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Is a 3 day period normal: The request could not be satisfied


What Can Cause a Short Period?

The average menstrual cycle lasts between two and seven days. A cycle that lasts at least two days is considered medically normal and each person’s cycle is unique.  There are times that brief spotting can occur, which isn’t an actual period and can reveal that ovulation didn’t happen. If the length of your period changes to a shorter duration, there are a variety of reasons including:  

Perimenopause: Usually occurring in women in the decade prior to menopause, women can notice changes in their cycles, especially shorter or less frequent cycles.  Other symptoms include skipping periods, night sweats, vaginal dryness, interrupted sleep and hot flashes. 

Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS): This hormone imbalance impacts almost 10% of women who are of childbearing years. PCOS can stop a woman’s ovulation or alter the duration of a menstrual cycle.  Symptoms of this condition can include infertility, excess hair growth, irregular periods and oily skin.  There are treatmes which include taking hormonal birth control. 

Breastfeeding: Delaying ovulation for as long as 18 months while breastfeeding, the body suppresses ovulation hormones by producing alpha-lactalbumin, lactose synthesis and prolactin.  Generally, a normal cycle returns when breastfeeding stops, but it may be shorter than normal due to fluctuating hormones. 

Endometriosis: This occurs when tissue that is like the uterine tissue grows on the fallopian tubes, the ovaries, vagina, bowels, bladder and beyond.  It often causes spotting or bleeding between periods, so it is often thought of as a short period.  Digestive problems, pain and infertility can be other symptoms of endometriosis. 

Birth Control Changes: If you have switched methods of birth control, it could impact your cycle.  Hormonal differences in types of birth control could impact the length of a period, like when you take the pill.  If you’re using the hormonal IUD, it may lighten the flow or stop a period completely.  

Uterine Scarring: A rare condition known as Asherman sndrome can result in shorter cycles.  Scarring in the uterus due to multiple dilation and curettage procedures results in short cycles because only the non-scarred areas of the uterus will be capable of bleeding.  This condition is diagnosed by hysteroscopy and the scars could be removed surgically to return the flow to normal and improve conception. 
Thyroid Disorder:  Regulated in the pituitary-hypothalamus axis of the brain, the thyroid gland is in the area that regulates menstruation and ovulation.  If one area of the axis is impacted, the others may be as well. Overactive and underactive thyroid issues are easily diagnosed via testing and impact both your overall health and fertility.  

Pregnancy: Bleeding during the first trimester is not uncommon, although should be checked out. It could be mistaken for a shorter cycle if it occurs midway between ovulation and when a period is expected, otherwise known as implantation bleeding. 

Anovulatory Cycle: Simply known as when the ovaries do not release an egg.  It most usually happens in women approaching menopause. If you do not ovulate, your period can become irregular. Symptoms include fever, chills, pelvic pain and bladder dysfunction. 

Call (631) 638-4600 to make an appointment if you have pain, if your cycle suddenly becomes shorter, or if you are trying to get pregnant as changes in the menstrual cycle can be a sign of fertility issues. 

Normal Menstrual Cycle | Michigan Medicine

Topic Overview

What is a menstrual cycle?

The menstrual cycle is the series of changes a woman’s body goes through to prepare for a pregnancy. About once a month, the uterus grows a new lining (endometrium) to get ready for a fertilized egg. When there is no fertilized egg to start a pregnancy, the uterus sheds its lining. This is the monthly menstrual bleeding (also called menstrual period) that women have from their early teen years until menopause, around age 50.

The menstrual cycle is from Day 1 of bleeding to Day 1 of the next time of bleeding. Although the average cycle is 28 days, it is normal to have a cycle that is shorter or longer.

Girls usually start having menstrual periods between the ages of 11 and 14. Women usually start to have fewer periods between ages 39 and 51. Women in their 40s and teens may have cycles that are longer or change a lot. If you are a teen, your cycles should even out with time. If you are nearing menopause, your cycles will probably get longer and then will stop.

Talk to your doctor if you notice any big change in your cycle. It’s especially important to check with your doctor if you have three or more menstrual periods that last longer than 7 days or are very heavy. Also call if you have bleeding between your periods or pelvic pain that is not from your period.

What controls the menstrual cycle?

Your hormones control your menstrual cycle. During each cycle, your brain’s hypothalamus and pituitary gland send hormone signals back and forth with your ovaries. These signals get the ovaries and uterus ready for a pregnancy.

The hormones estrogen and progesterone play the biggest roles in how the uterus changes during each cycle.

  • Estrogen builds up the lining of the uterus.
  • Progesterone increases after an ovary releases an egg (ovulation) at the middle of the cycle. This helps the estrogen keep the lining thick and ready for a fertilized egg.
  • A drop in progesterone (along with estrogen) causes the lining to break down. This is when your period starts.

A change in hormone levels can affect your cycle or fertility. For example, teens tend to have low or changing progesterone levels. This is also true for women close to menopause. That is why teens and women in their 40s may have heavy menstrual bleeding and cycles that change in length.

Other things can change your cycle. They include birth control pills, low body fat, losing a lot of weight, or being overweight. Stress or very hard exercise also can change your cycle. Pregnancy is the most common cause of a missed period.

What common symptoms are linked to the menstrual cycle?

Some women have no pain or other problems. But other women have symptoms before and during their periods.

For about a week before a period, many women have some premenstrual symptoms. You may feel more tense or angry. You may gain water weight and feel bloated. Your breasts may feel tender. You may get acne. You also may have less energy than usual. A day or two before your period, you may start having pain (cramps) in your belly, back, or legs. These symptoms go away during the first days of a period.

When your ovary releases an egg in the middle of your cycle, you may have pain in your lower belly. You also might have red spotting for less than a day. Both are normal.

How can women take care of bleeding and symptoms?

You can use pads, tampons, or menstrual cups to manage bleeding. Be sure to change tampons at least every 4 to 8 hours. Menstrual cups can be worn for up to 12 hours. Pads or menstrual cups may be best at night.

Many women can improve their symptoms by getting regular exercise and eating a healthy diet. It also may help to limit alcohol and caffeine. Try to reduce stress.

A heating pad, hot water bottle, or warm bath also can help with cramps. You can take an over-the-counter medicine such as ibuprofen or naproxen before and during your period to reduce pain and bleeding.

Normal Menstrual Cycle

The menstrual cycle is the series of changes your body goes through to prepare for a possible pregnancy. About once a month, the uterus grows a new, thickened lining (endometrium) that can hold a fertilized egg. When there is no fertilized egg to start a pregnancy, the uterus then sheds its lining. This is the monthly menstrual bleeding (also called menstruation or menstrual period) that you have from your early teen years until your menstrual periods end around age 50 (menopause).

See a picture of a woman’s reproductive system.

The menstrual cycle is measured from the first day of menstrual bleeding, Day 1, up to Day 1 of your next menstrual bleeding. Although 28 days is the average cycle length, it is normal to have a cycle that is shorter or longer.

  • A teen’s cycles may be long (up to 45 days), growing shorter over several years.
  • Between ages 25 and 35, most women’s cycles are regular, generally lasting 21 to 35 days.
  • Around ages 40 to 42, cycles tend to be the shortest and most regular. This is followed by 8 to 10 years of longer, less predictable cycles until menopause.

Three phases of the menstrual cycle

The phases of your menstrual cycle are triggered by hormonal changes.

Menstrual period

On Day 1 of your cycle, the thickened lining (endometrium) of the uterus begins to shed. You know this as menstrual bleeding from the vagina. A normal menstrual period can last 4 to 6 days.

Most of your menstrual blood loss happens during the first 3 days. This is also when you might have cramping pain in your pelvis, legs, and back. Cramps can range from mild to severe. The cramping is your uterus contracting, helping the endometrium shed. In general, any premenstrual symptoms that you’ve felt before your period will go away during these first days of your cycle.

Follicular phase

During the follicular phase, an egg follicle on an ovary gets ready to release an egg. Usually, one egg is released each cycle. This process can be short or long and plays the biggest role in how long your cycle is. At the same time, the uterus starts growing a new endometrium to prepare for pregnancy.

The last 5 days of the follicular phase, plus ovulation day, are your fertile window. This is when you are most likely to become pregnant if you have sex without using birth control.

Luteal (premenstrual) phase

This phase starts on ovulation day, the day the egg is released from the egg follicle on the ovary. It can happen any time from Day 7 to Day 22 of a normal menstrual cycle. During ovulation, some women have less than a day of red spotting or lower pelvic pain or discomfort (mittelschmerz). These signs of ovulation are normal.

  • If the egg is fertilized by sperm and then implants in (attaches to) the endometrium, a pregnancy begins. (This pregnancy is dated from Day 1 of this menstrual cycle.)
  • If the egg is not fertilized or does not implant, the endometrium begins to break down.

After the teen years and before perimenopause in your 40s, your luteal phase is very predictable. It normally lasts 13 to 15 days, from ovulation until menstrual bleeding starts a new cycle. This 2-week period is also called the “premenstrual” period.

Many women have premenstrual symptoms during all or part of the luteal phase. You may feel tense, angry, or emotional. You may gain water weight and feel bloated. Or you may have tender breasts or acne. A day or more before your period, you may start to have pain (cramps) in your abdomen, back, or legs. It is normal to have less energy at this time. Some women also have headaches, diarrhea or constipation, nausea, dizziness, or fainting.

When premenstrual symptoms make your daily life difficult, you are said to have premenstrual syndrome (PMS). For more information, see the topic Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS).

Menarche and the Teenage Menstrual Cycle

Menarche (say “MEN-ar-kee”) is a girl’s first menstrual period. A first period usually happens after breasts, pubic hair, and underarm hair have begun to grow. Menarche is a sign of growing up and becoming a woman. It can happen as early as about age 9 or up to age 15. The first few periods are usually light and irregular. About 2 out of 3 girls have a regular pattern of menstrual periods within 2 years of menarche. footnote 1 During the teen years, periods may become longer and heavier. For more information, see Menarche.

Perimenopausal Menstrual Cycle

Perimenopause, which means “around menopause,” refers to the 2 to 8 years of changing hormone levels and related symptoms that lead up to menopause. The most common sign of perimenopause is longer, often irregular menstrual cycles that are caused by hormonal ups and downs.

Most women start perimenopause between ages 39 and 51. Some women begin to notice menstrual changes and premenstrual syndrome (PMS) symptoms in their late 30s when hormones begin to fluctuate and fertility naturally declines. Other women don’t notice perimenopausal changes until their late 40s.

Perimenopause is a time of unpredictability. Menstrual and hormone-related symptoms are different for every woman. Some notice few or no changes. And others have severe symptoms that disrupt their sleep and daily lives. As during the teen years, irregular cycles can lead to heavy menstrual bleeding. Other common symptoms include mild to severe hot flashes, insomnia, cloudy thinking, headaches, heart palpitations, mood swings, irritability, depression, and anxiety. Some of these symptoms can also be related to aging and other life changes. See your doctor to discuss your symptoms, whether you want symptom treatment, and which therapies you can consider.

See a doctor for menstrual bleeding that lasts longer than 7 days or for cycles that are shorter than 21 days or longer than 35 days.

For more information, see the topics:

Managing Menstrual Cycle Symptoms and Bleeding

Keep a calendar and mark the day you start your menstrual period each month. If your cycle is regular, it can help you predict when you’ll have your next period.

If you’re trying to figure out whether you have a pattern of premenstrual symptoms, it may be helpful to keep a premenstrual daily symptom diary .

You can improve your body’s ability to handle menstrual changes by getting regular exercise, eating a healthy diet, limiting alcohol and caffeine intake, and reducing stress. Nonprescription pain relievers can also help reduce some symptoms.

Medicine for menstrual pain and bleeding

Try a nonprescription medicine to help relieve your pain and bleeding. Start taking the recommended dose of pain reliever when symptoms begin or 1 day before your menstrual period starts. If you are trying to become pregnant, talk to your doctor before using any medicine. Be safe with medicines. Read and follow all instructions on the label.

  • Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), such as ibuprofen (for example, Advil), reduce menstrual cramps, pain, and bleeding by lowering the level of the hormone prostaglandin.
  • If NSAIDs do not relieve the pain, try acetaminophen, such as Tylenol.
  • Take the medicine for as long as the symptoms would normally last if you did not take the medicine.

Be sure to follow all labels and directions. Do not take aspirin if you are younger than 20 because of the risk of Reye syndrome.

Additional ways to relieve menstrual cramps

  • Apply heat to your abdomen with a heating pad or hot water bottle, or take a warm bath. Heat improves blood flow and may decrease pelvic pain.
  • Lie down and elevate your legs by putting a pillow under your knees.
  • Lie on your side and bring your knees up toward your chest. This will help relieve back pressure.
  • Get regular exercise. This improves blood flow, produces pain-fighting endorphins, and may reduce pain.
  • If you have vaginal pain with cramps, try using pads instead of tampons.

For more information on managing menstrual cramps, see:

Managing menstrual bleeding

You can choose from a range of pads, tampons, or menstrual cups to manage menstrual bleeding. Follow all directions included with the product of your choice.

