamin C, or lysine, if take together with the iron, helps the absorption.”

Do not take iron supplements unless a doctor has told you that you have iron deficiency, Trost warns.

“Iron supplements are available over the counter, but we recommend you take them only under the supervision of a doctor,” he says. “It is safe, when used appropriately, but if taken when inappropriate it can cause some harm. If you take a too-high dose of vitamin C, your body eliminates it — but iron doesn’t work that way. Your body can regulate how quickly it uptakes iron, but has no way to get rid of it quickly. If you are not deficient, you can get iron overload, which can be dangerous.” 

Can taking the right vitamins help reverse male pattern baldness? Learn more.

 

Do Iron Pills Stimulate Hair Growth in Women?

Increasing your iron levels through supplements or eating iron-rich foods, like red meat and dark leafy greens, can help with hair loss if you have low iron levels.

Image Credit: Jennifer A Smith/Moment/GettyImages

Hair loss is a real concern for many women, and iron pills have been shown to help with hair growth. Doctors can test for iron deficiency and will determine if supplements will help. In addition to iron, there are other vitamins that may help hair grow stronger and thicker.

Tip

Increasing your iron levels through supplements or eating iron-rich foods, like red meat and dark leafy greens, can help with hair loss if you have low iron levels. Vitamin C and vitamin D have also been shown to help with hair loss.

Benefits of Iron for Hair

A recent study showed the benefits of iron for hair growth. One of the most common types of hair loss for women is called telogen effluvium (TE), which is hair loss that often occurs at the crown or top of the scalp. A September 2017 study in the Egyptian Journal of Dermatology and Venerology showed that premenopausal women who had low iron levels had a higher chance of having hair loss.

This doesn’t mean that you should automatically start popping iron supplements. It is important that you first get your levels checked to see if iron could help with your hair growth. Ask your doctor for a serum ferritin test to see what your iron level is. In the study, women whose levels were below 20 ng/ml had a higher chance of having hair loss.

Signs of Iron Deficiency

According to Harvard Health, the main reason women in the United States have iron deficiency or anemia is from childbirth or heavy menstrual periods. If you are a vegetarian, you could also be a risk for having an iron deficiency. Women who are older than 65 may have iron deficiency from internal bleeding, so it is important to get checked out by your doctor.

Those who have an iron deficiency may notice that, in addition to hair loss or thinning, they may also have fatigue, dizziness, weakness, shortness of breath or a pale complexion. If you notice these symptoms, get tested to see if low iron is the cause.

It is important not to start taking iron supplements without getting tested first, as too much iron can cause side effects, including constipation and nausea.

Read more: The Cure for Baldness May Finally Be Here

Iron for Hair Growth

How much iron should you take for hair growth? Iron is not excreted from your body at a high rate, so too much can build up and become toxic. According to the US Department of Health and Human Services, women between the ages of 19 and 50 should get 18 mg of iron per day. Women older than 50 need just 8 mg per day. If you are pregnant, however, your iron requirements bump up to 27 mg per day.

According to Cleveland Clinic, the best way to amp up your iron levels is by incorporating iron-rich foods, such as meat and seafood, into your diet. Eating a four-ounce portion of red meat twice a week should give you the iron you need. If you are vegetarian, incorporate plenty of dark leafy greens, such as spinach, as well as beans into your diet. Many cereals are now iron fortified as well. Avoid eating your iron-rich meal in the morning with your coffee, as a compound in coffee inhibits the absorption of iron.

If your doctor recommends an iron supplement for hair growth, then 18 mg of iron in a vitamin will supply 100 percent of your recommended daily value.

Read More: Does Foam or Liquid Rogaine Work Best?

Proven Vitamins for Hair Growth

In addition to iron supplements, a March 2019 Dermatology and Therapy study showed that vitamin C is beneficial for those who have both TE hair loss and another type of hair loss called alopecia areata (AA), in which your immune system attacks the hair follicle. Vitamin D is another vitamin that helps in hair growth, especially for those who have AA.

Contrary to popular belief, the study showed that biotin does not help with hair growth. One vitamin tested, vitamin A, actually caused hair loss when taken in too high of a dose. If you are experiencing hair loss, talk to your doctor to get to the root cause. If you do have low iron, supplements can help with hair growth.

Anaemia (Iron Deficiency) & Hair Loss/Thinning

Anaemia (Iron Deficiency) & Hair Loss/Thinning | Philip Kingsley

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Anabel Kingsley

Brand President

Published June 2013

Why is Iron Important for Hair?

Iron is a mineral that is crucial to our health. Its most important function in our body is to aid in the production of red blood cells. These cells carry oxygen (haemoglobin) around the body via our bloodstream to all our tissues and organs — including our hair follicles. Iron also optimises energy levels, nourishes your muscles (including your heart), and helps your immune system. In other words, it is an all-round essential for your general fitness and well-being.

If you do not have enough iron in your body, you may develop a condition called iron deficiency anaemia. This can cause your hair to shed.

Iron Deficiency Anaemia and Hair Loss

Iron deficiency anaemia is a condition in which your body lacks iron to make enough red blood cells. These are the cells that carry oxygen [haemoglobin] around your body to your tissues, allowing them to function.

How does a lack of red blood cells affect your hair? When your body is short of oxygen, it channels its available supply to your vital organs to keep them alive, rather than to your hair follicles. Without oxygen, your hair follicles cease to function properly, and your hair may fall out. In fact, a large proportion of people who come into our Trichological clinics for hair-loss treatment have some degree of anaemia.

The symptoms of iron deficiency anaemia include [but are not limited to]:

Extreme tiredness

Diffuse hair loss from the scalp

Anaemia can occur if your diet lacks iron-rich foods, or if you are not absorbing iron correctly. Other causes of anaemia include loss of blood (particularly in menstruating women), growth spurts in children, illness, and pregnancy. In fact, pregnant women need increased iron to deliver blood and oxygen to their baby, and therefore often become anaemic.

If you are losing your hair, or notice it is not growing as long or as fast as it used to, we suggest you ask your doctor to test your iron levels. Iron levels should be analysed by checking the following blood levels:

TIBC (Total Iron Binding Capacity)

If you discover you are anaemic, try not to worry — hair loss due to anaemia is reversible. Your GP can prescribe you an iron supplement. It is important to follow the dosage you are given, because high iron levels can also be dangerous, and taking more than prescribed will not lead to a faster result. You may also want to ask your doctor to suggest changes to your diet. 

The most beneficial treatment for anaemia is when you receive iron through good nutrition as well as a suitable supplement.

Liver and other organ meats

Meat

Shellfish

Whole grains (e.g. brown rice)

Nuts

Beans

Green leafy vegetables (e.g. curly kale, spinach)

Dried fruit (e.g. apricots)

Fortified cereals

Ferritin: Another Form of Iron

What is Ferritin?

Ferritin is a protein in your body that stores iron and releases it when your body needs it. Good ferritin levels indicate that your body’s iron levels are balanced and healthy, which in turn is essential for healthy hair.

Why is Ferritin Important for Hair?

A certain amount of ferritin is stored in your hair bulb. Your hair bulb uses it, when needed, in order to form the proteins that hair is made of — thereby allowing your hairs to grow. However, when you are not getting enough iron through your diet, your body takes ferritin stored in non-essential tissue (like your hair bulb) and gives it to essential tissue, such as your heart. This often means that the growth (anagen) phase of your hair growth cycle is shortened, causing your strands to shed prematurely before they reach their maximum length.

