Is 100 over 60 good blood pressure: When is Low Blood Pressure a Cause for Concern?
Low blood pressure (hypotension) – Symptoms and causes
Low blood pressure might seem desirable, and for some people, it causes no problems. However, for many people, abnormally low blood pressure (hypotension) can cause dizziness and fainting. In severe cases, low blood pressure can be life-threatening.
A blood pressure reading lower than 90 millimeters of mercury (mm Hg) for the top number (systolic) or 60 mm Hg for the bottom number (diastolic) is generally considered low blood pressure.
The causes of low blood pressure can range from dehydration to serious medical disorders. It’s important to find out what’s causing your low blood pressure so that it can be treated.
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For some people, low blood pressure signals an underlying problem, especially when it drops suddenly or is accompanied by signs and symptoms such as:
- Dizziness or lightheadedness
- Blurred or fading vision
- Lack of concentration
Extreme hypotension can result in this life-threatening condition. Signs and symptoms include:
- Confusion, especially in older people
- Cold, clammy, pale skin
- Rapid, shallow breathing
- Weak and rapid pulse
When to see a doctor
If you have signs or symptoms of shock, seek emergency medical help.
If you have consistently low blood pressure readings but feel fine, your doctor will likely just monitor you during routine exams.
Even occasional dizziness or lightheadedness may be a relatively minor problem — the result of mild dehydration from too much time in the sun or a hot tub, for example. Still, it’s important to see your doctor if you have signs or symptoms of low blood pressure because they can point to more-serious problems. It can be helpful to keep a record of your symptoms, when they occur and what you’re doing at the time.
Blood pressure is a measurement of the pressure in your arteries during the active and resting phases of each heartbeat.
- Systolic pressure. The top number in a blood pressure reading is the amount of pressure your heart produces when pumping blood through your arteries to the rest of your body.
- Diastolic pressure. The bottom number in a blood pressure reading refers to the amount of pressure in your arteries when your heart is at rest between beats.
Current guidelines identify normal blood pressure as lower than 120/80 mm Hg.
Blood pressure varies throughout the day, depending on:
- Body position
- Breathing rhythm
- Stress level
- Physical condition
- Medications you take
- What you eat and drink
- Time of day
Blood pressure is usually lowest at night and rises sharply on waking.
Blood pressure: How low can you go?
What’s considered low blood pressure for you may be normal for someone else. Most doctors consider blood pressure too low only if it causes symptoms.
Some experts define low blood pressure as readings lower than 90 mm Hg systolic or 60 mm Hg diastolic. If either number is below that, your pressure is lower than normal.
A sudden fall in blood pressure can be dangerous. A change of just 20 mm Hg — a drop from 110 systolic to 90 mm Hg systolic, for example — can cause dizziness and fainting when the brain fails to receive enough blood. And big drops, such as those caused by uncontrolled bleeding, severe infections or allergic reactions, can be life-threatening.
Conditions that can cause low blood pressure
Medical conditions that can cause low blood pressure include:
- Pregnancy. Because the circulatory system expands rapidly during pregnancy, blood pressure is likely to drop. This is normal, and blood pressure usually returns to your pre-pregnancy level after you’ve given birth.
- Heart problems. Some heart conditions that can lead to low blood pressure include extremely low heart rate (bradycardia), heart valve problems, heart attack and heart failure.
- Endocrine problems. Parathyroid disease, adrenal insufficiency (Addison’s disease), low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) and, in some cases, diabetes can trigger low blood pressure.
- Dehydration. When your body loses more water than it takes in, it can cause weakness, dizziness and fatigue. Fever, vomiting, severe diarrhea, overuse of diuretics and strenuous exercise can lead to dehydration.
- Blood loss. Losing a lot of blood, such as from a major injury or internal bleeding, reduces the amount of blood in your body, leading to a severe drop in blood pressure.
- Severe infection (septicemia). When an infection in the body enters the bloodstream, it can lead to a life-threatening drop in blood pressure called septic shock.
- Severe allergic reaction (anaphylaxis). Common triggers of this severe and potentially life-threatening reaction include foods, certain medications, insect venoms and latex. Anaphylaxis can cause breathing problems, hives, itching, a swollen throat and a dangerous drop in blood pressure.
- Lack of nutrients in your diet. A lack of the vitamin B-12, folate and iron can keep your body from producing enough red blood cells (anemia), causing low blood pressure.
Medications that can cause low blood pressure
Some medications can cause low blood pressure, including:
- Water pills (diuretics), such as furosemide (Lasix) and hydrochlorothiazide (Microzide, others)
- Alpha blockers, such as prazosin (Minipress)
- Beta blockers, such as atenolol (Tenormin) and propranolol (Inderal, Innopran XL, others)
- Drugs for Parkinson’s disease, such as pramipexole (Mirapex) or those containing levodopa
- Certain types of antidepressants (tricyclic antidepressants), including doxepin (Silenor) and imipramine (Tofranil)
- Drugs for erectile dysfunction, including sildenafil (Revatio, Viagra) or tadalafil (Adcirca, Alyq, Cialis), particularly when taken with the heart medication nitroglycerin (Nitrostat, others)
Types of low blood pressure
Doctors often break down low blood pressure (hypotension) into categories, depending on the causes and other factors. Some types of low blood pressure include:
Low blood pressure on standing up (orthostatic or postural) hypotension). This is a sudden drop in blood pressure when you stand up from a sitting position or after lying down.
Gravity causes blood to pool in your legs when you stand. Ordinarily, your body compensates by increasing your heart rate and constricting blood vessels, thereby ensuring that enough blood returns to your brain.
But in people with orthostatic hypotension, this compensating mechanism fails and blood pressure falls, leading to dizziness, lightheadedness, blurred vision and even fainting.
Orthostatic hypotension can occur for various reasons, including dehydration, prolonged bed rest, pregnancy, diabetes, heart problems, burns, excessive heat, large varicose veins and certain neurological disorders.
A number of medications also can cause orthostatic hypotension, particularly drugs used to treat high blood pressure — diuretics, beta blockers, calcium channel blockers and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors — as well as antidepressants and drugs used to treat Parkinson’s disease and erectile dysfunction.
Orthostatic hypotension is especially common in older adults, but it also affects young, otherwise healthy people who stand up suddenly after sitting with their legs crossed for long periods or after squatting for a time.
Low blood pressure after eating (postprandial hypotension). This drop in blood pressure occurs one to two hours after eating and affects mostly older adults.
Blood flows to your digestive tract after you eat. Ordinarily, your body increases your heart rate and constricts certain blood vessels to help maintain normal blood pressure. But in some people these mechanisms fail, leading to dizziness, faintness and falls.
Postprandial hypotension is more likely to affect people with high blood pressure or autonomic nervous system disorders such as Parkinson’s disease.
Eating small, low-carbohydrate meals; drinking more water; and avoiding alcohol might help reduce symptoms.
- Low blood pressure from faulty brain signals (neurally mediated hypotension). This disorder, which causes a blood pressure drop after standing for long periods, mostly affects young adults and children. It seems to occur because of a miscommunication between the heart and the brain.
- Low blood pressure due to nervous system damage (multiple system atrophy with orthostatic hypotension). Also called Shy-Drager syndrome, this rare disorder has many Parkinson disease-like symptoms. It causes progressive damage to the autonomic nervous system, which controls involuntary functions such as blood pressure, heart rate, breathing and digestion. It’s associated with having very high blood pressure while lying down.
Low blood pressure (hypotension) can occur in anyone, though certain types of low blood pressure are more common depending on your age or other factors:
- Age. Drops in blood pressure on standing or after eating occur primarily in adults older than 65. Neurally mediated hypotension primarily affects children and younger adults.
- Medications. People who take certain medications, for example, high blood pressure medications such as alpha blockers, have a greater risk of low blood pressure.
- Certain diseases. Parkinson’s disease, diabetes and some heart conditions put you at a greater risk of developing low blood pressure.
Even moderate forms of low blood pressure can cause dizziness, weakness, fainting and a risk of injury from falls.
And severely low blood pressure can deprive your body of enough oxygen to carry out its functions, leading to damage to your heart and brain.
Sept. 22, 2020
Low blood pressure (hypotension) – Illnesses & conditions
Throughout the day, your blood pressure can vary by between 30-40 mmHg (both systolic and diastolic) depending on what you are doing. Having a stressful week at work, the temperature outside, and even what you had for lunch could affect your blood pressure reading.
Each time that you have your blood pressure measured, it is important that the test is carried out under similar conditions to ensure that the results are consistent. If you have a low blood pressure reading, your GP will first consider the everyday causes that might have affected it, before considering the possible underlying causes.
Many factors have a daily, or sometimes even hourly, effect on your heart and circulation. Below are things that could affect your blood pressure and, in some cases, may cause low blood pressure.
- The time of day – your blood pressure falls overnight so it will be low in the morning.