  • Pads range from thin and light to thick and superabsorbent. They protect your clothing, with or without using a tampon. Pads may be your best choice for use at night.
  • Tampons range from small to large, for light to heavy flow. You can place a tampon in the vagina by using a slender tube (that is packaged with the tampon) or by tucking it in with a finger. Be sure to change a tampon at least every 4 to 8 hours. This helps prevent leakage and infection.
  • Menstrual cups are inserted in the vagina to collect menstrual flow. You remove the menstrual cup to empty it. Some are disposable and some can be washed and used again.

Whichever you use, be sure to change it regularly. Tampons or menstrual cups are ideal for activities that pads aren’t practical for, such as swimming. Tampons should be changed at least every 4 to 8 hours, so they may not work as well for nighttime use. Menstrual cups can be worn for up to 12 hours. It may take some experimenting to find the right products for you.

When to Call a Doctor

There is a broad range of “normal” among menstruating women. Unpredictable or long menstrual cycles are normal for teenagers and women in their 40s. For teens, a normal cycle can be as short as 21 days or as long as 45 daysfootnote 2. If you are a teen, you can expect cycles to even out over time. If you are nearing the age of menopause, you can expect menstrual cycles to become longer and eventually to stop. If you are not a teen and you are not older than 40 and your cycles are shorter than 21 days or longer than 35 days, there is a chance that you have a problem that needs to be checked by your doctor.

You will need a medical check by a doctor if you have any change in your menstrual pattern or amount of bleeding that affects your daily life. This includes menstrual bleeding, for three or more menstrual cycles, that:

  • Lasts longer than 7 days.
  • Is a sudden or big change from your usual period.
  • Is very heavy. This means that you are passing large clots or soaking through your usual pads or tampons each hour for 2 or more hours.

Other symptoms you need to have checked include:

  • Bleeding between menstrual periods.
  • Pelvic pain that is not linked to menstrual bleeding and lasts longer than a day.

If you are a teenage girl, see your doctor if you have not started having periods by age 15.

For more information, see the topics:



  1. Hillard PJA (2012). Benign diseases of the female reproductive tract. In JS Berek, ed., Berek and Novak’s Gynecology, 15th ed., pp. 374–437. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins.
  2. American Academy of Pediatrics, American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (2006, reaffirmed 2009). Menstruation in girls and adolescents: Using the menstrual cycle as a vital sign. Pediatrics, 118(5): 2245–2250.

Other Works Consulted

  • American Academy of Pediatrics, American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (2006, reaffirmed 2009). Menstruation in girls and adolescents: Using the menstrual cycle as a vital sign. Pediatrics, 118(5): 2245–2250.


Current as of:
July 17, 2020

Author: Healthwise Staff
Medical Review:
Sarah Marshall MD – Family Medicine
Martin J. Gabica MD – Family Medicine
Kathleen Romito MD – Family Medicine

Is My Bleeding Normal? – Your Period

In order to decide whether the bleeding you are experiencing is normal or abnormal, a good starting point is understanding the range of normal bleeding. Learning how to track your periods, get an idea of how much blood loss is occurring, and knowing what to do if your period changes, are all important parts of maintaining menstrual health.

What is a normal period?

There is a range of normal bleeding – some women have short, light periods and others have longer, heavy periods.

Normal menstrual bleeding has the following features:

  • Your period lasts for 3-8 days
  • Your period comes every 21-35 days (measured from the first day of one period to the first day of the next)
  • The total blood loss over the course of the period is around 2-3 tablespoons (30-50 mL)

How much bleeding is too much?

Heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB) is characterized by experiencing any of the following:

  • Bleeding that lasts more than 7 days.
  • Bleeding that soaks through one or more tampons or pads every hour for several hours in a row.
  • Needing to wear more than one pad at a time to control menstrual flow.
  • Needing to change pads or tampons during the night.
  • Menstrual flow with blood clots that are as big as a quarter or larger.

You can learn about the causes of HMB here.

If you are concerned about your menstrual bleeding, or other bleeding tendencies, you can use the self-administered bleeding assessment tool  (Self-BAT) available at the Let’s Talk Period website (www.letstalkperiod.ca). This tool is designed to evaluate menstrual and other bleeding tendencies and tell you if you should be screened for a bleeding disorder.

How can I tell how much blood I am losing?

Measuring the amount of blood lost via menstruation is not that easy, since it is hard to tell how much blood has been absorbed by a pad or tampon. Different products have different absorbencies, and each woman has a different perspective on when a tampon or pad needs to be changed. Using a menstrual cup is one way of getting an accurate measurement of blood loss. Alternatively, you can use this ‘Pictorial Blood Assessment Chart‘ which helps identify whether your blood loss is excessive.

What if my period changes?

Changes in your period can be a sign of a problem, and most changes are worth seeing a doctor about. Some changes that should be investigated include:

  • Your period stops for more than 90 days (and you are not pregnant or on extended regimen birth control)
  • Periods that become irregular when you usually have regular periods
  • Bleeding for longer than normal, for example your period normally lasts 5 days and is suddenly 9 or 10 days long
  • Bleeding between periods, particularly if you are not on any birth control
  • Pain during your period where you have not usually had pain
  • Your bleeding has become very heavy, soaking through more than one pad or tampon per hour or staining night clothes

How Many Days Should You Bleed During Your Period?

Normal menstruation can last from one to seven days, and most women with regular menstrual cycles have periods that last an average of three to five days.

It’s important to note that nothing is wrong if your period is a couple of days longer or shorter than the average three to five days and your period can vary a bit from cycle to cycle. This is normal. But very light or heavy periods can be a sign of an underlying health issue—and excessive bleeding can lead to anemia (low red blood cells).

​Illustration by Cindy Chung, Verywell

Normal Menstruation

Your period occurs when the lining of your uterus sheds. In order for your period to come each month, ovulation (an egg is released from an ovary) must occur. Typically, if you don’t get pregnant during a cycle, your period will come 14 days after you ovulate.

But there are a few factors that could affect the length of your period.

Bleeding for more than seven days every month or not bleeding at all once you have passed menarche (the onset of menstruation during puberty) is not normal, and you should discuss this with your healthcare provider. 

Lengthy or Heavy Periods

Heavy bleeding is an indication to see your healthcare provider.

Signs of heavy bleeding include:

  • Soaking through one or more tampons or pads every hour for several hours in a row
  • Wearing more than one pad at a time to absorb bleeding
  • Changing pads or tampons at night
  • Periods with blood clots that are the size of a quarter or larger

It’s important to see your doctor if your menstrual bleeding is lasting more than seven days.

Factors Affecting Period Duration

Lifestyle changes, birth control methods, and certain medical problems can affect your period. Let’s take a closer look at the factors that may affect the duration of your menstrual flow.

Medical Conditions

A number of medical issues may affect the duration of your period. Factors that change the thickness of the endometrium (uterine lining) or the number of blood vessels play a role in how many days your bleeding lasts. This is because your menstrual flow is made up of the endometrium that’s shed, as well as blood from the little vessels that are exposed after the lining sheds.

For example, heavy and/or long periods could be a sign of endometrial polyps or uterine fibroids.

Other examples of health conditions that may cause prolonged or heavy bleeding include:


During the first few years after the onset of menstruation, you may experience unpredictable bleeding patterns. This is because you might not be ovulating regularly yet. Since ovulation requires a complex interaction between your brain, ovaries, and hormones, it can take some time for your body to get it right.

After a first period, some people bleed for more than the average number of days and/or skip a few periods in a row. Menstruation usually normalizes within about three years.

If you continue to have irregular periods, it could be a sign of an underlying hormonal or medical condition, so be sure to get it checked out by your healthcare provider.

As you approach the end of your reproductive years, usually sometime in your 40s, you may begin to experience irregular periods again during perimenopause (also called the menopausal transition). It’s a time when estrogen production by the ovaries begins to decline.

With lower estrogen levels, there is less buildup of the uterine lining, so you also experience lighter and shorter periods, in addition to irregular periods.

Birth Control

Using hormonal birth control can affect the number of days your period lasts. Combined hormonal contraceptives affect your period duration a little differently than progesterone-only hormonal contraception.

If you are using a combined hormonal contraceptive, including an oral contraceptive pill, contraceptive patch, or contraceptive ring, it is likely that you will experience shorter periods and lighter flow. This is because the hormones in the birth control pill override the hormones produced by your ovaries.

For example, the estrogen in oral contraceptive pills leads to a lighter build up of tissue in the uterus, and the progesterone thins the endometrium, leading to less overall shedding.

Any of the continuous combined hormonal contraceptives may cause you to stop your period altogether, or at least decrease the number of times a year that you have a period.  

If you are using progesterone-only contraception, you will have lighter and shorter periods. In fact, your periods might stop while you are using this method.

Progesterone-only methods include:

  • A progesterone containing IUD (for example, Mirena)
  • A contraceptive implant (for example, Nexplanon) 
  • An injectable contraceptive (for example, Depo-Provera)

If your periods are heavy or prolonged, your doctor may suggest using a hormonal contraceptive like the levonorgestrel-release intrauterine device (Mirena) to help control your bleeding.

A Word From Verywell

When it comes to your period, there is a small range of what is considered normal in terms of duration and frequency. Once you have started menstruating—if you miss your period or if your period lasts longer than seven days—be sure to discuss these changes with your doctor.

Irregular Periods (for Teens) – Nemours

What Are Irregular Periods?

Even though girls get their periods on a cycle, that cycle can take different amounts of time each month. For example, a girl might get her period after 24 days one month and after 42 days the next. These are called irregular periods.

Irregular periods are very common, especially in a girl’s first few years of getting her period.

What Are Regular Periods?

Most girls get their first period between the ages of 10 and 15, but some get it earlier and some later. The first period is known as menarche (pronounced: MEN-ar-kee).

A girl’s monthly cycle is the number of days from the start of her period to the start of the next time she gets her period. You often hear this is a 28-day cycle. But 28 is just an average figure that doctors use. Cycle lengths vary — some are 24 days, some are 34 days. And a girl may notice that her cycles are different lengths each month — especially for the few years after she first starts getting her period.

Early in a girl’s cycle, her ovaries start preparing one egg. At the same time, the lining of the uterus becomes thick to prepare a nesting place for a fertilized egg in the event that the girl becomes pregnant.

About 2 weeks before a girl gets her period, the egg is released from the ovary (this is called ovulation). The egg travels through the fallopian tube into the uterus. If the egg isn’t fertilized by sperm, it starts to fall apart. Then the lining and egg leave a girl’s body as her period and the whole thing starts all over again — that’s why we use the word “cycle.” The first day a girl’s period comes is Day 1 of her cycle.

A girl’s body may not follow an exact schedule. It’s common, especially in the first 2 years after a girl starts getting her period, to skip periods or to have irregular periods. Illness, rapid weight change, or stress can also make things more unpredictable. That’s because the part of the brain that regulates periods is influenced by events like these. Going on a trip or having a major change in schedule can also make your period come at a different time than expected. All of this is perfectly normal.

It’s also normal for the number of days a girl has her period to vary. Sometimes a girl may bleed for 2 days, sometimes it may last a week. That’s because the level of hormones the body makes can be different from one cycle to the next, and this affects the amount and length of bleeding.

If My Period Is Irregular, How Do I Know When I Will Get It?

If your cycle is not regular, you’ll want to pay attention to the clues your body may give you that your period is coming soon. These may include:

  • back cramps or stiffness
  • heavier breasts or breast soreness
  • headaches
  • acne breakouts
  • disturbed sleep patterns
  • mood swings
  • bloating
  • loose stools

How Can I Be Prepared?

Keep some pads or tampons in your backpack or purse, just so you’ll have them handy in case your period comes when you’re not expecting it. You may even want to carry an extra pair of underwear.

What Causes Irregular Periods?

Most of the time, irregular periods are part of the normal changes that can happen when you’re a teen. As you get older, your cycle will probably settle into a recognizable pattern.

Sometimes, irregular periods can be caused by some medicines, exercising too much, having a very low or high body weight, or not eating enough calories.

Hormone imbalances can also cause irregular periods. For example, thyroid hormone levels that are too low or too high can cause problems with periods. Some girls have extra androgen, a hormone that can cause hair growth on the face, chin, chest, and abdomen. Extra androgen can also makes girls gain weight and have irregular periods.

Girls who are pregnant also will not get their periods.

Should I Worry About Irregular Periods?

Talk to your doctor if you have had sex and have missed a period because you could be pregnant. Also let the doctor know if:

  • You were having regular periods that then become irregular.
  • You stop getting your period.
  • You have extra hair growth on the face, chin, chest, or abdomen.
  • You start having periods that last longer than 7 days, are heavy, or are coming more often than every 21 days.
  • Your period comes less often than every 45 days.
  • You have severe cramping or abdominal pain.
  • You have bleeding in between your periods.
  • Your periods are irregular for 3 years or more.

The doctor may prescribe hormone pills or other medicines, or recommend lifestyle changes that can help you to have regular periods.

Heavy Menstrual Bleeding | CDC

Menorrhagia is menstrual bleeding that lasts more than 7 days. It can also be bleeding that is very heavy. How do you know if you have heavy bleeding? If you need to change your tampon or pad after less than 2 hours or you pass clots the size of a quarter or larger, that is heavy bleeding. If you have this type of bleeding, you should see a doctor.