If you notice that your hair is shedding, and/or not growing as long as it used to, and/or that you have short, wispy hairs around your temples and hairline, you may have low ferritin levels. Ask your GP or Trichologist to check them. (It is important to note that optimum ferritin levels for your hair are higher than those for your body. Again, this is because your hair is non-essential tissue.)

If your ferritin is low, try not to worry — your doctor or Trichologist can prescribe an iron supplement. Hair loss due to low ferritin is entirely reversible, and relatively easy to correct.

 

 

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6 Supplements or Vitamins for Hair and Skin Growth

Are you frustrated with dry skin, cracked lips, or dull hair? Natural dietary supplements or vitamins for hair and skin may be the answer you’re looking for. But while there’s no shortage of vitamins for skin and hair on the market, not all of them are created equal.

Let’s look at biotin, one of the hair vitamins found in many foods and available over the counter in supplement form at pharmacies and supermarkets. Some findings show that cigarette smoking may cause a deficiency in biotin, with symptoms that include:

  • Loss of hair color
  • Red scaly rash around the eyes, nose, and mouth
  • Thinning of the hair

Biotin has been found to be “likely effective” in treating biotin deficiency and is safe when used in recommended amounts (read the supplement label). Could this be the hair growth vitamin you’ve been looking for? As with any vitamin for skin or hair, always consult with your physician before you try it.

Omega-3 fatty acids are another vitamin for hair. Omega-3s may boost the shine in your hair and keep your tender scalp from flaking. A study published in September 2017 in the journal Biochimica et Biophysica Acta found that dietary supplementation with fish oil — filled with omega 3 fatty acids — could have therapeutic value to many inflammatory skin conditions.

Another study, published in March 2015 in the Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology, revealed that taking omega-3 and omega-6 supplements for six months, along with antioxidants, acts efficiently against hair loss and improves hair density.

It’s not uncommon for women of childbearing age to have anemia due to blood loss during menstrual periods, resulting in hair loss. Iron deficiency is a usual cause of anemia. Iron replacement is generally done through vitamin and mineral supplements. Your doctor can do a simple test to check for anemia.

Zinc also has antioxidant properties and is vital to your body’s resistance to infection and for tissue repair. High doses of zinc are toxic, though, so talk to your doctor about your diet to see if you need to supplement.

Vitamin C is another vitamin for skin as it helps your skin retain collagen, giving it a smoother appearance. A study published in November 2017 in the journal Nutrients showed that vitamin C also helps in wound healing and helps to control inflammation.

Many hair vitamins and vitamins for skin have the power to give you a younger-looking complexion, shinier strands, and stronger nails. Just make sure to check with a doctor before adding any of these supplements to your routine.

Losing Your Hair? It May Be Your Iron Intake / Nutrition

People have been trying to find a cure for hair loss for years. Adequate nutrition is essential for healthy hair and there is insufficient evidence that taking an iron supplement will stop hair loss. However, there is evidence that individuals with hair loss have lower iron stores than those who do not have hair loss. There is also evidence suggesting anemia is associated with hair loss. Iron deficiency can cause anemia. Never take an iron supplement without your doctor’s supervision because too much iron can be toxic and, according to the Iron Disorders Institute, can actually be a cause for hair loss.

Iron Deficiency and Hair Loss

Treating iron deficiency when you are not anemic is controversial according to researchers of a study titled “The diagnosis and treatment of iron deficiency and its potential relationship to hair loss” published in 2006 in “Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology”. But they stated in this study that they believe treating iron deficiency enhances treatment for hair loss. This makes sense, as all the nutrients in your body work in synergy to keep your cells healthy including your hair follicles.

Iron is a mineral in your body, mainly found in hemoglobin, a protein that makes up your red blood cells and carries oxygen to all of the cells in your body. Your doctor can check if you are anemic by checking your hemoglobin. Iron deficiency can cause iron deficiency anemia, in which case your doctor would also check for low ferritin to confirm the anemia is caused by iron deficiency. Although there is no sufficient evidence that iron deficiency independently causes hair loss, if you have hair loss, you may have low ferritin.

Dietary Iron

It is always better to consume nutrients from food sources rather than from supplements. The recommended dietary allowance for iron is eight milligrams a day for men over 18 and 18 milligrams a day for women over 18. For men and women over 50 the recommended dietary allowance is eight milligrams.

Dietary iron is found in two forms, heme iron and non-heme iron. Heme iron is found in the animal sources of iron such as beef, chicken, tuna, and turkey and is easier for your body to absorb. Non-heme iron is plant iron and is found in plant sources of iron such as fortified cereals, beans and lentils, spinach, and bread. Non-heme iron is not as easily absorbed by your body. Vitamin C and meat proteins increase your absorption of this iron. Calcium, tannins such as in tea, phytates such as in whole grains and legumes, and polyphenols found in many plant foods with antioxidant properties, can reduce non-heme iron absorption.

YOU DIET MAY NOT JUST BE AFFECTING YOUR HAIR, IT MAY BE MAKING YOU TIRED.

Jamie Yacoub, M.P.H., R.D. is a clinical dietitian with a Master’s of Public Health in Nutrition, and expected Certified Diabetes
Educator (C.D.E.) fall 2013. She obtained her Bachelor of Science in
clinical nutrition from UC Davis after four years, during which time she
participated in internships in several different nutrition environments
including Kaiser Permanente and Women, Infants, & Children
(W.I.C.). After graduating from UC Davis, she went on to study public
health nutrition at Loma Linda University where she obtained her
Master’s of Public Health in Nutrition. Jamie completed the community
nutrition portion of her dietetic internship as an intern for a
Certified Specialist in Sports
Nutrition. She completed both the food service and clinical portions of
her dietetic internship at a top 100 hospital in the nation, where she
was hired as the only clinical dietitian shortly after. Jamie now works
as an outpatient clinical dietitian and is an expert in Medical
Nutrition Therapy (M.N.T.) using the Nutrition Care Process (N.C.P.)
including past medical history and current laboratory values as a basis
of nutrition assessment.

Iron For Hair Growth

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10 best flat irons of 2021, according to celebrity hairstylists

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Ceramic vs. tourmaline vs. titanium flat irons

The three most common flat iron plates are ceramic, tourmaline and titanium. Each one will straighten hair, but different attributes make each more beneficial for certain hair textures, ranging from fine wavy hair to kinky coils.

Ceramic flat irons

Bertin said that ceramic irons are the most affordable option out of the three types of hair straighteners. They don’t get as hot as titanium and tourmaline, which can be a good thing, depending on your hair’s health and texture.

  • Hairstylist Courtney Foster and Bertin agreed that ceramic flat irons heat up “fairly quickly,” provide even heat distribution, glide through the hair smoothly and leave behind a glossy sheen.
  • They also agreed that those with thick, coarse hair should pass on ceramic flat irons.
  • After the ceramic-coated plates wear down or chip away, “the not-so-safe-metal” — usually aluminum — is exposed, which “can really wreck your hair.”
  • Ceramic flat irons are ideal for those with dry, damaged or fine hair, said Bertin.

Tourmaline flat irons

According to the pros, tourmaline plates contain silicate and straighten the hair with less heat.

  • Tourmaline hair straighteners smooth the hair cuticle and add moisture-locking ions to the hair. “These ions help balance out dry and damaged hair, leaving the hair silkier with no frizz or flyaways,” Foster said.
  • Because the flat iron plates are coated with tourmaline, Bertin advised that you keep an eye out for wear and chipping to avoid potential heat damage.
  • Bertin added that you need fewer passes to get your desired effect because the heat distribution of tourmaline is the best of the three.

