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Is magnesium oxide good: Health Benefits, Nutrients per Serving, Preparation Information, and More


magnesium oxide | Michigan Medicine

What is the most important information I should know about magnesium oxide?

Before you take magnesium oxide, tell your doctor about all your medical conditions or allergies, and all the medicines you are using. Also make sure your doctor knows if you are pregnant or breast-feeding. In some cases, you may not be able to take magnesium oxide, or you may need a dose adjustment or special precautions.

What is magnesium oxide?

Magnesium is a naturally occurring mineral. Magnesium is important for many systems in the body especially the muscles and nerves.

Magnesium oxide is used as a supplement to maintain adequate magnesium in the body.

Magnesium oxide is also used as an antacid to treat indigestion, or as a laxative to relieve occasional constipation.

Magnesium oxide may also be used for purposes not listed in this medication guide.

What should I discuss with my healthcare provider before taking magnesium oxide?

You should not use magnesium oxide if you are allergic to it.

Ask a doctor or pharmacist if it is safe for you to use this medicine if you have other medical conditions, especially:

  • kidney disease;
  • heart disease;
  • nausea, vomiting;
  • a blockage in your intestines;
  • low levels of calcium in your blood; or
  • a sudden change in bowel habits for 2 weeks or longer.

It is not known whether magnesium oxide will harm an unborn baby. Ask a doctor before using this medicine if you are pregnant.

It is not known whether magnesium oxide passes into breast milk or if it could affect a nursing baby. Ask a doctor before using this medicine if you are breast-feeding.

Do not give this medicine to a child without medical advice.

Magnesium oxide should not be given to a child younger than 6 years old.

How should I take magnesium oxide?

Use exactly as directed on the label, or as prescribed by your doctor. Do not use in larger or smaller amounts or for longer than recommended.

Take this medicine with a full glass of water.

When using this medicine as a laxative, it may be best to take your dose at bedtime.

Magnesium oxide may be taken with food if it upsets your stomach.

Call your doctor if your symptoms do not improve after 7 days of treatment, or if symptoms get worse.

Store at room temperature away from moisture and heat.

What happens if I miss a dose?

Since magnesium oxide is sometimes used when needed, you may not be on a dosing schedule. If you are on a schedule, take the missed dose as soon as you remember. Skip the missed dose if it is almost time for your next scheduled dose. Do not take extra medicine to make up the missed dose.

What happens if I overdose?

Seek emergency medical attention or call the Poison Help line at 1-800-222-1222.

Overdose symptoms may include nausea, vomiting, weakness, breathing problems, slow reflexes, weak pulse, extreme drowsiness, and feeling dizzy or light-headed.

What should I avoid while taking magnesium oxide?

Magnesium oxide can make it harder for your body to absorb other medicines you take by mouth. Avoid taking other medicines within 2 hours before or 2 hours after you take magnesium oxide. You may need to wait 4 hours to take your other medicines after taking magnesium oxide. Ask your doctor how to best schedule your medications.

What are the possible side effects of magnesium oxide?

Get emergency medical help if you have signs of an allergic reaction: hives; difficult breathing; swelling of your face, lips, tongue, or throat.

Stop using magnesium oxide and call your doctor at once if you have:

  • rectal bleeding;
  • coughing up blood or vomit that looks like coffee grounds;
  • bloody or tarry stools; or
  • no bowel movement after using magnesium oxide as a laxative.

Common side effects may include:

  • diarrhea; or
  • upset stomach.

This is not a complete list of side effects and others may occur. Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088.

What other drugs will affect magnesium oxide?

Ask a doctor or pharmacist if it is safe for you to take magnesium oxide if you are also using any of the following drugs:

  • an antibiotic;
  • a diuretic or “water pill”;
  • penicillamine;
  • a blood thinner –warfarin, Coumadin, Jantoven; or
  • medicine to treat osteoporosis or Paget’s disease –alendronate, ibandronate, risedronate, Fosamax, Boniva, Actonel, and others.