Untreated heavy or prolonged bleeding can stop you from living your life to the fullest. It also can cause anemia. Anemia is a common blood problem that can leave you feeling tired or weak. If you have a bleeding problem, it could lead to other health problems. Sometimes treatments, such as dilation and curettage (D&C)External or a hysterectomyExternal, might be done when these procedures could have been avoided.


Possible causes fall into the following three areas:

  1. Uterine-related problems
    1. Growths or tumors of the uterus that are not cancer; these can be called uterine fibroids or polyps.
    2. Cancer of the uterus or cervix.
    3. Certain types of birth control—for example, an intrauterine device (IUD).
    4. Problems related to pregnancy, such as a miscarriage or ectopic pregnancy, can cause abnormal bleeding. A miscarriage is when an unborn baby (also called a fetus) dies in the uterus. An ectopic pregnancy is when a baby starts to grow outside the womb (uterus), which is not safe.
  2. Hormone-related problems
  3. Other illnesses or disorders
    1. Bleeding-related disorders, such as von Willebrand disease (VWD) or platelet function disorder.
    2. Nonbleeding-related disorders such as liver, kidney, or thyroid disease; pelvic inflammatory disease; and cancer.

In addition, certain drugs, such as aspirin, can cause increased bleeding. Doctors have not been able to find the cause in half of all women who have this problem. If you have bleeding such as this, and your gynecologist has not found any problems during your routine visit, you should be tested for a bleeding disorder.


You might have menorrhagia if you:

  • Have a menstrual flow that soaks through one or more pads or tampons every hour for several hours in a row.
  • Need to double up on pads to control your menstrual flow.
  • Need to change pads or tampons during the night.
  • Have menstrual periods lasting more than 7 days.
  • Have a menstrual flow with blood clots the size of a quarter or larger.
  • Have a heavy menstrual flow that keeps you from doing the things you would do normally.
  • Have constant pain in the lower part of the stomach during your periods.
  • Are tired, lack energy, or are short of breath.


Finding out if a woman has heavy menstrual bleeding often is not easy because each person might think of “heavy bleeding” in a different way. Usually, menstrual bleeding lasts about 4 to 5 days and the amount of blood lost is small (2 to 3 tablespoons). However, women who have menorrhagia usually bleed for more than 7 days and lose twice as much blood. If you have bleeding that lasts longer than 7 days per period, or is so heavy that you have to change your pad or tampon nearly every hour, you need to talk with your doctor.

To find out if you have menorrhagia, your doctor will ask you about your medical history and menstrual cycles.

He or she may ask you questions like the following:

  • How old were you when you got your first period?
  • How long is your menstrual cycle?
  • How many days does your period usually last?
  • How many days do you consider your period to be heavy?
  • How do your periods affect your quality of life?

Your doctor may also ask if any of your family members have had heavy menstrual bleeding. He or she may also have you complete this questionnaire Cdc-pdf[PDF – 127 KB] to help determine if you need to be tested for a possible bleeding disorder.

You might want to track your periods by writing down the dates of your periods and how heavy you think your flow is (maybe by counting how many pads or tampons you use). Do this before you visit the doctor so that you can give the doctor as much information as possible. Above is a picture of a chart that is used by some doctors to track your period. You can make your own chart based on the one shown. Your doctor also will do a pelvic exam and might tell you about other tests that can be done to help find out if you have menorrhagia.


Your doctor might tell you that one or more of the following tests will help find out if you have a bleeding problem:

  • Blood test. In this test, your blood will be taken using a needle. It will then be looked at to check for anemia, problems with the thyroid, or problems with the way the blood clots.
  • Pap test. For this test, cells from your cervix are removed and then looked at to find out if you have an infection, inflammation, or changes in your cells that might be cancer or might cause cancer.
  • Endometrial biopsy. Tissue samples are taken from the inside lining of your uterus or “endometrium” to find out if you have cancer or other abnormal cells. You might feel as if you were having a bad menstrual cramp while this test is being done. But, it does not take long, and the pain usually goes away when the test ends.
  • Ultrasound. This is a painless test using sound waves and a computer to show what your blood vessels, tissues, and organs look like. Your doctor then can see how they are working and check your blood flow.

Using the results of these first tests, the doctor might recommend more tests, including,

  • Sonohysterogram. This ultrasound scan is done after fluid is injected through a tube into the uterus by way of your vagina and cervix. This lets your doctor look for problems in the lining of your uterus. Mild to moderate cramping or pressure can be felt during this procedure.
  • Hysteroscopy. This is a procedure to look at the inside of the uterus using a tiny tool to see if you have fibroids, polyps, or other problems that might be causing bleeding. You might be given drugs to put you to sleep (this is known as “general anesthesia) or drugs simply to numb the area being looked at (this is called “local anesthesia”).
  • Dilation and Curettage (D&C). This is a procedure (or test) that can be used to find and treat the cause of bleeding. During a D&C, the inside lining of your uterus is scraped and looked at to see what might be causing the bleeding. A D&C is a simple procedure. Most often it is done in an operating room, but you will not have to stay in the hospital afterwards. You might be given drugs to make you sleep during the procedure, or you might be given something that will numb only the area to be worked on.


The type of treatment you get will depend on the cause of your bleeding and how serious it is. Your doctor also will look at things such as your age, general health, and medical history; how well you respond to certain medicines, procedures, or therapies; and your wants and needs. For example, some women do not want to have a period, some want to know when they can usually expect to have their period, and some want just to reduce the amount of bleeding. Some women want to make sure they can still have children in the future. Others want to lessen the pain more than they want to reduce the amount of bleeding. Some treatments are ongoing and others are done one time. You should discuss all of your options with your doctor to decide which is best for you. Following is a list of the more common treatments.

Drug Therapy
  • Iron supplements. To get more iron into your blood to help it carry oxygen if you show signs of anemia.
  • Ibuprofen (Advil). To help reduce pain, menstrual cramps, and the amount of bleeding. In some women, NSAIDS can increase the risk of bleeding.
  • Birth control pills. To help make periods more regular and reduce the amount of bleeding.
  • Intrauterine contraception (IUC). To help make periods more regular and reduce the amount of bleeding through drug-releasing devices placed into the uterus.
  • Hormone therapy (drugs that contain estrogen and/or progesterone). To reduce the amount of bleeding.
  • Desmopressin Nasal Spray (Stimate®). To stop bleeding in people who have certain bleeding disorders, such as von Willebrand disease and mild hemophilia, by releasing a clotting protein or “factor”, stored in the lining of the blood vessels that helps the blood to clot and temporarily increasing the level of these proteins in the blood.
  • Antifibrinolytic medicines (tranexamic acid, aminocaproic acid). To reduce the amount of bleeding by stopping a clot from breaking down once it has formed.
Surgical Treatment
  • Dilation and Curettage (D&C). A procedure in which the top layer of the uterus lining is removed to reduce menstrual bleeding. This procedure might need to be repeated over time.
  • Operative hysteroscopy. A surgical procedure, using a special tool to view the inside of the uterus, that can be used to help remove polyps and fibroids, correct abnormalities of the uterus, and remove the lining of the uterus to manage heavy menstrual flow.
  • Endometrial ablation or resection. Two types of surgical procedures using different techniques in which all or part of the lining of the uterus is removed to control menstrual bleeding. While some patients will stop having menstrual periods altogether, others may continue to have periods but the menstrual flow will be lighter than before. Although the procedures do not remove the uterus, they will prevent women from having children in the future.
  • Hysterectomy. A major operation requiring hospitalization that involves surgically removing the entire uterus. After having this procedure, a woman can no longer become pregnant and will stop having her period.

Menorrhagia is common among women. But, many women do not know that they can get help for it. Others do not get help because they are too embarrassed to talk with a doctor about their problem. Talking openly with your doctor is very important in making sure you are diagnosed properly and get the right treatment.

Who is Affected

Heavy bleeding (menorrhagia) is one of the most common problems women report to their doctors. It affects more than 10 million American women each year. This means that about one out of every five women has it.


  1. Fast Facts for Your Health: Menorrhagia. National Women’s Health Resource Center (NWHRC), Washington, D.C. http://www.healthywomen.orgExternal.
  2. Menstruation: Heavy Bleeding (Menorrhagia). PreventDisease.com. http://preventdisease.com/diseases/menstruation_heavy_bleeding.html.
  3. Women with Inherited Bleeding Disorders: Surgical Options for Menorrhagia. Canadian Hemophilia Society. http://www.hemophilia.caExternal.
  4. Menorrhagia (heavy menstrual bleeding). CNN.com. http://www.cnn.com/HEALTH/library/DS/00394.html.
  5. Phillip CS, Faiz A, Dowling NF, Beckman M, Owens S, Ayers C, Bachmann G. Development of a screening tool for identifying women with menorrhagia for hemostatic evaluation. American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology 2008;198:163.e1–163.e8.
  6. Apgar BS, Kaufman AH, George-Nwogu U, Kittendorf A. Treatment of menorrhagia. American Family Physician 2007;75:1813–1819,1820. http://www.aafp.org/afp/20070615/1813.html.
  7. Heavy Bleeding and Endometrial Ablation. FertilityAnswers.com. http://www.fertilityanswers.com/endometrial_ablation.htm.
  8. Menorrhagia (heavy menstrual bleeding). MayoClinic.com Health Library. http://www.riverside-online. com/health_reference/Womens-Health/DS00394.cfmExternal.
    National Collaborating Centre for Women’s and Children’s Health. National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE). Heavy menstrual bleeding. London: Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists Press; 2007.
  9. Higham JM, O’Brien PM, Shaw RW. Assessment of menstrual blood loss using a pictorial chart. British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. 1990;97:734–739.

Are My Periods Normal? | Signature Women’s Health

What is an Endometrial Ablation? Can Signature Doctors really improve my periods?

At some point, most women suspect that their menstrual periods are abnormal for one reason or another. Periods can change as we age, becoming either lighter or heavier as time goes by. They may also change following a pregnancy, use of certain medications, or a surgical procedure. Most of these changes arte temporary, or may still fall into the “normal range”.

But what exactly is “normal”?

A typical period is 4-5 days long, but may range anywhere from one to seven days in length. If your menstruation is longer than seven days, we recommend that you see your gynecologist for evaluation.

It is normal to have some mild cramping with your menstrual flow. Severe cramping and pain are not normal. Pain is your body’s warning mechanism that something may be wrong. Uterine leiomyomas (fibroids), adenomyosis, endometriosis, and endometrial polyps are a few of the common reasons for heavy and/or painful menstrual cycles. These conditions are treatable.

The average menstrual cycle is 28 days from Day 1 to Day 1 of your period. However, anywhere from 25 to 31 days between periods is considered a normal menstrual cycle. If your cycles are closer than 23 or farther than 35 days apart, have a medical evaluation.

The normal amount of blood lost during menstruation is about 2 to 8 tablespoons, although it may seem like more than that. Blood clots are usually clots of tissue in your menstruation. This is a normal occurrence. If you need to change your tampon or pad after only one or two hours, consult with your gynecologist.

Vaginal bleeding after menopause is not normal. If you are a woman who is postmenopausal and are experiencing vaginal bleeding, consult your gynecologist immediately.

At Signature Women’s Healthcare, we have a number of tools at our disposal to help diagnose and treat abnormally heavy or painful periods. We invite you to consult our experienced physicians regarding your menstrual cycle.

Endometrial Ablation

There are different options for managing heavy periods. Most doctors recommend birth control pills initially to manage heavy periods, but for many women, this option is either ineffective or undesirable.

If you have completed your childbearing and your menstrual cycles are either abnormally heavy or long, we invite you to learn about endometrial ablation. Endometrial ablation is a minimally invasive, 3 to 8 minute outpatient procedure with no incisions or hormones, that may dramatically improve your menstrual cycles and may avoid the need for hysterectomy. For many women, this results in a real improvement in quality of life. Our doctors have been performing these procedures for over 15 years and offer you our experience and attention. Please feel free to contact us for more information.

After years of having Dr. Uribasterra recommend that I have an endometrial ablation surgery, I finally went through with it last summer.

I was the type of woman that had a VERY heavy menstrual cycle which lasted for days. It was extremely difficult for me to go about my daily living during my menstrual cycle.

After the surgery, I not only had no down time, but no symptoms either. The day after my procedure, I was pretty much up and about. I am so happy I listened to Dr. Uribasterra. I can truly say this procedure has changed my life for the better. Now my menstrual cycle does not hold me back from doing things I want to do.

I would definitely recommend it to anyone.


Children’s Panadol – how is the day of a baby at 3-6 months

By the third or fourth month, you will most likely feel better: the baby will get used to the daily routine, and will probably sleep peacefully at night. It’s time to put the baby in the crib (if it hasn’t already).

Daily routine in 3-4 months

5:00 breastfeeding / bottle feeding (120-180 ml)
6:00 sleep (mom and baby)
9:00 baby waking up, breastfeeding / bottle feeding
10:00 game
10:30 placing the baby in a stroller (if you go outside) or in a crib
11:00 baby sleep
13:00 breastfeeding / bottle feeding
14:00 game
14:30 baby calms down and falls asleep
17:00 bathing (possibly earlier if the baby is restless)
18:00 breastfeeding / bottle feeding
19:00 game
19:30 baby calms down and falls asleep
22:00 breastfeeding / bottle feeding.Some babies still need to be fed at 2:00 a.m.