Titanium flat irons

Titanium is a strong, durable metal best suited for professional salon use, said Bertin.

  • Titanium flat iron plates heat up the quickest, he said.
  • Foster, founder of Courtney Foster Beauty, added that a titanium iron also heats evenly, which allows for fewer passes over the hair and gives “much better results than the ceramic iron.”
  • Bertin added that even if you have hair with minimal damage from heat or chemical processing, titanium flat irons can mess up your hair.

Related

Best flat irons of 2021

Once you’ve determined which flat iron works best for your hair’s natural texture and fullness, where should you start looking? We consulted experts and found 11 celebrity hairstylist-approved flat irons in various price points.

1. CHI Original 1-inch Ceramic Iron

Foster’s favorite ceramic iron is the 1-inch version from CHI, which she called “a nice introductory iron that is priced reasonably and provides a nice finish to the hair.” The flat iron uses negative ions to add moisture and shine to your strands. It takes 30 seconds for the hair straightener to reach a pre-set temperature of 392 degrees Fahrenheit. The ergonomic design helps make it easier to curl, wave and straighten your hair. The CHI ceramic flat iron boasts a 4.5-star average rating from more than 5,900 reviews on Amazon, where it is currently marked down nearly 70 percent off.

2. BaByliss PRO Mini Nano Titanium Ionic Flat Iron

“The BaByliss almost needs no explanation, as it’s compact, thin and perfect for all those trouble spots where your normal flat iron can’t reach, like your temples, part or neckline,” said celebrity hairstylist Kristen Shaw. At just under $30, you get a powerful 6-inch-long flat iron with .5-inch-wide plates that heat up to 430 degrees Fahrenheit. Toss the hair straightener into your weekend bag or purse for quick touch-ups on the go. The Mini Nano flat iron earned a 4.4-star average rating from nearly 4,700 reviews on Amazon.

3. Revlon Salon Straight Copper Smooth

Caile Noble, the hairstylist to Julia Roberts, Cindy Crawford and Kirsten Dunst, called the Revlon Salon Straight Copper Smooth his “one-stop and favorite flat iron” for all hair types. The adjustable heat ranges from 180 to 455 degrees Fahrenheit, which allows you to tailor the temperature to your hair texture. (Remember: The coarser your hair, the higher the temperature you can get away with using.) “The added attachment works wonders on thicker hair to give added control and better results while styling,” he said. “And the copper plates evenly distribute heat, resulting in less damage and added frizz control. Who doesn’t want that?” If you prefer larger flat iron plates, then go for the XL version that is 1.5 inches wide or the 2-inch option. It boasts a 4.5-star average rating from nearly 1,600 reviews on Amazon.

4. T3 Lucea Straightening and Styling Iron

Kiki Heitkotter, hairstylist to Busy Phillips, Michelle Williams, Reese Witherspoon and Lili Reinhart, “loves” using this “versatile” hair straightener on clients. The flat iron has nine heat settings, “making it very easy to customize the amount of heat for your specific hair type [and] causing less damage, which is a huge bonus for our hair,” she said. Heitkotter also likes the flexible plates, which “allow the flat iron to grip the hair with even tension.” The T3 Lucea is the No. 1 bestseller in its class on Sephora and it received a 4.8-star average from 75 reviews on the site.

5. ghd Classic Original IV Hair Straightener

Shaw, who works with Chloe Sevigny and Emma Watson, keeps this ceramic flat iron on rotation. “It’s one of my favorites due to its semi-rounded edges, which increase the preservation of your hair’s integrity and strength, so you don’t accidentally repeat creases with frequent styling, which ultimately breaks your hair,” she said. The flat iron heats up in 30 seconds to one temperature setting — 365 degrees Fahrenheit— and shuts down after 30 minutes of non-use. This ghd hair straightener boasts a 4.5-star average rating from nearly 1,600 reviews on Amazon.

6. Dyson Corrale Hair Straightener

Foster’s favorite tourmaline iron is the Dyson Corrale hair straightener. “The quality and price tag makes this flat iron like the Rolls Royce of hair tools,” she said. Shaw, who helps Hillary Swank, Jodie Comer and Shailene Woodley primp for the red carpet, also keeps this hair straightener in her pro kit. The cordless flat iron “will straighten your hair at the fastest speed without burning it and leaves your strands shiny,” she said. It offers 30 minutes of cord-free use, three pre-set heat seeings — 330, 365 and 410 degrees Fahrenheit — and automatically shuts off after 30 minutes.

7. L’Oréal Steampod

Bertin, who works with Letitia Wright, Katy Perry and Cara Delevingne, is also a fan of the L’Oreal Steampod. The ceramic flat iron uses steam — rather than dry heat like other hair straighteners — to achieve sleek strands. “This infusion of moisture (water) conditions the hair while straightening and allows for a longer-lasting style that will stay frizz-free,” he said.

8. Cloud Nine Original Flat Iron

Bertin “loves” the Cloud Nine flat iron, which is available in four sizes — Micro, Touch, Original and Wide. It also has seven temperature settings, ranging from 212 to 392 degrees Fahrenheit,which he noted is “really helpful to pinpoint all hair types.” The ceramic plates are infused with minerals, “so you get a gorgeous, snag-free glide,” Bertin added. If you’re unsure of which size hair straightener is best for you, then follow Bertin’s tip: “Smaller plates are better for short hair, whereas larger plates are better for longer hair. The plate size won’t affect the finished product, but it will affect the speed at which you get there.”

9. Kristin Ess 3-in-1 Flat Iron

“This flat iron has beveled edges, making it user-friendly and less likely to get bends and creases in the hair,” said Heitkotter. With 1.25-inch titanium plates and four pre-set temperatures that heat up to 440 degrees, you can “glide (the flat iron) smoothly through your hair, giving you a shiny end result.” There’s also a 9-foot-long swivel cord and automatic shutoff after 30 minutes of non-use. This 3-in-1 Kristin Ess flat iron is a top three bestseller on Target.

10. Bellami Triple Shine Original Flatiron

Ruslan Nureev, who works with Jessica Alba, Karlie Kloss, Bella Hadid and Jasmine Tookes, is “obsessed” with the Bellami Triple Shine flatiron. The hair straightener, which is available in three sizes — .5-, 1- and 1.5-inches — heats up to 430 degrees in 60 seconds. It also has graphene, black diamond and ceramic plates, which “makes the hair very shiny in one pass,” he said.

Related

Do flat irons damage hair?

Foster said that flat irons do not damage hair. However, improper use, like utilizing a temperature too high for your hair type, can “run the risk of damage.” Bertin agreed, adding that heat damage is “irreparable and has to be grown out.” That means it’s safest to start with a lower temperature and increase if necessary. He said the cuticle, or outer layer of a hair strand, can “very easily” become damaged by heat over 356 degrees Fahrenheit or 180 degrees Celsius, “if care isn’t taken to do quick passes on a low or medium temperature with a flat iron.” Damaging that cuticle layer will make your hair more porous, which means it will struggle to hold on to moisture, explained Bertin. When heat is applied to hair, he noted, its moisture content begins evaporating, which causes dryness and breakage.

