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Is gerd an autoimmune disease: Upper gastrointestinal symptoms in autoimmune gastritis


IBS, GERD, Celiac Disease – Acupuncture Balanced Health

BS, GERD and celiac disease are all types of gastrointestinal diseases or disorders that can be debilitating and affect quality of life and the ability to function normally. People with these conditions can benefit from treatment with acupuncture. Here’s what you need to know about each of these conditions and about treating them with acupuncture.


IBS, also known as irritable bowel syndrome or spastic colon, is a digestive disorder that affects the large intestine. It is a chronic condition and can present with a broad range of symptoms, including diarrhea, constipation, gas, bloating, pain and discomfort.

Some people with IBS find that they tend to have diarrhea (IBS D), while others have constipation (IBS C), while some have varying bouts of both.

There’s no definitive known cause of IBS, but stress, poor diet and lifestyle can all be contributing factors. Most treatment programs include lifestyle changes.

The good news for people with IBS is that while this inflammatory disease is unpleasant and can be tough to live with, there’s no evidence of a link to more serious conditions like colon cancer. When the disorder is well managed, people with IBS will enjoy long and normal lives.


GERD, or gastroesophageal reflux disorder, is a disorder that affects the ring of muscle known as the lower esophageal sphincter, which usually keeps digestive acid from traveling from the stomach into the throat.

In people with GERD, this sphincter does not function properly, allowing gas and liquid from the stomach to travel back up the esophagus rather than staying put where it should be. This results in heartburn, pain, and an unpleasant bitter taste, among other symptoms.

GERD may be caused by a temporary change in lifestyle, such as pregnancy, or it may be a long-term condition. In either case, treatment is often lifestyle related and may include dietary changes, antacids to neutralize stomach acids and, in some extreme cases, surgical intervention.

Celiac Disease

Celiac disease is a much more serious condition than GERD or IBS, in that it is an autoimmune disease, which means that the body’s immune system is confused and attacks itself under certain conditions. For people with celiac disease, this happens when they consume gluten.

People with celiac disease often suspect they have less serious conditions like IBS, because many of the symptoms (gas, bloating, abdominal discomfort) are similar, but people with celiac disease will also experience rashes, anemia, musculoskeletal symptoms and even seizures.

There are also numerous secondary conditions associated with celiac disease, including diabetes, lupus, osteoporosis and certain types of cancer.

Treatment for celiac disease always includes a completely gluten-free diet, and some patients whose intestine is too damaged to absorb nutrients properly may also require intravenous nutritional supplements.

The good news is that in spite of the popularity of the anti-gluten movement, celiac disease is very rare, and only a tiny percentage of the population has it.

Acupuncture and Gastrointestinal Diseases

Acupuncture has been used for millennia to treat gastrointestinal disorders, and it can help alleviate some of the pain and discomfort people with these conditions experience. Since many of these disorders are chronic, it’s important to seek lifestyle treatment options like this to make the associated long-term health issues easier to manage. Speak to your doctor or a trained acupuncturist to find out if you could benefit.




Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease Symptoms, Diagnosis & Treatment


Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a digestive disorder that occurs when acidic stomach juices, or food and fluids back up from the stomach into the esophagus. GERD affects people of all ages—from infants to older adults.

People with asthma are at higher risk of developing GERD. Asthma flare-ups can cause the lower esophageal sphincter to relax, allowing stomach contents to flow back, or reflux, into the esophagus. Some asthma medications (especially theophylline) may worsen reflux symptoms.

On the other hand, acid reflux can make asthma symptoms worse by irritating the airways and lungs. This, in turn, can lead to progressively more serious asthma. Also, this irritation can trigger allergic reactions and make the airways more sensitive to environmental conditions such as smoke or cold air.

Symptoms & Diagnosis


Everyone has experienced gastroesophageal reflux. It happens when you burp, have an acid taste in your mouth or have heartburn. However, if these symptoms interfere with your daily life it is time to see your physician.