Now it takes less time. The child should be fed 5 times a day.

During the day – every 3-4 hours, and at night – every 6-8 hours. On some days, your child will want to eat more often, but this is normal (at this age, most children sleep well all night: their last feeding before bedtime is at 22.00, and the first in the morning is at 5-6.00)


At the age of 3 months, your baby will sleep during the day for 1-2 hours after each feeding and for 5-7 hours at night.

At 6 months, the baby still needs 1-2 hours of sleep after daily feedings, as during this period he spends more time in active games. At night, he sleeps from 8 to 10 hours (that is, he spends 13-15 hours a day sleeping).

Tips : sleep baby

  • Calm your baby down as soon as you notice the first signs of fatigue;
  • The best thing is to use his usual calming techniques;
  • Remember: the baby should be put to sleep in the same place, regardless of whether it is a daytime sleep or a nighttime one;
  • Put the baby in the crib and leave before he falls asleep: let him learn to fall asleep on his own;
  • If the baby is capricious, you need to calm him down and make it clear that his mother is nearby.

Time for play

By three or four months, you need to play with your baby several times a day for 30 minutes, including spending 5-10 minutes lying on your tummy. Now your baby is able to lift the torso, leaning on the handles, and hold in this position for several seconds. His interest in toys and objects of bright colors increases as he begins to reach for them, grab them and poke them into his mouth. It responds to your voice, interacts with you more often, and uses a wide variety of sounds.By the age of six months, he can play for an hour several times a day. The child will be interested in exploring the world around him, rolling and moving on the floor, preparing for a period of active crawling.

How to play at home

  • Let the baby hold the toys while you hold him to you;
  • When the baby is lying on his tummy on the floor, place the toys on the rug closer to him so that he can reach for them;
  • If your baby is lying in a rocking cradle (use it with great care) or in a rocking chair, use an open playpen with hanging toys and rattles so that he can reach for them;
  • Place the rocking chair in a place where your baby can watch you.If you are busy with something, talk to him;
  • Place the stroller near a window or in the garden, if possible, so that the baby can look at the trees;
  • Make sure the toys have no sharp edges or small parts that are easy to break off and swallow;
  • If your baby is near small children or pets, make sure they are under constant supervision.

Deadly sleep deprivation: how to control the hormone of the night and survive | Articles

Colds and slush are approaching, and with them the autumn blues and an irresistible desire to sleep all day.A seasonal phenomenon over time, under the influence of various factors, can turn into a chronic problem and even cause serious illness. About why we do not get enough sleep on winter nights, whether it is useful to take a nap in the office during the day, what to do in order to quickly be in the arms of Morpheus in the evening, and how to curb the hormone of the night – in the material of Izvestia.

Failure of internal chimes

The autumn-winter period is a negative background for the development of many diseases, primarily cardiovascular diseases.At this time, interruptions in the work of the internal biological clock begin, which leads to seasonal depression. Alexander Kalinkin, head of the Center for Sleep Medicine, Moscow State University, told Izvestia about this. M.V. Lomonosov and an expert of the European Society of Sleep Research (ESRS). He is a cardiologist by profession, but he has been studying the problems of sleep disorders and relieving them of people for 27 years.

Photo: RIA Novosti / Alexey Malgavko

The scientist explained that sleepiness in the autumn-winter period has a specific reason associated with a lack of sun in the northern latitudes.Sunlight is the main regulator of the night hormone, melatonin. In the evening, with the onset of darkness, its concentration increases sharply, it gives a signal to all organs to readjust to the night mode. As soon as light hits the retina in the morning, the concentration of melatonin drops sharply to a minimum value.

“Melatonin is produced in the pineal gland, a small process in the central part of the brain. The signal about the presence of light to the pineal gland comes through the so-called suprachiasmatic nuclei – this is such a central clock, we call them chimes.But each cell in the body contains its own clock, which works on completely different dials, somewhere it can be six hours, somewhere 12 hours, and so on. And even the activity of the genome at night, during sleep, differs from the activity of the genome during wakefulness, ”said Kalinkin. When seasonal changes in nature begin, this complex mechanism has to adapt to them.

Death from lack of sleep

The body of a city dweller, already suffering from a seasonal lack of sunlight, is experiencing additional stress due to lack of time for good sleep – a long commute to and from work, traffic jams, household chores…

It is believed that over the past hundred years, the average duration of a person’s sleep has decreased from eight hours to six, and in some cities it is already less than six hours, and this is a very big problem, the doctor-somnologist notes. The fact is that during sleep, the cerebral cortex processes information from internal organs, and restorative processes are triggered. If sleep is disturbed, then the work of internal organs immediately goes wrong and immunity drops sharply. Therefore, if a person does not get enough sleep, then the risk of getting the flu or any viral disease increases significantly.

Photo: TASS / Artem Korotaev

“This is a truly global problem, because, on the one hand, we treat, reduce blood pressure with pills, use high-tech methods of treating coronary heart disease, oncology and other diseases, and by reducing sleep and deteriorating its quality, we increase the prevalence of these diseases, and pretty much. Therefore, we are chasing a carrot here, but it is tied in front of us, and we cannot catch up with it, ”the scientist explained.

If you leave any living organism without sleep for seven days, it will die, says Alexander Kalinkin: “If we deprive a person of water, he will live 18 days, 72 days without food, and only a week without sleep. Of course, no heart attacks, no strokes, no oncological diseases, no atherosclerosis, or any other significant morphological changes occur in a week, but there is a sharp decrease in immunity. Since we are surrounded by microbes, both on the skin and in the gastrointestinal tract, the invasion of the microbial flora sets in, and the person dies from intoxication. “

Office Passions

To avoid seasonal sleep problems, the main condition for office workers is to be in a place with daylight as much as possible. According to the scientist, advanced companies that care about the health of their employees even use special light bulbs that simulate sunlight in the workplace.

The somnologist explained that ordinary artificial lighting does not have such an effect, because it has a spectrum that is different from the spectrum of sunlight.On the contrary, it enhances the negative effect of discoordination in nature, since an excessive amount of lighting devices, any gadgets, computers, especially in the evening, disrupts the production of melatonin.

Recently, clerks have the opportunity to sleep right in the office – special capsules for daytime are gaining popularity in the world. In the West, this tendency is widespread; domestic employers are still mostly not ready for such a step. However, in some large companies, capsules have been around for several years.

Photo: Global Look Press / Jenny Acheson

The Izvestia correspondent was lucky enough to try this miracle of technology on himself, but he did not manage to fall asleep there. Perhaps the fact that the case took place in the morning, after a full night’s sleep and a large glass of coffee, played a role.

To lie down in someone else’s office to have a rest turned out to be a simple matter and does not require any special emancipation – you lie down in an armchair, a large hemisphere covers you on top, a blanket on your feet, headphones on your head.At the beginning of the session, a wave of vibrations runs through the armchair, relaxing music sounds – it’s time to sleep. But for some reason I can’t sleep – thoughts about past negotiations and upcoming affairs begin to swarm in my head, it’s very convenient, no one interferes. Attempts to immerse oneself in nirvana forcibly backfire. The remaining time passes in the struggle with oneself, finally the music sounds louder, the chair vibrates again – it’s time to go to work.

“When a person has a peak of activity, there is no need for him to go there. If he processes a large array of data and the reaction slows down, or there was some important meeting and relaxation is needed, or he cannot work at a high pace, postpones important tasks until tomorrow and begins a strategy for surviving until the end of the working day, then the capsule will extend the period of activity for about 3-4 hours, “Viktor Khodanov, managing partner of EnergyPoint, a Russian developer and manufacturer of sleep recovery capsules, told Izvestia.

A whole team of Russian specialists of various profiles, from scientists to musicians, is working on the constant improvement of the gadget. “In our laboratory, the frequency of falling asleep is about 70-80%. We look at an encephalogram, and the appearance of certain rhythms on it indicates that the brain has fallen into a state of superficial sleep and the necessary processes of restoring cognitive abilities have begun – memory, attention, concentration, assimilation of information. It’s like a reboot, it does not replace a night’s sleep, because there is no deep phase, but it makes it possible to extend the working day. “

Photo: Getty Images / Todd Warnock

Some people think that daytime sleep is harmful, because, having got enough sleep, a person worsens the quality of night sleep. “A short 20-30-minute sleep, no more, really increases the working capacity, attentiveness and cognitive functions in humans,” confirms the somnologist Alexander Kalinkin. – Therefore, from the point of view of efficiency, it is useful. It can worsen the likelihood of falling asleep at night, reduce the so-called pressure of sleep in the evening, but only for a longer time. “

According to the scientist, it is important to understand why a person develops sleepiness: he sleeps a little at night or he has some kind of pathology. How to distinguish temporary difficulties from chronicles? Acute insomnia occurs in any person and is associated with stressful situations, and it can be both negative and positive emotions. If, after the disappearance of the stress factor, this situation does not recover and continues for more than three months, it is time to go to the doctor.

Scheduled insomnia

In some cases, simple adherence to the daily regimen, increased physical activity – exercise, swimming pool, proper nutrition will help solve the problem.But not in all, since more than 80 causes of sleep disorders have been identified.

“I had a patient with a very interesting case,” recalls Alexander Kalinkin, “she had insomnia on October 15th, and on April 15th it ended. We began to deal with her, and it turned out that she has a very dark iris of the eye, which reduces the likelihood of penetration of sunlight. We assigned her to use a special light lamp in the morning, for 30-40 minutes. Moreover, she did not have to look at her all the time, it was enough just to be around – to have breakfast, to put on makeup.And as a result, her sleep was fully restored – this light in the morning was enough to suppress the production of melatonin in the daytime and restore its reproduction at night. ”

Photo: Getty Images / sturti

The most popular among the people means for combating insomnia, sleeping pills, specialists of the Center for Sleep Medicine of Moscow State University use only in exceptional cases – to relieve an acute condition. “There used to be a hope that an ideal hypnotic (sleeping pill) would be created, but so far this does not exist, because the mechanisms responsible for wakefulness are too complex, and there is no single sleep center in the brain, there are several of them.And maybe it will never be created, “Kalinkin believes.

In each case, specialists identify a specific cause of sleep disorders, of which more than 80 are currently known, and act on it. Somnologists interview the patient, conduct a so-called polysomnographic study, which provides objective information about the state of sleep, prescribe tests, explain what he is doing wrong, and then prescribe treatment.

When the sheep are powerless

What to do if you can’t sleep in the evening? To begin with, create the conditions necessary for a normal night’s rest:

1.Security. Sleeping in a safe place reduces stress levels and makes it easier to fall asleep.

2. Temperature. When it decreases, and even more when it increases, the quality of sleep will deteriorate.

3. Air humidity, light and noise pollution.

4. Power supply. It should be remembered that undernourishment, like overeating at night, impairs the quality of sleep.

5. Alcohol and smoking. Drinking alcohol, on the one hand, promotes falling asleep, but, on the other hand, causes early awakening and defragmentation of sleep.

6. Abuse of caffeinated products. This is not only coffee tea, but also all carbonated drinks, often containing very high doses of caffeine, as well as chocolate.

7. Medicines. Many drugs, from those that lower blood pressure or cholesterol levels, to those prescribed for sleep disorders, can impair sleep quality.


How to calculate LTV – 5 ways

Among all marketing indicators there is a special one that measures the profit from a client during his life cycle.By correctly calculating this metric, a business will be able to find out how much to spend on attracting a client so as not to work at a loss. Also, this indicator reveals the characteristics of the client’s behavior in dynamics and provides valuable insights on how to keep him.

Meet the customer’s life value.


What is customer life value

Customer lifetime value (LTV or CLV) is the total profit that you will receive from the customer in the course of his cooperation with you.This metric helps predict future earnings and measure long-term business success. Moreover, it helps assess how much you need to invest in order to retain a client.

According to Forbes magazine, the probability that you will sell a product or service to a new customer is 5-20%, while the probability of selling it to an existing customer is about 60-70%.

Customer retention costs much less. Thus, successful marketers always develop retention plans and incentives for new purchases.Some LTV calculations allow you to predict the growth of a company’s profit based on data about your customers’ purchases, their typical behavior and the characteristics of your advertising campaigns.

LTV provides answers to the following questions:

Let’s look at a few examples of how large companies have used this metric.

LTV cases

Back in 2013, a Consumer Behavior Study estimated that Amazon Prime shoppers were spending $ 1,340 a year shopping on Amazon, double that of non-Prime shoppers.Based on the customer life value metric, Amazon began to focus more on Prime customers and saw significant revenue gains over the next four years.

Netflix also drew valuable insight from the LTV calculation. In 2007, the company discovered that the typical subscriber stayed with them for 25 months. Their LTV was $ 291.25. The company’s managers realized that their viewers were impatient and most of them turned down the service when they had to wait a long time for a coveted DVD.After analyzing the statistics, Netflix decided to implement online streaming to entertain users while they wait for their delivery. As a result, Netflix was able to increase viewer engagement by 4% while still renting its billionth DVD. They soon abandoned DVD sales and began full-blown online expansion.