Although hair straighteners are safe to use, hairstylists we consulted advised against using flat irons — or any hot tool, for that matter — every day. “Even with the best heat protectants in the game, heat, whether that is from a flat iron or a hair dryer, is not something you should be exposing your hair to every day,” added Bertin. He said those with afro-textured hair should consider flat ironing their hair at most once a week because “our hair is naturally more fragile and dry, so flat ironing any more than that is a huge no-no.” Depending on the health and dryness of straighter hair types, you can get away with flat ironing more often, but Bertin advised against everyday use if you want healthy hair.

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90,000 You know, you can stroke everyone’s hair.
And put tenderness in your hands, and your soul.
And the one you stroke won’t even ask –
You do not love. Once the tenderness is out.

You know, you can kiss the first one.

First comer. Yes, even at the pharmacy.

Swear later that you will be faithful to him.

Cooking borscht, or baking pasties.

You know, fondling is easier than usual.

In our time, sex is just a saying.

The suit is nice and the face is pretty.
Prelude, action. The heart won’t slip out

Already out of the chest. This, you know, is hard labor.

Love – do not love. People love to suffer.

What am I doing this? I’m talking about the main thing today.

From the senses light up. Feelings are not learned.

SIMILAR QUOTES

SIMILAR QUOTES

– Do you have a goal in life? Anything?

– You know, I would like to come home and not take the keys out of my pocket.I just want to ring my door … and have it open.

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Where you don’t know the point, what you don’t understand, then abuse: this is a general rule of mediocrity.

Vissarion Grigorievich Belinsky (100+)

After all, in their souls people always carry the images of those they love, they live in their hearts, and the world is full of different opportunities to show them their tenderness, it is not appreciated with money, but it brings so much joy.

Tove Jansson (9)

When you know what is written in Wikipedia, it is not yet real erudition. Real erudition is when you know something that is not there.

Unknown author (1000+)

Do not spare money for your health!

This is the main condition in life.

Why? Yes, just because

What’s without real health

We don’t need money anymore!

Eduard Arkadievich Asadov (100+)

And it doesn’t matter age or appearance, Hair color is all nonsense! After all, tenderness is not measured by height, And kindness is not measured in centimeters

Igor Terentyev (1)

Tenderness is a medicine to which no one will ever be allergic.

Unknown author (1000+)

If you don’t know what you feel about a person – close your eyes and imagine: he is not. Nowhere. There has not been and will not be. Then everything will become clear.

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When you know that everything will end well, you can be patient.

Gift of Shavanakhola (Max Frye) (40+)

Love what you do and do what you love.

Igor Khobotov (50+)

Why do men actually grow beards

  • Tamsin Saxton
  • Northumbria University, Newcastle

Photo author, Getty

Photo caption,

Little beard – why is she?

It may seem that facial hair is only for men to find a girlfriend. But, as Tamsin Saxton found out, it may not be that simple.

What is the evolutionary point of a beard? Women, children and a huge number of men do well without her.

However, today on the street you can find people whose faces are covered with hair of all shapes and sizes, well-groomed and not very well-groomed – from stylish stubble to pomaded mustaches and hipster beards.

When a man cares about his appearance, the easiest way is to assume that he is looking for his soul mate.

But based on our research, facial hair probably evolved in part to help men gain a foothold among other members of the same gender.

Compared to males and females of many other primates, males and females tend to be very different from each other – in part because of the facial hair of the stronger sex.

At the same time, external differences between males and females are often reduced to traits formed by evolution in the process of sexual selection – such features increased the chances of mating.

Author of the photo, Getty

Caption,

Beard does not necessarily attract the fair sex

It is curious to note that women, as it turned out, are not so much interested in men with beards.

And although some studies have shown that the fair sex really does like moderate or even abundant hair on male faces, other studies have shown that women prefer clean-shaven men.

We have no data to argue that beards appeared in men in the process of evolution precisely in order to attract women.

This prompted the researchers to think that in this case we are dealing with the second type of sexual selection.

In order to have offspring, it is often not enough just to be attractive. For sexual partners you have to fight with other members of the same gender.

An eccentric timid guy who hugs the wall will not withstand the competition from his more uninhibited fellows. Scientists have found confirmation that men had a beard for this very purpose.

A man’s ability to let go of a thick beard is not related to testosterone levels.

Despite this, a number of studies have shown that both sexes perceive bearded men as more mature, strong and aggressive than beardless men.

But the dominant male can get more chances of mating by intimidating rivals. This has been the case throughout the history of mankind, and this statement is true now.

It is much easier for men with the ability to dominate to find sexual partners: according to genetic research, about 8% of the modern male population of Asia are descendants of Genghis Khan and his relatives.

According to a study by the scientist Nigel Barber, the fashion for beards and mustaches in Great Britain between 1842 and 1971 changed depending on the ratio of single men to unmarried women.

As it turns out, beards and mustaches were fashionable at a time when a large number of men were forced to compete for the favor of fewer women.

Photo author, Getty

Photo caption,

The bearded conqueror Genghis Khan conquered a significant part of Asia – as if in confirmation of the thesis about the success of the bearded men

Beard is not the only sign of a dominant male, this can also be indicated by a voice.

As a rule, people are more willing to vote for candidates with low votes, and men who find themselves in a competitive environment while performing certain tasks lower their voices in order to appear more influential than the enemy.

The voice, like facial hair, makes it easy to distinguish a man from a woman.

In order to trace the evolutionary path of the development of beards and voices, we decided to find out whether they are considered an indicator of attractiveness, influence – or both.

We asked 20 men and 20 women to rate the degree of influence and attractiveness of six men, each of whom starred in four videos at different stages of facial hair growth.

In addition, using computer technology, we created four versions of each video, changing the sound of the voices of the same men to a higher and lower register.

We found that male voices with timbre below the average are perceived as more attractive. Very low or high voices were not so popular.

However, a man’s influence was assessed the higher, the lower his voice sounded.

Having a beard was not consistently significant in assessing a man’s attractiveness, however, those with rich facial hair appeared to be more influential, in line with previous studies.

The internal conflict between the desire to attract a member of the opposite sex and the need to compete with others is reflected not only in the beard and voice.

Photo author, Getty

Photo caption,

The ability to grow a beard is not necessarily related to testosterone levels.

The average man thinks his body should be more muscular than what polls say women like.

And women, as a rule, exaggerate the attractiveness of thinness and bright makeup for the opposite sex.

We are not always able to accurately determine what attracts the opposite sex, but perhaps this is partly due to the fact that instinct tells us not only to attract a partner, but also to surpass our rivals in everything.

Of course, most of this research was carried out among the population of Western countries. The use of makeup, average build, and even the ability to grow a beard varies greatly around the world, which means that results in other regions may have been different.

The bottom line is that often differences in appearance – whether it be facial hair or something else – are determined precisely by our need to compete with others.

But you can’t please everyone all at once …

15 unexpected things, from which almost all men lose their heads

When a woman falls asleep on a man’s shoulder

When a woman puts her head on a man’s shoulder and falls asleep – this is one of the most “eloquent” poses of love. Moment of romantic harmonious patriarchy: a woman is weak, a man is strong. She literally rests on his shoulder.This makes the man understand that the woman trusts him, that she is good with him. Of course, this is euphoric.

Woman’s small tummy

The opinion of men about a lady’s small tummy: this is not a problem. Quite the opposite: it’s feminine. Men are looking for a normal “live” girlfriend, not a beauty with a steel press.

Plus a small female tummy somewhat evens the odds. Indeed, among men, there are also not so many owners of impeccable relief.