Other symptoms that occur less frequently but can indicate that you could have GERD are:

•    Acid regurgitation (retasting your food after eating)

•    Difficulty or pain when swallowing

•    Sudden excess of saliva

•    Chronic sore throat

•    Laryngitis or hoarseness

•    Inflammation of the gums

•    Cavities

•    Bad breath

•    A recurrent or chronic cough

•    Chest pain (seek immediate medical help)


Several tests may be used to diagnose GERD including:

•    X-ray of the upper digestive system

•    Endoscopy (examines the inside of the esophagus)

•    Ambulatory acid (pH) test (monitors the amount of acid in the esophagus)

•    Esophageal impedance test (measures the movement of substances in the esophagus)

Treatment & Management

If you have both GERD and asthma, managing your GERD will help control your asthma symptoms.

Studies have shown that people with asthma and GERD saw a decrease in asthma symptoms (and asthma medication use) after treating their reflux disease.

Lifestyle changes to treat GERD include:

•    Elevate the head of the bed 6-8 inches

•    Lose weight

•    Stop smoking

•    Decrease alcohol intake

•    Limit meal size and avoid heavy evening meals

•    Do not lie down within two to three hours of eating

•    Decrease caffeine intake

•    Avoid theophylline (if possible)

Your physician may also recommend medications to treat reflux or relieve symptoms. Over-the-counter antacids and h3 blockers may help decrease the effects of stomach acid. Proton pump inhibitors block acid production and also may be effective.

In severe and medication intolerant cases, surgery may be recommended.

Find out more about asthma.

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understand the complex and complete list of diseases

Learn more about what autoimmune diseases are. The article presents a list of common diseases and their manifestations. Everything is explained in simple terms.

Every person is faced with diseases. Someone takes them away from their thoughts for a moment, and someone fights them for many years. Autoimmune disease is one of the types of diseases when not the body is alkalized, but our immune system.

By remembering how our immune response works, the topic of such diseases becomes more understandable. Normally, our immune system recognizes and attacks infections and foreign substances that could harm the body. However, in the case of autoimmune diseases, it ceases to distinguish its own cells from those of others and begins to attack its own body.

“According to this issue, patients do not initially realize that they have an autoimmune disease, since the first signs may appear as normal symptoms such as fatigue, rashes or stomach problems. «

As for the symptoms of each individual disease, it depends on which part of the body is attacked. Some types of diseases affect the skin, others affect the joints, and others manage to damage pneumonia, the eyes, and other organs. Below is a list of some of the most common autoimmune diseases.

Autoimmune diseases: what is it?

Autoimmune diseases are a group of diseases in which the body’s immune system mistakenly starts attacking and destroying its own healthy tissues and organs, perceiving them as hostile. Serious and even dangerous health consequences can result from such attacks.

Autoimmune diseases can affect various tissues and organs of the body, such as the skin, joints, thyroid gland, pancreas, intestines, bladder, etc. Patients with autoimmune diseases often experience symptoms associated with inflammation and deformity of the affected tissues and organs, such as pain, swelling, redness, impaired movement, etc.

Among the most common autoimmune diseases are rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, Hashimoto’s thyroiditis, Sögren’s syndrome, celiac disease, type 1 diabetes mellitus, systemic sclerosis, etc. Their total number can reach several dozen different types, which may have similar symptoms, but differ in their specific manifestation and treatment.

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Autoimmune diseases: definition and essence of the problem

Autoimmune diseases are a group of pathologies in which the human immune system attacks its own tissues and organs, believing them to be foreign objects. The process of development of autoimmune diseases is associated with an imbalance in the system of immunoregulation – the control of the immune system. As a result of this attack on one’s own tissues, inflammatory processes occur, which can lead to disturbances in the functioning of human organs and systems.

Common autoimmune diseases include: rheumatoid arthritis, dry eye, systemic lupus erythematosus, Crohn’s disease, Addison’s disease, Hashimoto’s thyroiditis and many others.

Autoimmune diseases can appear at any age and symptoms typically include inflammation, pain, swelling, fatigue and fever. If you suspect such a disease, you should consult a rheumatologist, immunologist or other specialist.

Autoimmune diseases do not have clear causes, but the most common risk factors are genetic predisposition, immune system disorders, and some external factors such as infections or stress. The treatment of such diseases requires an integrated approach and depends on the general condition of the patient, the form of the disease and other factors.