The example of Starbucks showed that if you increase your satisfaction index, your customer’s value in life and profit will also increase.To find out how much they can spend on attracting coffee lovers, Starbucks calculated the average LTV (Business Insider case) using several formulas. And this figure is impressive – $ 14,099!

The examples above prove that a customer’s value in life has a significant impact on a business.

OWOX BI will help to combine data from different systems: user actions on the site, calls and orders from CRM, email newsletters and advertising costs. You can set up end-to-end analytics and automate reports of any complexity: for advertising campaigns, cohort analysis, ROPO, CPA, ROI, ROAS, LTV, CAC, attribution and many others.

How to calculate LTV

There are many ways to calculate a customer’s life value, and the choice depends on the type of business and industry. We have selected five calculation methods, from simple to complex.

Historical and cohort approach to calculating LTV

For the historical approach, only the data on previous purchases is needed, as the formula calculates the vital value based on the profit from past purchases.To calculate “historical” LTV, you can use the average revenue per customer (ARPU) (method 1) or cohort analysis (method 2).

Method 1

Suppose 20 people brought in $ 1240 in profit in 3 months. The average profit for this period will be:

ARPU (3 months) = $ 1240/20 = $ 62

Let’s see what these people will bring us in a year:

ARPU (12 months) = ARPU ( 3 months) × 4 = $ 62 × 4 = $ 248 per year per customer

Using the historical approach, we received ARPU for one year – $ 248.Let’s see what we can do using the following method.

Method 2

Cohort analysis is an advanced ARPU approach. A cohort is a group of users who have similar characteristics and made their first purchase during the same period. Using cohort analysis, you calculate the average income from the group, not from the user.

Using the example above, we calculated ARPU per month for the cohort from January 2018 and the cohort from March 2018 and tabulated them.Thus, the sum of all ARPUs for the period of communication with the company will reflect LTV. Convenient, isn’t it?

In addition, cohort analysis can help you determine the number of loyal customers, increase the customer’s life value, determine the points of decline in the intensity of purchases, and more accurately assess the effectiveness of advertising campaigns.

See also: What is cohort analysis and what it is for. What are the possibilities and limitations of cohort analysis in Google Analytics.How to Analyze Cohorts in Google Sheets in 4 Ways.

Lack of a historical approach

Both of these methods are simple, but they cannot be used for predictions. The historical approach is only valid if your customers have similar preferences and stay with you for the same period of time. But these methods do not take into account the changes in their behavior. Therefore, if the interests of users change and they make purchases in a different way, a different method of calculating LTV is needed.

Predictive approach to calculating LTV

This approach aims to model consumer behavior and predict what the customer will do in the future. This approach is more accurate than historical calculation because it uses algorithms to predict the total customer value. Along with past purchases, this approach takes user actions into account. Please note that there are many ways to predict LTV. Below we will look at one of the most affordable.

Weaknesses of Method 3

While this approach is better than the historical approach, you should still be aware that forecasts can be misleading. We only assume customer lifecycle based on monthly data.For a more accurate result, you should adjust your LTV according to your industry and business strategy.

Traditional approach to LTV calculation

Method 4

If you do not have annual sales, you can use the traditional calculation formula. It takes into account the size of the discount, the average profit margin over the life of one customer, and the retention rate.

The formula looks like this:

GML is the average profit from a client during his life.

GML = Profit ratio (%) × Average total revenue per customer

Gross margin: 28.5% (from the example above)

Average total revenue: $ 600 (from the example above)

GML = 0.285 × $ 600 = $ 171

R is the percentage of people who made a repeat purchase during a certain period, compared to the same period in the previous period. To calculate the monthly R value, you need the following numbers:

Suppose that in November you had:

  • CE = 250
  • CN = 50
  • CB = 220

R = ((250 – 50) / 220) × 100 = (200/220) × 100 = 0.9 × 100 = 90%

D – the amount of the discount. We’ll take the standard rate of 10%.

Now we have all the metrics we need to calculate the traditional LTV:

LTV = $ 171 × (0.9 / (1 + 0.1 – 0.9)) = $ 171 × (0.9 / 0.2) = $ 171 × 4.5 = $ 769.5

This formula covers all possible changes in income over a given period. To take into account inflation, each subsequent period must be adjusted according to the example of a discount.

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Methods for calculating LTV in Retail and Subscription businesses

Customer Lifetime Value in Google Analytics

Many marketers use Google Analytics to track the data they need. This service has a function for calculating the value of users by indicators of engagement and income, taking into account sessions for a 90-day period.

Method 5

The LTV report in Google Analytics shows how the revenue per user who made a conversion has changed, calculating this indicator on page views, goal achievement, events and trends.You select the Total Value tab and Google Analytics generates this report for you.

Points to Consider:

  • This is a relatively new add-on (released in 2017) and does not provide a long lifespan for the client. Instead, Google Analytics draws conclusions based on the past 90 days.
  • Google Analytics is a cookie-based platform. If the user opts out of tracking cookies, you will not be able to track their data.
  • Google Analytics counts leads and subscribers across all channels. This means that you won’t be able to know exactly how much money each user is spending without additional data processing.
  • Google Analytics cannot clearly identify which customer is making a repeat purchase. There is no way to check if he spent $ 100 or $ 1000 without additional data.

Google Analytics is an effective data collection tool, but calculating LTV requires data on real customers and their purchases from CRM, and this information is not available in GA by default.You can use OWOX BI to combine user activity on the site, calls and orders from internal systems, emails and advertising costs. The service will help you automate reports on LTV and any other metrics.

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When you don’t have to worry about LTV?

There is no such thing as an “average” or “normal” customer value in life.Any LTV is good for business as long as it generates income. You should focus on how you can use insights to increase your bottom line.

And if you want a sign from above, here are some interesting facts: if your LTV is three times your customer acquisition cost (CAC), everything is going well. If not, you need to urgently revise your marketing strategy.

Read also: how boodmo built an effective customer relationship model, optimized advertising costs and increased LTV.

LTV calculation is done. What’s next?

If the LTV calculation is over, try a different formula or search for insights.

Compare CLV results with customer acquisition cost to see how effective your marketing efforts are:

  • If LTV is higher than acquisition cost, then you have a lot of repeat purchases or your customer retention efforts are paying off. However, this interpretation depends on the industry and the company’s profitability.
  • If you see that your costs represent a small fraction of your gross profit (i.e. below 10%), then you are not spending enough on marketing. In this case, you should invest more in order to grow.

But what if your LTV is equal to or close to your acquisition costs? This suggests that a business spends almost as much per customer as it receives. A similar strategy is used when they want to attract new customers. In other cases, it’s a wake-up call to get to grips with marketing.

To improve LTV, you can use user segmentation using the OWOX BI Pipeline. This will help you better understand your customers. Here are the insights of how and what exactly he needs to offer. And this is a direct ticket to improved LTV.

Read also: How to combine online data with information from CRM to segment customers and use segments to personalize advertising and communications in direct marketing channels.


The customer’s life value can be interpreted in different ways. But this metric will really help you find a balance. You will find out how much you need to invest in order to retain existing customers and get new ones.

Research from Criteo summarizes the benefits of LTV monitoring for businesses of all sizes:

In this article, we have shared a brief overview of how to calculate LTV. If you have questions or would like the OWOX BI team to help you understand how to add value to your customers, please contact us.


Of course, there are other metrics that need to be considered to optimize costs. But life value calculations alone will tell you how to improve your business across the board. Considering LTV, you can increase customer loyalty and increase sales.

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  • What is LTV (Customer Life Value)?

    Customer Life Value (eng.customer lifetime value, LTV or CLV) is the total profit that you will receive from the customer in the course of his cooperation with you.

  • Why count LTV?

    This metric helps predict future earnings and measure long-term business success.Moreover, it helps assess how much you need to invest in order to retain a client.

  • How to calculate LTV?

    There are many ways to calculate a customer’s life value, and the choice depends on the type of business and industry.We have selected five calculation methods, from simple to complex, and described them in detail (with formulas and examples) in this article.

90,000 We fly on vacation during pregnancy. Rules, recommendations, tips

ATOR Bulletin with the help of gynecologists and insurers has compiled a set of the most important tips and tricks that pregnant women will need during planning, preparation, flight and stay on a summer beach vacation – from choosing insurance to rules for safe tanning and nutrition.

About the details and nuances of organizing summer vacation during pregnancy, “Vestnik ATOR” was told:

Natalya Badikova , obstetrician-gynecologist with 13 years of experience, urogynecologist, candidate of medical sciences

Yulia Alcheeva , executive director of the insurance company ERV, the largest player in the monotourism insurance market in Russia.

In our review you will learn:

  • In what period of pregnancy can you go on vacation, and when is it better to stay at home 90 150

  • Until what week of pregnancy can you fly on vacation abroad 90 150

  • Which insurance to choose for pregnant women 90 150

  • What a pregnant woman needs to do before vacation and what documents to take
  • What are the symptoms of a pregnant woman better to postpone the trip 90 150

  • Plane, car, train – which is safer for pregnant women?
  • Can pregnant women go through the scanner during security screening at the airport
  • Flight during pregnancy: how to behave and what to take with you
  • Which country to choose for a beach vacation during pregnancy 90 150

  • How to sunbathe during pregnancy
  • Where is it safe for pregnant women to swim – sea or pool
  • How to eat for pregnant women on vacation
  • What to do if you find out about pregnancy while on vacation 90 150



In any case, the decision to travel during pregnancy should be made only after passing the necessary examinations and tests – to make sure that pregnancy is normal, to exclude pathological conditions.

To eliminate the risks of early booking, pregnant women should always take extended insurance when purchasing a tour – with the included trip cancellation insurance option.If you find out about pregnancy later than buying a tour, such insurance should be purchased separately, as well as special medical insurance (but more on that later).

According to doctors and insurers, if there are no medical contraindications, it is best to go on a beach vacation with an air flight in the second trimester of pregnancy, with some restrictions – in the first and first half of the third trimester (up to 31 weeks)

“The gestation period is from 14 weeks to 23 weeks, according to medical practice, the most“ calm ”and relatively safe period for flights and any travel,” says Natalya Badikova, obstetrician-gynecologist.

Pregnancy period is from 14 weeks to 23 weeks, according to medical practice, the most “calm” and relatively safe period for flights and any travel

According to doctors, the point is not only that up to 12 weeks pregnant women often experience toxicosis, which manifests itself in fatigue, nausea, feeling unwell, changes in taste preferences, etc., which, of course, does not contribute to a calm rest. But also in the fact that up to the 14th week inclusive in the woman’s body there is an intensive basic “laying” of all the systems and organs of the baby – and it is important not to interfere with her.In addition, in Russia, the most important screening during pregnancy is performed just at the end of the first trimester – from 11 to 14 weeks. This screening includes specialized ultrasound diagnostics, calculation of the individual risk of having a child with chromosomal abnormalities, and a number of other complex studies. It is highly undesirable to skip it, so traveling far from the place of medical observation from 11 to 14 weeks of pregnancy should be ruled out altogether.

The same rule applies to 18-21 weeks – at this time, pregnant women undergo a second screening (perinatal diagnosis of fetal anomalies, a very important study), so you need to be within the reach of the clinic where it is carried out, and correctly plan the start and end date of the tour like this to have time to pass this examination.


Note that the third trimester of pregnancy is generally not recommended for travel with air travel and climate change. In particular, doctors consider it extremely undesirable to fly on vacation from the 28th week of pregnancy until childbirth, if:

  • have a burdened obstetric and gynecological history (early termination of pregnancy, miscarriages, frozen pregnancies, serious gynecological diseases, etc.);n.) 90 150

  • there are serious concomitant somatic diseases, including autoimmune diseases 90 150

  • we are talking about multiple pregnancies (twins or triplets).

However, if the pregnancy proceeds normally, without complications, then the tourist can go on a beach vacation abroad, but so that it ends no later than 31 weeks of pregnancy.

Why this particular period? The point is not only in the increased risk at this stage, but also in the fact that all special insurance products with options for pregnant women existing in Russia provide insurance coverage of medical expenses for pregnant women only up to 31 weeks as a maximum.Therefore, all travels of pregnant women, starting from 32 weeks, will not be insured by any insurance company. There are simply no such policies, which means that complications or premature birth abroad threaten with huge sums for treatment.

After 32 weeks, both doctors and insurers give everyone good advice: do not travel abroad, unless we are talking about some difficult life situations. This advice should be taken very seriously. The statistics of the largest travel insurer, ERV, are disappointing: 9 out of 10 women who seek medical help abroad for complications of pregnancy lose a child.

Finally, let us recall one more factor. With a gestational age of 30-34 weeks, an ultrasound scan is performed at the place of observation of a pregnant woman. That is, during this period it is also better to be within the reach of the health care facility where pregnancy is monitored.


“The first thing that tourists should understand is that pregnant women traveling abroad need special and separate insurance with options specifically for pregnant women. Not a single basic insurance policy on the market, which comes “by default” in a regular travel package, does not cover any risks of pregnancy complications at 12-31 weeks.In this case, the tourist must ask the travel agent or arrange for additional insurance himself under a special program, ”said the executive director of the ERV insurance company.