When a man pushes a woman against a wall

When a man pushes a woman against a wall – these are echoes of primitive times, when the stronger sex hunted the weak.Well, he caught his “prey” and gets high.

This is a demonstration of power and passion. The same thing happens when a man takes a woman by the hair during sex.

Uniforms

Stewardess, nurse, police officer, military and school uniforms … These are all common sex fetishes. But for most men, they remain just a fantasy. After all, the beloved does not always work on air travel or in the clinic. Hence the dreams. Role-playing games to help you.

When a man holds a woman by the throat

Does not choke.And he carefully takes the woman by the neck. If this does not make you uncomfortable, then there is no reason to panic. So the gentleman dominates, and enjoys the feeling of power over the woman. In principle, this is natural for the opposite sex. Let in fact everything is not so, and it is he under your thumb.

Bare feet

Director Quentin Tarantino once confessed to the passion for bare feet. It turns out he’s not the only one. The sight of bare feet drives so many men crazy. Psychologists explain that bare feet are perceived by men as an allusion to the “rest” of nudity.Wear sandals for a date, not closed shoes.

When a woman is not wearing a bra

To begin with, this speaks of a certain courage of the lady. And men like “desperate”.

And it also contributes to very interesting male fantasies. After all, sitting opposite you at the table, he understands: there is nothing under this thin cashmere.

When a man carries a woman in his arms

First, he is flattered by the fact that he can take such weight.Secondly, this is romance from fairy tales about princes and princesses, which is not alien to even the most brutal men. And the third thing: it means that a woman is in the hands of a man. How not to start here?

Scent of a woman

Scientifically proven: in search of a partner, people, like animals, are guided “by smell”. Especially men: most of them are fans of scent. Moreover, they can be equally excited by both pleasant perfumes and the “native” smell of a woman’s body. The same sweat contains pheromones that drive men crazy at a hormonal level.

When a man strokes a woman’s hair

There are two things at once. First. When a man strokes a woman’s hair, he wants to show his reverent attitude. It’s like stroking a pet – tenderness.

Second. By touching a woman’s hair, a man demonstrates that she belongs to him. After all, you hardly allow unfamiliar men to touch your hair.

Some men sniff their girlfriend’s hair. And this is of particular importance, even if he himself does not realize it.These are the very smells and pheromones that one way or another affect his subconscious and cause attraction to a particular woman. Far from all, but precisely to the one that suits him best. Breathing in the scent of hair, a man is “saturated with a woman.”

Bare female shoulders

Noticed in sex scenes in the movies: first of all, a man pulls the strap of a dress from a lady’s shoulder. Bare female shoulders are a symbol of defenselessness. Their appearance is mesmerizing, awe inspiring and arouses sexual interest.A woman with bare shoulders immediately wants to be hugged and carried to the bedroom.

Good appetite of a woman

Food is one of the main pleasures of man. Therefore, a woman’s good appetite is a “signal” for a man: she knows how to enjoy. And this is the basis for assuming that in bed you will also be insatiable.

Plus, having shamelessly devoured the dessert, you make it clear: you have no food or other “problems”.

Not too sexy underwear

Contrary to popular belief, not too sexy underwear is by no means an obstacle for men.On the contrary: many admit that a casual cotton set or seamless sports briefs only fuel their passion.

The explanation is this: the fact that you did not plan sex, but he managed to persuade you to it, is extremely turns on.

High position of a woman

The head, head or director of a department – even a small one – “knocks down” any man. The thought of conquering someone who is used to giving instructions himself is very exciting. Next to such a woman, the partner feels like an experienced alpha male.

Small Breasts

Oddly enough, but many men like small breasts. First, it fits nicely in the hand. Secondly, small breasts are more elastic in comparison with lush ones, which is “younger” in the eyes of a man. There is something of “Lolita” in this, not otherwise.

Beauty lunar calendar for November 2021

New Moon

The new moon phase on the calendar lasts only one day, but extends its effect to several days before and after the immediate date.This is the ideal time for hair removal: on the new moon, the pain threshold for many women decreases, so the procedure will be almost painless. Also at this time, the body reacts well to relaxing treatments: for example, spa, massages, salt wraps. But the trip to the hairdresser or to the manicure master is better to postpone to another day. On the new moon, nothing bad will happen after these procedures, but you most likely will not like the result.

The growing moon

On the growing moon, the female body enters a phase of active renewal.This is a great time for all sorts of rejuvenating treatments. It is on the growing moon that you should do peelings, lifting, beauty injections, mesotherapy and other cosmetic procedures that are aimed at returning youth to your skin. This phase is also suitable for nourishing and moisturizing masks.

It is believed that on the growing moon, our body, like a sponge, absorbs everything that gets into it from the outside. So it is worth planning hair coloring for this phase: you will get a long-lasting, saturated color and you will be satisfied with the result.Haircuts during this period will also be successful – the hair on the growing moon is lively and pliable, it “fits” well in a new direction. True, they will grow back quite quickly, so be prepared for the fact that you will have to refresh your hair in a couple of months.

The waxing moon is also well suited for manicure and pedicure. But diets and weight loss programs will show temporary results. You will lose weight very quickly, because this phase of the moon promotes increased activity and energy.But to fix the extra pounds, most likely, it will not be possible: they will return after the Moon enters the waning phase and the body “covers” with apathy.

Full Moon

The most controversial phase of the Moon, when the energy is overflowing, and the sensitivity and perception of the world is sharpened. The full moon is considered a good phase for experimentation and a radical change of image: on this day (and the day before and after) you can go for an extreme haircut or unusual coloring. It is also good to do a manicure on a full moon and “try on” new looks: for example, go to an eyebrowist or extend eyelashes.

What should not be done on a full moon is to carry out procedures that are associated with injuries or microtraumas. For example, piercing is contraindicated at this time (due to the increased blood flow to the epidermis). It is also undesirable to carry out chemical peels, cleanse the skin with scrubs, whiten teeth, remove tattoos and scars, age spots and warts.

Dangerous: why pregnant women should not pet the cat❗️

Reading 5 min.

Pregnant women become cautious and superstitious.They strive to behave so as not to harm the unborn baby. They are overcome by doubts: is it possible to eat these fruits, whether this will cause the child to be allergic in the future, how to treat hair dyeing, because it is chemistry. The answers to their questions are sometimes diametrically opposed by doctors and omniscient girlfriends.

Read also: Not broken: 5 stories of girls from the Malakhov show, which prove that pregnancy at 13 is not a sentence

But what about such superstition that pregnant women should bypass cats and not join contacts? Why are cats so dangerous?

It turned out that this superstition has a scientific basis.The leading obstetricians-gynecologists of the reproductive center also warn about the danger that can come from cats.

Danger from contact with cats

As you know, a cat walks wherever it pleases. She climbs in attics, basements, contacts with mice and rats, sick stray animals. So even the most well-groomed domestic cat is a carrier of infection. A loving housewife always caresses the cat, picking her up, so there is a high probability of contracting an infection, which will affect the development of the fetus.It is possible that a pregnant woman will develop toxoplasmosis.

It is caused by a parasite that lives in an animal organism. It can be found in the body of birds, dogs, cats and other animals, even in humans. However, it is susceptible to rapid reproduction only in the body of cats. It is very difficult to remove it from the body, as it is very stable. Even in the faeces of cats, it exists for more than two years.

Ways of infection in the animal’s body

Cats become infected with the causative agent of toxoplasmosis through the meat they have eaten, in which the parasite was located, through contact with infected stray cats and dogs, through the mice they have caught, and simply through dust and dirt containing the pathogen.