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Examples of autoimmune diseases in the human body

Autoimmune diseases can affect various organs and systems of the human body. Consider some of them:

  • Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic inflammatory disease that affects the joints and can lead to their deformity.
  • Systemic lupus erythematosus is a disease in which the immune system attacks the connective tissue of the body, leading to inflammation of blood vessels, joints and other organs.
  • Chronic autoimmune hepatitis is a chronic inflammatory liver disease in which the immune system attacks liver cells.
  • Systemic scleroderma is a chronic disease that causes inflammation and damage to the connective tissue of the skin, joints and internal organs.

These are just a few of the many autoimmune diseases that can occur in the human body. The treatment for each of them can vary, so it is important to seek the help of a doctor and get individual advice and treatment according to the diagnosis.

Causes and development of autoimmune diseases

Autoimmune diseases occur when the immune system mistakenly begins to attack its own cells and tissues, mistaking them for hostile ones. At the moment, the causes of this process remain unknown, but there are a number of factors that can predispose to the development of autoimmune diseases.

Hereditary factors play a significant role in the occurrence of autoimmune diseases. If close relatives have such diseases, then the person has an increased risk of developing them.

External influences can also influence the occurrence of autoimmune diseases. It can be any infection, toxic substances, stress, changes in hormonal balance.

Often the appearance of the first signs of autoimmune diseases is associated with dysfunction of the gastrointestinal tract. Excessive presence of bacteria, fungi, viruses in the intestine leads to its damage and disruption of the protective function. As a result, parts of microorganisms penetrate into the blood and cause the appearance of specific pathogenic antibodies.

Treatment of autoimmune diseases: basic methods

Basic principles of treatment of autoimmune diseases

Treatment of autoimmune diseases is aimed at reducing the activity of the immune system by suppressing inflammation and reducing the formation of antibodies.

The main goals in the treatment of autoimmune diseases are:

  • Reducing symptoms;
  • Slowing the progression of the disease;
  • Stopping the processes leading to the destruction of tissues and organs;
  • Maintenance of remission;
  • Improving the quality of life of patients.

Primary treatments for autoimmune diseases

Treatment for autoimmune diseases may include a variety of treatments and medications that will be prescribed depending on the specific disease and its severity. The main treatments for autoimmune diseases include:

  1. Glucocorticosteroids are drugs that reduce inflammation in the body;
  2. Immunosuppressants – drugs that suppress the activity of the immune system and reduce the progression of the disease;
  3. Immunosuppressive drugs – drugs that reduce the amount of expression of genes responsible for the activation of immunity;
  4. Interleukin inhibitors – drugs that can stop the development of autoimmune diseases associated with interleukin-6 dysfunction;
  5. Biologicals – drugs based on genetic engineering technologies and aimed at reducing the activity of immune system components that are involved in the development of autoimmune diseases.

The treatment of autoimmune diseases is lengthy and requires constant monitoring by a doctor. With proper treatment and compliance with all the recommendations of patients, a significant improvement in the quality of life can be achieved.

Prognosis and opportunities for a fulfilling life in autoimmune diseases


Autoimmune disease prognosis ranges from moderate to severe. Some autoimmune diseases can be easily controlled with medication, while others can be life-threatening. Prognosis directly depends on the type of disease, its stage and the presence of complications. Early medical attention and proper treatment significantly improve the prognosis of autoimmune diseases.

Opportunities for a fulfilling life

Although autoimmune diseases can significantly limit life and the ability to perform certain activities, there are certain opportunities for achieving a fulfilling life. In addition to medical treatment, lifestyle changes can significantly affect the health and well-being of a patient with an autoimmune disease. This may include proper nutrition, regular physical activity, adequate rest, stress management, and avoidance of certain habits such as smoking and drinking alcohol.
Also, an important part of a fulfilling life is the support of family, friends and medical staff. Patients with autoimmune diseases can face many challenges, including physical and emotional ones. This can lead to depression, anxiety, and feelings of loneliness. Support and understanding of those around you can help ease the burden on patients and improve their quality of life.
Table of possible limitations in daily activities caused by autoimmune diseases:

ActionPossible restrictions

Walking Joint pain can make walking painful or difficult. Progressive disease may lead to the use of crutches or a wheelchair.
Personal care Some patients may have difficulty performing independent activities such as dressing, bathing, and combing their hair.
Work Autoimmune diseases can cause poor performance and absenteeism. This may lead to a reduction in working hours, a change in position or dismissal.
Communication Avoidance of communication due to contagiousness, as well as associated depression and anxiety, can lead to social isolation of patients with autoimmune diseases.