This list is not complete. Other drugs may interact with magnesium oxide, including prescription and over-the-counter medicines, vitamins, and herbal products. Not all possible interactions are listed in this medication guide.

Where can I get more information?

Your pharmacist can provide more information about magnesium oxide.

Remember, keep this and all other medicines out of the reach of children, never share your medicines with others, and use this medication only for the indication prescribed.

Every effort has been made to ensure that the information provided by Cerner Multum, Inc. (‘Multum’) is accurate, up-to-date, and complete, but no guarantee is made to that effect. Drug information contained herein may be time sensitive. Multum information has been compiled for use by healthcare practitioners and consumers in the United States and therefore Multum does not warrant that uses outside of the United States are appropriate, unless specifically indicated otherwise. Multum’s drug information does not endorse drugs, diagnose patients or recommend therapy. Multum’s drug information is an informational resource designed to assist licensed healthcare practitioners in caring for their patients and/or to serve consumers viewing this service as a supplement to, and not a substitute for, the expertise, skill, knowledge and judgment of healthcare practitioners. The absence of a warning for a given drug or drug combination in no way should be construed to indicate that the drug or drug combination is safe, effective or appropriate for any given patient. Multum does not assume any responsibility for any aspect of healthcare administered with the aid of information Multum provides. The information contained herein is not intended to cover all possible uses, directions, precautions, warnings, drug interactions, allergic reactions, or adverse effects. If you have questions about the drugs you are taking, check with your doctor, nurse or pharmacist.

Copyright 1996-2021 Cerner Multum, Inc. Version: 4.01. Revision date: 4/28/2017.

Magnesium Oxide Side Effects, Dosage & Uses

What Is Magnesium Oxide?

Magnesium oxide (Mag-Ox®) supplements’ main uses include treating low magnesium levels in the body. The body needs magnesium for normal functioning of nerves, muscles, and cells. Lack of magnesium after a liver transplant can lead to irritability, muscle weakness, irregular heartbeat, or seizures. Magnesium-providing medications also can be used to treat heartburn, acid indigestion, or sour stomach.

Note: The best dietary sources of magnesium include green leafy vegetables, avocados, bananas, nuts, peas, beans, wheat germ, and grains. A high-fat diet causes the body to absorb smaller amounts of magnesium than normal to be absorbed. Cooking decreases the magnesium content of foods.

Magnesium Oxide Dosage

Magnesium supplements are taken orally. Magnesium oxide is available in 140-mg capsules as well as 400- and 425-mg tablets. Magnesium gluconate (Magonate®)is available in 500-mg tablets.

How to Properly Take Magnesium Oxide

Your child should swallow magnesium oxide along with a full glass of water. Do not crush or chew magnesium oxide tablets. It is best to take magnesium supplements with or just after a meal to improve absorption. Do not take tacrolimus (Prograf, FK-506).

Missed Doses

If your child misses a dose of magnesium oxide, take it as soon as you or your child remembers. However, if it is near the time for the next dose, skip the missed dose and resume your child’s usual dosing schedule. Do not double the dose to catch up.

Magnesium Oxide Side Effects

It is not uncommon to experience diarrhea, stomach upset, bloating, and gas while taking magnesium supplements. If any of these side effects persists or becomes bothersome, inform your child’s transplant doctor or transplant coordinator.

he side effects of magnesium oxide listed below occur only rarely. If your child experiences any of these, inform the doctor or coordinator immediately.

  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • Slow reflexes
  • Change in heart rate
  • Flushing or faintness

Magnesium Oxide Drug Interactions

Tell your coordinator about all the medication your child uses, whether over-the-counter or prescription, so you can be warned of undesirable interactions and prevent them.

How to Store

Store magnesium oxide at room temperature.

Precautions for Children and Teenagers

Your child should take magnesium supplements exactly as prescribed. Do not take tacrolimus (Prograf, FK506). Avoid taking this medication within one hour of taking medications that are coated to prevent breakdown in the stomach. Avoid taking this medication within one to two hours of taking tetracycline or quinotone antibiotics. Magnesium supplements taken soon after these medications may interfere with their absorption.