- Your age – typically, blood pressure rises as you get older, although postural, or orthostatic, and postprandial hypotension are also more likely in the elderly.
- How stressed or relaxed you are – if you are stressed, your heart will beat faster and your blood pressure will increase, and the opposite if you are relaxed.
- How much exercise you do – initially, exercise will raise your blood pressure, but if you are healthy and exercise regularly, your blood pressure will be low when you are resting.
- Your temperature – if you are cold, your heartbeat will slow down, and your blood pressure will fall.
- If you have recently eaten – blood will be used for digesting food in your stomach, so the blood pressure elsewhere in your body will fall.
If your blood pressure is still considered low after taking into account everyday factors such as those listed above, there may be another cause. Some possibilities are explained below.
Some medication may cause hypotension as a side effect. This tends to be orthostatic, or postural hypotension (low blood pressure when you stand up or change position). Examples of medication that can cause hypotension include:
Your GP will discuss any possible side effects with you when prescribing medication. While you are taking medication, your blood pressure will be carefully monitored if you are considered to be at risk of hypotension.
Serious illnesses or conditions
If you have an acute (short-term) illness, your blood pressure will be measured regularly because it is a good indicator of the severity of your illness. A heart condition, such as heart failure or a heart attack, can also cause low blood pressure, as your heart may not be able to pump blood around your body.
Autonomic disorders affect your autonomic nervous system and they can cause hypotension. Your autonomic nervous system is part of your nervous system (the network of cells that carry information around your body). It controls the bodily functions that you do not actively think about, such as sweating, digestion and the beating of your heart.
The autonomic nervous system also controls the widening and narrowing of your blood vessels. If there is a problem with it, your blood vessels could remain too wide, causing low blood pressure. In particular, autonomic disorders tend to cause orthostatic hypotension.
Some examples of autonomic disorders are:
- diabetes mellitus – a long-term (chronic) condition caused by too much glucose (sugar) in the blood,
- Parkinson’s disease – a chronic condition that affects the way the brain coordinates body movements
- multiple system atrophy – a disorder that causes the brain signals to the muscles and limbs responsible for movement to deteriorate.
The adrenal glands are two small glands that are located just above your kidneys. They produce hormones that control your blood pressure and maintain the balance of salt and water in your body. One of the hormones they produce is called aldosterone, which is responsible for controlling the amount of salt in your body.
If your adrenal glands become damaged – for example through an infection or a tumour – the production of aldosterone may be reduced, resulting in a loss of salt from your body. This can cause dehydration which, in turn, leads to low blood pressure.
If a problem with your adrenal glands is diagnosed, it can be treated by increasing the amount of aldosterone in your body. This could also be a symptom of Addison’s disease (a condition in which the adrenal glands cannot produce enough of the hormones cortisol and aldosterone). Addison’s disease can also be treated with medication.
Serious injuries and shock
Low blood pressure can also be caused by serious injuries or burns, particularly if you have lost a lot of blood. This can mean that there is less blood being pumped around your body. Low blood pressure can also occur if you go into shock after having a serious injury.
Other kinds of shock are described below.
Septic shock and toxic shock syndrome
Septic shock and toxic shock syndrome are caused by bacterial infections. The bacteria attack the walls of the small blood vessels, causing them to leak fluid from the blood into the surrounding tissues. This causes a significant drop in blood pressure (severe hypotension).
Anaphylactic shock, or anaphylaxis, is caused by an allergic reaction to something – for example, a wasp sting or a peanut. During an allergic reaction, your body produces a large amount of a chemical called histamine, which causes your blood vessels to widen and leads to a sudden, severe drop in blood pressure.
Cardiogenic shock occurs when your heart cannot supply enough blood to your body, so your blood pressure drops. This can happen during a heart attack.
Other possible causes of low blood pressure are:
- Rare nerve conditions – if the nerves in your legs are affected, you may experience a severe drop in blood pressure when you stand up (postural or orthostatic hypotension).
- Increasing age – as you get older, your arteries can become stiffer. If they do not constrict (get smaller), your blood pressure may drop, particularly when you stand up.
- Pregnancy – during the early to mid stages of pregnancy, low blood pressure is fairly common.
- Prolonged bed rest – low blood pressure may possibly occur as a result of moving less and having overall less nervous system activity.
- Dehydration – low blood pressure may occur following particularly severe dehydration from vomiting and diarrhoea because the lack of water and salt in your body will reduce the volume of your blood.
- Your genes – some research has suggested that low blood pressure is genetic. If your parents have low blood pressure, it is possible that you could inherit it from them.
When is Low Blood Pressure an Emergency?
When is low blood pressure (hypotension) a medical emergency?
Low blood pressure can be a sign of good health. However, if it gets too low (hypotension) that could mean that not enough blood is reaching your vital organs, leaving them starved of oxygen. This can cause shock. You could have a medical emergency if any of the following signs and symptoms happen along with low blood pressure:
- Cold, clammy, pale skin.
- Rapid, shallow breathing. Heart palpitations.
- Dehydration, thirst.
- Dizziness lightheadedness, fainting.
- Headache, neck or back pain.
- Lack of concentration.
- Blurred vision.
Call 911 or go to your emergency room if you experience signs of severely low blood pressure or shock.
What causes low blood pressure?
- Pregnancy. Blood pressure commonly drops during a woman’s first 24 weeks of pregnancy.
- Blood loss, whether from blood donation or some sort of trauma.
- Prolonged bed rest.
- Endocrine issues such as hypothyroidism.
- Some medications, including some for depression, heart conditions and high blood pressure.
- Emotional distress.
- Nutritional deficiencies such as lack of vitamin B12 and folic acid.
- Heart problems like a low heart rate (bradycardia).
- Severe infection (septic shock).
- Allergic reaction (anaphylaxis).
What questions might I be asked in the emergency room?
Your healthcare provider will interview you when you enter the emergency room. Do your best to prepare yourself to answer the following questions, and more, that your healthcare provider may ask.
- What medications are you on?
- What symptoms do you have?
- How long have you had these symptoms?
Blood Pressure Chart & Numbers (Normal Range, Systolic, Diastolic)
What Systolic, Diastolic Blood Pressure Numbers Mean
When you get your blood pressure numbers, there are two of them. The first, or “top” one, is your systolic blood pressure. The second, or “bottom,” one is diastolic blood pressure.
Knowing both is important and could save your life.
What Does the Systolic Blood Pressure Number Mean?
When your heart beats, it squeezes and pushes blood through your arteries to the rest of your body. This force creates pressure on those blood vessels, and that’s your systolic blood pressure.
Here’s how to understand your systolic blood pressure number:
- Normal: Below 120
- Elevated: 120-129
- Stage 1 high blood pressure (also called hypertension): 130-139
- Stage 2 hypertension: 140 or more
- Hypertensive crisis: 180 or more. Call 911.
What Does the Diastolic Blood Pressure Number Mean?
The diastolic reading, or the bottom number, is the pressure in the arteries when the heart rests between beats. This is the time when the heart fills with blood and gets oxygen.
This is what your diastolic blood pressure number means:
- Normal: Lower than 80
- Stage 1 hypertension: 80-89
- Stage 2 hypertension: 90 or more
- Hypertensive crisis: 120 or more. Call 911.
Our chart below has more details.
Even if your diastolic number is normal (lower than 80), you can have elevated blood pressure if the systolic reading is 120-129.
Blood Pressure Ranges
If you have normal blood pressure, your blood pressure is less than 120/80. Stick with an active lifestyle and healthy diet to keep that going.
Is your blood pressure above the normal range, in either or both systolic and diastolic levels? Your doctor will want to have more than one blood pressure reading before diagnosing hypertension.
Treatments include lifestyle changes, and if that’s not enough, may also include medications.
Lifestyle changes include:
- Cutting back on sodium. Ask your doctor what your daily sodium limit should be. Read the Nutrition Facts label on food products.
- Getting more exercise. Studies show benefits with 3-4 sessions per week, each lasting 40 minutes, of aerobic exercise (the kind that makes your heart beat faster).
- Losing weight, if you’re overweight. You can expect to shave about 1 point off your blood pressure numbers for each pound lost.
- Eating a healthy diet. The DASH diet is designed to improve blood pressure. DASH stands for Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension. It favors vegetables, fruits, whole grains, low-fat dairy, poultry, fish, and chicken.
- Limiting alcohol to no more than one drink a day for women or two for men.
If you also need medication to lower your blood pressure, there are several types:
- ACE inhibitors
- Alpha blockers
- Angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs)
- Calcium channel blockers
- Central agonists
- Combination medications
If you need medication, your doctor will consider which type is best for you. (They’ll also recommend lifestyle habits that help lower blood pressure.) Deciding whether you need medication is often done on a case-by-case basis, depending on what else is going on with your health and on your preferences.
If you have:
- Elevated blood pressure: Your systolic pressure is 120-129 and your diastolic pressure is less than 80. Lifestyle changes and monitoring your blood pressure may be all you need at this point. Your doctor will let you know.