Rheumatoid arthritis: how it manifests and what causes it

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic autoimmune disease, which is an inflammatory process in the joints and a violation of their functioning. In RA patients, there are complex changes in the body associated with the activity of the immune system and damage to the connective tissue. The main symptoms of RA are soreness, swelling and stiffness of the joints, which are especially evident in the morning and after prolonged immobilization (for example, in a sitting position at work).

RA is unique in that it is a chronic disease that can lead to critical impairments in the ability to move and communicate if left untreated. In addition, it is often accompanied by other symptoms such as loss of energy, loss of appetite, fever, and eye pain. The risk of getting RA increases with age and is 1-3% in the total number of diseases, and also has risk factors such as genetics, smoking and viruses.

  • Symptoms: soreness, swelling and stiffness of the joints, loss of strength, loss of appetite, fever and pain in the eye area.
  • Treatment: medications, physiotherapy and stress relief.
  • Prevention: smoking cessation, moderate alcohol consumption and a balanced diet.

Treatment for RA begins with taking steps to reduce joint inflammation and associated pain, swelling, and stiffness. This can be achieved in a variety of ways, such as medication, physical therapy, and stress relief. Preventive measures such as smoking cessation, moderate alcohol consumption, and a balanced diet can also help prevent the development of RA.

Type of drug Examples of drugs

Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs
Biologics Infliximab, adalimumab.
Chondroprotectors Chondroitin sulfate, glucosamine.

Given the severity and range of symptoms associated with RA, it is important to find the right treatment under the supervision of a specialist. This may include choosing certain medications, changing your diet, and adding special exercises to your exercise routine. At the moment, there is no method that would guarantee a complete cure for RA, but regular monitoring and treatment of identified symptoms can help control the disease and maintain a high quality of life.

Autoimmune Disorders: Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis

Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis is a chronic autoimmune thyroid disease in which the body’s immune system attacks and destroys thyroid cells, which can cause it to malfunction.

Among the main symptoms of Hashimoto’s thyroiditis are an increase in the level of iodine in the blood, an enlarged thyroid gland, metabolic disorders, fatigue, drowsiness, weight loss or gain, constipation, increased sensitivity to cold.

Diagnosis of Hashimoto’s thyroiditis, like other autoimmune diseases, can be done with blood tests for the presence of autoantibodies, which are usually necessary for the thyroid gland to work, but the immune system becomes aggressive on them.

The goal of treatment for Hashimoto’s thyroiditis is to reduce autoantibody levels, reduce thyroid inflammation, and restore thyroid function. Treatment may include medication, diet, lifestyle changes, and other methods.

Hashimoto’s thyroiditis is one of the most common autoimmune diseases that affects women much more often than men. It is often diagnosed in people between the ages of 30 and 50 and can occur on its own or in combination with other autoimmune diseases.

  • Important to know:
  • Hashimoto’s thyroiditis is not inherited, but some genes may influence the risk of developing it;
  • The thyroid gland plays an important role in the body, controlling metabolism, temperature, and other functions;
  • Factors that can increase the risk of Hashimoto’s thyroiditis include stress, viruses, bacteria, excess iodine, and others.

Systemic lupus erythematosus

Systemic lupus erythematosus is a chronic autoimmune disease that can affect various organs and systems of the body, including the skin, lungs, kidneys, and cardiovascular system.

The main symptom of systemic lupus erythematosus is a red rash on the skin, which may be accompanied by itching and flaking of the skin. Joint pain, fever, fatigue, and hair loss may also occur.

Treatment of systemic lupus erythematosus includes the use of immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory drugs, as well as courses of glucocorticoids. Regular consultation with a rheumatologist and nutritionist can also help control symptoms and improve the patient’s quality of life.

