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Medication Recommendations

ANALGESICS – Medications used to reduce or eliminate pain.

OVER-THE-COUNTER MEDICATIONS:

For mild to moderate pain:

2 or 3 Ibuprofen (totaling 400 or 600 mg) every 4 to 6 hours. Examples: Motrin, Advil, etc. Do NOT exceed the maximum daily dose of 16 tablets or 3200 mg.

If you have an allergy, bleeding problems, or stomach upset due to aspirin or NSAID’s:

1 or 2 Acetaminophen (totaling 325 or 650 mg) every 4 to 6 hours.  Example: Tylenol.

Do NOT exceed a maximum single dose of 650 mg, or a maximum daily dose of 3000 mg.

For moderate to severe pain:

3 Ibuprofen (totaling 600 mg) AND 1 Extra-Strength Tylenol (500 mg) every 6 hours. Do NOT use this combination of medications more than 4 times per day.

PRESCRIPTION MEDICATIONS:

For severe pain:

Vicoprofen (Combination of Hydrocodone and Ibuprofen) – Take 1 tablet every 4-6 hours as needed for pain, not to exceed 5 tablets in a 24 hour period.

Side effects may include feeling lightheaded, dizzy, sedated, drowsy, fatigued, confused, or nauseous. Avoid using this medication if you need to drive a car, operate machinery, work, or care for children.

This medication is a powerful narcotic and can be habit-forming depending on your body weight and tolerance, therefore, requests for refills are usually denied.

Use the medication sparingly and take OTC medications whenever possible.

ANTIBIOTICS – Medications used to treat bacterial infections.

Complete the full course of antibiotics even if your symptoms lessen or disappear.

If you experience an adverse reaction such as a rash, vomiting, or diarrhea, stop taking the antibiotics immediately and call the office.

*** Important Note for Women – Antibiotics can interfere with the effectiveness of birth control pills, so it is essential to use alternative methods of contraception while taking antibiotics and for 7 days after.

GENERAL RECOMMENDATIONS FOR MEDICATION USE:

Take medications with food to promote better absorption and to prevent nausea.

Avoid alcohol consumption when taking medications.

Follow the directions on the bottle regarding dosage and frequency unless directed otherwise.

Please proceed with recommended dental procedures as soon as possible. Medications may temporarily resolve symptoms or relieve pain, but it is important to treat the source of the problem.

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How much ibuprofen is too much? Dosage and effects

Ibuprofen is an effective pain reliever, but taking too much of it can cause serious side effects. This is true in both the short- and the long-term.

Ibuprofen is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID). People take ibuprofen to treat pain, fever, and inflammation. It is one of the most used medications in the world.

A small overdose can cause minor symptoms. In rare cases, overdoses can be fatal. If a person has taken too much ibuprofen, they should call Poison Control on 1-800-222-1222 or the emergency services on 911.

In this article, we explore how to take ibuprofen safely and the effects of taking too much.

The following table summarizes the recommended and maximum daily dosages in milligrams (mg) and milligrams per kilogram (mg/kg) of body weight for adults and children.

Treating fever Pain relief Maximum daily dose

Children 3–23 months

Children 24 months to 12 years old

5 mg/kg per dose

10 mg/kg per dose

5–10 mg/kg per dose 40 mg/kg per day
Adults 12 years and older 200–400 mg per dose 200–400 mg per dose 1,200 mg per day

Always take the lowest effective dosage of ibuprofen. Take or administer a single dosage in the following timeframes:

Some doctors may prescribe a higher maximum daily dosage.

Pregnancy

NSAIDs, including ibuprofen, may not be safe to take during pregnancy. This is because they can alter the function of prostaglandins that are important during delivery and for the development of the fetus’s cardiovascular system.

A person should consult a doctor before taking ibuprofen during pregnancy, especially in the third trimester.

Breastfeeding

A dosage of 400 mg of ibuprofen is not detectable in breast milk, but higher doses can get into breast milk. This means that a baby faces exposure to ibuprofen through breast milk if a woman takes too much.

Healthcare professionals do not know the effects of small amounts of ibuprofen in breast milk on infants. A person should consult a physician before taking ibuprofen while breastfeeding.

Ibuprofen is an NSAID, a type of drug that people take to reduce pain and relieve inflammation.

Advil and Motrin are the brand names of the drug ibuprofen. People can buy lower strengths of ibuprofen over the counter, and higher strengths are available by prescription.

Ibuprofen is available in tablet, caplet, liquid gel, chewable tablet, and liquid suspension or drop formulations. It is also an ingredient in many different products, including cold and allergy medicines.

Ibuprofen works by blocking the production of prostaglandins. Prostaglandins play an essential role in inflammation when an injury occurs. They cause skin flushing, heat, swelling, and pain. Ibuprofen blocks their action by binding to the COX-1 and COX-2 receptors on an enzyme called prostaglandin synthase.

At the appropriate dosage, ibuprofen is a safe medication for both children and adults to take.

Pain medicines are the drug class most often responsible for overdoses in adults. According to one report, 29% of pain medication overdoses involved ibuprofen, making it the NSAID most commonly linked to overdose.

The majority of ibuprofen overdoses are not life-threatening, and fewer than 1% of ibuprofen overdoses are fatal. That said, some people have had severe complications.

There is no specific cutoff dosage for when an adult will experience symptoms of an overdose.

If a child ingests less than 100 mg/kg of ibuprofen, they may not experience any symptoms of an overdose. At a dosage of 400 mg/kg, however, a child may experience serious and life-threatening side effects.

Symptoms of ibuprofen overdose can occur within 4 hours of taking too much of the drug.

Stomach and digestion toxicity

One of the most common side effects of ibuprofen when a person takes it at recommended dosages is heartburn. When ibuprofen blocks the COX-1 receptors in the stomach, it can disrupt its protective layer.

People who take too much ibuprofen may experience side effects that range from stomach pain to severe bleeding in the digestive tract. The latter can occur within a few hours of an overdose.

Kidney toxicity

Kidney failure can occur in both children and adults who overdose with ibuprofen. However, it is not common.

A review of ibuprofen toxicity, which the authors updated in 2019, includes a 1992 study that scientists conducted at the Rocky Mountain Poison Control Center in Denver, CO. It showed that only 2 out of 63 people who overdosed with ibuprofen experienced symptoms of kidney failure.

In most cases, healthcare professionals can reverse kidney failure from ingestion of a large dosage of ibuprofen.

Central nervous system toxicity

If people take dosages greater than 400 mg/kg, they may experience central nervous system depression. This can cause loss of consciousness and coma.

Children may experience seizures and decreased consciousness from a massive overdose. Some children may even stop breathing.

Emergency doctors can reverse the central nervous system toxicities that occur due to an ibuprofen overdose.

Compared with NSAIDs such as diclofenac, mefenamic acid, and naproxen, ibuprofen overdoses have links with lower rates of central nervous system toxicities.