- Stage 1 hypertension: Systolic 130 to 139 or diastolic 80 to 89. Your doctor will recommend lifestyle changes and will consider whether you also need medication.
- Stage 2 hypertension: Systolic at least 140 or diastolic at least 90. Your doctor will recommend lifestyle changes and should also consider starting you on medication to lower your blood pressure.
- Hypertensive crisis: Your blood pressure is 180/120 or higher. You may or may not also have symptoms such as chest pain, shortness of breath, numbness/weakness, and trouble with vision or with speaking. This is an emergency. Call 911.
One reading may not be enough to diagnose high blood pressure. Your doctor may want you to have several blood pressure readings over time, to check if it’s consistently too high.
How Blood Pressure Is Measured
A doctor or nurse will measure your blood pressure with a small gauge attached to an inflatable cuff. It’s simple and painless.
The person taking your blood pressure wraps the cuff around your upper arm. Some cuffs go around the forearm or wrist, but often they aren’t as accurate.
Your doctor or nurse will use a stethoscope to listen to the blood moving through your artery.
They’ll inflate the cuff to a pressure higher than your systolic blood pressure, and it will tighten around your arm. Then they’ll release it. As the cuff deflates, the first sound they hear through the stethoscope is the systolic blood pressure. It sounds like a whooshing noise. The point where this noise goes away marks the diastolic blood pressure.
In a blood pressure reading, the systolic number always comes first, and then the diastolic number. For example, your numbers may be “120 over 80” or written as 120/80.
When to Check Blood Pressure
- If your blood pressure is normal (less than 120/80), get it checked every year, or more often as your doctor suggests.
- If your blood pressure is elevated — a systolic blood pressure between 120 and 129 or diastolic blood pressure of less than 80 — your doctor will probably want to check it every 3-6 months. They will probably recommend lifestyle changes like more exercise and a better diet.
- If you have stage 1 hypertension — 130-139 over 89-90 — the doctor might suggest lifestyle changes and see you again in 3-6 months. Or they could tell you to make the changes and give you medication, then recheck your condition in a month. It depends on what other health conditions or risk factors you have.
- If you have stage 2 hypertension — 140/90 or higher — you’ll likely get medication. You’ll also need to make lifestyle changes and see the doctor again in a month.
Checking Blood Pressure at Home
Keeping track of blood pressure at home is important for many people, especially if you have high blood pressure. This helps you and your doctor find out if your treatment is working.
Your doctor may also suggest that you check your pressure at home if they think you may have “white coat hypertension.” It’s a real condition. The stress of being in a doctor’s office raises your blood pressure, but when you’re home, it’s normal.
Ask your doctor to recommend an easy-to-use home blood pressure monitor. Make sure the cuff fits properly. If your arm is too big for the cuff, the reading may be higher than your blood pressure really is. Ask your doctor for a larger cuff or make sure you buy a home monitor with a cuff that fits you.
You also can use a wrist blood pressure monitor, but they often aren’t as accurate. Follow the directions that come with the device to make sure you are using it correctly.
No matter which type of blood pressure monitor you have, it’s a good idea to take it to your doctor’s office. You can compare its reading to the numbers your doctor gets. Avoid caffeine, cigarettes, and exercise for at least 30 minutes before the test.
When you take your blood pressure at home, sit up straight in a chair and put both feet on the floor. Ask your doctor or nurse to show you the right way to position your arm so you get accurate readings.
Check it at the same time of day so the readings are consistent. Then, take several readings about 1 minute apart. Be sure to write down the results.
Take the blood pressure journal to your doctor’s office so you can talk about any changes in your numbers. Your doctor will decide whether you need medications in addition to lifestyle changes.
Even if your blood pressure is high, you probably won’t have symptoms. That’s why it’s often called the “silent killer.” The first symptom of untreated high blood pressure may be a heart attack, stroke, or kidney damage.
Preventing High Blood Pressure
To keep your blood pressure in the normal range, your daily habits are key. These things help:
Don’t smoke. Among the many health problems that smoking causes, it raises your blood pressure.
Make physical activity a habit. Most experts recommend at least 30 minutes of moderate-intensity physical activity (like biking or brisk walking) five or more times a week. Or you could do a harder activity for a shorter period of time per session.
Eat right. Read food labels to see how much sodium is in a serving. Check with your doctor to find out what your daily limit should be. Include a lot of vegetables and fruits, along with whatever else you choose to put on your plate.
Stick to a healthy weight. Extra pounds raise your blood pressure. If you’re not sure what a healthy weight would be for you, ask your doctor.
Get enough sleep. For most adults, that’s 7-8 hours of sleep per night, on a regular basis.
If you drink alcohol, limit it to no more than one drink a day if you’re a woman and up to two drinks a day if you’re a man.
High Blood Pressure–Understanding the Silent Killer
Who is affected by high blood pressure?
Approximately 1 in 3, more than 100 million, American adults have high blood pressure. But only half of those people have their condition under control. Many people develop high blood pressure when they are in their late 30’s or early 40’s, and it occurs more frequently as people age. However, because of the obesity epidemic, more and more children are also developing high blood pressure.
What is high blood pressure?
Blood pressure is defined as the force of blood pushing against the walls of the arteries as the heart pumps blood. High blood pressure – also known as hypertension – is a disease in which blood flows through blood vessels (arteries) at a higher than normal pressure.
Blood pressure is measured with two numbers. The first, or top number, is the pressure in your blood vessels when your heart beats, called the systolic pressure. Systolic pressure is the higher of the two numbers. The second, or bottom number, measures the force of blood in your arteries while your heart is relaxed between beats. The bottom number is the lower of the two and is called the diastolic pressure.
Normal pressure is 120/80 or lower. Your blood pressure is considered high (stage 1) if it reads 130/80. Stage 2 high blood pressure is 140/90 or higher. If you get a blood pressure reading of 180/110 or higher more than once, seek medical treatment right away. A reading this high is considered “hypertensive crisis.”
Readings between 120/80 and 129/89 are considered pre-hypertension. People with pre-hypertension do not have blood pressure as low as it should be but are not yet considered to have high blood pressure.
Why is it important to know if you have high blood pressure?
Early detection of high blood pressure is very important. Often referred to as the “silent killer” because it may show no symptoms, high blood pressure puts you at an increased risk for heart disease, heart failure, and stroke, among other things. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, in 2013, more than 360,000 deaths in the United States included high blood pressure as a primary or contributing cause.
How can you manage your high blood pressure?
Treatment of high blood pressure often starts with lifestyle changes, including decreasing salt in your diet, losing weight if necessary, stopping smoking, cutting down on alcohol use, and regular exercise.
In addition to lifestyle changes, medications are often used to lower blood pressure. There are several types of medications that treat high blood pressure with each type of medication having benefits and risks that should be carefully weighed by you and your health care provider. Most people take more than one medication in order to bring their blood pressure down to their treatment goal.
Your blood pressure medication should begin to work within days. However, because high blood pressure is a long-lasting medical condition that often has little or no symptoms, remembering to take your medications can be a challenge. Combination medicines, long-acting or once-a-day medications, may be used to decrease the burden of taking numerous medications and help ensure medications regularly. Once started, the medication should be used until your doctor tells you to stop.
|Types of High Blood pressure medicine||Mechanism of Action|
|Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors||
decrease certain chemicals that tighten the blood vessels, so blood flows more smoothly and the heart can pump blood more efficiently.
|Beta Blockers||relax blood vessels and slow the heart rate to improve blood flow and decrease blood pressure.|
|Calcium Channel Blockers||relax the blood vessels so that the heart does not have to pump as hard.|
|Peripherally Acting Alpha-Adrenergic Blockers||relax the blood vessels so that blood can flow more easily through the body.|
|Angiotension II Receptor Blockers||block the action of certain natural substances that tighten the blood vessels, allowing the blood to flow more smoothly and the heart to pump more efficiently.|
|Vasodilators||relax the blood vessels so that blood can flow more easily through the body.|
|Centrally Acting Alpha Adrenergics||decrease the heart rate and relax the blood vessels so that blood can flow more easily through the body.|
|Renin Inhibitors||decrease certain natural chemicals that tighten the blood vessels so that blood vessels relax and the heart can pump blood more efficiently.|
|Diuretics (sometimes called “water pills”)||works in the kidneys to rid the body of unneeded water and salt into the urine.|
|Combination Medicines||combine two (or more) different kinds of approved blood pressure medicines into a single dose.|
Controlling your blood pressure should be part of a healthy living plan and lifelong task. The damage that high blood pressure causes your internal organs does not cause any symptoms until serious damage has been done.
By taking charge of your health, you can help control the silent killer. It’s all about knowing who, what, why, and how!
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What Does My Blood Pressure Reading Mean?