It is important to note that systemic lupus erythematosus is not a hereditary disease, but patients with relatives who have an autoimmune disease may be at a higher risk of developing this disease than other people.

  • Rare symptoms may include:
    • Seizures
    • Breathing problems
    • Dry eyes
    • Memory loss
  • lupus erythematosus may involve intensive care and hospitalization.


Scleroderma is an autoimmune disease that affects connective tissue and can affect the skin, joints, internal organs, and blood vessels.

Patients with scleroderma experience thickening of the skin and discoloration, which can lead to dryness, itching and cracking. In addition, many suffer from painful joints and muscle weakness.

Internal organs such as the lungs, kidneys, heart, stomach and intestines can also be affected by scleroderma. This can lead to various problems such as difficulty breathing, high blood pressure, and decreased organ function.

There are two main types of scleroderma: localized and diffuse. Localized scleroderma is mostly limited to the skin and joints, while diffuse scleroderma is a more severe and rapidly progressive form that also affects internal organs.

  • Symptoms of scleroderma:
    1. Thickening and discoloration of the skin;
    2. Painful joints and muscle weakness;
    3. Difficulty breathing and high blood pressure;
    4. Low functionality of internal organs.

Treatment of scleroderma is symptomatic and possibly difficult due to its diversity. As a rule, patients are prescribed immunosuppressive drugs, as well as drugs aimed at reducing symptoms. In more severe cases, surgery or an organ transplant may be required.

Stevens-Johnson syndrome

Stevens-Johnson syndrome is a rare autoimmune disease that affects the skin and mucous membranes. It manifests itself as a scalding rash that can spread throughout the body, as well as swelling and redness of the eyes and mouth.

Symptoms of the syndrome can be caused by a variety of factors, including infections, medications, or other allergens. However, the exact cause of its occurrence is unknown.

Treatment of Stevens-Johnson syndrome includes discontinuation of offending medications and continued supportive care. In severe cases, hospitalization and treatment in intensive care may be necessary.

Stevens-Johnson Syndrome is a serious condition requiring immediate medical attention. It can have serious complications such as infections and organ damage. Therefore, maintaining a healthy lifestyle and monitoring health status are important steps to prevent the onset of this disease.


What is this disease?

Psoriasis is a chronic autoimmune disease that manifests itself in the form of dry skin, burning and itching, as well as the presence of red spots on the skin, covered with silvery-white scales.

In psoriasis, the immune system attacks the skin’s own cells, which leads to an increase in their number and the formation of so-called “psoriatic lesions”.

What are the symptoms of psoriasis?

  • Dry skin;
  • Burning and itching;
  • Presence of red spots on the skin covered with silvery white scales;
  • Spotted flaking;
  • Fissures and soreness in affected areas.

How to treat psoriasis?

Treatment of psoriasis depends on the severity and nature of the disease and may include the use of topical ointments and creams, laser therapy, systemic medications, and lifestyle changes to reduce stress and improve nutrition.

Other experimental treatments include skin moisturizing, phototherapy, and the use of biologics to block immune system activity.


What are autoimmune diseases?

Autoimmune disease is when the immune system attacks the body’s own tissues, mistaking them for the enemy.

What are autoimmune diseases?

There are more than 80 types of autoimmune diseases, including multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, Still’s syndrome, and others.

How do autoimmune diseases occur?

The causes of autoimmune diseases are still not fully understood, but their occurrence is influenced by genetic and environmental factors (viruses, bacteria, stress, etc.).

Can an autoimmune disease be cured?

Autoimmune diseases cannot be completely cured, but remission and improved quality of life can be achieved with treatment.

What symptoms accompany autoimmune diseases?

Symptoms of autoimmune diseases may vary depending on the disease, but fatigue, joint pain, skin rashes, digestive problems, etc. are common.

What treatments are used for autoimmune diseases?

Treatment for autoimmune disorders may include anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive drugs, physical therapy, diet, and lifestyle changes.