Other complications and risks

The most common complication from ibuprofen overdoses is metabolic acidosis, in which the body cannot eliminate acidic compounds from its blood and tissues.

The body breaks ibuprofen down into acidic compounds. When a person overdoses on it, the acidic compounds accumulate and can reduce the pH of the blood and body tissues. This makes the body more acidic.

Ibuprofen overdose can cause sudden kidney failure and seizures, which can affect the production and elimination of acidic compounds.

Metabolic acidosis can cause:

A blood test can reveal a low platelet count following an overdose. Prothrombin time, which is the time it takes for the blood to clot, will also rise. This means that the body’s ability to form blood clots may be reduced.

Share on PinterestA person experiencing an ibuprofen overdose requires immediate medical attention.

It is vital for people to seek medical attention immediately if they believe they have ingested too much ibuprofen. In most cases, doctors can reverse the consequences of an ibuprofen overdose.

The emergency doctor will take a complete history of how much ibuprofen the person took and at what time.

It is also vital for the person to mention whether they took other substances with the ibuprofen. Knowing this will help the doctor determine the best treatment and how best to manage the overdose.

Ibuprofen is easily accessible through prescription and over the counter. Perhaps because of this, overdoses are fairly common.

People may experience symptoms of an overdose only at substantial dosages. If they seek medical attention immediately after the ingestion, doctors can usually reverse the damage.

Brufen 600 mg Tablets – Summary of Product Characteristics (SmPC)

This information is intended for use by health professionals

Each Brufen Tablet contains 600 mg Ibuprofen.

Excipient with known effect: 40 mg Lactose monohydrate

For the full list of excipients, see section 6.1.

A white, pillow-shaped, film-coated tablet.

Brufen is indicated for its analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (including juvenile rheumatoid arthritis or Still’s disease), ankylosing spondylitis, osteoarthritis and other non-rheumatoid (seronegative) arthropathies.

In the treatment of non-articular rheumatic conditions, Brufen is indicated in periarticular conditions such as frozen shoulder (capsulitis), bursitis, tendinitis, tenosynovitis and low back pain; Brufen can also be used in soft tissue injuries such as sprains and strains.

Brufen is also indicated for its analgesic effect in the relief of mild to moderate pain such as dysmenorrhoea, dental and post-operative pain and for symptomatic relief of headache, including migraine headache.

Undesirable effects may be minimised by using the lowest effective dose for the shortest duration necessary to control symptoms (see section 4.4).

Adults and children over 12 years of age : The recommended dosage of Brufen is 1200-1800 mg daily in divided doses. Some patients can be maintained on 600-1200 mg daily. In severe or acute conditions, it can be advantageous to increase the dosage until the acute phase is brought under control, provided that the total daily dose does not exceed 2400 mg in divided doses.

In Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis, up to 40 mg/kg of body weight daily in divided doses may be taken.

Tablets are not suitable for children under the age of 12 years.

Elderly: The elderly are at increased risk of serious consequences of adverse reactions. If an NSAID is considered necessary, the lowest effective dose should be used and for the shortest possible duration. The patient should be monitored regularly for GI bleeding during NSAID therapy. If renal or hepatic function is impaired, dosage should be assessed individually.

Renal impairment:

Patients with mild to moderate renal impairment, (see section 4.4 – Special warnings and precautions for use) and patients with severe renal insufficiency (see section 4.3 – Contraindications)

Hepatic impairment:

For patients with mild to moderate hepatic impairment (see section 4.4 Special warnings and precautions for use) and patients with severe hepatic dysfunction (see section 4. 3-Contraindications).

For oral administration. It is recommended that patients with sensitive stomachs take Brufen with food. If taken shortly after eating, the onset of action of Brufen may be delayed. To be taken preferably with or after food, with plenty of fluid. Brufen tablets should be swallowed whole and not chewed, broken, crushed or sucked on to avoid oral discomfort and throat irritation.

The lowest effective dose should be used for the shortest duration necessary to relieve symptoms (see section 4.4).

Brufen is contraindicated in patients with hypersensitivity to the active substance or to any of the excipients.

Brufen should not be used in patients who have previously shown hypersensitivity reactions (e.g. asthma, urticaria, angioedema or rhinitis) after taking ibuprofen, aspirin or other NSAIDs.

Brufen is also contraindicated in patients with a history of gastrointestinal bleeding or perforation, related to previous NSAID therapy. Brufen should not be used in patients with active, or history of, recurrent peptic ulcer or gastrointestinal haemorrhage (two or more distinct episodes of proven ulceration or bleeding).

Brufen should not be given to patients with conditions involving an increased tendency to bleeding.

Brufen is contraindicated in patients with severe heart failure (NYHA Class IV), hepatic failure and renal failure (see section 4.4).

Brufen is contraindicated during the last trimester of pregnancy (see section 4.6).

Undesirable effects may be minimised by using the lowest effective dose for the shortest duration necessary to control symptoms (see section 4.2, and GI and cardiovascular risks below).

As with other NSAIDs, ibuprofen may mask the signs of infection.

The use of Brufen with concomitant NSAIDs, including cyclooxygenase-2 selective inhibitors, should be avoided due to the increased risk of ulceration or bleeding (see section 4.5).

The diagnosis of medication overuse headache (MOH) should be suspected in patients who have frequent or daily headaches despite (or because of) the regular use of analgesic medication. Patients with medication overuse headache should not be treated by increasing the dose of the analgesic. In such cases the use of analgesics should be discontinued.

The concomitant consumption of excessive alcohol with NSAIDs, including ibuprofen may increase the risk of adverse effects on the gastrointestinal tract, such as GI haemorrhage or the central nervous system, possibly due to an additive effect.

Elderly

The elderly have an increased frequency of adverse reactions to NSAIDs, especially gastrointestinal bleeding and perforation, which may be fatal (see section 4.2).

Paediatric population

There is a risk of renal impairment in dehydrated children and adolescents.

Gastrointestinal bleeding, ulceration and perforation

GI bleeding, ulceration or perforation, which can be fatal, has been reported with all NSAIDs at anytime during treatment, with or without warning symptoms or a previous history of serious GI events.

The risk of GI bleeding, ulceration or perforation is higher with increasing NSAID doses, in patients with a history of ulcer, particularly if complicated with haemorrhage or perforation (see section 4.3), and in the elderly. These patients should commence treatment on the lowest dose available. Combination therapy with protective agents (e.g. misoprostol or proton pump inhibitors) should be considered for these patients, and also for patients requiring concomitant low dose aspirin, or other drugs likely to increase gastrointestinal risk (see below and section 4.5).

Patients with a history of gastrointestinal disease, particularly when elderly, should report any unusual abdominal symptoms (especially gastrointestinal bleeding) particularly in the initial stages of treatment.