According to the American Heart Association, nearly half of all American adults have high blood pressure, also referred to as hypertension. Many people with high blood pressure do not experience any symptoms and may be unaware of their hypertension, allowing it to remain untreated. But, when left untreated, hypertension can be a significant risk factor for stroke, cardiac arrest, and other health conditions.
Because so many people with high blood pressure do not experience any symptoms, the best way to manage your blood pressure is by reading it regularly. Blood pressure readings can be conducted in the home with a standard “cuff” or an ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) device, or at the doctor’s office and even most pharmacies.
The information below is designed to help you understand what your latest blood pressure readings may mean for your health — and to provide tips on what you can do to get or keep your blood pressure in a healthy zone.
Understanding Your Blood Pressure Reading
Click on the link below that represents your blood pressure reading to understand how your blood pressure may affect your health.
Hypertensive Crisis (Emergency Care Needed)
Readings above 180 systolic pressure (the upper number) or above 110 diastolic pressure (the lower number) usually indicate a hypertensive crisis — putting you in the highest risk category for heart attack, stroke, and other acute life-threatening problems — and requiring emergency care.
Very high blood pressure can cause symptoms such as headache, nausea and vomiting, mental confusion, vision changes, chest pain, or shortness of breath. If you notice any of these symptoms along with a blood pressure above 180/110, your high blood pressure is considered a hypertensive emergency; call 911.
During a hypertensive emergency, a medical team will work to bring your blood pressure down quickly. If you don’t have these symptoms but your blood pressure remains high, doctors call this “hypertensive urgency.” It’s important to seek medical attention for hypertensive urgency, so that doctors can help bring your blood pressure down over a period of hours to days.
Stage 2 Hypertension (High Risk)
140/90 – 180/110
Systolic blood pressure readings at least 140 or diastolic blood pressure readings at least 90 usually indicate STAGE 2 HYPERTENSION, which puts you at high risk for life-threatening problems such as heart attack and stroke.
Stage 1 Hypertension
130/80 – 139/89
Systolic blood pressure readings between 130 and 139 or diastolic blood pressure readings between 80 and 89 usually indicate STAGE 1 HYPERTENSION, which means the force of the blood pressure in your arteries is higher than normal, putting you at increased risk of life-threatening problems such as heart attacks and stroke. Blood pressure in this range can also damage organs such as the heart and the kidneys over time, especially in people who already have chronic medical problems affecting these parts of the body.
If you’re already being treated for hypertension with medications, and your blood pressure is in this range, you may need to have your medications adjusted.
If you’ve never been diagnosed with high blood pressure before, you may have developed hypertension. Hypertension is defined as a systolic blood pressure at least 130, and/or a diastolic blood pressure at least 80. For a new diagnosis, hypertension should be confirmed on at least 2 office visits after an initial screening.
Elevated Blood Pressure
120/61 – 129/79
Systolic blood pressure readings between 120 and 129 with diastolic blood pressure readings less than 80 usually indicate ELEVATED BLOOD PRESSURE, indicating you don’t have hypertension but your blood pressure is higher than what experts consider optimal for most adults. Research studies suggest that people with elevated blood pressure are more likely to have a heart attack or stroke, compared to people with lower blood pressure. However, many experts currently don’t recommend using medications to treat elevated blood pressure, unless the patient also has other medical conditions that would benefit from lower blood pressure (such as heart failure or kidney disease).
Many people with elevated blood pressure eventually develop true hypertension, so having your blood pressure checked regularly is important.
If you’re already on medications for high blood pressure, this level of blood pressure is often considered adequate control by most doctors.
Normal Blood Pressure
91/61 – 119/79
Readings above 90/60 and below 120/80 indicate that the pressure in your arteries is considered normal for most adults. However, in some cases, a systolic blood pressure below 110 can be associated with dizziness when standing. This is more likely to happen to older adults or to people who usually have a much higher blood pressure.
Hypotension (Low Blood Pressure)
80/50 – 90/60
Readings at or below 90/60 usually indicate an abnormally low blood pressure, or what’s called HYPOTENSION, meaning the pressure in your arteries is at the lower end of what’s considered normal. Some people with blood pressure this low may be prone to weakness or fainting, but many people feel just fine. If you’re taking blood pressure medicines, they’re probably lowering your blood pressure more than they need to, and they should be adjusted. It’s also possible to get low blood pressure as a side effect of certain medications.
If you’re not on any blood pressure medicines, there’s usually no need to be concerned about low blood pressure unless you’re experiencing symptoms such as dizziness, fainting, nausea, or fatigue. In fact, hypotension isn’t usually diagnosed unless the patient is experiencing symptoms.
Severe Hypotension (Very Low Blood Pressure)
Readings below 80/60 usually indicate severely low blood pressure, which may have an underlying cause that could indicate a new, serious heart problem or infection. Very low blood pressure can also be caused by an endocrine or neurological condition. However, some people have very low blood pressure but feel fine and are otherwise healthy. Certain medications and nutritional deficiencies can worsen low blood pressure.
NOTE: This information isn’t a substitute for medical advice provided by your own doctor. If you think you might have hypertension or elevated blood pressure, be sure to discuss your blood pressure concerns with a doctor or nurse, who can help you factor in other important information, such as other medical problems you may have. In particular, the information above and in the related links may not always apply to those who are very old, very frail, or have multiple chronic medical conditions.
Also, if you find that your systolic blood pressure (the first, or “top” number) is higher than at least 130, and your diastolic number (the second number, or “bottom” number) is lower than 80, you may have something called Isolated Systolic Hypertension. This type of high blood pressure becomes more and more common as people get older. For this kind of hypertension, doctors usually conclude it’s more important to focus on the systolic pressure, rather than the diastolic pressure.
Low diastolic blood pressure: Causes, treatment, and more
Low diastolic blood pressure is when blood pressure between heartbeats is lower than it should be. Blood pressure is the force that blood exerts against the arteries as the heart pumps it around the body.
This article will take a closer look at low diastolic blood pressure, including its causes, symptoms, and treatments.
Share on PinterestA person with low diastolic blood pressure may experience lightheadedness and confusion.
Blood pressure readings use two numbers recorded in millimeters of mercury (mm Hg). The two numbers measure:
Systolic blood pressure: This is the top number, and is the higher of the two. It measures how much pressure the blood applies to the artery walls when the heart beats.
Diastolic blood pressure: This is the lower number, which shows the pressure that the blood applies to the artery walls when the heart rests between beats.
A blood pressure reading will show the systolic blood pressure number first, and diastolic blood pressure second. A doctor will assess a person’s blood pressure by considering both numbers. In most adults, a healthy reading is usually less than 120/80 mm Hg. Low blood pressure, or hypotension, is blood pressure that is below 90/60 mm Hg.
Low diastolic blood pressure, or isolated diastolic blood pressure, is when the diastolic blood pressure falls below 60 mm Hg, while the systolic blood pressure remains at a normal level.
When the heart rests in between beats, the coronary arteries receive and supply the heart with oxygen-rich blood. If the diastolic pressure is too low, the heart will not get the amount of blood and oxygen it needs. This may cause the heart to weaken over time.
Aging can increase the risk of low diastolic blood pressure. Other risk factors include taking certain medications, such as antidepressants, diuretics, or drugs to treat erectile dysfunction.
Older people who take medications for high blood pressure are at higher risk of experiencing lower diastolic blood pressure.
Some people naturally have lower blood pressure, which causes them no health problems. Other people may experience a drop in blood pressure due to an issue with their health. These issues can include:
- heart problems
- Parkinson’s disease
- severe infection
- allergic reaction
Some people may also experience neurally mediated hypotension, where blood pressure drops after standing for long periods
Low blood pressure can also be due to:
- prolonged bed rest
- high salt intake
Moving from lying down to standing up can lead to a dip in blood pressure. This may usually only lasts for a few seconds.
A dip in blood pressure can also happen to some people after they eat a meal. According to the Journal of Geriatric Cardiology, this mostly occurs in older adults, those with high blood pressure, or people with Parkinson’s disease.
A person who has low diastolic blood pressure may feel dizzy and tired. They may also fall more often. This can be particularly dangerous in older adults.
Usually, low blood pressure will not cause any issues. Within certain limits, it can be healthy to have low blood pressure. Low blood pressure becomes a problem when other symptoms are present, such as:
- feeling lightheaded
- unusual thirst or dehydration
- feeling weak
- blurry vision
- cold, clammy, pale skin
- rapid, shallow breathing
Symptoms may subside when sitting down or resting. If blood pressure drops too low, the body’s vital organs will not get enough nutrients and oxygen to function correctly. This could lead to the body going into shock. If this happens, a person should immediately seek medical attention.
To determine if a person has low diastolic blood pressure, a doctor will use a sphygmomanometer, a device that straps around the person’s arm, to take a blood pressure reading. A doctor will consider a diastolic reading below 60 mm Hg to be too low.