Method for determining the infection of a cat

Domestic cats, having become infected with toxoplasmosis, begin to sneeze frequently and for a long time. Her eyes turn red and fester, she quickly loses weight and can barely stay on her feet. Muscle tremors constantly accompany her. In the future, jaundice develops, against the background of liver damage, vomiting and diarrhea are observed in the cat.

All these symptoms of the disease appear in the initial stage of the disease. But if a cat has a chronic form of the disease, then you may not even guess about it, since it does not manifest itself outwardly in any way.Such cats are not dangerous, since the pathogen is not released to the outside.

Methods of human toxoplasmosis infection

Methods of human infection with toxoplasmosis are the same as in animals: through contact with infected cats, dogs, chickens, by eating the meat of infected animals, through dust and dirt containing pathogens.

Therefore, doctors recommend that pregnant women do not eat half-cooked meat: kebabs or chops, the meat should be well-fried.

Toxoplasmosis is very dangerous for the fetus

Infection of a pregnant woman with toxoplasmosis, as a rule, ends in miscarriage. This disease has a detrimental effect on the central system and organs of vision of the fetus. Having identified an infected fetus in women at the stage of its development before 20 weeks of pregnancy, the doctor insists on an abortion.

From the above, we can conclude that this disease is dangerous for women who are carrying a child. It cannot harm all other people.

Reducing the risk of disease

If a woman falls ill with toxoplasmosis in the very early period of pregnancy, then this poses a threat not only to the health, but also to the life of the unborn baby. Women who have been ill before conception may not worry about the fact that they can become infected from cats again. They can communicate with their pets without any fear. The fact is that a person can get sick with this disease only once, repeated cases of the disease have not been identified.

Before pregnancy, it is better for every woman to pass an analysis, which is mandatory for pregnant women and is part of the TORCH complex.Among other things, the feces of a domestic cat must also be tested for the detection of toxoplasma.

What to do with the cat after receiving the test results

If the results of the examination of the cat showed its infection with toxoplasmosis, and you have previously been infected with these pathogens, then you do not need to worry about the health of the unborn child. He is no longer threatened with such a disease. You can never part with this pet.

If your cat and you yourself have not yet suffered from toxoplasmosis, then you need to protect yourself and the cat from the possibility of infection in every possible way.

But if your tests showed that you are healthy, and the cat is infected, you should give it to friends or relatives in another house during your pregnancy. You should also take precautions to avoid contracting the disease during pregnancy.

Precautions

To prevent you and your pet from contracting toxoplasmosis, if you have not both been infected before, you should take precautions:

  • The cat should not be allowed out for a walk where it can come into contact with infected cats or get infected from dust and dirt;
  • no matter how you love your cat, limit contact with her, do not kiss her, try not to even stroke her on the coat;
  • if you had to contact her, then wash your hands especially thoroughly, and then disinfect your hands;
  • Do not let your cat climb on the table where you have food.If she resists this, then do not let her into the kitchen or dining room;
  • Carefully monitor the health of your pet, at the first signs of illness, examine it in a veterinary clinic;
  • to be calm, take tests more often;
  • do not contact not only stray cats, but also pets of your friends, you cannot be sure that they are completely healthy;
  • Clean the litter box only with gloves, because the fastest way of infection is contact with cat feces;
  • After cutting raw meat, wash your hands thoroughly, because animal meat can also be contaminated with toxoplasmosis.

See also: Why does the navel hurt during pregnancy. Getting rid of pain a more influential, educated and honest person? Columnist BBC Future claims that all you need to do is get a bald head.

To fight baldness, the Vikings used goose droppings. The ancient Greek physician Hippocrates considered pigeon droppings to be the best medicine for baldness, which he mixed with horseradish, caraway seeds and nettles.

According to an Egyptian recipe from 5,000 years ago, it was necessary to burn the thorns of a hedgehog, mix them with oil, add honey, alabaster, red ocher and, finally, some nail clippings to this mass. The resulting potion should be liberally lubricated with bald areas.

The issue of baldness has been worrying men ever since mirrors came into use. Julius Caesar, for example, was simply obsessed with thoughts of how to get back his hair, and was ready to do anything for this.

He wore the laurel wreath not so much to pay tribute to Roman traditions as to disguise bald spots.

By the time he met Cleopatra, he was almost completely bald. Beloved did her best to help Caesar keep his hair and offered him a home remedy based on crushed mouse carcasses, horse teeth and bear fat.

Unfortunately, this drug also proved powerless, and Caesar lost his hair, as did many men before and after him, including Socrates, Napoleon, Aristotle, Gandhi, Darwin, Churchill, Shakespeare and Hippocrates.

The latter, despite the active use of pigeon droppings, was so bald that a type of baldness was even named after him.

In the end, Caesar resigned himself to his fate and began to grow his hair from the back and comb it forward to create at least the illusion of having natural hair on his head.This hairstyle called “comb” is still popular today.

Photo author, Wikimedia Commons

Caption,

Bald men are often considered smart, high status and influential, and Charles Darwin fits this image perfectly

Thousands of years have passed, and we changed wreaths and disgusting drugs for expensive creams, tonics and shampoos, and in especially severe cases – for wigs, medications and hair transplant operations.

A modern man can visit a specialized clinic or make an appointment with a baldness treatment specialist.You can often find advertisements in which balding men are advised to “see a doctor.”

In newspaper articles, baldness is called an epidemic, while the phenomenon itself received a new, scientifically sounding name: “androgenic alopecia”. Someone who has never heard it may think that it is a disease.

It is therefore not surprising that people around the world spend US $ 3.5 billion annually on baldness treatment.

This amount is more than the annual national budget of Macedonia and, as Bill Gates rightly pointed out last year, significantly more than the amount allocated to the fight against malaria (only 200 million dollars a year).

Modern medicines no longer contain such dubious components as in the distant past, but the consequences of taking them can be frightening.

Sales of a baldness drug called Propecia, which scientists have linked to impotence, reached a record $ 264 million in 2014.

Hair transplant surgery, in turn, is very traumatic and painful – it is known that during it many men cannot hold back their tears.

According to a survey conducted by the International Society for Hair Restoration Surgery in 2009, almost 60% of men would prefer a luxurious head of hair to money and friends.

Is it not in vain that they make such sacrifices?

Photo author, Getty Images

Photo caption,

Sir Patrick Stewart lost his hair at the age of 19

There is growing evidence that baldness is not just an unfortunate joke of evolution. Bald men are considered more intelligent, domineering and of higher status, and their smooth skull can be a means of seducing women or even saving lives.

Before moving on to the benefits of bald head, it is worth debunking widespread myths.

Contrary to popular belief and the existence of brutal bald men like Bruce Willis, hair loss propensity has nothing to do with greater masculinity and higher testosterone levels.

However, bald men tend to have more hair on their arms, legs, and chest. And, oddly enough, they have no less hair on their heads than everyone else.

So how does this happen?

Despite the fact that the problem of baldness has attracted great attention at all times, for a long time we could not understand the true causes of this phenomenon.

Aristotle believed that men go bald due to sexual intercourse, and the epidemic of baldness among ancient Roman soldiers was explained by the wearing of heavy iron helmets.

Later there were theories that “brain drying” was to blame – it was believed that a person was balding due to the fact that his brain was shrinking and moving away from the walls of the skull.

In addition, air pollution and, paradoxically, improper haircuts were named among the possible causes of baldness.