Caution should be advised in patients receiving concomitant medications which could increase the risk of ulceration or bleeding, such as oral corticosteroids, anticoagulants such as warfarin, selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitors or anti-platelet agents such as aspirin (see section 4. 5).

When GI bleeding or ulceration occurs in patients receiving Brufen, the treatment should be withdrawn.

NSAIDs should be given with care to patients with a history of ulcerative colitis or Crohn’s disease as these conditions may be exacerbated (see section 4.8).

Respiratory disorders and hypersensitivity reactions

Caution is required if Brufen is administered to patients suffering from, or with a previous history of, bronchial asthma, chronic rhinitis or allergic diseases since NSAIDs have been reported to precipitate bronchospasm, urticaria or angioedema in such patients.

Cardiac, renal and hepatic impairment

The administration of an NSAID may cause a dose dependent reduction in prostaglandin formation and precipitate renal failure. The habitual concomitant intake of various similar painkillers further increases this risk. Patients at greatest risk of this reaction are those with impaired renal function, cardiac impairment, liver dysfunction, those taking diuretics and the elderly. For these patients, use the lowest effective dose, for the shortest possible duration and monitor renal function especially in long-term treated patients (see also section 4.3).

Brufen should be given with care to patients with a history of heart failure or hypertension since oedema has been reported in association with ibuprofen administration.

Cardiovascular and cerebrovascular effects

Appropriate monitoring and advice are required for patients with a history of hypertension and/or mild to moderate congestive heart failure as fluid retention and oedema have been reported in association with NSAID therapy.

Clinical studies suggest that use of ibuprofen, particularly at a high dose (2400 mg/ day) may be associated with a small increased risk of arterial thrombotic events such as myocardial infarction or stroke. Overall, epidemiological studies do not suggest that low dose ibuprofen (e.g. ≤ 1200mg/day) is associated with an increased risk of arterial thrombotic events.

Patients with uncontrolled hypertension, congestive heart failure (NYHA II-III), established ischaemic heart disease, peripheral arterial disease, and/or cerebrovascular disease should only be treated with ibuprofen after careful consideration and high doses (2400mg/day) should be avoided. Careful consideration should also be exercised before initiating long-term treatment of patients with risk factors for cardiovascular events (e.g. hypertension, hyperlipidaemia, diabetes mellitus, smoking), particularly if high doses of ibuprofen (2400mg/day) are required.

Renal effects

Caution should be used when initiating treatment with ibuprofen in patients with considerable dehydration. There is a risk of renal impairment especially in dehydrated children, adolescents and the elderly.

As with other NSAIDs, long-term administration of ibuprofen has resulted in renal papillary necrosis and other renal pathologic changes. Renal toxicity has also been seen in patients in whom renal prostaglandins have a compensatory role in the maintenance of renal perfusion. In these patients, administration of an NSAID may cause a dose-dependant reduction in prostaglandin formation and, secondarily, in renal blood flow, which may cause renal failure. Patients at greatest risk of this reaction are those with impaired renal function, heart failure, liver dysfunction, those taking diuretics and ACE inhibitors and the elderly. Discontinuation of NSAID therapy is usually followed by recovery to the pre-treatment state.

SLE and mixed connective tissue disease

In patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and mixed connective tissue disorders there may be an increased risk of aseptic meningitis (see below and section 4.8).

Severe skin reactions

Serious skin reactions, some of them fatal, including exfoliative dermatitis, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, and toxic epidermal necrolysis, have been reported very rarely in association with the use of NSAIDs (see section 4.8). Patients appear to be at highest risk of these reactions early in the course of therapy, the onset of the reaction occurring within the first month of treatment in the majority of cases. Acute generalised exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP) has been reported in relation to ibuprofen-containing products. Brufen should be discontinued at the first appearance of skin rash, mucosal lesions, or any other sign of hypersensitivity.

In exceptional cases, varicella can be at the origin of serious cutaneous and soft tissues infectious complications. To date, the contributing role of NSAIDs in the worsening of these infections cannot be ruled out. Thus, it is advisable to avoid use of Ibuprofen in case of varicella.


Masking of symptoms of underlying infections

Brufen tablets can mask symptoms of infection, which may lead to delayed initiation of appropriate treatment and thereby worsening the outcome of the infection. This has been observed in bacterial community acquired pneumonia and bacterial complications to varicella. When Brufen tablets are administered for fever or pain relief in relation to infection, monitoring of infection is advised. In nonhospital settings, the patient should consult a doctor if symptoms persist or worsen.

Haematological effects

Ibuprofen, like other NSAIDs, can interfere with platelet aggregation and prolong bleeding time in normal subjects.

Aseptic meningitis

Aseptic meningitis has been observed on rare occasions in patients on ibuprofen therapy. Although it is probably more likely to occur in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus and related connective tissue diseases, it has been reported in patients who do not have an underlying chronic disease.

Impaired female fertility

The use of Brufen may impair female fertility and is not recommended in women attempting to conceive. In women who have difficulties conceiving or who are undergoing investigation of infertility, withdrawal of Brufen should be considered.


Excipients

Brufen tablets contain lactose monohydrate and should not be given to patients with rare hereditary problems of galactose intolerance, total lactase deficiency or glucose- galactose malabsorption.

This medicine contains less than 1 mmol sodium (23 mg) per tablet, that is to say essentially ‘sodium-free’.

Care should be taken in patients treated with any of the following drugs as interactions have been reported in some patients.

Antihypertensives, beta-blockers and diuretics: NSAIDs may reduce the effect of anti-hypertensives, such as ACE inhibitors, angiotensin-II receptor antagonists, beta-blockers and diuretics.

Diuretics can also increase the risk of nephrotoxicity of NSAIDs.

Cardiac glycosides: NSAIDs may exacerbate cardiac failure, reduce GFR and increase plasma cardiac glycoside levels.

Cholestyramine; The concomitant administration of ibuprofen and cholestyramine may reduce the absorption of ibuprofen in the gastrointestinal tract. However, the clinical significance is unknown.

Lithium: Decreased elimination of lithium.

Methotrexate: NSAIDs may inhibit the tubular secretion of methotrexate and reduce clearance of methotrexate.

Ciclosporin: Increased risk of nephrotoxicity.

Mifepristone: A decrease in the efficacy of the medicinal product can theoretically occur due to the antiprostaglandin properties of NSAIDs. Limited evidence suggests that coadministration of NSAIDs on the day of prostaglandin administration does not adversely influence the effects of mifepristone or the prostaglandin on cervical ripening or uterine contractility and does not reduce the clinical efficacy of medicinal termination of pregnancy.

Other analgesics and cyclooxygenase-2 selective inhibitors: Avoid concomitant use of two or more NSAIDs, including Cox-2 inhibitors, as this may increase the risk of adverse effects (see section 4.4).

Aspirin (Acetylsalicylic acid): As with other products containing NSAIDs, concomitant administration of ibuprofen and aspirin is not generally recommended because of the potential of increased adverse effects.