A doctor can carry out further tests to identify the cause of a person’s low blood pressure, including:
- blood or urine tests
- an electrocardiogram to read the heart’s electrical signals to detect the rhythm and any abnormalities
- an echocardiogram to show detailed images of the heart
- a stress test, where a person undergoes heart monitoring while exercising
If the person tested finds that they faint often, the doctor may use a tilt table test. They use straps to secure the person to the table as it is tilted at different angles to see how the body reacts.
There are numerous treatments options that can help improve low diastolic blood, such as
- speaking to a doctor about changing certain medications
- wearing compression stockings, which improve circulation
- eating more salty foods or drinking more caffeine to temporarily increase blood pressure temporarily
Doctors may prescribe drugs, such as fludrocortisone and midodrine, to treat certain kinds of low blood pressure. However, there are currently no medicines available to treat low diastolic blood pressure.
Given that age can be a significant cause of low diastolic blood pressure, it is not always possible for a person to prevent it.
However, maintaining a healthy weight, eating a balanced diet, and exercising regularly can help keep blood pressure levels stable, as well as help keep the heart healthy.
There are several lifestyle changes that someone with low diastolic blood pressure can make to manage their condition:
- stopping smoking
- lowering alcohol consumption
- eating smaller meals
- drinking more water
- not sitting or standing still for long periods
- getting up slowly when sitting or lying down
In general, low blood pressure will not cause additional health issues. However, it can increase the risk of falls, which is particularly dangerous for older adults.
People with low diastolic blood pressure may also have an increased risk of heart failure, so people must manage it as well as possible.
Symptoms of heart failure include:
- shortness of breath
- persistent cough
- swelling in the lower body
Anyone experiencing more than one of these symptoms should seek immediate medical attention. Researchers found a significant increase in the risk of heart damage in people over 60 who had very low diastolic blood pressure.
Changes in diet, exercise, and lifestyle can all help increase low diastolic blood pressure. People with low diastolic blood pressure should visit their doctor regularly. This ensures that the doctor finds any new issues caused by low blood pressure quickly.
90,000 Blood pressure in the elderly is the norm
Factors such as age, gender, health status, lifestyle influence the increase in pressure. Minor changes in indicators are not signs of hypertension, but you need to know the causes and signs of this pathology.
What indicators are considered the norm
Clinicians take 120/70 mm as the basis. rt. Art., however, it is observed, as a rule, in people not older than 55 years. Blood pressure parameters depend on the individual characteristics of each person: age, genetic predisposition, the presence of chronic diseases, bad habits, etc.d.
In medical practice, the following values are considered to be the norm:
Indicators of HELL mm. rt. Art.
90 and above
90 and above
Blood pressure in women is slightly higher than in men.This is due to the effect on the body of the hormone aldosterone during menopause.
What the non-standardized value portends for
If the value of the systolic (upper) pressure is increased by 20-30 units, then this portends the development of hypertension, by 50-70 – a hypertensive crisis, which can lead to serious consequences, including death.
Causes of high blood pressure
The norm of blood pressure in old age varies within 148 to 83 mm.Hg However, there are factors contributing to the increase in these values. Let’s consider each of them in more detail.
Nervous strain is one of the causes of high blood pressure. Moreover, stressful situations negatively affect not only the vessels of the elderly, but also the young. To avoid the development of hypertension, it is necessary to avoid stress, and if they arise, try to endure them calmly. When the nervous tension is high and it is difficult to cope with it on your own, it is worth seeking help from a psychiatrist.
A symptom indicating a change in the vascular wall is throbbing pain (mainly in the back of the head), nausea and vomiting. In this case, medical attention is required. If the results of the examination indicate a violation of the tone of the vascular walls, then treatment with antihypertensive drugs that normalize the condition will be required.
A high body mass index leads to diseases of the cardiovascular system, increases the level of glucose and cholesterol in the blood.You can correct the situation if you change your lifestyle: eat right, lead an active lifestyle, eliminate bad habits.
In addition, the following factors lead to an increase in blood pressure:
- Hormonal imbalance.
- Difficulty breathing.
- Negative effects of certain groups of drugs.
- Problems with the musculoskeletal system.
- Kidney disease.
Blood pressure should be measured in old age at least once a day. This will help prevent the occurrence of various pathologies and their complications.
The appearance of the first signs of hypertension (high blood pressure) should be a reason to consult a general practitioner who will prescribe a comprehensive examination and, if necessary, treatment. Drug therapy includes taking the following drugs:
- ACE inhibitors.These medications are prescribed not only for treatment, but also for the prevention of renal failure, cardiovascular diseases, strengthening of the vascular wall, and lowering blood pressure. Most often, “Captopril”, “Enam”, “Enalapril” are prescribed.
- Thiazide and thiazide-like diuretics. Drugs in this group are required in the treatment of arterial hypertension. They normalize blood pressure, the work of the cardiovascular system, and have a prolonged effect. The most effective are Metolazon, Indapamid, Klopamid.
- Calcium antagonists. These drugs normalize the heart rate (with arrhythmias), stabilize the level of cholesterol in the blood, and have a beneficial effect on the respiratory system. To improve the condition, a course of calcium antagonists is required for at least three months. If treatment of hypertension is necessary, appoint “Verapamil”, “Amlodipine”, “Cordipin”.
Treatment of arterial hypertension is a long-term process. Interruption of therapy can lead to serious complications and consequences.
In conjunction with drug therapy for hypertension (high pressure) and hypotension (low pressure), effective folk remedies can be used.
Most often used to lower blood pressure:
- Garlic tincture. 200 ml of cow / goat milk (homemade) infuse for several hours with 5 cloves of garlic (crushed) in a dark place. Take three times a day before meals, 1 tbsp.spoon. The course of treatment is 7-10 days.
- Green tea. Freshly brewed green hour is an effective diuretic. Its daily use promotes the elimination of fluids from the body, which contributes to an increase in blood pressure. In addition, it strengthens the walls of blood vessels and is a powerful antioxidant.
- Healing bath. Take mint, St. John’s wort and yarrow in equal proportions, pour boiled water, insist for half an hour, strain, add to the bath. Herbal baths have a beneficial effect on the psycho-emotional state, which helps to normalize blood pressure.
Before using these drugs for the treatment of hypertension, you should consult your doctor.
Elderly people suffering from low blood pressure, it is useful to take the following folk remedies:
- Motherwort tincture. This composition is sold in pharmacies as a tincture or in packaged packaging. It is recommended for reduced blood pressure and for vascular strengthening. Take as needed.
- Eleutherococcus.Another pharmacy remedy that stabilizes blood pressure and effectively calms the nervous system. If blood pressure drops suddenly, you need to take 20 drops of Eleutherococcus, diluted with boiled cold water.
- Oregano decoction. Brew 1 tbsp. a spoonful of dried flowers with a glass of boiling water, insist, strain. Take for insomnia, lowering blood pressure, psychoemotional disorders.
- Calamus tincture. Pour the dried calamus root with 200 ml of boiled water, insist, take 100 ml twice a day under reduced pressure and various diseases of the cardiovascular system.
- Melissa. This herb has a calming effect and normalizes blood pressure. Its action is most effective in combination with the root of valerian and chamomile.
The use of traditional medicine to normalize blood pressure is recommended only in conjunction with drug treatment and is a supplement to it.
To avoid the development of hypertension or hypotension in old age, it is recommended to follow these rules:
- Give up bad habits (smoking, drinking alcohol).
- Lead an active lifestyle (morning exercises, swimming, yoga).
- Eat right. Eliminate fatty broths, smoked meats, carbonated drinks, marinades, pickles from the diet. Include in the menu foods rich in protein, vegetables, fruits, cottage cheese, legumes, herbs.
- Take a contrast shower (if there are no contraindications).
- Avoid stressful situations.
- Take daily walks.
- Observe the daily regimen.
- Take blood pressure measurements daily.
- Control your weight.
- Take vitamin and mineral complexes.
Elderly people quite often suffer from high blood pressure, so there must be a tonometer in the house – a device with which you can control your condition.
In addition, it is necessary to undergo an annual comprehensive examination, and if diseases are detected, strictly follow the instructions of the attending physician.
90,000 The doctor told how to reduce blood pressure without drugs – Rossiyskaya Gazeta
May 17 – World Hypertension Day.According to statistics, among people over 18 in Russia, about 40 million suffer from this disease. The chief therapist of the Moscow Department of Health, the head of the Department of Internal Medicine and General Physiotherapy of the Russian National Research Medical University named after V.I. NI Pirogova, Doctor of Medical Sciences Grigory Arutyunov.
Why is hypertension dangerous?
Grigory Arutyunov: The insidiousness of this disease is that an increase in blood pressure accelerates the development of atherosclerosis, increases the risk of cerebrovascular accident (strokes – approx.ed.) and myocardial infarction.