Autoimmune diseases – causes, symptoms, treatment, prevention

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A group of diseases in which the immune system begins to attack its own healthy cells and tissues is called autoimmune (AID). The Israeli clinic Hadassah Medical Moscow successfully uses unique comprehensive treatment programs that allow you to control the immune system and correct the patient’s condition. It keeps health and improves quality

the lives of our patients. Autoimmune diseases are an uprising of one’s own immunity against the body, when the immune system (IS) suddenly sees foreign agents in healthy cells and directs all its strength to fight them. Different systems and organs of the body can be affected, the most severe complications are the failure of the functioning of vital organs, multiple organ failure.

To date, the exact mechanisms of the occurrence of this condition have not been established, but modern medicine can offer successful treatment of symptoms, normalize the patient’s condition and prevent complications. The Hadassah Medical Moscow clinic uses the latest treatment methods and unique drugs that have proven themselves in the largest medical centers in Israel and Europe. Therefore, AID treatment here achieves better results than in other medical centers.

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Daria Grigoryevna

Allergist-immunologist, Ph.D.

Work experience: 14 years

Cost of admission: from 9000 ₽

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Galina Valerievna


Work experience: 10 years

Cost of admission: from 6500 ₽

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Benefits of treating autoimmune diseases at the Hadassah Clinic

International Standards for Treatment Programs

When determining the treatment regimen, we rely on the best examples of treatment algorithms from the experience of Israeli and European clinics. Each patient receives the maximum, so the result will be as positive as possible.

Medical councils

Each decision in treatment measures is taken collectively. Specialists organize consultations with Israeli colleagues, medical experts from abroad take part in the management of patients.

High-tech treatment and progressive technologies

The medical center is equipped with the most modern diagnostic and treatment equipment. We use high-tech methods of treatment, we use modern equipment to increase the effectiveness of the chosen medical tactics.

Unique drugs

Our clinic uses drugs that have shown their high efficiency in foreign clinics, but are not yet registered in Russia. You get world-class treatment without leaving the country.

Comprehensive treatment with coordination of all stages

We always monitor the results of treatment in dynamics, and, if necessary, adjust treatment tactics. The patient is treated by doctors of different specialties, so a look at a clinical case is not a private opinion of one doctor, but an objective assessment of a medical consultation. Specialists keep in touch with patients even after treatment, in order to monitor their health and correct possible deviations in time.

Healing environment

Within the walls of our clinic, patients feel easy, comfortable and convenient, because the whole interior is thought out to the smallest detail. Patients receive full attention, assistance and support from the staff, and if necessary, professional care.

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Autoimmune diseases – what is it?

AID is not one pathology, but a whole class of health disorders, which is characterized by a loss of tolerance to self antigens (AH). The exact mechanism of their origin is unclear, but many internal and external factors are known to be triggers for these conditions. Autoantibodies (autoantibodies) cause damage to organs and systems, because they are aimed at the destruction of autoantigens (autoAG) – substances of the body’s own cells, which are recognized by the immune system as foreign.

The consequences of this are organ or systemic pathological processes that occur under the influence of one’s own immunity, which has rebelled against native healthy cells.

This group is the most common among all known diseases – AIDs have 5-7% of the world’s population. The pathology affects people of any age and has a gender preference: there are twice as many women with this problem as men.

AID has a large number of nosological forms (about 100) and forms clinically severe complications with life-threatening consequences. Identification of such pathologies at an early stage will allow taking control over the pathological process and slowing it down, preventing severe and dangerous consequences.

Symptoms and signs of autoimmune diseases

Knowing what an autoimmune disease is, one can assume the multiplicity and non-specificity of symptoms characteristic of a large class of pathologies.
But there are some signs of AID that should be taken into account and consulted by doctors in time:

  • Problems with hair, nails, skin: severe hair loss, causeless skin reactions like allergic, rash, alopecia, baldness, itching, etc.
  • Inflammation of the joints, joint pain.
  • Problems with the functioning of the gastrointestinal tract.
  • Thyroid dysfunction.
  • Infertility, regular spontaneous abortions.
  • Thrombosis of blood vessels, varicose veins, trophic ulcers on the lower leg, convulsions, tremor of the extremities.
  • Weakness, fatigue.
  • In women – menstrual irregularities.
  • Abdominal pain.
  • Sudden weight loss or gain.
  • Bulimia.
  • Subfebrile body temperature.
  • Noticeable disorders of the psycho-emotional sphere.