Experimental data suggest that ibuprofen may competitively inhibit the effect of low dose aspirin on platelet aggregation when they are dosed concomitantly. Although there are uncertainties regarding extrapolation of these data to the clinical situation, the possibility that regular, long-term use of ibuprofen may reduce the cardioprotective effect of low-dose acetylsalicylic acid cannot be excluded. No clinically relevant effect is considered to be likely for occasional use (see section 5.1).

Corticosteroids: Increased risk of gastrointestinal ulceration or bleeding with NSAIDs (see section 4.4).

Anticoagulants: NSAIDs may enhance the effects of anticoagulants, such as warfarin (see section 4.4).

Quinolone antibiotics: Animal data indicate that NSAIDs can increase the risk of convulsions associated with quinolone antibiotics. Patients taking NSAIDs and quinolones may have an increased risk of developing convulsions.

Sulfonylureas: NSAIDs may potentiate the effects of sulfonylurea medications. There have been rare reports of hypoglycaemia in patients on sulfonylurea medications receiving ibuprofen.

Anti-platelet agents and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs): Increased risk of gastrointestinal bleeding with NSAIDs (see section 4.4).

Tacrolimus: Possible increased risk of nephrotoxicity when NSAIDs are given with tacrolimus.

Zidovudine: Increased risk of haematological toxicity when NSAIDs are given with zidovudine. There is evidence of an increased risk of haemarthroses and haematoma in HIV(+) haemophiliacs receiving concurrent treatment with zidovudine and ibuprofen.

Aminoglycosides: NSAIDs may decrease the excretion of aminoglycosides.

Herbal extracts: Ginkgo biloba may potentiate the risk of bleeding with NSAIDs.

CYP2C9 Inhibitors: Concomitant administration of ibuprofen with CYP2C9 inhibitors may increase the exposure to ibuprofen (CYP2C9 substrate). In a study with voriconazole and fluconazole (CYP2C9 inhibitors), an increased S(+)-ibuprofen exposure by approximately 80 to 100% has been shown. Reduction of the ibuprofen dose should be considered when potent CYP2C9 inhibitors are administered concomitantly, particularly when high-dose ibuprofen is administered with either voriconazole or fluconazole.

Pregnancy

Inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis may adversely affect the pregnancy and/or embryo/foetal development. Data from epidemiological studies suggest an increased risk of miscarriage and of cardiac malformation and gastroschisis after the use of a

prostaglandin synthesis inhibitor in early pregnancy. The risk is believed to increase with dose and duration of therapy. In animals, the administration of a prostaglandin synthesis inhibitor has been shown to result in increased pre- and post-implantation losses and embryo/foetal lethality. In addition, increased incidences of various malformations, including cardiovascular, have been reported in animals given a prostaglandin synthesis inhibitor during the organogenetic period.

During the first and second trimester of pregnancy, Brufen should not be given unless clearly necessary. If Brufen is used by a woman attempting to conceive, or during the first or second trimester of pregnancy, the dose should be kept as low and duration of treatment as short as possible.

During the third trimester of pregnancy, all prostaglandin synthesis inhibitors may expose the foetus to the following:

• Cardiopulmonary toxicity (with premature closure of the ductus arteriosus and pulmonary hypertension)

• Renal dysfunction, which may progress to renal failure with oligohydramnios.

At the end of pregnancy, prostaglandin synthesis inhibitors may expose the mother and the neonate to the following:

• Possible prolongation of bleeding time

• Inhibition of uterine contractions, which may result in delayed or prolonged labour.

Consequently, Brufen is contraindicated during the third trimester of pregnancy.

Lactation

In the limited studies so far available, NSAIDs can appear in the breast milk in very low concentrations. NSAIDs should, if possible, be avoided when breastfeeding.

See section 4.4 Special warnings and precautions for use, regarding female fertility.

Undesirable effects such as dizziness, drowsiness, fatigue and visual disturbances are possible after taking NSAIDs. If affected, patients should not drive or operate machinery.

Gastrointestinal disorders: The most commonly observed adverse events are gastrointestinal in nature. Peptic ulcers, perforation or GI bleeding, sometimes fatal, particularly in the elderly, may occur (see section 4.4). Nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, flatulence, constipation, dyspepsia, abdominal pain, melaena, haematemesis, ulcerative stomatitis, gastrointestinal haemorrhage and exacerbation of colitis and Crohn’s disease (see section 4.4) have been reported following ibuprofen administration. Less frequently, gastritis, duodenal ulcer, gastric ulcer and gastrointestinal perforation have been observed.

Immune system disorders: Hypersensitivity reactions have been reported following treatment with NSAIDs. These may consist of (a) non-specific allergic reaction and anaphylaxis, (b) respiratory tract reactivity comprising asthma, aggravated asthma, bronchospasm or dyspnoea, or (c) assorted skin disorders, including rashes of various types, pruritus, urticaria, purpura, angioedema and, very rarely, erythema multiforme, bullous dermatoses (including Stevens- Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis).

Cardiac disorders and vascular disorders: Oedema, hypertension and cardiac failure have been reported in association with NSAID treatment. Clinical studies suggest that use of ibuprofen, particularly at high dose (2400 mg/day) may be associated with a small increased risk of arterial thrombotic events such as myocardial infarction or stroke (see section 4.4).

Infections and infestations: Rhinitis and aseptic meningitis (especially in patients with existing autoimmune disorders, such as systemic lupus erythematosus and mixed connective tissue disease) with symptoms of stiff neck, headache, nausea, vomiting, fever or disorientation (see section 4.4).

Exacerbation of infection-related inflammations coinciding with the use of NSAIDs has been described. If signs of an infection occur or get worse during use of Ibuprofen the patient is therefore recommended to go to a doctor without delay.

Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders: In exceptional cases, severe skin infections and soft-tissue complications may occur during a varicella infection (see also “Infections and infestations”)

The following adverse reactions possibly related to ibuprofen and displayed by MedDRA frequency convention and system organ classification. Frequency groupings are classified according to the subsequent conventions: very common (≥1/10), Common (≥1/100 to <1/10), Uncommon (≥1/1,000 to <1/100), Rare (≥1/10,000 to <1/1,000), Very rare (<1/10,000) and Not known (cannot be estimated from the available data).