In the modern world, a person consumes too much salt (the recommended daily intake is 6 g, the average Muscovite consumes more than 14 g per day), too little fresh vegetables and fruits (less than 400 g per day). Sleep disorders, obesity, physical inactivity (the vast majority of people do not withstand the generally accepted norms of adequate physical activity: walking at a speed of 3-6 km per hour for 35-40 minutes at least 5 times a week), diabetes mellitus, poorly controlled cholesterol levels are increasingly common.The combination of these risk factors leads to accelerated biological aging and the development of cardiovascular diseases.
Who is at risk?
Grigory Arutyunov: Hypertension is much more common in people over 60 years old. This disease is traditionally more susceptible to people with overweight, disturbed sleep, and excessive salt intake. You can not discount the professional hazards associated with the shift nature of work, frequent change of time zones, etc.
The number of young people with hypertension is also increasing. According to the ESSE-RF study, the prevalence of arterial hypertension in the age group of 25-34 years among men is 21.6%, among women – 7.9%; in the age group 35-44 years, among men – 34.9%, among women – 19.1%. At the same time, the increased cholesterol level among people over 25 years old was 52.6%.
How can a person understand that he has hypertension? How much is normal pressure?
Grigory Arutyunov: Blood pressure levels are linked to age.Hypertensive patients are divided into three groups. The first one is young – up to 65 years old. Here the target level of systolic (also called “upper” – editor’s note) blood pressure is below 130 mm Hg. Art., but above 120 mm Hg. Art.
In the age group “elderly hypertensive” – 65-80 years old – the “upper” pressure should be below 140 mm Hg. Art., but above 130 mm Hg. Art .. The same level is maintained for hypertensive patients over 80 years old.
The level of diastolic (popularly – “lower” – editor’s note) blood pressure should be lower than 80 mm Hg.Art., but not lower than 70 mm Hg. Art.
Blood pressure levels are also linked to concomitant diseases: diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney disease, condition after a stroke, etc. This is a more complex gradation, since until 2018 the level of 140/90 mm Hg was considered the border. Art.
How often should you check your heart health?
Grigory Arutyunov: “Heart health” is an incorrect term. It is necessary to control risk factors: cholesterol levels, blood pressure levels, fight smoking, control body weight, know and control fasting glucose levels.
It is interesting that among men 25-34 years old, an increased level of glucose occurs in 2% of cases, and in the age group 55-64 years old, an increased level of glucose is 10.3%.
It is very important to know that a “normal” electrocardiogram (ECG) does not mean that a person has a healthy heart. Why? The ECG registers post-infarction changes, as well as rhythm and conduction disturbances. Only.
A full-fledged cardiological check-up (clinical examination, condition check – ed.) Includes a wide range of examinations that must be prescribed by a specialist.As a rule, this is not only ECG, but also echocardiography (ultrasound examination of the heart), determination of blood lipid profile, glucose level, examination of peripheral arteries, etc.
Does hypertension have non-classical symptoms that should alert you?
Grigory Arutyunov: There are no “classical” and “non-classical” symptoms of hypertension. It is important that high blood pressure may not be felt for a long time. Feeling well does not mean that your blood pressure is normal.An unambiguous answer can be obtained only after measuring blood pressure on two hands. Sometimes it also needs to be measured on the legs (ankle): this allows the doctor to identify peripheral arterial lesions in the early stages.
What to do if you get hypertension?
Grigory Arutyunov: First of all, do not self-medicate. It is necessary to contact a professional who will prescribe the course. Take the drugs selected by him for life, control daily pressure and levels of cholesterol, blood glucose, strictly observe the mode of sleep, rest and work.It is important that control of the blood pressure level allows in a significant percentage of cases to avoid severe vascular catastrophes, first of all – cerebrovascular accidents (strokes – ed.).
How to reduce blood pressure without medication?
Grigory Arutyunov: Weight control, reduction of calorie intake, in some cases, methods of surgical treatment (bariatric surgery) are used. Moderate physical activity, a decrease in salt intake will also help (a decrease in the daily dose of salt by 1 g leads to a decrease of 1 mm Hg. Art.), an increase in the consumption of fruits and vegetables up to 400 g per day (4 or more meals per day), a sharp decrease in alcohol consumption, smoking cessation, sleep control. Few people know that snoring and interruption of breathing during sleep (sleep-apnea) lead to an increase in nighttime blood pressure. Moreover, all these measures should be considered only in conjunction with drug correction.
It is also very important to include the whole family in the treatment process, since the support of the hypertensive patient during weight loss is of great importance for the success of the treatment.
By the way
The Moscow Healthcare Department from May 17 to May 31 will hold a large-scale action timed to coincide with World Hypertension Day. Its participants will be able to measure blood pressure, learn about risk factors for the development of arterial hypertension and receive recommendations from specialists. A complete list of organizations taking part in the action can be found on the website of the Moscow Department of Health.
For example, from 17 to 24 May in all Moscow centers of state services “My Documents” Muscovites will have access to a “new service” – blood pressure measurement.Throughout the day, each visitor will be able to learn about the risk factors for the development of arterial hypertension, measure blood pressure and receive specialist recommendations.
In the summer, medical tents will be deployed in Moscow parks, which will allow anyone who wants to receive information about their health and blood pressure level.
The vascular network in Moscow is a complex of 29 vascular centers that specialize in providing medical care to patients who have suffered myocardial infarction and stroke.In case of heart attacks, it takes no more than an hour from the moment the ambulance arrives to the operation. Thanks to the automated system “Inpatient”, ambulance doctors can see in which hospital angiographic operating rooms are currently free. The hospital will find out about the patient in advance and prepare the operating room. The operation to open the artery is completed on average 38 minutes after the person is admitted to the hospital. The vascular network in Moscow is supervised by a chief freelance cardiologist.
From 18 and older, or What you need to know about blood pressure
The Arctic anticyclone by the Defender of the Fatherland Day will bring frosts down to minus 23 degrees to Moscow.And not only them: forecasters warn that atmospheric pressure will begin to rise from the middle of the week. By Friday, it will rise to 758 millimeters of mercury. People with diseases of the cardiovascular system are especially affected by changes in pressure and temperature.
Hypertension is still the disease of the century and the big city. Stress, hard work, night shifts and lack of sleep are serious reasons to watch your blood pressure. If you have hypertension in your family and if you are a man, there are more reasons to control blood pressure.Women, too, should not relax, especially those who are overweight or taking hormonal drugs.
Hypertension is one of the most dangerous threats. It is fraught with serious complications: acute heart attacks, strokes, renal failure, vascular and eye damage. But in most cases, it is quite possible to curb hypertension. Oksana Pesenko, a cardiologist of the highest category, organizer and lecturer of the school for patients with arterial hypertension at the city polyclinic No. 8, spoke about how to prevent the disease and what to do if the pressure is above normal.
– Which pressure readings are considered normal?
– Blood pressure – an indicator of the pressure with which the blood presses on the walls of the arteries. It is measured in millimeters of mercury. Moreover, two indicators are taken into account: systolic pressure – at the time of contraction of the heart muscle (systole) and diastolic – at the time of relaxation of the heart muscle (diastole).
Pressure higher than 140 over 90 indicates arterial hypertension
Indicators are considered normal if the systolic pressure does not exceed 140 millimeters of mercury, and the diastolic pressure is 90.The optimal pressure is 120 to 80, normal – 120–129 to 80–84, high normal pressure – 130–139 to 85–89. A pressure higher than 140 to 90 indicates arterial hypertension.
For hypotensive people, the indicators of normal and high blood pressure may be different. The doctor at the reception is always interested in what kind of pressure the patient is adapted to. If for a person the usual pressure is 90 to 60, then the indicators of 120 to 80 for him may be too high and he may feel bad. In this case, the doctor prescribes additional examinations.
Hypotension can be a marker of serious complications if it occurs unexpectedly in a person who is not adapted to low blood pressure. In this case, hypotension may indicate a low level of hemoglobin, vascular disease, acute bleeding situations, and so on.
Hypertension is getting younger
– At what age should you start measuring your blood pressure?
– Doctors recommend not to postpone monitoring your blood pressure until later.Therapists begin to monitor the patient’s blood pressure from the age of 18, which is what they advise everyone. Hypertension is getting younger, and the insidiousness of the disease is that at first it may be asymptomatic. A person learns that he is hypertensive already when some diseases arise. Even if there are no complaints, but at the same time, the young man has a nervous work, a tense rhythm of life, doctors recommend at least several times a week to control his pressure after a working day.
Elderly people, as well as those with risk factors for developing hypertension, should regularly monitor their blood pressure.In case of a tendency to increase in performance, you need to see a doctor, even if you feel well.
The causes of hypertension are stress, unhealthy diet, smoking
– What are the risk factors for the development of hypertension?
– The reasons for the development of hypertension are objective, which cannot be influenced, and subjective, which can be regulated. Objective factors include age, heredity, and male sex.
Subjective factors are obesity and unhealthy diet (an excess of fatty foods and salt), a sedentary lifestyle, smoking, alcohol and coffee abuse, stress, nervous work, taking contraceptive pills (long-term use of contraceptives increases the risk of hypertension in women).