For pregnant women traveling abroad, special and separate insurance is needed with options specifically for pregnant women – this is not the same insurance that is already in the tour package

The vast majority of Russian insurance companies do not include in the basic programs the risks of complications of pregnancy up to 12 weeks.The only exception in the market is ERV insurance, which, even in the “basic” version, recognizes complications of pregnancy up to 12 weeks as an insured event, since there is a possibility that the insured might not have known about her pregnancy in the early stages.

Insurance products for pregnant women, starting from a period of 12-13 weeks, are in the assortment of all major players in the insurance market, a tourist can choose such insurance by a set of options, the amount of insurance coverage or price.

As for insurances that cover risks up to 31 weeks of pregnancy (this is the maximum period), there are relatively few of them.The most “complete” insurance is again at ERV (Optima tariff): in addition to the period up to 31 weeks inclusive, the coverage here includes medical expenses not only for women, but also 10 thousand euros for caring for a child in a medical institution in case of premature birth (other companies cover only the cost of medical care for the mother). This amount will be enough for long-term nursing of a baby using special equipment in Europe or Turkey.

And of course, the insurance must necessarily include the option “cancellation of the trip” (in common parlance it is also called “cancellation insurance”).The condition of a pregnant woman is changing, and it may happen that right before the trip she will have contraindications to the flight. It is important to remember that if a tourist is flying with her husband, children, other relatives, then they will all receive the full amount of the entire tour only if “cancellation insurance” is issued for all of them (and not only for the pregnant woman herself).


Before the trip (3-7 days in advance), you must visit the therapist and the attending gynecologist, get advice and, if necessary, undergo the prescribed tests and procedures.

You need to ask the doctor to issue a certificate for the airline about the pregnancy period and the absence of medical contraindications (without it, if there are external signs of pregnancy, some air carriers may not be allowed to board the aircraft).

“In addition to insurance, travel documents and passports, you should also take an exchange card – especially if you are going to Russia. For the convenience and peace of mind of the vacationer, you can also take an extract from the attending physician with your anamnesis, appointments, results of the last ultrasound scan, screening, etc., and translate them, if not into the language of the host country, then at least into English, ”advises gynecologist Natalya Badikova.

It would also be nice if the attending physician could be in touch with the tourist during the holidays. Modern telemedicine services allow this. For example, before traveling, you can check with your doctor whether he is consulting remotely in a special application, or purchase a subscription to several telemedicine consultations of a trusted telemedicine operator. By the way, gynecologists also consult remotely.


“Pulling pains in the lower abdomen in the first trimester of pregnancy, pulling, cramping pains or tension (false and true contractions) – in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy before the trip – a wake-up call. These are unconditional reasons for immediate medical attention. Brownish smearing or, especially, scarlet spotting at any stage of pregnancy, watery – in the second and third trimester – is also a reason to immediately consult a doctor and not go to the airport, ”says Natalya Badikova.

Among other “bad” signs that speak of the need for prompt consultation of a tourist with a doctor is a sharp headache, accompanied by tinnitus. These may be the first signs of preeclampsia or preeclampsia. Reasons to postpone the trip for a pregnant woman are vomiting, diarrhea, as well as exacerbation of concomitant diseases.

In order for a pregnant woman to painlessly cancel the trip for health reasons and not lose money, when buying a tour or separately (but maximum 5 days before departure), you need to take out cancellation insurance for all tour participants, which we have already mentioned.As a rule, its cost is 5% of the total tour amount.



Contrary to popular belief, the plane is not the most “risky” mode of transport for pregnant women.

“Many people think that the safest way for pregnant women to travel by private car is that you can stop wherever you want. But this is not the case. As it shakes in a car, it does not shake anywhere, even on a train.Bumps, sudden braking, an emergency situation on the road – all this has a very negative effect on the state of pregnancy. Plus prolonged physical inactivity, motion sickness, the smell of gasoline – this can trigger a cascade of pathological reactions, ”said Dr. Badikova.

As for the train, if it is a comfortable express train, and especially if the journey is not long (3-4 hours, “Sapsan”), then it may well be considered. You can also consider the new double-decker express trains “Moscow-Sochi”.In other cases, especially if the train is old, with age-appropriate bathrooms, doctors recommend thinking about the plane instead of the train.


Only machines with X-rays are dangerous – therefore, you should find out what type of scanner is at the airport. If the device has a corresponding icon, then you should show the pregnancy certificate to the airport employee and go through other screening procedures.

However, modern devices at airports are not dangerous for pregnant women.“Modern airport scanners use a low frequency electromagnetic field. This is not ionizing radiation, there is no harm to the body of the pregnant woman and the baby from it, as well as from ultrasound, ”says Natalya Badikova.


Air travel also has its own factors that can negatively affect the health of pregnant women. There are risks, but if the pregnant woman feels well, and the doctors have no objection to the vacation, you can fly.

Firstly, these are the differences in blood pressure during takeoff and landing. This is usually dealt with by creating a state of rest (during the flight, you need to take a special pillow with adjustable inflation, disposable earplugs, an eye mask), and drinking plenty of water (plain water without gas). Water can be safely bought already at the airport after passing the border. It’s also a good idea to take a bar of dark chocolate with you on the flight (in case of pressure drops and just for a snack).

Secondly, this is physical inactivity and a long stay in a sitting position, so pregnant women should, if possible, choose destinations for rest with a short flight (3-5 hours) during this period of their life.

Pregnant women should, whenever possible, choose vacation destinations with a short flight (3-5 hours) during this period of their life

Why? “Prolonged sitting leads to congestion in the small pelvis.This can interfere with blood flow in the pelvic organs, including the uterus, and cause bowel movements to change. Swollen bowel loops can put pressure on the uterus, this can cause hypertonicity, which, in some cases, can cause abortion, ”explains Natalia Badikova. How to deal with this risk? It’s simple: during the flight, you should try to walk around the cabin more often, get up, change your body position, do light gymnastics for your legs and arms.

On a flight (in hand luggage), a pregnant woman should not forget to take hygiene products (wet wipes, disposable pads, etc.)), micellar water (no more than 100 ml to be allowed on the plane) – to moisturize the skin in flight, a set of drugs (if the drugs are rare and prescription, it is better to take a prescription for them, sometimes – with a notarized translation – in order to avoid difficulties at the border) …

Also, pregnant women should take care of compression hosiery in flight. These should be stockings or knee-highs (the class of compression should be determined by the attending physician). During the second and third trimester, a prenatal band should be worn for the flight.During the flight, a woman should wear cotton underwear and a bra with wide straps.

During the flight, it is better for pregnant women to be in comfortable shoes – in light breathable moccasins or slippers.



The list of such countries is determined by a combination of three main factors. First, as we have already said, these should be destinations with a short flight (up to 5 hours as a maximum).

Secondly, it should be Russia or foreign non-exotic countries with a relatively moderate climate and a diet adapted to our cuisine. Countries with excessively hot climates and exotic cuisine should be avoided.

“Water and food uncharacteristic for our diet, for example, in the countries of South and Central America, Southeast Asia, can provoke toxicosis in pregnant women in the first trimester, even if you do not have it. He is also provoked by the heat. The fact is that hypoglycemia (lack of glucose) can serve as the impetus for the development of toxicosis in pregnant women.And it occurs in hot climates due to increased evaporation of moisture from the skin, heavy drinking and, as a result, lack of appetite and long intervals in food intake, ”says Dr. Badikova.

Doctors advise pregnant women to choose for a beach vacation those countries where the average daily (attention – not daily, but average daily) temperature in the place and during the rest period does not exceed 30.5 degrees Celsius.

Pregnant women should choose for a beach holiday those countries where the average daily (not daily, but average daily) temperature during the vacation does not exceed 30.5 degrees Celsius

It is definitely not worth choosing a country for a vacation for pregnant women where there is a risk of contracting giardiasis infections, and infectious diseases in general (Japanese encephalitis, Dengue, Zika fevers, etc.)). It should definitely be excluded from visiting countries in which it is recommended to pre-vaccinate (the list can be found on the Rospotrebnadzor website). Doctors strongly recommend that pregnant women not be vaccinated against any diseases – this can have fatal consequences for the child, since any vaccine passes through the placental barrier.

Thirdly, for pregnant women, in addition to the climate and food, one more factor should be taken into account when choosing a destination for rest: the availability and level of medicine in the country and in the hotel.During pregnancy, preference should be given to countries with developed medicine (at least in resorts), and when choosing a hotel, it is worth asking a travel agent if there is a doctor in the hotel (as a rule, he is in high-class hotels).

The choice of a pregnant woman in the first and second trimester, therefore, boils down to the following list of destinations: Russia, decent hotels in Turkey, Spain, Italy, Greece, Cyprus, Croatia, Bulgaria, Montenegro, Slovenia, Czech Republic. You can also go to the countries of the Persian Gulf (preferably to the developed emirates of the United Arab Emirates – Dubai and Abu Dhabi, or to Qatar), and carefully choosing a hotel, preferring high-level ones.

It is better to exclude the countries of Equatorial Africa, Southeast Asia and the Americas during pregnancy from your list because of the long flight, hot climate, unusual cuisine, the risk of infectious diseases, and in some cases, because of the need for vaccinations.


All is well and the pregnant tourist is at the beach resort. Summer and the beach mean sun, and doctors have their own advice here too. The sun, of course, brings the pregnant woman a positive (more endorphins are released), makes up for the vitamin D deficiency, which is typical for the inhabitants of northern countries.

Firstly, being in the sun and even swimming in the sea (due to the reflection of the sun’s rays from the water surface), pregnant women should be avoided from 12.00 to 16.00.

Secondly, and the rest of the time, you need to carefully consider protection from sunlight. “During pregnancy, a woman often has hyperpigmentation. Taking into account being in the sun while on vacation, there is a very high probability that age spots, freckles that appeared during pregnancy on open parts of the body will not disappear.Therefore, a pregnant woman needs to take protective equipment from the sun with her on vacation, with a protection factor of at least 50 – more is better. It is desirable that such a product contains vitamin E. And immediately after exposure to the sun, a special after-sun product should be applied, it will additionally moisturize the skin, ”says Natalya Badikova.

With you, a pregnant woman needs to take on vacation sun protection products with a protection factor of at least 50 – preferably more. It is desirable that the composition contains vitamin E

In particular, doctors consider such lines of protective equipment as Sanosan, Lierak, Uriage, from budgetary ones, for example, Garnier, to be well-proven means.But everything is individual, and in choosing the brand and, most importantly, the composition of the product, it is better to follow the advice of the attending gynecologist.

Gynecologists strongly recommend that tourists take a closed swimsuit to the beach, excluding direct sunlight on the abdomen. “It would also be very good to take a cap with a large visor or a hat with brims – to exclude exposure to the sun on the face, since the risks of the appearance of age spots in pregnant women are very high,” advises Dr. Natalya Badikova.


Pregnant women can safely swim in the sea if it is warm and comfortable for a woman. Duration of stay in it – until the first moment when the pregnant woman feels “chill”. Another tip – it is undesirable for pregnant women to stay in a wet swimsuit for a long time. At the first uncomfortable sensations, it is better to change clothes, and therefore take more than one set with you.

At the same time, experts say, the sea for pregnant women is definitely preferable to the pool.

“Excessively chlorinated water in some pools can lead to changes in the microflora of the vagina, and as a result – to bacterial vaginosis or inflammation of the specified area,” says Natalia Badikova. After the pool, it is also better for a pregnant woman to perform external (only external!) Treatment of intimate parts with miramistin or similar means.


It is better to leave the food ration in the hotel the same, close to the set of products that a woman eats at home, doctors say.This is an executable advice, especially with the “all inclusive” system – the buffet at the hotel allows you to choose almost any type of food.

Nevertheless, there are restrictions: for example, any carbonated drinks should be excluded, instead of green tea it is better to drink black tea. And any exotic products for us, including southern fruits and vegetables, should be added to the diet gradually, in small portions, starting from 3-4 days of vacation.

“You shouldn’t eat more than two unusual fruits a day (for example, mango).If we are talking about freshly squeezed juices, then this is a substitute for fruits (or fruits – or juices from them). Such juices should be drunk strictly after meals, not on an empty stomach, in order to avoid increased secretion of hydrochloric acid and heartburn, ”explains the doctor Badikova.


The tourist found out about her pregnancy while she was on vacation, and she will have a return flight. This happens. If there are no disturbing moments (bleeding, pain, etc.)) – you do not need to contact your local doctor. What should be done already during this period?

Doctors advise in this case to immediately change the diet to a more fractional one, exclude alcohol, coffee, smoking (if there is such a habit), and include more meat, fish, chicken in the diet. At the same time, it is necessary to limit the consumption of bright orange and red vegetables and fruits – so as not to form an allergic syndrome.

As for the transfer to the airport and the flight itself, a pregnant woman in the early stages must be excluded from lifting weights.

Photos provided by pixabay.com

90,000 Menu for a trip for 3 days – example, menu for dishes, tips

When planning a hike, it is imperative to calculate as accurately as possible how much food you need to take with you. The correct calculation of nutrition will allow you to take as much food as tourists can eat during the hike, since if there is a lack of food, you can stay hungry at the end of the trip, and if there is an excess, you can drag an extra load on yourself, which is quite difficult in field conditions.