Magnesium Oxide Availability

Most pharmacies stock magnesium oxide and magnesium gluconate.

Drug information changes periodically. For the most updated information on drugs, visit www.drugs.com.

Magnesium Oxide Delivers More Magnesium with Far Fewer Pills

It’s true that magnesium oxide is less soluble than several other forms of supplemental magnesium.

However, magnesium oxide is at least as effective (if not better) at restoring and maintaining a healthy level of magnesium in your cells and bones.

How is this possible? I’ll explain!

But before I do, we need to understand how magnesium is absorbed.

In all its natural forms, magnesium is bound to another chemical compound, for example: carbonate; gluconate; citrate; lactate; aspartate; or oxide. The combinations of magnesium and one of these compounds are called magnesium salts.

When you consume any magnesium salt, the magnesium must be freed from its partner compound during digestion and made soluble (ionized). Once it is made soluble, your body can absorb the magnesium.

For this to happen effectively, stomach acid has to be present. So it’s also helpful to remember that:

  1. It’s best to take your supplements with a meal because your stomach responds to your consumption of food by secreting stomach acid.
  2. Medications that prevent stomach acid production impair your ability to digest and absorb minerals – and virtually all other nutrients.

Why Magnesium Oxide Provides More Elemental Magnesium

It’s true that magnesium oxide is not as easy to render soluble as some other magnesium salts. It’s therefore not absorbed as rapidly as other forms of magnesium, e.g. magnesium citrate, gluconate, lactate, aspartate.

But although magnesium oxide has a lower rate of absorption it contains a MUCH greater amount of actual magnesium to begin with. More than what is provided by other magnesium salts.

Therefore, even with the lower rate of absorption, magnesium oxide still delivers more magnesium per tablet. So more magnesium gets into your bloodstream to deliver all its many benefits to your bones and body!

This is illustrated in the table Comparison of Magnesium Salts below: 1-2

Comparison of Magnesium Salts
MG Salt % Elemental MG % Elemental MG Absorbed Mg’s of Elemental MG Absorbed per 100 mg of MG Salt
Oxide 60% 23%* 13. 8
Carbonate 28% ~20% ** ~5.2
Chloride 26% 20% 5.2
L-lactate 12% 42% 5
Citrate 11% 30% 3.3
Aspartate 8% 42% 3.3
Glycinate 14% 23% 3.2
Gluconate 6% 19% 1. 14

*On the web, you’ll see many sites claiming that only 4% of the magnesium in magnesium oxide is absorbed. This claim is based upon a small study by Firoz et al. (2001), which is discussed fully below. The actual data in this study shows something very different. The stated percentage of elemental magnesium absorbed from magnesium oxide in the above table — 23% — is the statistic provided in a review and meta-analysis of numerous studies by Ranade et al., (2001), cited below.

**Magnesium carbonate is nearly insoluble, but in the presence of stomach acid (HCl), magnesium carbonate is converted into magnesium chloride, which allows 20% of elemental magnesium to be absorbed.

As you can see, magnesium oxide contains the most elemental magnesium of 60%. And 23% of this can be absorbed.

Magnesium citrate, for example, contains only 11% elemental magnesium. And only 30% of this is absorbed.

So the percentage of elemental magnesium to begin with is just as important as the rate of absorption.

What Does This Mean For You, In Practical Terms?

You can get comparable or better health benefits with magnesium oxide. And you’ll also require fewer capsules, which will save you time and money.