In 1897, a French dermatologist stated that microbes were the real culprit of baldness.

The world is in panic. Hairdressers and scientists called for immediate action – to regularly boil the combs and in no case use the combs of people suffering from baldness.

Today we know for sure that hair loss is caused by dihydrotestosterone (DHT), a biologically active form of testosterone.This hormone plays an important role in the development of male reproductive organs even in the womb.

In adult men sensitive to DHT, the hair follicles contract under its influence. As a result, normal, fully formed hair turns into short and soft hairs, similar to the fluff on a baby’s head.

Considering that DHT is a form of testosterone, it can be assumed that when testosterone levels are high, more DHT is produced and a person will lose more hair.

However, in fact, only a small amount of this hormone is enough to start hair loss.

Men prone to baldness are distinguished by the sensitivity of the hair follicles, inherited through the maternal line.

It is very important that this feature is inherited. By the age of 30, that is, long before the end of the reproductive period of life, 25-30% of men already experience hair loss to one degree or another.

Moreover, this happens to men in all countries of the world, in all ethnic groups without exception.

If being bald were so bad, this phenomenon would disappear over time. The fact that it is so widespread may even speak of its usefulness, but what is it? And if so, why only men suffer from baldness?

“There is a pattern in nature: if a man has something that a woman does not have, that something will serve as a signal,” says Frank Muscarella, a psychologist at Barry University. This topic interested him back in the 1990s.

Most of these male-only features have a similar purpose.

“They usually show that this male tends to be dominant and has great reproductive capacity,” says Muscarella.

In other words, a bald head can be the equivalent of a bright and lush peacock tail and perform a similar function – to attract female representatives.

Photo author, Getty Images

Photo caption,

During the Second World War, Sir Winston Churchill proved to be a courageous and strong-willed person.

Earlier studies showed that women do not find bald men attractive – most likely because of thinning hair associated with old age, and old age can hardly be considered a synonym for beauty.

“We know that women like men with high social status. Baldness is not physical, but somewhat different attractiveness,” says Muscarella.

To dispel doubts, let us clarify that the scientist has no personal interest in this theory. “No, I’m not bald, I have a pretty thick head of hair,” he says.

In 2004, he decided to conduct research for the less fortunate. To eliminate factors that could distort the results, Muscarella had to create images of bald men with his own hands.

Muscarella recruited a friend of his, a hairdresser, to participate in the experiment, and they went to a local wig store.

“I asked him to cut the hair on the wigs so that one of them looks thick, the other is balding, and the third is completely bald,” he says.

As a rule, naturally balding men have some hair left above the ears and on the back of the head, so a wig was needed even for a bald look.

After a friend of Muscarella finished work on the wigs, the latter bought three plastic caps and attached the wigs to them with Velcro.

Then they asked six students to try on wigs and photographed them. “Of course they looked just awful,” he says.

Fortunately, his co-author just recently acquired a completely primitive photo editing program. Pixel by pixel, they erased the conspicuous line between the edge of the beanie and the forehead until the pictures were relatively normal.

Then they used these images in their experiment. Muscarella showed them to 202 psychology students, who were equally male and female, and asked them to rate the attractiveness of men and aspects of their personality.

Bald and balding men did not appear to be as attractive as the others, but in one category of characteristics they were far ahead of the rest.

They were considered smarter, more influential, competent, educated, honest, responsive, as well as having a higher social status. All of these traits are collectively known as social maturity.

Muscarella suggested that baldness developed as a signal of high social status – something that some women cannot resist.

Curiously, bald men were also considered significantly less aggressive.

“If you think about this, you can imagine that at the very dawn of mankind, ancient people walked naked, their whole body was covered with dense vegetation, and those who had more of it – for example, the owners of a lush head of hair or a thick beard – had a rather intimidating look, “says Muscarella.

Thus, baldness may have served to distinguish high-status adult men from aggressive youths.

Photo author, Evan Agostini

Photo caption,

Although Salman Rushdie is better known for his writing talent than for looks, in 2004 he married model Padme Lakshmi

If all this is so, then people have long understood how this signal can be used for your own purposes.

Muscarella notes that the tradition of shaving the head took root among philosophers, preachers and priests centuries ago.

Catholic monks went even further – they do not shave their entire head, but shave their hair so that it seems that they have lost their hair naturally (we are talking about tonsure – a clipped or shaved spot on the head – Ed.).

These conclusions are supported by the results of many other studies.

Most people around the world, from sugarcane plantation workers in Brazil to high school students in Zambia, find balding men more bossy, whether they have naturally lost their hair or simply shaved it off.

The results of another study sound even more tempting, albeit controversial. Scientists have come to the conclusion that baldness can save a person’s life.

For a long time, the opposite was believed to be true. It has been known for a long time that men who do not produce DHT, for example, those who have undergone castration, have thick long curls throughout their lives.

Interestingly, this group has never had any cases of prostate cancer.

DHT is responsible for the development of the prostate in infants, so it would be logical to assume that in adulthood this hormone will affect the formation of tumors.

Both prostate cancer and baldness can be caused by inherited hormonal sensitivity. This was confirmed by a study conducted this year.

Photo author, Getty Images

Photo caption,

Last year, Lloyd Blankfein, the owner of the investment bank Goldman Sachs, was ranked 26th in the Forbes list of the most influential people in the world

Scientists have found that balding men are more likely to the development of aggressive prostate cancer, from which about 300,000 people die each year.

Doesn’t sound very optimistic, but there is one caveat here. Low levels of vitamin D, which the body only makes when exposed to the sun, is also a known risk factor for prostate cancer.

Any bald person will tell you that sunlight affects him much more than everyone else. Has the tendency to baldness developed as a way to counter the harmful effects of DHT?

“Thousands of years ago, this may have helped Europeans get more sun exposure and produce more vitamin D,” says Peter Kabai of St. Stephen’s University, Hungary, who visited the idea after he began to go bald himself.

This may also explain why women don’t go bald, because they don’t have a prostate.

The evidence for this theory is growing. Men who work outdoors are less prone to this disease than those who spend more time indoors.

This also applies to those who have a tan, loved to sunbathe as a child, live in a warm climate or often spend their holidays abroad at seaside resorts.

The influence of sunlight is so high that even the time of year at which a person was diagnosed is important: those who find out about their illness in the summer are more likely to survive.

“This is all related to vitamin D, which most people lack,” says Kabai.

Another piece of evidence comes from a study published last year. Thirty-seven men with prostate cancer were given either a vitamin D supplement (about seven times the recommended daily value) or a placebo.

Sixty days later, they had their prostate removed. The tumors shrank in the vitamin D group and increased in the placebo group.

Taking the drug also affected the expression of key genes, “disabling” genes associated with inflammation, which are known to contribute to the development of cancer.

In other words, balding people may be prone to prostate cancer in spite of losing their hair, not because of it. Baldness on its own can help reduce the risk of this condition.

This may also serve as an answer to the question why the conclusions of scientists are so contradictory: one study showed that men who by the age of 30 have bald patches starting from the forehead, or individual bald patches, are 45% less likely to develop prostate cancer in the future.

“Some bald men choose to wear a hat all the time, others don’t. This difference could be a source of controversy in such studies,” says Kabai.

So, a bald head can help a man achieve success, women’s attention or recovery.

It may be time to give up pigeon droppings and show bald people the respect they deserve.

90 000 Top 5 cat breeds with the most unpredictable temperament

When you start a cat of a certain breed at home, you should first study its habits and characteristics well in order to avoid “surprises” in the future.