– How to measure pressure correctly?
– At home, it is more convenient to measure pressure with either a semi-automatic or an automatic tonometer, which is fixed on the forearm. Mercury devices with a manual blower are much more difficult to use. It is not recommended to smoke or drink coffee before measuring blood pressure. You need to measure pressure in a comfortable environment, in a calm state, it is better to sit on a chair with your back resting on its back. The legs are not crossed, the forearm is on the table, the arm is relaxed.
The pressure must be measured several times. After the first measurement, which, as a rule, is not taken into account, in the intervals from 30 to 60 seconds, we measure two or three more times and calculate the average value of blood pressure.
Hypertension may be asymptomatic, therefore blood pressure should be monitored regularly
– What are the symptoms of high blood pressure?
– The most common signs of high blood pressure are throbbing headache in the occipital region, flashing flies, tinnitus, dizziness, staggering, blurred vision.If a person has numbness of the limbs, difficulty speaking, difficulty walking, this is already a sign of a serious complication – cerebrovascular accident.
Hypertension may be asymptomatic. It is no coincidence that she is called the silent killer. Therefore, you need to monitor your blood pressure regularly, even with good health.
– What is the basis for the diagnosis of hypertension?
– The diagnosis of hypertension is made on the basis of the recorded high blood pressure and the results of the examination.What kind of research needs to be done is decided by the attending physician. As a rule, this is a general blood test, a general urine test, a biochemical blood test with the determination of the level of thyroid and adrenal hormones, echocardiography, ultrasound of the kidneys, an ophthalmologist checks the fundus. If there are changes, the doctor prescribes additional research and refers to consultations with narrow specialists. Hypertension has different faces, and it can manifest itself in different ways.
If hypertension is suspected, doctors recommend daily monitoring of blood pressure, because during the day a person’s indicators may change.In addition, there is such a phenomenon as “white coat hypertension”, when a person’s blood pressure rises when visiting a clinic, at the sight of a doctor in a white coat.
10 Steps to Health: A Patient Reminder
The most important thing is to start moving towards health. It won’t be as difficult as it sounds.
1. Control of blood pressure. Keep a diary where you write down your blood pressure readings throughout the day.
2. Proper nutrition.Limit your intake of animal fats.
3. Less salt. The daily amount of salt should not exceed a teaspoon. The salt contained in the products is also taken into account.
4. More potassium. Potassium is rich in foods such as beans, seaweed, apricots, raisins. It is also found in cod, mackerel, squid, oatmeal, onions, tomatoes, radishes, apricots and currants.
5. Weight loss. Excess weight provokes the development of hypertension and other cardiovascular diseases.
6. Running from hypertension. Exercise is essential for a fulfilling, healthy life. The main thing is to choose the optimal mode for yourself.
7. Relieve stress. Correct behavior in stressful situations can be learned. For advice, it is worth contacting a doctor or a high blood pressure school.
8. Quit smoking. “Smoking is harmful to your health” is not just words, it is a call to action. Smoking significantly increases the risk of developing hypertension, cardiovascular, cancer and other diseases.
9. Limiting the use of alcohol. Strong alcohol, cocktails and alcoholic beverages containing a large amount of sugar should be avoided. Excessive beer consumption is also very harmful.
10. If you have been diagnosed with hypertension, strictly follow the doctor’s recommendations, including the use of medications. Their reception should be regular, without missing.
And about medicines
Do not self-medicate, do not listen to the advice of friends and neighbors.There are several groups of drugs that lower blood pressure, and only a doctor can determine which drug should be taken at the moment.
It is impossible to cure hypertension with folk remedies. Follow the advice of your doctor and take the drugs that he prescribed for you.
Every Moscow polyclinic has health centers where you can get recommendations from doctors on the prevention of hypertension. In many medical institutions there are schools for patients with arterial hypertension, where qualified specialists tell about the danger of hypertension and how to treat it.
90,000 top and bottom which means age norms
Human arterial pressure (BP) is an indicator of the force with which the blood presses on the artery wall.
This important parameter depends on the volume of blood pumped by the heart per unit of time and the resistance of the vascular wall. Measured in millimeters of mercury.
What do the upper and lower numbers mean
When measuring, the tonometer shows two numbers, for example 120 and 80.This is what these numbers mean:
- Upper – the largest (systolic) is determined at the moment when the heart contracts. Reflects the strength of contraction of the heart muscle, the number of contractions per unit of time and the resistance of the vascular walls.
- Lower – the smallest (diastolic) is determined at the moment when the heart relaxes. Reflects the strength of the resistance of the peripheral vessels.
Each time the heart beats, the pressure fluctuates between the lowest and highest.
The pressure norm for a healthy person over 18 years old is 120/80.
The range from 100/60 to 130/90 is considered valid. There is a concept of “working pressure” – an individual rate of blood pressure, which depends on the physiological characteristics of the body and age.
For example, some people may have a permanent 100/60 with good health. For them, the numbers 120/80 will mean increased blood pressure, although for others this is the norm.
Normal difference between upper and lower pressure should be 35-50 mm Hg.
Classification by category for persons over the age of 18:
|AD category||Upper blood pressure (mm Hg)||Lower blood pressure (mm Hg)|
|Hypotension||below 100||below 60|
|Hypertension 1st degree||140-159||90–99|
|Hypertension 2nd degree||160-179||100-109|
|Hypertension 3rd degree||over 180||over 110|
If the indicators of upper and lower blood pressure fall into different categories, then the higher figure is taken into account when assessing the severity of hypertension.
The magnitude of the pressure level depends on age: in children and adolescents, the norm is lower, in the elderly and the elderly – higher.
With age, the vessels become less elastic, lipid and lime deposits appear on their inner membrane. Age-related changes also occur in the heart. All this leads to the fact that the average pressure values are higher in the elderly than in the young.
However, even after 60 years, the indicators should not go beyond 130/90.
Blood pressure fluctuations
The value of pressure can change during the day, with excessive fluid intake, physical exertion, fatigue, stress, taking certain medications and other factors.
Daily fluctuations in blood pressure:
- Lowest – at night from 2-00 to 4-00 90 130
- Fairly high – in the morning within 2 to 4 hours after waking up 90 130
- Highest – in the evening
In healthy people, such changes do not exceed 20 mm Hg for systolic and 10 mm Hg for diastolic., in hypertensive patients they are more pronounced.
People with hypertension need to measure blood pressure daily 2 times a day – in the morning and in the evening, write down the readings in a diary.
Danger of deviation from the norm
WHO (World Health Organization) warns that with frequent and prolonged deviations from the norm, the following diseases develop:
- above 140/90 – hypertension
- below 90/60 – hypotension
These conditions require medical attention.Hypertension is especially dangerous.
Hypertensive disease increases the risk of ischemic and hemorrhagic strokes, myocardial infarction, coronary heart disease, heart and kidney failure, retinal damage, eye diseases. Aneurysms (enlargements) may appear in the vessels, and in the most sad cases – complete blockages and ruptures, hemorrhages.
By means of lifestyle changes (restriction of animal fats, salt, physical activity) and medication, complications of cardiovascular diseases can be avoided.
Most people may not feel abnormal pressure in any way.
Sometimes the following symptoms occur with hypertension:
- Headache, often pulsating in the occipital region
- Rapid heartbeat
- Pain in the chest, in the region of the heart
- Shortness of breath
- Visual impairment, flashing “flies” before the eyes
- Bleeding from the nose
With hypotension you may have:
- Weakness and lethargy
- Nausea and vomiting
- Darkening of the eyes when getting out of bed
Medicines will have to be taken for life.Cardiologist on the risks of hypertension :: Yekaterinburg :: RBK
– What pressure is considered normal, are there age norms?
– It has been established that the safe level of blood pressure at any age, regardless of gender, is less than 140/90 mm Hg. Art. Thus, blood pressure of 140/90 mm Hg is considered to be elevated. Art. and higher. And if the increased numbers are registered at least twice at the doctor’s appointment, then a diagnosis of arterial hypertension is made.
– How often should blood pressure be measured?
– Healthy people should take a tonometer at least once every 2 years, if the latest measurements of their blood pressure do not exceed 130/85 mm Hg. Art. With an established diagnosis, it is advisable to measure blood pressure twice a day (morning and evening), as well as if you feel unwell, and be sure to record the data in a table. This will make it easier for the doctor to select or adjust therapy.
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– Can the development of arterial hypertension be prevented?
– Yes, it is possible.Only a few risk factors for the development of hypertension are unavoidable and therefore are called unchangeable. These include age (over 55 for men, over 65 for women) and heredity. However, most of the factors can be influenced. These include smoking, low physical activity, inappropriate nutrition with excessive consumption of fatty foods, overweight and obesity, alcohol abuse, inadequate responses to stress. The impact on these risk factors, lifestyle changes will prevent or suspend the development of this disease.