The research most often cited to disparage magnesium oxide is a small study by Firoz et al. of 16 volunteers. The aim of this study was to test the claim that organic (chelated) magnesium salts (e.g., aspartate, lactate) are more easily absorbed than non-organic salts (e.g., oxide, chloride).3

The 16 volunteers were given four commercially-available magnesium salts: 2 organic (aspartate, lactate) and 2 non-organic (oxide, chloride), after which the amount of magnesium in their urine was checked. More magnesium excreted in the urine is thought to indicate that more magnesium has been absorbed; less magnesium excreted is thought to indicate that less magnesium has been absorbed. This rationale is based on the principle that the body works hard to maintain a steady state of magnesium balance, and in a steady state of magnesium balance, any extra magnesium absorbed will be excreted in the urine.

In this study, those taking magnesium oxide excreted less magnesium on average. So magnesium oxide was said to have a low fractional absorption rate of 4%. However, there are 2 important points not shared in this study:

  1. Half of the volunteers in this study excreted more or very comparable amounts of magnesium when taking magnesium oxide as they did when taking the other magnesium salts. Take a look for yourself at the table below – Urinary Magnesium, mg/day. The data in the following table is taken directly from Firoz M, et al’s 2001 article in Magnesium Research.

Averaging out the data produces a result that does not reflect what actually happened in the participants. Yet, what was reported is repeatedly cited on the internet. This is why I always read the full paper of any study I am going to rely upon for information.

2. Most importantly, the key practical discovery made in this study was: “Magnesium excretion increased with all magnesium supplements.” What this means is that all the magnesium salts tested, including magnesium oxide, delivered more magnesium than was needed to meet the body’s magnesium balance requirement.

Urinary Magnesium, mg/day
Study participant MG oxide MG chloride MG aspartate MG lactate Control 1* Control 2*
A 100 156 95 114 77 70
B 95 43 78 65 68 43
C 101 89 103 137 75 32
D 66 120 137 161 100 103
E 78 166 101 119 134 65
F 63 144 88 48 56 67
G 84 78 76 67 74 61
H 142 182 214 198 128 129
I 78 39 55 62 102 60
J 114 112 110 76 53 86
K 77 106 177 116 80 32
L 114 94 137 117 109 92
M 66 87 51 81 104 115
N 82 82 82 163 76 85
O 162 133 85 106 75 75
p 34 120 58 87 28 57

*Controls did not receive any supplemental magnesium.

Magnesium Oxide is Effectively Absorbed

Despite what you may have read on various websites, the peer-reviewed research on PubMed shows that magnesium oxide is effectively absorbed:

In a study involving 18 men, 24 hours after consumption of magnesium oxide supplements, magnesium levels in the urine increased about two times the normal amount. And, after 48 hours, magnesium levels had increased to roughly four times normal. The conclusion drawn by the researchers: these results clearly show that “magnesium oxide is effectively absorbed and elevates the biologically-active levels of magnesium in the bloodstream.”4

It’s important to note here that magnesium oxide did not increase urinary excretion of magnesium within a couple of hours. This is an important point which I’ll explain below in “Higher bioavailability does not translate to more effective delivery to tissues.”

All forms of magnesium salts used in animal studies have been found to effectively restore magnesium levels in magnesium-depleted animals.

In one such study in 2005, rats were first given a magnesium-depleted diet and then provided with the same diet supplemented with 10 different magnesium salts: magnesium oxide, chloride, sulfate, carbonate, acetate, picolate, citrate, gluconate, lactate or aspartate. The results showed that while magnesium absorption values varied from 50% to 67%, all the magnesium salts used were equally efficient in restoring magnesium levels.5

The researchers also noted that “the quantity of magnesium in the digestive tract is the major factor controlling the amount of magnesium absorbed.” And as you now know, magnesium oxide contains a far greater amount of elemental magnesium than any of the other magnesium salts .5

A more recent animal study confirmed and strengthened these findings. In this one, for 5 weeks, rats were fed one of eight test diets supplemented with phytic acid (5 g/kg diet) and magnesium (155 mg elemental Mg/kg diet) from the following magnesium salts: magnesium oxide; magnesium sulfate; magnesium chloride; magnesium citrate; magnesium gluconate; magnesium orotate; and magnesium malate or EDTA magnesium salt.