System organ class

Frequency

Adverse reaction

Infections and infestations

Uncommon

Rhinitis

Rare

Meningitis aseptic (see section 4.4)

Blood and lymphatic system disorders

Rare

Leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, neutropenia, agranulocytosis, aplastic anaemia , haemolytic anaemia

Immune system disorders

Uncommon

Rare

Hypersensitivity

Anaphylactic reaction

Psychiatric disorders

Uncommon

Insomnia, anxiety

Rare

Depression, confusional state

Nervous system disorders

Common

Headache, dizziness

Uncommon

Paraesthesia, somnolence

Rare

Optic neuritis

Eye disorders

Uncommon

Visual impairment

Rare

Toxic optic neuropathy

Ear and labyrinth disorders

Uncommon

Hearing impaired , tinnitus, vertigo

Respiratory, thoracic and mediastinal disorders

Uncommon

Asthma, bronchospasm, dyspnoea

Gastrointestinal disorders

Common

Dyspepsia, diarrhoea, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, flatulence, constipation, melaena, haematemesis, gastrointestinal haemorrhage

Uncommon

Gastritis, duodenal ulcer, gastric ulcer, mouth ulceration, gastrointestinal perforation

Very rare

Pancreatitis

Not known

Exacerbation of Colitis and Crohn´s disease

Hepatobiliary disorders

Uncommon

Hepatitis, jaundice, hepatic function abnormal

Very Rare

Hepatic failure

Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders

Common

Rash

Uncommon

Urticaria, pruritus, purpura, angioedema, photosensitivity reaction

Very rare

Severe forms of skin reactions ( e.g. Erythema multiforme, bullous reactions, including Stevens-Johnson syndrome,and toxic epidermal necrolysis)

Not known

Drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS syndrome)

Acute generalised exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP)

Renal and urinary disorders

Uncommon

Nephrotoxity in various forms e.g.Tubulointerstitial nephritis, nephrotic syndrome and renal failure

General disorders and administration site conditions

Common

Fatigue

Rare

Oedema

Cardiac disorders

Very rare

Cardiac failure, myocardial infarction (also see section 4.4)

Vascular disorders

Very rare

Hypertension

Reporting of suspected adverse reactions

Reporting suspected adverse reactions after authorisation of the medicinal product is important. It allows continued monitoring of the benefit/risk balance of the medicinal product. Healthcare professionals are asked to report any suspected adverse reactions via the Yellow Card Scheme at: www.mhra.gov.uk/yellowcard or search for MHRA Yellow Card in the Google Play or Apple App Store.

Toxicity

Signs and symptoms of toxicity have generally not been observed at doses below 100 mg/kg in children or adults. However, supportive care may be needed in some cases. Children have been observed to manifest signs and symptoms of toxicity after ingestion of 400 mg/kg or greater.

Symptoms

Most patients who have ingested significant amounts of ibuprofen will manifest symptoms within 4 to 6 hours.

The most frequently reported symptoms of overdose include nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, lethargy and drowsiness. Central nervous system (CNS) effects include headache, tinnitus, dizziness, convulsion, and loss of consciousness. Nystagmus, metabolic acidosis, hypothermia, renal effects, gastrointestinal bleeding, coma, apnoea, diarrhoea and depression of the CNS and respiratory system have also been rarely reported. In serious poisoning metabolic acidosis may occur. Disorientation, excitation, fainting and cardiovascular toxicity, including hypotension, bradycardia and tachycardia have been reported. In cases of significant overdose, renal failure and liver damage are possible. Large overdoses are generally well tolerated when no other drugs are being taken.

Therapeutic measures

Patients should be treated symptomatically as required. Within one hour of ingestion of a potentially toxic amount, activated charcoal should be considered. Alternatively, in adults, gastric lavage should be considered within one hour of ingestion of a potentially life-threatening overdose.

Good urine output should be ensured.

Renal and liver function should be closely monitored.

Patients should be observed for at least four hours after ingestion of potentially toxic amounts.

Frequent or prolonged convulsions should be treated with intravenous diazepam. Other measures may be indicated by the patient’s clinical condition.

Pharmacotherapeutic classification: Anti-inflammatory and antirheumatic products, nonsteroidal; propionic acid derivatives.

ATC code: M01AE01

Ibuprofen is a propionic acid derivative with analgesic, anti-inflammatory and anti-pyretic activity. The drug’s therapeutic effects as an NSAID is thought to result from its inhibitory effect on the enzyme cyclo-oxygenase, which results in a marked reduction in prostaglandin synthesis.

Experimental data suggest that ibuprofen may competitively inhibit the effect of low dose aspirin on platelet aggregation when they are dosed concomitantly. Some pharmacodynamic studies show that when single doses of ibuprofen 400mg were taken within 8 hours before or within 30 minutes after immediate release aspirin dosing (81mg), a decreased effect of aspirin on the formation of thromboxane or platelet aggregation occurred. Although there are uncertainties regarding extrapolation of these data to the clinical situation, the possibility that regular, long-term use of ibuprofen may reduce the cardioprotective effect of low-dose acetylsalicylic acid cannot be excluded. No clinically relevant effect is considered to be likely for occasional ibuprofen use. (see section 4.5)

Ibuprofen is rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract, peak serum concentrations occurring 1-2 hours after administration. The elimination half-life is approximately 2 hours.

Ibuprofen is metabolised in the liver to two inactive metabolites and these, together with unchanged ibuprofen, are excreted by the kidney either as such or as conjugates. Excretion by the kidney is both rapid and complete.

Ibuprofen is extensively bound to plasma proteins.

Microcrystalline cellulose

Croscarmellose sodium

Lactose monohydrate

Colloidal anhydrous silica

Sodium laurilsulfate

Magnesium stearate

Extragranular excipients:

Opaspray white M-1-7111B*

Dry colour dispersion, white 06A28611**

*Opaspray white M-1-7111B comprises industrial methylated spirit, purified water, hypromellose 2910 and titanium dioxide

** or combination of Opaspray white M-1-7111B, hypromellose and talc

NB industrial methylated spirit and purified water are removed during the drying process

PVC or PVC/PVDC blister packs: 36 months

PVC or PVC/PVDC blister packs: Do not store above 25°C, store in the original package.

Blister pack comprising of transparent polyvinyl chloride (PVC) with aluminium foil backing – pack size 60 or 100 tablets.

Blister pack comprising of transparent polyvinyl chloride (PVC) film coated on one face with polyvinylidene chloride (PVDC) with aluminium foil backing – pack size 60 or 100 tablets.

Not all pack sizes are marketed.

Mylan Products Ltd.

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Potters Bar

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United Kingdom

Ibuprofen: MedlinePlus Drug Information

Prescription ibuprofen comes as a tablet to take by mouth. It is usually taken three or four times a day for arthritis or every 4 to 6 hours as needed for pain. Nonprescription ibuprofen comes as a tablet, chewable tablet, suspension (liquid), and drops (concentrated liquid). Adults and children older than 12 years of age may usually take nonprescription ibuprofen every 4 to 6 hours as needed for pain or fever. Children and infants may usually be given nonprescription ibuprofen every 6 to 8 hours as needed for pain or fever, but should not be given more than 4 doses in 24 hours. Ibuprofen may be taken with food or milk to prevent stomach upset. If you are taking ibuprofen on a regular basis, you should take it at the same time(s) every day. Follow the directions on the package or prescription label carefully, and ask your doctor or pharmacist to explain any part you do not understand. Take ibuprofen exactly as directed. Do not take more or less of it or take it more often than directed by the package label or prescribed by your doctor.