Even before the appearance of obvious symptoms corresponding to the lesion of a certain organ, a person feels constant chilliness of the lower extremities, his skin is pale. There may be signs of pathologies of the heart and blood vessels, cold allergies.

Causes, risk factors

What is an autoimmune disease? In simple terms, this can be called the aggression of body cells against itself. The body seems to be fighting with itself, unable or having forgotten how to distinguish between foreign agents and its own cells.

This “promiscuity” of immunity is called immunological tolerance. It can be formed for the following reasons:

  • Incorrect intrauterine development of the fetus.
  • Violation of the vital activity of T and B lymphocytes responsible for actions against their own cells.
  • For unknown reasons, the protective mechanisms of organs and tissues are violated, as a result of which the immune system begins to attack them.
  • Impaired immune response.
  • Poor heredity, genetic predisposition.
  • Bacteria and viruses have formed an immune response, which is also directed against their own cells similar in proteins.
  • Pregnancy, when the cells of the fetus form an autoimmune reaction of the mother’s body, because they have the antigens of the father of the child.

There are several risk groups for AIDs in which, according to scientific research, pathological conditions occur more often:

  • Anyone who has had a bacterial or viral infection can acquire AIDs in the future.
  • Women are affected almost twice as often as men, so this is a gender-specific disease. In the vast majority of cases, the disease occurs during childbearing age, during pregnancy and after childbirth.
  • A hereditary regularity in the appearance of cases of pathologies has been discovered. For example, systemic lupus erythematosus, multiple sclerosis often have a family clinical picture.
  • People who regularly come into contact with toxins, harmful substances, get intoxicated, have a greater risk of developing autoimmune diseases.
  • Damage to tissue-blood barriers due to inflammation contributes to the risk of AID.

The favorite age of pathology is from 18 to 50 years.

To some extent, black, Hispanic, and Indian ethnic groups are also at risk because AID is more likely to affect their members.

Diagnosis of autoimmune diseases

The diagnostic program always starts with an anamnesis. The doctor clarifies information about hereditary pathologies, past infectious diseases, harmful factors at work, etc.

Medical examination of the body

is performed to assess the condition of the skin, lymph nodes, veins, the presence of a rash, venous pattern, livedo reticularis on the lower extremities, swelling of the joints, hematomas.

Immunofluorescent laboratory test for the detection of autoAT

which in a biological tissue (blood) sample will be isolated using fluorescent staining preparations.

Multicomplex blood test

helps to detect autoAT.

Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)

detecting autoAT or autoAG with quantitative assessment.

Solid-phase ELISA study

this method is accessible and easy to perform, and also has a quantitative format

Multicomplex analysis

a modern diagnostic method that aims to detect autoAT

To assess the work of internal organs, systems, registration of pathological foci and disorders, the following is performed:

  • Radiography.
  • MRI.
  • CT.
  • ultrasound.
  • Endoscopic diagnostics.

All survey results are assessed comprehensively. In case of ambiguous data, additional studies are performed. The patient is sent for a consultation to the doctors of narrow specializations to clarify the diagnosis.

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Treatment of autoimmune diseases

Examination and counseling of patients with AID is carried out by an immunologist, although the patient is managed by a specialized doctor corresponding to the group of diseases: nephrologist, cardiologist, dermatologist, endocrinologist, etc.

Is it possible to cure an autoimmune disease?

It is impossible to completely get rid of an autoimmune disease. The goal of treatment is to achieve long-term remission with constant complex therapy.

It may be thought that such an autoimmune disease progresses rapidly and is a variant of oncology. But no, modern medical methods and means can not only eliminate most of the unpleasant symptoms, alleviate the condition during periods of exacerbations, but also restore the patient’s ability to work, improve the quality of life. To do this, it is very important to consult a doctor in time and follow all the recommendations for diagnosis and treatment.

How to stop the autoimmune process in the body?