The addition of phytic acid to the animals’ diet is important because phytic acid binds strongly to minerals and forms an insoluble complex. This means less of the minerals consumed can be absorbed. Despite the addition of phytic acid to the animals’ diet, all the magnesium salts tested were found to be comparably bioavailable: “The results indicate that any differences in the magnesium bioavailability of the compounds were small and physiologically irrelevant.” 6

Higher Bioavailability Does Not Necessarily Translate to More Effective Delivery to Tissues

When a magnesium supplement is highly bioavailable, it will be rapidly absorbed from the small intestine into the bloodstream, and magnesium blood levels will quickly rise. This sounds good, but when blood magnesium levels exceed a critical threshold, the excess is rapidly excreted by the kidneys. The end result is a shorter duration of magnesium availability to tissues. Magnesium salts with the greatest water solubility, bioavailability and rate of absorption are also more rapidly excreted in urine.

The lower parts of the small intestine are the primary sites of magnesium absorption. However, magnesium is also absorbed throughout the entire intestinal tract. Magnesium does not have special carriers that pull it into the bloodstream. Its absorption is a passive transcellular process.

For this kind of absorption process, the quantity of magnesium that passes through the digestive tract is the major factor controlling the amount of magnesium that is absorbed.

Because magnesium oxide contains more elemental magnesium and is less soluble, it’s absorbed into the bloodstream more slowly as it passes through the digestive tract. It will not raise blood levels excessively, and will therefore not be rapidly excreted. 5,7.8

The Research-Backed Bottom Line on Magnesium Oxide

You can get the same benefits from magnesium oxide with fewer pills. Magnesium oxide is the most effective magnesium supplement – and that is why it was selected for use in AlgaeCal Plus.


    1. Molecular weights: https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/6850729 For the other magnesium salts, use the search box in the top right corner of the page.
    2. Ranade VV, Somberg JC. Bioavailability and pharmacokinetics of magnesium after administration of magnesium salts to humans. Am J Ther. 2001 Sep-Oct;8(5):345-57. PMID: 11550076
    3. Firoz M, Graber M. Bioavailability of US commercial magnesium preparations. Magnes Res. 2001 Dec;14(4):257-62. PMID: 11794633
    4. Altura BT, Wilimzig C, Trnovec T, et al. Comparative effects of a Mg-enriched diet and different orally administered magnesium oxide preparations on ionized Mg, Mg metabolism and electrolytes in serum of human volunteers. J Am Coll Nutr. 1994 Oct;13(5):447-54. PMID: 7836622
    5. Coudray C, Rambeau M, Feillet-Coudray C, et al. Study of magnesium bioavailability from ten organic and inorganic Mg salts in Mg-depleted rats using a stable isotope approach. Magnes Res. 2005 Dec;18(4):215-23. PMID: 16548135
    6. Bertinato J, Plouffe LJ, Lavergne C, et al. Bioavailability of magnesium from inorganic and organic compounds is similar in rats fed a high phytic acid diet. Magnes Res. 2014 Oct-Dec;27(4):175-85. doi: 10.1684/mrh.2014.0374. PMID: 25635418
    7. Ranade VV, Somberg JC. Bioavailability and pharmacokinetics of magnesium after administration of magnesium salts to humans. Am J Ther. 2001 Sep-Oct;8(5):345-57. PMID: 11550076
    8. Musso CG. Magnesium metabolism in health and disease. Int Urol Nephrol. 2009;41(2):357-62. doi: 10.1007/s11255-009-9548-7. Epub 2009 Mar 10. PMID: 19274487

Magnesium oxide | Side Effects | Dosage | Precautions

By Medicover Hospitals / 12 Feb 2021
Home | Medicine | Magnesium oxide

What is Magnesium oxide

  • Magnesium oxide is a type of mineral supplement of magnesium that is mainly made of magnesium and actually contains more magnesium than other supplements of magnesium. By burning magnesium with pure oxygen, magnesium oxide is obtained, but this process is very expensive.
    1. Magnesium oxide Uses
    2. Magnesium oxide Side effects
    3. Precautions
    4. Magnesium oxide vs Magnesium hydroxide
    5. Frequently Asked Questions
    6. Citations