To compose a menu for a 3-day hike, first you need to determine what foods are recommended to take with you so that they are nutritious, but at the same time do not take up much space in the backpack and do not burden it.

Composition of the menu for a hike for 3 days

There are several recommendations for the composition of the menu for a 3-day hike, which will help to reduce the total weight of the layout, but without reducing the number of products:

  • instead of stew, take freeze-dried meat or mushrooms,

  • instead of fresh vegetables, you can also take dried or freeze-dried,

  • Ditch glass and cans in favor of lighter materials (e.g. plastic containers),

  • when choosing snacks, give preference to more high-calorie bars, bread, liver,

  • for ease of use and accurate counting of food items, each meal can be packed and labeled (eg “Breakfast, day 1”),

  • Select a safety manager – he should have a small additional supply of food, even if the trip is planned for several days.

It is necessary to plan a menu for a hike for 3 days, taking into account the needs of the body. So, on a hike, a tourist needs to regularly replenish stocks of nutrients and water:

  1. Carbohydrates – quickly absorbed and replenishes energy requirements. There are fast (chocolate, cookies, fruit) and complex (oatmeal, brown rice).

  2. Protein is essential for muscle function and can be obtained from meat and legumes.

  3. It is recommended to consume unsaturated (vegetable) fats during the hike, since animal fats are poorly absorbed during physical exertion.

  4. Vitamins. During the hike, the immune and cardiovascular systems have an urgent need for vitamin C, so lemon tea will not be superfluous.

  5. Water. Of course, water is just as important as food. Under conditions of physical exertion, the need for fluid is higher than during normal life, so women cannot do without 2 liters of water per day, and men may need 3 liters.With a lack of water in the body, fainting may occur.

Menu for a 3-day hike

After we figured out what to eat during the hike, you can make a hiking menu for 3 days. Example:

Day 1. Breakfast

Oatmeal with dried apricots (350.6 kcal) + cranberry-coconut energy bar (434 kcal / 100 g).

As part of a freeze-dried breakfast: oatmeal, raisins, dried apricots and milk powder. This breakfast leaves you feeling full for several hours and energizes for the whole day.


Pea soup with pork (315.2 Kcal) + naval noodles (330 Kcal) + Carpathian tea with snacks. For a few hours of the hike, the energy supply is wasted, so it must be replenished with a hearty, but not heavy lunch.

For those who do not eat meat, you can create a vegetarian menu. So, at lunchtime you can eat a soup-puree with mushrooms (364 Kcal) + bulgur with vegetables in Turkish (313.6 Kcal). This lunch option will also be quite satisfying.


Buckwheat porridge with beef (331 Kcal) + dried fruits (297.7 Kcal) + Carpathian tea.Such a dinner will satisfy the feeling of hunger, but at the same time it will not overload the stomach, and the food will be quickly absorbed.

In the vegetarian menu, porridge with beef can be replaced with mushroom risotto (299 Kcal).

Day 2. Breakfast

Corn porridge with chia seeds and poppy seeds (355.9 Kcal) + Zhvavakava coffee + Mint-date energy bar (355 Kcal / 100 g).


Menu with meat: pork borscht (289 Kcal) + Moroccan couscous with beef (324 Kcal) + Carpathian tea.

Menu without meat: soup-puree with mushrooms (364 Kcal) + pea puree with sesame seeds (344.3 Kcal) + tea.


Mashed potatoes with pork (351.4 Kcal) + Carpathian tea for lovers of meat products. And buckwheat porridge with seaweed (345.3 Kcal) + Carpathian tea for vegetarians. For snacks, you can take nuts with raisins (437 Kcal / 100 g).

Day 3. Breakfast

Banana porridge (426.2 Kcal) + coffee + energy bar with currants (387.5 Kcal / 100 g).


Georgian Kharcho with beef (318 Kcal) + rice porridge with pork (323 Kcal). Or noodles with mushrooms (282.8 Kcal) for those who do not eat meat.


Buckwheat porridge with beef (311 Kcal) + Carpathian tea + dried fruits (297.7 Kcal / 100 g). In the menu without meat, you can include bulgur with vegetables in Turkish (313.6 Kcal) + tea + dried fruits.

Do not forget about snacking on halts and while driving. For such cases, you can stock up on energy bars with different flavors.This will make your menu more varied and nutritious, since 100 g of the product contains 300-400 Kcal. In addition, snacks are indispensable if you are going on a hike with children – they need to replenish their energy reserves more often than adults.

Pediatric neurologist Euromed Clinic answers questions

The neurologist is one of the main specialists for children from birth. For the first time, your baby meets with a pediatric neurologist in the hospital, then scheduled examinations by this doctor are carried out a month, at three, at six months, at 9 months (if indicated), a year.We talked with Natalya Petrovna Isayenko, a pediatric neurologist at EuroMed Clinic, about why a child is so often shown to a specialist, what are the most common neurological diseases in babies and what needs to be done to make your child grow up healthy and calm.

– Natalya Petrovna, what does a neurologist pay attention to during routine examinations of babies?

– First of all, the neurologist identifies gross congenital anomalies.Next, we look at how the child’s pre-speech, motor, and emotional development goes.

At each age period, the child must have certain skills. Parents, unlike a neurologist, most often cannot objectively assess how much their child’s development fits into age norms.

– But all children are different, and their development may not correspond to the tables and established frameworks?

– Yes, it happens. Here you have to approach very individually.Indeed, despite the fact that we are guided by existing norms, we have certain tables, painted schemes, what a child should do at what age, there is a possibility of deviations from them, and this is not scary. Some child may begin to perform certain actions a little earlier, some – a little later. Much also depends on the conditions in which the child lives, what the parents do in relation to the child, etc.

But that is why it is important to consult a neurologist in order to professionally assess whether the child is developing normally or there are frightening moments that may indicate certain health problems.

– Is it normal for a small child to cry often?

– Recently, it is believed that a healthy child, when he is full, who has enough day and night sleep, should not cry. If the child cries often and for no reason, then there is a problem. These can be headaches, neck problems (subluxation, infringement), neurological problems. In the first months of life – problems with the gastrointestinal tract: colic, increased gas production, etc.In this regard, there may be crying during meals, refusal to breast, from a bottle. During meals, intestinal peristalsis increases, and therefore the child experiences discomfort.

Young children are usually very weather dependent and react to the weather – this can also cause crying.

It seems to me that many children cry because they are bored, they so require parental attention. Now children are experiencing psychological acceleration and, accordingly, they need more attention.This is usually clearly visible. Many parents themselves provoke this fixation: the child cried, his mother took him on her arms, shook him, put him to her chest. Of course, the baby on the arms of the mother and, moreover, on the breast is good, and he will repeat crying, demanding repetition. It is not necessary to put it to the breast every time the child cries. Better to try to switch: distract, rattle with a rattle, stroke …

Another reason for crying is overwork. Parents often do not believe that a baby can be overworked, do not understand why.Babies have an immature nervous system, plus they receive a huge mass of new information and impressions every day – for them, everything in the world is new and unfamiliar! Therefore, a good sleep is so important, when the child can take a break from the impressions.

If a child screams before bedtime, sleeps a little, nervously, often wakes up, it is necessary to move the regime, improve sleep, monitor the quality of sleep.

– When we talk about proper sleep, what do we mean, how should a child sleep?

– For very young children, the norm is to sleep at least an hour and a half in the daytime sleep, six hours in a row – at night.During the adaptation period, in the first months of life, the baby may wake up at night more often, but still – the intervals should be at least 3 hours. Dreams of 30–40 minutes are not enough, the child does not have enough time to rest. Here the following moment is important: the child’s sleep phase is just these 30-40 minutes. But the child must be able to move from phase to phase independently. What happens in practice? The child fidgeted, opened his eyes, his mother immediately took him in her arms and began to feed him. He gets used to it and does not fall asleep on his own.Therefore, it is important to teach the child to move from phase to phase without waking up: do not touch him, if he wakes up, do not disturb; if he cried, became capricious – pump him up, stroke him, but try to make the child continue to sleep without a break for food.

Older children who sleep once a day should have 2–3 hours of nap during the day. Sleeping more is good.

Regime is important to get you to sleep. I recommend directly writing down in a notebook (or in an application on a smartphone) how much the child sleeps, the time when he fell asleep and woke up, when he screams before bed, what is his mood after sleep … So we can track the amount and quality of sleep.Look – on what days the child slept well, fell asleep easily – and focus on the daily routine.

– One of the common diagnoses that many children are given in the hospital is “neurogenic torticollis.” How serious is this problem?

– Neurogenic torticollis – asymmetry of muscle tone. A child is often born with asymmetric muscle tone. A small child does not yet have voluntary movements, they are chaotic. And at the moment of relaxation, sleep, the child is drawn to the place where the tone is increased.That is, the child lies with a certain turn of the head. If you do not deal with this problem, do not correct, there is a deformation of the neck and skull. The child constantly looks in one direction, lies on one side, as a result, the head flattens, its shape changes.

You can work with this, the main thing is to do it. What is done in order to correct torticollis and the consequences from it? We change the position, shift the child so that he lies on different sides alternately, and not on one, on his back.We spread it on the stomach. Also, for the correction of torticollis, therapeutic exercises, massage, and a swimming pool are recommended.

Torticollis returns to normal in the period from 3 to 6 months of a child’s life. During this period, the child becomes more active, turns his head, hands, begins to roll over, tries to crawl, sit down.

It is important not to confuse neurogenic torticollis, which neurologists deal with, with congenital muscle torticollis, a gross pathology treated by orthopedic doctors.

– Headaches in children – is it a reason to see a neurologist?

Yes, absolutely. Children under 5-6 years old should not have headaches – they are not yet ripe for this. In young children, headaches can be caused by somatic reasons: parasitosis, anemia, allergies, some problems from the gastrointestinal tract …

In older children, headaches can be triggered by problems in the spine of the neck. In puberty, various autonomic dysfunctions are often found.This is a common problem in adolescents.

In any case, it is imperative to be examined. There is a great chance that we will not find anything, and the headaches will go away over time. But this can also be a symptom of some serious diseases that should not be left to chance.

– Is nocturnal enuresis (urinary incontinence) common? When do we talk about this diagnosis?

– Yes, this is also a common disease. How is enuresis diagnosed after 3-4 years.

If we talk about developmental norms, by the age of one and a half, a child should learn not to urinate at night. A modern child is in disposable diapers for a period of time. Then they are removed. The first time of the night will be “wet”. But by the age of two, “dry nights” should have formed.

After that, some time passes – and the child begins to urinate again at night, say, at 4 years old. This is secondary enuresis.

If the diaper is removed, and the child continues to urinate at night, this is primary enuresis.

There are many reasons for enuresis: these are infectious diseases, and malformations, and dysfunctions of the genitourinary system, and immaturity of the nervous system, stress, neuroses, etc. In any case, this problem cannot be ignored, but you need to contact a neurologist as soon as possible for correction of this disease.

– Young children have seizures when the temperature rises. How dangerous is it?

Febrile seizures (that is, seizures when the body temperature rises) is a paradoxical reaction of the nervous system, the cerebral cortex to such an irritant as high temperature.Against this background, there is a splash. Febrile seizures can happen only once, or they can recur with every episode of fever. Most often, they are in emotional and active children. No special treatment is required, the main thing is to prevent the body temperature from rising above 37.5 ° C, to bring it down immediately with antipyretic drugs so that episodes of seizures do not recur. If necessary, the neurologist will recommend sedatives. Such children are monitored by a neurologist, it is recommended to see a doctor every six months.

– Can’t febrile convulsions be a sign of onset epilepsy?

As a rule, febrile convulsions do not have an outlet to epilepsy. There are isolated cases when seizures can really turn out to be the debut of epilepsy. Therefore, in any case, it is necessary to show the child to a neurologist so that the doctor can see in which direction it is developing.

– Is epilepsy common at all?

– Yes, epilepsy is a common disease.We, in Novosibirsk, even have a special center where epileptologists work – this is a very narrow specialization in neurology. When we confirm epilepsy in a child, I usually refer the patient to a specialized center. So there they will be able to help the baby with the highest quality, choose the right drugs and prescribe the correct treatment.

– What symptoms is it important for parents to pay attention to in order not to miss the onset of epilepsy in a child?

– As a rule, when an attack occurs, it is clearly visible.The child has convulsive twitching, the corner of the mouth twitches, muscles can pull, saliva flows, foam may come out of the mouth, he may wet himself. But it happens that a child with an attack simply freezes, and, for example, rubs his hands or makes chewing movements for some time. And then everything goes away. After an attack, headache, nausea, and impaired coordination and speech may occur.

Sometimes the first signs of epilepsy appear before the attack. For example, a child twitches during sleep.Or he simply changes his usual behavior, becomes obsessive, whiny, asks the same questions in a circle, etc. This is due to the neurological changes that occur with epilepsy.

Thus, if you notice changes in the child’s behavior, he behaves unusual, strange, be sure to show the child to a neurologist!

If possible, I recommend filming the seizure on video – so it will be much easier for the doctor to understand what is happening with the child.

– Are there any sedatives that can be given to children?