– How is hypertension treated?
– Modern treatment should be comprehensive and include non-drug methods and the use of drugs. With mild hypertension, it is possible to normalize blood pressure only through lifestyle changes. Non-drug therapy includes: following a low-salt diet, losing weight, increasing physical activity, quitting smoking, and reducing alcohol consumption. The need to take medications is decided by the doctor.
– Should I take drugs for hypertension if I feel well?
– For many people, arterial hypertension can be asymptomatic, without altering the state of health. Meanwhile, a persistent asymptomatic increase in blood pressure does not exclude the progression of the disease and the development of life-threatening complications such as cerebral hemorrhage, myocardial infarction, heart and renal failure, retinal damage with loss of vision. Therefore, hypertension must be treated, no matter how good you feel!
– How long to take the medicine for hypertension? Many people think that long-term drug use is damaging the liver? Can herbs be treated?
– To effectively treat hypertension and reduce the risk of cardiovascular complications, it is necessary to take drugs to lower blood pressure continuously, for life.It is recommended to maintain the blood pressure level up to 140/90 mm Hg. Art. With higher numbers, the risk of complications such as heart attack, stroke, increases. Medications prescribed by your doctor should be taken daily, even if you feel well. Modern antihypertensive drugs are usually well tolerated and do not affect liver function. The harm from untreated hypertension is greater than from drugs that lower blood pressure. In addition, non-drug measures, which we have already discussed, are very important for effectively lowering blood pressure.Without adhering to them, there is much less chance of success. But there is no convincing data on the effectiveness of herbs in the treatment of arterial hypertension.
– What exercises can you recommend for hypertensive patients?
– Dynamic physical activity, which affects large muscle groups, has a positive effect on the body. This can be walking, swimming, cycling, skiing, etc. It is recommended that you choose a type of physical activity that is enjoyable.For a person with arterial hypertension, walking for 20 to 60 minutes is optimal, 3 to 5 times a week. Physical activity should not provoke shortness of breath, profuse sweating, general weakness, pain in the heart.
It is necessary to gradually increase the duration of the classes, especially if you have previously been sedentary. It is best to consult with your doctor before starting regular exercise.
– Should you follow a special diet?
– Dietary recommendations for the control of arterial hypertension include reducing the consumption of animal fats, refined foods, flour, confectionery, sugar.Preference should be given to oily varieties of sea fish. It is advisable to give up the use of ready-made meat products (sausages, etc.). It is necessary to consume more cereals, fruits and vegetables (at least 400 g per day), dairy products with a low fat content.
– Is it possible to drink alcohol with arterial hypertension?
– Persons with arterial hypertension are not recommended to consume alcoholic beverages, as they can increase blood pressure, increase heart rate, that is, increase heart function, and also have a toxic effect on the heart muscle and liver.
– There is a wide variety of blood pressure monitors in pharmacies now. Which device to choose?
– Every patient with arterial hypertension should have a blood pressure monitor at home and regularly measure their blood pressure. Tonometers are mechanical, semi-automatic and automatic. When using mechanical and semi-automatic blood pressure monitors, air is forced into the cuff manually. This may not be very convenient when measuring yourself. When using an automatic tonometer, air is pumped into the cuff automatically when the device is turned on.They are the most convenient. Optimal measurement of blood pressure at the shoulder. Values obtained from forearm and finger measurements are less accurate.
– How to measure blood pressure correctly?
– Regardless of the type of tonometer, the reliability of the measurement results depends on the observance of simple rules.
- You need to measure the blood pressure on both arms. And in the future, blood pressure should be measured on the arm where it is higher.
- Measure the pressure under calm conditions after a 5 minute rest. If the measurement procedure was preceded by a significant physical or emotional stress, the rest period should be increased to 15-30 minutes.
- It is necessary to exclude the use of coffee and strong tea for 1 hour before the study, do not smoke for 30 minutes.
- Optimal posture: sitting on a chair in a comfortable position, leaning on the back, with relaxed and not crossed legs, the hand rests on the table.
- The cuff is applied to the shoulder at the level of the heart, its lower edge is 2 cm above the elbow bend. A finger should pass between the cuff and the surface of the shoulder.
- The cuff should be sized to fit your hand. The standard cuff is suitable for an upper arm circumference of 22–32 cm. If the circumference of the upper arm is larger, then a larger cuff should be purchased for an upper arm circumference of 32–42 cm. Blood pressure monitors are available and are immediately accompanied by 2 cuffs: standard and large.
- The hand on which the measurement is made must be free of clothing.
- Do not talk during measurement.
The material was prepared within the framework of the Health for All project of the Ministry of Health of the Sverdlovsk Region.
NO JOKING WITH PRESSURE – Outpatient clinic
WHAT PRESSURE IS CONSIDERED NORMAL AND WHAT IS INCREASED?
Most people will immediately answer this question: normal blood pressure , of course, this is 120 by 70 mm Hg .Pressure above 120/70 is considered to be elevated .
Is that right? Yes and no. The numbers 120/70 are really good, the ideal pressure is . In the event that you are young, if you are 20 years old, you do not have a single gram of excess weight, and if you are preparing to become astronauts.
But if you are 30-35 years old, or you are a little overweight, or move a little, then your normal pressure is 130/80. Although 120/70 is also good, even better. Only now you don’t need to worry about the difference of plus or minus 10 units.
Well, what about the “terrible” 140/90? Is it a lot or not?
At 20 years old, 140/90 is really a bit too much. This indicates a tendency to high blood pressure, a tendency to hypertension. But this is not a disaster yet. I repeat, at 20 years 140/90 is only a harbinger of possible future troubles.
But at the age of 40 and over 140/90 is the norm! Normal pressure! Moreover, this is the alphabet, this is taught in the second year of the medical institute!
Indeed, over the years , the pressure rises in almost any person, especially if he is not a blissful Buddhist monk who lives high in the mountains.And already in the second year of medical schools, future doctors are taught that starting from 40-45 years old, pressure 130/80 – 140/90 is considered normal.
A it is necessary to knock down the pressure only if it has risen above 150/90 or 150/100.
Apparently, someone is studying at the institute carelessly. Or too brainwashed by representatives of pharmaceutical companies. And, having become a doctor, the former student forgets what he was taught at the medical institute.
“Ah,” he says to his 50-year-old patient, “you have 140/90, you need to take pills urgently.And then horror-horror-horror! ”
I will clarify. Because of 140 to 90, there will be no horror. None. And you don’t need to shoot down 140/90. And even 150/90 shooting down is not necessary. Especially if your body can tolerate them.
Now, if the pressure has risen to 160, and especially if it continues to grow, it is worth taking action. But you don’t have to take pills right away, there are other options.
90,000 Don’t push me: the whole truth about meteorological dependence
The overwhelming majority of work in biometeorology is assessing statistics of doctor visits or surveys of people whose opinions may be subjective.There are so many factors in life that can make you feel worse, and it’s not a fact that the weather is one of them. To prove otherwise, clinical trials with a control group are needed, but they are not easy to organize. Is it easy to put hundreds of people with arthritis or hypotension in a pressure chamber for several days, and another hundred in a placebo pressure chamber, in which the pressure is like outside? Take one group to the mountains, and leave the control group at the foot, but do not open the windows? By the way, scientists tried the option with artificially adjustable conditions in a small experiment on 75 healthy volunteers.As a result, it was possible to show that under reduced pressure and high humidity … the ability to smell is reduced. However, the authors of the article did not find any threats to health.
Today we learn about the weather from forecasts, and it is much easier to spoil the “blind” experiment and convince yourself that your subjective feelings have changed. But if you still think that you are meteosensitive (and got high scores in the METEO-Q test), then in the coming days, be more attentive to your chronic problems.The risk group will be those suffering from hypotension or hypertension, those who are characterized by pressure surges, and other people with diseases of the heart and blood vessels, because the contraction of the heart and the expansion and narrowing of blood vessels directly affect the pressure. The same applies to people with respiratory diseases. Therefore, many doctors advised such people not to go outside. However, the house is not a spacesuit with forced air, where the required pressure is maintained, even when there is a cosmic vacuum around. The whims of the earthly atmosphere also work inside buildings, so just staying indoors will not make much of a difference.But if your pressure gives you constant problems, it is better to heed the advice of these doctors – perhaps you will save yourself from fainting on the subway or train.
A magic pill for weather dependence, alas, does not exist: clinical trials that would unequivocally confirm that right now a person had joint pain or headache or pressure jumped precisely because of the weather, and then because of the medicine it would go away, just not … Therefore, only general advice related to blood pressure can be given.Drinking coffee, alcoholic beverages, smoking and overeating on such days is not worth it. Drinking more water may be beneficial, as a drop in atmospheric pressure can alter the viscosity of blood and synovial fluid, which smooths out friction in the joints. Avoid strenuous physical exertion, stuffiness and nervous strain, try to get enough sleep.