Ibuprofen comes alone and in combination with other medications. Some of these combination products are available by prescription only, and some of these combination products are available without a prescription and are used to treat cough and cold symptoms and other conditions. If your doctor has prescribed a medication that contains ibuprofen, you should be careful not to take any nonprescription medications that also contain ibuprofen.

Swallow the tablet whole; do not chew or crush it.

If you are selecting a product to treat cough or cold symptoms, ask your doctor or pharmacist for advice on which product is best for you. Check nonprescription product labels carefully before using two or more products at the same time. These products may contain the same active ingredient(s) and taking them together could cause you to receive an overdose. This is especially important if you will be giving cough and cold medications to a child.

Nonprescription cough and cold combination products, including products that contain ibuprofen, can cause serious side effects or death in young children. Do not give these products to children younger than 4 years of age. If you give these products to children 4 to 11 years of age, use caution and follow the package directions carefully.

If you are giving ibuprofen or a combination product that contains ibuprofen to a child, read the package label carefully to be sure that it is the right product for a child of that age. Do not give ibuprofen products that are made for adults to children.

Before you give an ibuprofen product to a child, check the package label to find out how much medication the child should receive. Give the dose that matches the child’s age on the chart. Ask the child’s doctor if you don’t know how much medication to give the child.

Shake the suspension and drops well before each use to mix the medication evenly. Use the measuring cup provided to measure each dose of the suspension, and use the dosing device provided to measure each dose of the drops.

The chewable tablets may cause a burning feeling in the mouth or throat. Take the chewable tablets with food or water.

Stop taking nonprescription ibuprofen and call your doctor if your symptoms get worse, you develop new or unexpected symptoms, the part of your body that was painful becomes red or swollen, your pain lasts for more than 10 days, or your fever lasts more than 3 days. Stop giving nonprescription ibuprofen to your child and call your child’s doctor if your child does not start to feel better during the first 24 hours of treatment. Also stop giving nonprescription ibuprofen to your child and call your child’s doctor if your child develops new symptoms, including redness or swelling on the painful part of his body, or if your child’s pain or fever get worse or lasts longer than 3 days.

Do not give nonprescription ibuprofen to a child who has a sore throat that is severe or does not go away, or that comes along with fever, headache, nausea, or vomiting. Call the child’s doctor right away, because these symptoms may be signs of a more serious condition.

Canadian Pharmacy: Buy Motrin Online

Motrin Product Description


Drug Uses

Motrin belongs to a class of drugs known as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID). Motrin provides a combined therapeutic effect including anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic effects.

Motrin is used to relieve pain in the back, joints, muscles, headache, toothache and pain due to damage or stretch in the connective tissues. In addition, Motrin helps to reduce the frequency and duration of symptoms of primary or secondary dysmenorrhea, cold and flu.

Maximum symptomatic responses to Motrin is reached in about 60 minutes after oral administration. For the symptomatic treatment of mild to moderate pain, it is recommended to take a dose of Motrin 300mg or 400mg every 4 hours. To facilitate the acute pain single doses of Motrin 800 mg may be used, but no more than 3200mg of the drug per day.

Missed dose

If you’ve missed an assigned dosage of Motrin, take the NSAID as soon as you remember. But if it is nearly time for the next dose of Motrin, do not take it at all. Resume the prescribed dosage of Motrin on the next day.

More Information

Motrin prevents the development of the active lipid compound prostaglandin, which is believed to be a major mediator of pain and inflammation. Prostaglandin participates in a wide range of body functions, so the duration of application of Motrin pills should be minimized.

Storage
Analgesic agent Motrin should be stored in a tightly closed container at controlled room temperature up to 25°C.

Motrin Safety Information


Warnings

Dosage requirements in patients with different types of pain and inflammation may vary from day to day, according to the analgesic response, disease exacerbation, physical and emotional stress. Minimum effective doses of Motrin are recommended to patients with a history of edema, or gastrointestinal bleeding.

Disclaimer
All information, provided in the review of anti-inflammatory agent Motrin, is intended for informational purposes only. This information is not intended to be a substitute for professional medical advice of the therapist or other medical specialist. The online pharmacy under no circumstances shall be liable for any damage, which may be caused due to improper use of the information on antipyretic agent Motrin.

Motrin Side Effects


Any undesirable effects are reported as rare during application of Motrin pills and normally do not cause harm to the body. From 1% to 3% of patients, taking Motrin, may complain of such undesirable effects as: decreased appetite, water retention, nausea, pyrosis, diarrhea, abdominal distress, dyspepsia, vomiting, headache, nervousness, dizziness, rash, pruritus, tinnitus, or weakness.

A small part of the patients taking Motrin may observe the following undesirable effects: depression, insomnia, confusion, somnolence, urticaria, hair loss, melena, gastritis, hepatitis, lazy eye, blurred vision, neutropaenia or hypothermia.

Is it safe to take ibuprofen for the aches and pains of exercise?

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Not long ago, I took ibuprofen after a dental procedure and was amazed at how well it worked. Millions of people have had similar experiences with ibuprofen and related medications (called non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, or NSAIDs) when used for a number of conditions, including arthritis, back pain, and headache. That’s why NSAIDs are among the most commonly prescribed drugs worldwide.

More than a dozen different NSAIDs are available, including naproxen (as in Naprosyn or Aleve), celecoxib (Celebrex), diclofenac (Voltaren) and indomethacin (Indocin). Aspirin is also an NSAID, though it is usually taken in small doses for its blood thinning effects (to prevent heart attack or stroke) rather than for pain.

NSAIDs are fairly safe, but not risk free

The safety profile of NSAIDs is generally quite good, especially when taken in small doses for short periods of time. That’s why several of them, including ibuprofen and naproxen, are available in low doses over the counter in this country and elsewhere.

However, as is true for any drug, NSAIDs can cause trouble. Upset stomach, intestinal bleeding, and cardiovascular problems are among the most important and widely recognized side effects. But, the list is longer than that. The risk of heart attack may be increased among users of NSAIDs, especially among those at increased risk (such as those who have had a previous heart attack). Another important item on that longer list is kidney injury. Most of the time, NSAID-related kidney problems develop in people who already have kidney disease or who take other medications that can affect kidney function. High doses and prolonged use are also risk factors.

A new study of NSAID use during exercise

NSAID use is common among people who deal with aches and pain during and after exercise. In fact, many marathoners and other endurance athletes take NSAIDs preventively to reduce pain and possibly improve performance. However, these same athletes are at particular risk for kidney injury. Dehydration and muscle damage are common among endurance athletes and can also contribute to kidney injury. If NSAIDs are added to the mix, might these athletes be at even higher risk for kidney damage? Should they avoid using NSAIDs? That’s the subject of a new study published in the July 2017 edition of Emergency Medicine Journal.