– Hardly ever. Available medications can only be prescribed and given in hospitals. This is not practiced in outpatient treatment in neurological pediatrics.

With increased excitability and emotionality of the child, I usually propose to start from afar – to establish the daily routine, give the child the opportunity to actively move and fully relax, walk in the fresh air, etc.

All medications (vascular, nootropics, etc.) are prescribed strictly according to indications and cannot be taken without a doctor’s recommendation. The consequences of uncontrolled drug use can be neurological and behavioral problems in the future: hyperactivity, disinhibition, restlessness, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

– How common is attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children?

– Now this diagnosis is made very often.Although, it seems to me, we often attribute to ADHD what it is not: the characteristics of the child’s temperament and character, his activity or even pedagogical neglect …

There are many pathological hyperactivity, but there are still more stories with problems in the family and in the interaction of parents with a child.

– Another common disease is nervous tics. How are they treated?

– Yes, tics are very common. We treat both with medication, and – most importantly – by normalizing the regimen.For a “ticking” child, it is very important to have a good sleep, rest, minimizing TV, telephone, computer. It is very useful to send such children to sports clubs. As a rule, children suffering from a nervous tic are very emotional, temperamental, read a lot and sit at the computer. They have an emotional and informational overload. And the nervous system relieves tension, manifested by tics.

– Speaking of information overload, how do you feel about the early development that is so popular now?

– Badly.Any neurologist, I think, will agree with me. If a child is given a load inadequate for his age and development, this may result in quite serious problems in the future, up to and including psychiatric disorders. A child does not need all this early reading from the age of two, English from three and mathematics from five. The child should learn the world in a calm mode, it is important to stimulate his cognitive activity, but it is not necessary to stuff him with a huge amount of knowledge not for his age.

– What examinations are there for the diagnosis of neurological diseases?

– Electroencephalogram (EEG).Designed and created to record epi-activity – to confirm or exclude epilepsy, this is the main focus of this survey.

I also send children with speech and mental disorders to the EEG to see how all the cortical rhythms are formed – by age or not. This is corrected by age, over time. Classes with neuropsychologists, defectologists, the Tomatis method (a program for neuro-sensory stimulation) also help.

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).This is one of the most informative surveys.

We definitely refer to an MRI scan in order to understand the cause of the headaches, especially if the child complains of a headache when moving, when he starts jumping, running, actively moving.

Also, MRI is informative for epilepsy, the seizures of which cannot be treated. Then we look at the MRI to see if there is a vascular malformation (deviation from normal development) or other vascular defect. This can be the cause of seizures, and the problem is resolved with surgery.As a rule, after the operation, the child’s seizures stop.

MRI allows you to see the structure of the brain and blood vessels, assess the state of the structure, the presence of cysts, etc.

Computed tomography (CT). Typically, CT is done after an injury to look for blood in the affected area.

Ultrasound of the vessels of the neck. Headaches, disinhibition, attention deficit, speech delays can be caused by impaired blood flow through the vessels.Ultrasound allows you to diagnose this, as well as to see anatomical defects (C-shaped, S-shaped vascular course), anatomically malformed vessels, abnormal vascular discharge into the spinal column, vasoconstriction.

Neurosonography (NSG) – ultrasound of the brain. It is obligatory recommended as a screening (preventive examination) for all newborns. The NSG shows the structures of the brain, how all spheres are formed, the cavity system, ventricles, grooves, and the presence of fluid.In parallel with the NSG, dopplerometry is performed – we look at the blood flow of the vessels.

NSG is performed in the maternity hospital for children after complicated childbirth, and during the month, NSG is prescribed to absolutely everyone. NSH can show gross violations that need to be corrected as early as possible in order to minimize their impact on the development of the baby. In the first months of life, many developmental anomalies do not appear, until about 3-4 months they are well compensated, and then the child begins to lag behind in motor and mental development.That is why the NSG must be performed without fail, even if outwardly the child looks absolutely normal.

The doctor told how to get rid of drowsiness at work



    The doctor told how to get rid of drowsiness at work

    The doctor told how to get rid of drowsiness at work – RIA News, 28.11.2019

    The doctor told how to get rid of sleepiness at work

    A quarter of patients who go to doctors complain of daytime sleepiness.Most often we are talking about elementary lack of sleep, when you just need a normal … RIA Novosti, 28.11.2019

    2019-07-02T08: 00

    2019-07-02T08: 00

    2019-11-28T16: 25


    first MGMU named after Sechenov

    Mikhail Poluektov

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    MOSCOW, July 2 – RIA Novosti, Tatyana Pichugina. A quarter of patients visiting doctors complain of daytime sleepiness. Most often we are talking about basic lack of sleep, when you just need a normal rest. But if there is no way to afford it yet? RIA Novosti tells how to cope with a sleepy state and distinguish it from fatigue. Sleep Mechanics In the evening, when there is less sunlight, the visual neurons gradually calm down, and a chain of chemical reactions starts in the brain, leading to the synthesis of the hormone melatonin.Once in the blood, it quickly spreads to all organs of the body, inhibits hormonal processes. At night, the level of melatonin in the blood is maximum, the body is asleep. In the morning, the brain gradually stops producing the hormone, the visual neurons wake up, and behind them the whole body. Sleep is necessary to restore the functioning of the body, mainly the brain and the entire nervous system. If a person slept little, during the day he will not be in the best shape: difficulties will arise with concentration of attention, speed of reaction. Lethargy, slowness will be noticeable.The transitional state between sleep and wakefulness is called drowsiness. A person is susceptible to it, barely waking up or late in the evening, when it’s time to go to bed. This is something like a feeling of hunger that quickly passes if you eat on time and well. For example, a long flight across several time zones, shift work in which the cycle of day and night gets lost, a hangover, a violation of meal times, taking certain medications, excessive caffeine intake, apnea (breathing disorder), or other diseases and conditions.More often than not, people deprive themselves of sleep because of entertainment or household chores. “A healthy person is recommended to sleep seven to nine hours. Usually on weekdays, people sleep less and get enough sleep at the end of the week, but on weekends it is impossible to fully compensate for the lost sleep,” – comments RIA Novosti Mikhail Poluektov, associate professor of the Department of Nervous Diseases and Neurosurgery of the First Moscow State Medical University named after I. M. Sechenova, Head of the Sleep Medicine Department of the University Clinical Hospital No. 3, Candidate of Medical Sciences. According to the scientist, sleepiness is the ability to really fall asleep.If a person says that he is sleepy, but does not fall asleep when he has the opportunity, then this is fatigue. “You can measure the level of sleepiness with a multiple sleep latency test – during the day, a person is put to bed five times at intervals of two hours, and then the time to fall asleep is averaged. Normally, in the absence of sleepiness, people in such conditions fall asleep in ten or more minutes. If this figure is less , then their sleepiness is real, “Poluektov explains. If in this test a person falls asleep after five minutes, they talk about pathological lack of sleep.As Vladimir Kovalzon writes in the book “Fundamentals of Somnology”, this is observed in anesthesiologists on duty or patients with sleep apnea. After a sleepless night, a person is knocked out in two minutes. Sleep occurs just as quickly in patients with narcolepsy. What to do if you really want to sleep during the day? According to Mikhail Poluektov, short power naps are recommended in such situations. They can also be organized at work. “Oddly enough, ultra-short falling asleep – ten minutes each – has the maximum positive effect on attention.If the sleep lasts more than half an hour, then after waking up, the indicators may even worsen (sleep inertia) “, – he clarifies. caffeine. This natural psychostimulant substance is found in coffee, tea, cocoa. Its synthetic analogue is added to many over-the-counter medicines: for headaches, colds, allergies. “Caffeine really reduces sleepiness,” confirms Mikhail Poluektov.Various experimental studies have shown that it improves thought processes, attention, reaction time, psychomotor functions, and memory. Energy drinks, which often contain a high dose of caffeine, are even more invigorating. But the cardiovascular system suffers from them. Therefore, it is better to resort to other methods. “It has been shown that physical activity significantly reduces drowsiness. And it should be remembered that the tendency to sleep changes cyclically with a period of about one and a half hours. This means that if you want to sleep now, then after 30-40 minutes drowsiness itself can go away if” debt sleep “is not very great” – the scientist emphasizes.When to Change Your Lifestyle or Get Treatment From ten to 25 percent of people who turn to somnologists complain of this condition. It is rather difficult to investigate it, because there is a lot of subjective in it. Daytime sleepiness may indicate an illness if the person experiences it every day for a month or longer. It often accompanies depression, migraines, and alcoholism. Scientists have found that among high school students and students, daytime sleepiness has become more common.Some attribute this to an excessive fascination with gadgets, messengers, which are activated even at night. There was also a positive relationship between the increase in daytime sleepiness and the consumption of caffeine. However, which of this is the cause, and which is the effect, remains to be understood.





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    First Moscow State Medical University named after Sechenov, Mikhail Poluektov

    MOSCOW, July 2 – RIA Novosti, Tatyana Pichugina. A quarter of patients visiting doctors complain of daytime sleepiness. Most often we are talking about basic lack of sleep, when you just need a normal rest.But if there is no way to afford it yet? RIA Novosti tells how to cope with a sleepy state and distinguish it from fatigue.

    Sleep Mechanics

    In the evening, when there is less sunlight, the visual neurons gradually calm down, and a chain of chemical reactions starts in the brain, leading to the synthesis of the hormone melatonin. Once in the blood, it quickly spreads to all organs of the body, inhibits hormonal processes.

    At night, the level of melatonin in the blood is maximum, the body is asleep.In the morning, the brain gradually stops producing the hormone, the visual neurons wake up, and behind them the whole body.

    Sleep is necessary to restore the functioning of the body, mainly the brain and the entire nervous system. If a person slept little, during the day he will not be in the best shape: difficulties will arise with concentration of attention, speed of reaction. Lethargy, slowness will be noticeable.

    The transitional state between sleep and wakefulness is called drowsiness. A person is susceptible to it, barely waking up or late in the evening, when it’s time to go to bed.It’s a kind of hunger that goes away quickly if you eat well on time.

    21 November 2018, 08:00 Science Sleep off at the weekend? Scientists have explained why it is dangerous

    Take a short nap

    In order for a person, as a daytime creature, to experience sleepiness during daylight hours, specific conditions are needed that shorten the sleep time. For example, a long flight across several time zones, shift work in which the cycle of day and night gets lost, a hangover, a violation of meal times, taking certain medications, excessive caffeine intake, apnea (breathing disorder), or other diseases and conditions.More often than not, people deprive themselves of sleep because of entertainment or household chores.

    “A healthy person is recommended to sleep seven to nine hours. Usually on weekdays, people sleep less and get enough sleep at the end of the week, but on weekends it is impossible to fully compensate for the lost sleep”, – comments to RIA Novosti Mikhail Poluektov, associate professor of the Department of Nervous Diseases and Neurosurgery at the First Moscow State Medical University IM Sechenov, Head of the Sleep Medicine Department of the University Clinical Hospital No. 3, Candidate of Medical Sciences.

    According to the scientist, sleepiness is the ability to actually fall asleep. If a person says that he is sleepy, but does not fall asleep when he has the opportunity, then this is fatigue.

    12 June 2019, 08:00

    Burned out at work: now it’s a disease. Is it possible to cure her?

    “You can measure the level of sleepiness with the multiple sleep latency test – during the day, a person is put to bed five times at intervals of two hours, and then the time to fall asleep is averaged. Normally, in the absence of sleepiness, people in such conditions fall asleep for ten minutes or more.If this figure is less, then their sleepiness is real “, – Poluektov explains.

    If in this test a person falls asleep after five minutes, they talk about pathological lack of sleep. As Vladimir Kovalzon writes in the book” Fundamentals of Somnology “, this is observed in duty anesthesiologists or patients with sleep apnea. After a sleepless night, a person is knocked out in two minutes. Just as quickly sleep occurs in patients with narcolepsy.

    What to do if you really want to sleep during the day? According to Mikhail Poluektov, in such situations, short sleep breaks (power naps).They can also be organized at work.

    “Oddly enough, ultra-short falling asleep has the maximum positive effect on attention – ten minutes each. If the sleep lasts more than half an hour, then after waking up the indicators may even worsen (sleep inertia)”, – he clarifies.

    September 9, 2018, 05:32 Therefore, in order to cheer up, people resort to the help of caffeine.This natural psychostimulant substance is found in coffee, tea, cocoa. Its synthetic analogue is added to many over-the-counter medicines: for headaches, colds, allergies.

    “Caffeine really reduces sleepiness,” confirms Mikhail Poluektov.

    Various experimental studies have shown that it improves thought processes, attention, reaction time, psychomotor functions, and memory.

    Energy drinks, which often contain a large dose of caffeine, are even more invigorating.But the cardiovascular system suffers from them. Therefore, it is better to resort to other methods.

    “It has been shown that physical activity significantly reduces drowsiness. And it should be remembered that the tendency to sleep changes cyclically with a period of about one and a half hours. This means that if you want to sleep now, then after 30-40 minutes drowsiness can go away by itself if “The sleep debt” is not very large, “the scientist emphasizes.

    When to change your lifestyle or get treatment

    There is a large body of scientific research on daytime sleepiness.