At the sight of small kittens, which volunteers attach to good hands or are sold by breeders from their purebred pets, many people instinctively decide that “life is not the same without a cat”, but after a while a fluffy pet appears in their house, which, according to in the opinion of the owners, will bring them joy and happiness. However, it often happens that the animal shows such character traits and problems for which the owners were not ready. Focus has collected the most unpredictable cat breeds that their owners write about on social networks.

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Sphinx

Sphinx is the most popular among animal lovers who are allergic to fur. However, it should be borne in mind that these cats are not as hypoallergenic as it is commonly believed.

When starting a sphinx at home, you should take into account the fact that it needs special care due to the lack of hair, as well as health difficulties, among which hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), infectious diseases, problems with the eyes, teeth and gums can occur.According to the owners of this breed, almost all sphinxes need a special diet and constant monitoring by a veterinarian.

It may come as a surprise to many owners that the sphinxes sweat.

“When my cat falls asleep, she wakes up with yellow spots under her armpits. Her warm wrinkles sweat all night when she sleeps next to the heater. I used to bathe my cat every day, now I do it less often, but still 3 times a day. a week or so. Sometimes I put on a sweater for her, and the next day I see yellow spots on it, “wrote the mistress of the Sphinx on one of the specialized forums.

Nevertheless, despite these moments and rather frightening appearance, Sphynxes are one of the most friendly, gentle and loyal breeds.

Sphynxes must be monitored by a veterinarian at all times.

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Photo: Vetonline.pro

Persian cat

Persian cats are smart, calm and silent.If they need something, they will not meow, but just sit next to the owner and wait. They love to be stroked and become attached to the family in which they live. But you need to be careful when leaving this cat alone with children, especially small and noisy ones.

Persians are great for living in an apartment: curtains and wallpaper will be safe and sound.

According to the owners of the breed, despite their beautiful appearance, gentleness and calm disposition, these cats are very problematic and demanding pets.

“My wife is responsible for cleaning all the fur in our apartment. But I have to cover the costs of food and veterinary visits, and they are quite high. And I would not call their feline disposition good,” – shared an online discussion participant.

Another owner of the Persian also notes that the main advantage, as well as the main disadvantage of cats, is their fur:

“The Persian cat should be combed from an early age. In addition, Persian cats have a shortened nasolacrimal canal, which can lead to vision problems and constant watery eyes.They often have various allergies to both food and medicine. You will also have coat problems throughout the apartment. It will be on your clothes and furniture, in the air. However, if you clean your apartment regularly, it will not be difficult. Plus, getting rid of long hair is much easier than getting rid of short hair. “

Persian cat will fill the whole house with its long hair

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Photo: Petstory

Burmese cat

Burmese cats are not only beautiful, but also intelligent, active and very sociable.At the same time, they have a very peaceful character. Also, many owners note that they have unusual blue eyes. But if you decide to get a cat of this breed, you need to be prepared for frequent cleaning.

“This cat sheds terribly, we brush it every 2 days, but it continues to shed right after brushing. We asked our veterinarian about this – we were told that the problem is related to her age and will go away over time. But you can hardly live with it. because fur is everywhere: in our food, on our clean dishes, on our toothbrushes, on our bed linen (even for washing), on the face, in the nose, in the mouth, everywhere, “the owner of the representative of this breed complains.

Also, experts note that the health of this breed is rather fragile. There should be no drafts in the house, the cat should not go outside during the cold season, and the owners should regularly brush its coat and take care of its teeth. To avoid behavioral problems, you need to play with her frequently to support the Burmese’s hunting instincts.

Burmese cats’ health is rather fragile

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Turkish Angora

The Turkish Angora can be a great friend.These fluffy cats are monogamous and cannot tolerate prolonged loneliness. They will be a great companion for single people. Angoras are sociable and love to play, but they only allow them to be stroked when they want to, completely ignoring the wishes of the owner.

These cats are quite active and require a lot of attention. Before you decide to have a kitten, you need to understand if you have enough time to devote yourself to your pet.

“I have a Turkish Angora. His name is Martin.He has blue eyes, white fur, and is deaf. But this is not a problem at all! He’s been our favorite for 5 years. He is kind and affectionate only with me and my mother. As for other family members, he just puts up with them and makes it clear how he feels. He behaves like a real Turkish sultan. Our house belongs to him, and we are his slaves “, – says the owner Martin.

But the risk of becoming the owner of a cat with a bad temper is also great.

” We had a cat of this breed. His name was Max. He lived for 18 years.He hated almost everyone, especially outsiders, hissing and biting. It’s because of him that I don’t like cats, ”writes another user.

Turkish Angoras can surprise owners with mood swings

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Scottish Fold (Scottish Fold)

Scottish Folds captivate with their appearance, because thanks to the large eyes and folded ears, even an adult cat looks like a kitten.They feel comfortable in an apartment and in a large family. Scots are not afraid of noise and they are not disturbed by children. They like to be stroked, but do not like to be squeezed and stroked without their consent.

“They love hands, but only they decide when to come up to you and let them stroke them. Our cat wakes up, eats, jumps on our lap (she decides whose knees it will be), lets us stroke her neck and tummy, then he watches TV for a couple of minutes, jumps off and goes about his business.She won’t let anyone hold her for longer than she wants. Only I can scratch her tummy, “writes the owner of the Scottish Fold on the Web.

Sometimes these cute-looking cats can be very problematic. scratched wallpaper. And he started pooping on the floor, even though he used to do it in the litter box. Nothing helped. We learned from our friends who are also pet owners that many cats have this problem – they simply refuse to go to the litter box at a certain age.And Martin also does not like to sit on his knees, except for the moments when he himself wants to, and this happens very rarely. But we love him for what he is, “another owner of the Scotsman shared his experience.

Scottish Folds may ignore litter boxes at a certain age.

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Photo: Zoo-dom.com.ua

Abyssinian cat

Abyssinian cats are incredibly beautiful and unusual creatures. They have shiny fur, large ears, and adorable eyes with eyelashes. These cats are very active and require constant attention. They love to be close to their master (although who belongs to whom is a moot point). You can only touch and iron them if they allow it.

It is necessary to choose a breeder carefully: the health and disposition of the pet depends on their responsibility and care, given that this breed can suffer from a number of diseases.

Abyssinian cats often have joint problems. This must be taken into account and ensure that your home has soft floors, that is, covered with carpets or rugs. This minimizes the risk of injury while jumping (and these cats love to jump). Cats of this breed may have allergies. Abyssinian cats have no undercoat, and they can get cold in winter.

Abyssinian cats get a little nervous and this can lead to illness. Sometimes they are naughty. They can bite if they don’t like something.They are very decisive when they want something. If the cat is hungry, it can beat the owner with a paw or scratch the door until it is opened.

Many owners speak about the tenacity of the Abyssinian:

“At some point, it seemed to me that we have a broken Abyssinian! In the articles I read, this breed was described as affectionate and obedient. And our beauty is not at all like that. She has a very strong character – if she does not want that something to do, it is useless to convince her otherwise, she is very playful and cannot sit still.It won’t sit on your lap, no matter what you do. Sometimes it seems to me that this is not a cat or even a dog, but a donkey! She’s really stubborn! “.

Abyssinian cat is very capricious and demanding

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Photo: Social networks

Earlier we wrote about which cat breeds are the rarest, and which ones are dangerous to start for novice cat lovers.