Researchers divided 89 ultramarathoners participating in one of several seven-day, 155-mile races into two groups: one group took 400 mg of ibuprofen (equivalent to two over-the-counter Advil) every four hours for three or four doses toward the end of the race. The other group took a placebo.

What they found was concerning:

  • Kidney injury was quite common. About 44% of these ultramarathoners experienced significantly reduced kidney function by the end of the race.
  • Kidney injury was more common among those taking ibuprofen. Just over half of the NSAID-takers had reduced kidney function, while about one-third of those in the placebo group did. Despite these findings, the differences in rates of kidney injury were not statistically significant.
  • The severity of kidney injury was greater in the ibuprofen group.
  • A faster finish and greater weight loss during the race (likely due to greater dehydration) increased the likelihood of kidney injury.

So what?

Most of us will never attempt to run 155 miles in one week, so the results of this study may not apply to a more typically exercising adult. In addition, the study was quite small, which limits its ability to detect significant differences between the two groups. Had the same differences in the rates of kidney disease been observed in a much larger study, the findings would likely have been statistically significant. And, this study did not examine the long-term effects of ibuprofen on kidney function. It’s possible (or perhaps likely) that with rest, hydration, and time, the kidney function of athletes with kidney injury in this study returned to normal with no permanent detrimental effects. Finally, higher or lower doses of ibuprofen may have produced different results.

Still, this study raises some serious concerns about the wisdom of taking ibuprofen during exercise, at least among endurance athletes. The authors of this study suggest acetaminophen (as in Tylenol and other products) as an alternative, but we’ll need more research to know whether other alternatives are truly safer.

The bottom line

If you are taking an NSAID regularly, you should be having regular blood monitoring, including measures of kidney function. And if you have significant kidney disease, you should probably avoid non-aspirin NSAIDs altogether. Ask your doctor whether you are a good candidate for NSAID use. They can be quite helpful, and many of their side effects can be avoided with proper precautions.

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How to Safely Give Ibuprofen (for Parents)

Ibuprofen (eye-byoo-PRO-fen) is an over-the-counter medicine taken to relieve aches and pain and reduce fever. It’s a safe drug when used correctly. But too high a dose can make a child very sick. Giving too much can lead to stomach problems, confusion, and possible kidney problems. So it’s important to know how to properly give ibuprofen.

If you have any questions about giving ibuprofen to your child, ask your doctor or pharmacist. Never give this or any other kind of medicine to a child younger than 2 years old without getting a doctor’s OK first.

What Is Ibuprofen Also Called?

Ibuprofen is the generic name for this drug. The most common brand names for ibuprofen in the United States are Advil® and Motrin®.

What Types of Ibuprofen Are Available?

For kids, this medicine is available in oral suspensions (liquid form), chewables, and tablets. In some countries, rectal suppositories can be purchased over the counter under the name Nurofen®.

Advil® makes Infants Advil® Drops and Children’s Advil® Suspension, as well as Jr. Strength Advil® Chewables and Jr. Strength Advil® Tablets. Motrin® makes Motrin® Infants’ Drops and Children’s Motrin® Oral Suspension. Other brands of ibuprofen are available in similar forms.

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How to Give Ibuprofen

When giving ibuprofen, refer to the following dosage charts for the correct dosage. 

Other things to know:

  • Check the expiration date to make sure it’s not expired. If it is, throw away the medicine and purchase a new product. For proper disposal, remove the medicine from its original container and place it in an undesirable substance that children or animals wouldn’t be tempted to eat, like coffee grounds or kitty litter. Then, put it in a sealable bag inside a garbage can.
  • Make sure your child is not taking other medicines with ibuprofen in them. Ibuprofen is a very common ingredient in cough, cold, and allergy medicines. If your child is taking one, talk to your doctor or pharmacist before giving your child more ibuprofen. Overdosing on ibuprofen can damage the stomach or intestines.
  • Check the concentration and recommended dosage. Give your child a dose from the dropper, syringe, or cup that came with the product. This is especially important when giving the infant concentrated drops, which are more potent than the children’s suspension concentration. This will help ensure that your child gets the right amount of milliliters, or ml (also called cc, or cubic centimeters), and doesn’t overdose. Never use a measuring spoon from the kitchen or a cup or dropper from a different product. Chewables or tablets are not recommended for children younger than 6 years old due to the risk of choking.
  • When giving for a fever, consider the child’s temperature and age. If you have an infant 3 months or younger with a rectal temperature of 100.4°F (38°C) or higher, call your doctor or go to the emergency department immediately. If your child is between 3 months and 3 years old and has a fever of 102.2°F (39°C) or higher, call your doctor to find out if he or she needs to see your child.
  • If your child spits up a dose of ibuprofen without swallowing it, let your child calm down and then give the same dose again. If the ibuprofen is swallowed and then vomited up later, don’t give your child another dose for at least 6 hours unless the dose was in tablet form and you can see that your child vomited up the whole tablet.
  • Give every 6 to 8 hours as needed, but never give your child more than four doses in 24 hours.
  • If your child doesn’t like the flavor, you can try a product with a different flavoring.
  • If your child is sensitive to dyes, use a dye-free type of ibuprofen.
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Ibuprofen Dosages By Weight

Doctors recommend using a child’s weight instead of age when figuring out how much medicine to give. Before giving your child a dose, check the label to make sure the recommended dosage and concentration agree with the numbers below.

This table is based on doctors’ and the manufacturers’ recommendations. It is not intended to replace the advice of a doctor. If your child is 2 years old or younger, get the OK from your health care professional before giving the medicine. And always call if you have any questions or concerns about giving medicine.

90,000 Clinical Study Pain, Postoperative: Etoricoxib 90 mg, Etoricoxib 120 mg, Ibuprofen 600 mg, Corresponding placebo for etoricoxib 120 mg, Corresponding placebo for etoricoxib 90 mg, Corresponding placebo for ibuprofen, Morphine, Oxycodone – Clinical Trials Registry

Intervention type:

Drug, remedy, medication

Intervention name:

Etoricoxib 90 mg

Description:

One 90 mg tablet once a day

Arm Group label:

Etoricoxib 90 mg

Another name:

MK-0663

Intervention type:

Drug, remedy, medication

Intervention name:

Etoricoxib 120 mg

Description:

Two 60 mg tablets once a day

Arm Group label:

Etoricoxib 120 mg

Another name:

MK-0663

Intervention type:

Drug, remedy, medication

Intervention name:

Ibuprofen 600 mg

Description:

One tablet three times a day

Arm Group label:

Ibuprofen 1800 mg

Intervention type:

Drug, remedy, medication

Intervention name:

Corresponding placebo for etoricoxib 120 mg

Description:

Two tablets once a day

Intervention type:

Drug, remedy, medication

Intervention name:

Corresponding Placebo for Etoricoxib 90 mg

Description:

One tablet once a day

Intervention type:

Drug, remedy, medication

Intervention name:

Appropriate placebo for ibuprofen

Description:

One tablet three times a day

Intervention type:

Drug, remedy, medication

Intervention name:

Morphine

Description:

As needed through a Patient Guided Pain Relief (PCA) device or bolus intravenous injection

Intervention type:

Drug, remedy, medication

Intervention name:

Oxycodone

Description:

5 mg as needed

90,000 Is ibuprofen dangerous: WHO about the myths associated with the spread of the new coronavirus

Can ibuprofen aggravate the course of COVID-19?