There is no universal cure for AID. However, there are methods that are most often used in treatment:

  • Antiparasitic, anti-infective therapy for the treatment of invasion and infections that are the trigger of pathology.
  • Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.
  • Painkillers.
  • Corticosteroid hormones.
  • Hormone replacement therapy (insulin for diabetes).
  • Immunosuppressants, cytostatics.
  • Immunomodulators.
  • TNF inhibitors.
  • Therapeutic exercise, physiotherapy, balneotherapy, diet therapy, vitamin therapy.

Surgical treatment is necessary in case of complications that can be corrected by radical methods: for example, elimination of intestinal obstruction in Crohn’s disease, kidney transplantation in case of organ failure, arthroplasty in case of joint damage.

This is interesting! Modern scientific research is aimed at studying gene and cell technologies. Donor stem cell transplantation has been shown to be effective in some diseases, such as Crohn’s disease, as well as beta-cell transplantation of the islets of Langerhans of the pancreas for the treatment of type 1 diabetes. It is likely that these technologies will soon be widely used in the treatment of autoimmune diseases.

Types of pathologies

AI pathology must be distinguished from the autoimmune syndrome, which is formed in a healthy body, is not a cause, but a consequence of diseases and is aimed at eliminating diseased, damaged cells. An autoimmune disease is precisely a disease that gives rise to other pathological processes.
Doctors distinguish three main groups of autoimmune diseases:

Organ-specific when auto-ATs are directed against one or more auto-AGs in the cells of a particular organ.

Diseases belonging to this group:

  • Hoshimoto’s thyroiditis;
  • b-n Addison, or bronze;
  • myasthenia gravis, or bulbar palsy;
  • thyrotoxicosis;
  • atrophic gastritis AI nature;
  • pemphigus vulgaris, or bullous dermatosis;
  • myocarditis;
  • multiple sclerosis;
  • pernicious anemia.

This group also includes pathological conditions: early onset of menopause in women, sympathetic ophthalmia, some forms of male infertility, uveitis.

Non-organ-specific , or systemic, in which auto-ATs are directed against substances located in different tissues and organs of the body.

List of autoimmune diseases:

  • rheumatoid arthritis;
  • scleroderma;
  • systemic lupus erythematosus;
  • Sjögren’s syndrome;
  • group of systemic vasculitis;
  • polymyositis;
  • Sarcoidosis.

Some diseases, such as celiac disease and chronic hepatitis, can be included in this and the next group.

Mixed that simultaneously have both mechanisms of action of autoAT.

These pathologies include:

  • mixed connective tissue disease;
  • type 1 diabetes mellitus;
  • ulcerative colitis;
  • biliary cirrhosis;
  • celiac disease;
  • Goodpasture’s syndrome;
  • AI bronchial asthma.

Pathology caused by the AI ​​reaction of the body, in some cases, may exist for a short time and disappear unexpectedly, but more often it has a chronic course and leads to severe complications in which a person cannot survive without constant medical care.

Preventive measures

There is no specific prevention of AI pathology. But in order to reduce the risks, all viral, bacterial infections, SARS should be completely cured.

You need to adjust your diet, bring your body weight back to normal, learn how to cope with stress. Affordable physical activity, moderate regular sports activity help a lot.

Prevention of relapses is the implementation of all medical recommendations and the proper organization of nutrition, lifestyle, and the rejection of bad habits.

AID treatment at Hadassah Clinic

Highly qualified doctors of the Israeli clinic Hadassah Medical Moscow select the optimal treatment program for each patient on an individual basis, taking into account the characteristics of his disease, comorbidities, age, and other factors.

Medicines and treatment methods used in our clinic are modern, effective and safe. Many of the methods and drugs are used only in the Hadassah clinic, because they are not yet registered in Russia.

Our patients achieve stable remission, positive results of complex maintenance therapy, if they follow the medical recommendations of expert doctors.

Text checked by an expert doctor

Daria Grigorievna

Allergist-immunologist, Ph. D.

Work experience: 14 years

Published: 06/22/2022

Updated: 06/22/2022

The information presented on the site is for reference and cannot serve as a basis for making a diagnosis or prescribing treatment. Internal consultation of the expert is necessary.


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