WHO specialists consulted with doctors who treat patients with COVID-19, and concluded that there is NO reason to believe that non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, in particular ibuprofen, aggravate the condition of the sick.WHO does not recommend avoiding ibuprofen use.

Transmission of the viral pathogen COVID-19 also occurs in areas with hot, humid climates

Current data indicate that COVID-19 can be transmitted in ANY AREA, including hot, humid climates. If you live or are traveling to an area with reported cases of COVID-19, take protective measures regardless of the climatic conditions. Regular hand washing is the best way to protect yourself against COVID-19.This measure eliminates possible viral contamination of the hands and avoids contamination by touching your eyes, mouth or nose.

Staying outdoors in cold and snowy weather WILL NOT help eradicate the new coronavirus (COVID-19)

The body temperature of a healthy person is kept within the range from 36.5 ° to 37 ° regardless of the ambient temperature or the weather. Therefore, there is no reason to believe that being outside in cold weather helps fight the new coronavirus infection or other diseases.The most effective way to prevent new coronavirus infection (COVID-19) is to regularly clean your hands with alcohol-based hand rub or wash them with soap and water.

A hot bath will not help against the new coronavirus infection

Taking a hot bath will not save you from contracting COVID-19. The normal body temperature is between 36.5 ° C and 37 ° C, regardless of the temperature of the water in the bath or shower. On the contrary, taking too hot a bath can be harmful and cause burns.The best way to protect yourself from COVID-19 is to wash your hands frequently. This will kill viruses that may be on the skin and avoid infection by touching your eyes, mouth or nose.

The new coronavirus CANNOT be transmitted through mosquito bites

Novel coronavirus is a respiratory virus mainly transmitted by airborne droplets, i.e. as a result of inhalation of droplets released from the patient’s respiratory tract, for example, when coughing or sneezing, as well as droplets of saliva or nasal discharge.At the moment, there is no information about the possibility of transmission of the COVID-19 virus through mosquito bites. To protect yourself from infection, you need to keep your distance from people who have a cough or fever and practice good hand hygiene and respiratory hygiene.

Is it true that hand dryers can kill the COVID-19 virus?

No. Electric hand dryers do not kill the COVID-19 virus. To prevent a new coronavirus infection, you need to regularly clean your hands with alcohol-based hand sanitizer or wash them with soap and water.Washed hands should be thoroughly dried with paper towels or an electric dryer.

Is it true that an ultraviolet disinfection lamp (UV lamp) can kill the new coronavirus?

UV lamps should not be used to sterilize hands or other areas of the skin, as ultraviolet radiation can cause erythema (irritation) of the skin.

Is it true that treating the entire body with ethanol or bleach can kill the new coronavirus (COVID-19)?

No.Spraying the whole body with alcohol or bleach will not kill viruses that have already entered the body. Spraying such substances can harm clothing and mucous membranes (i.e. eyes, mouth). It should be remembered that both alcohol and bleach can be effective disinfectants for surfaces, but they must be used when appropriate and in compliance with the rules.

There are a number of preventive measures to protect against the new coronavirus infection.First, you need to regularly treat your hands with an alcohol-based hand sanitizer or wash them with soap and water.

Can rinsing your nose with saline on a regular basis protect you from contracting the new coronavirus?

No. There is no scientific evidence that regularly rinsing the nose with saline can protect against new coronavirus infection.

According to some reports, regular rinsing of the nose with saline solution can speed up recovery from a common cold. However, there is no evidence that regular nasal rinsing is effective in preventing respiratory infections.

Does Garlic Protect Against New Coronavirus Infection?

Garlic is a healthy product with certain antimicrobial properties. However, during the current outbreak, there has been no evidence of the efficacy of eating garlic as a means of preventing infection with the new coronavirus.

Is it true that only older people can be infected with the new coronavirus, or are young people also susceptible to this infection?

Representatives of all ages can become infected with the new coronavirus (COVID-19).Older adults and people with certain medical conditions (e.g. asthma, diabetes, heart disease) appear to be at increased risk of developing severe forms of coronavirus infection.

WHO recommends that people of all ages take measures to protect themselves from infection, for example, through good hand hygiene and cough hygiene.

Are antibiotics effective in preventing and treating new coronavirus infection?

No, antibiotics do not work against viruses.They only treat bacterial infections.

The novel coronavirus (COVID-19) is a virus and therefore antibiotics should not be used to prevent and treat coronavirus infection.

However, patients hospitalized with COVID-19 infection may be prescribed antibiotics to treat co-occurring bacterial infections.

Are there medicines for the prevention or treatment of new coronavirus infection?

There are currently no recommended medicines for the prevention or treatment of infection with the novel coronavirus (COVID-19).

However, infected patients should receive the necessary medical attention to relieve and control symptoms, and those with severe illness should be provided with appropriate supportive care. Currently, work is underway to create specific drugs against the new coronavirus, and they have to undergo clinical trials. WHO is working with a number of partners to help accelerate drug discovery.

Nurofen pain pills for adults and children over 12 years of age: instructions for use, price

© 2021 Reckitt Benckiser Healthcare. All rights reserved Reckitt Benckizer Healthcare LLC, 115114, Moscow, Shluzovaya nab. 4, floor 3. Tel. hotline: 8 800 200 82 20 (call within Russia is free). 18+ Reg. beats LSR – 005587/10, P N014560 / 01, LP-001910, LP – 001984, P N013012 / 01, P N015794 / 01, P N016033 / 01,
LSR – 006017/08, P N014745 / 01, LP-003836.

1 According to the instructions for medical use Nurofen® in the form of coated tablets (200 mg), RU P N013012 / 01.According to the instructions for medical use Nurofen® Forte, film-coated tablets (400 mg). RU P N016033 / 01. According to the instructions for medical use Nurofen® Express, 200 mg, RU P N014560 / 01. According to the instructions for medical use Nurofen® Express Forte, capsules (400 mg). RU LSR-005587/10. According to the instructions for medical use Nurofen® Intensive, film-coated tablets. RU LP-003836. According to the instructions for medical use Nurofen® Express Lady, film-coated tablets (400 mg).RU LP-001984. According to the instructions for medical use of Nurofen® for children, oral suspension [orange, strawberry].