    Magnesium oxide Uses:

  • This drug is a mineral supplement that is used to avoid low levels of magnesium in the blood and to treat it. Many brands are also used to treat signs of excessive stomach acid, such as the upset stomach, heartburn, and indigestion of acid. For the normal functioning of cells, nerves, muscles, bones, and the heart, magnesium is very important. Typically, a well-balanced diet offers regular amounts of magnesium in the blood. Some conditions, however, cause the body to lose magnesium faster than your diet can replace it. That includes treatment with ‘water tablets’ (diuretics such as furosemide, hydrochlorothiazide), inadequate nutrition, alcoholism, or other medical problems (severe vomiting).
  • How to use

    • As directed, take this product by mouth. On the product box, follow all guidelines. Ask your doctor or pharmacist if you have any questions.
    • Unless instructed by the product directions or your doctor, it is best to take magnesium supplements with a meal to avoid stomach pain and diarrhea.
    • Unless advised by your doctor, take each dose with a full glass (8 ounces or 240 milliliters) of water. Swallow capsules or extended-release and delayed-release/enteric-coated tablets or entire capsules. Do not smash or chew capsules or tablets with extended-release or delayed-release/enteric coatings. In doing so, all of the drugs will be released at once, raising the risk of side effects.
    • Also, do not separate extended-release tablets unless they have a score line and you are advised to do so by your doctor or pharmacist. Without crushing or chewing, swallow them a whole or broken tablet.
    • If you take the chewable tablets, thoroughly chew each tablet before swallowing.
    • Use a drug measuring system to carefully measure the dosage if you are using a liquid product. Do not use a household spoon, since the correct dosage can not be given to you. Shake the bottle well prior to each dosage if you are using a suspension.
    • To get the most benefits from it, take this drug daily. Remember to take it each day at the same time(s). The dose is depending on your medical condition and your treatment reaction. Do not raise or take the dose more frequently than recommended on the box of the medication or by your doctor. Severe side effects can be caused by too much magnesium in the blood.
    • If the effects of low blood levels of magnesium (e.g., muscle cramps, tiredness, irritability, depression) continue or worsen, tell your doctor. Seek immediate medical attention if you think you might have a serious medical condition.


    Regulates Magnesium Levels

  • A variety of risk factors are magnesium deficiency, including diet, food allergies, alcoholism, and poor kidney health. Magnesium deficiency symptoms can include:
    • Cramps of the Leg
    • Heart problems: arrhythmias, palpitations, increases in blood pressure, whispers
    • Pressure in the muscles and bones
    • Depressed moods and anxiety
    • High Blood Pressure
    • Sleeplessness
    • Tiredness
  • Magnesium oxide supplementation can maintain stable magnesium levels in the body. Supplementation actually reduces many of the deficiency-related symptoms.
  • Gastrointestinal Issues Treatment

  • It is called magnesium hydroxide when magnesium oxide is combined with water. This mixture may assist in naturalizing stomach acids. One analysis of 276 individuals showed that the combination of simethicone (a gas-lowering agent), activated charcoal, and magnesium oxide was more effective at treating indigestion than placebo. Magnesium hydrogen-based compounds are used in many antacids, but few studies have looked at the efficacy of magnesium oxide alone.
  • Depression Reliever

  • As it can have beneficial mental well-being and stress-reducing effects, magnesium oxide can help relieve depressive symptoms and habits. An association between magnesium intake and depression has been confirmed by several studies. Lowers blood pressure and stroke risk. Research from the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition has found that diets high in magnesium, particularly ischemic strokes, can reduce the risk of stroke. When the artery to the brain is blocked, this type of stroke occurs. High blood pressure is the cause of most ischemic strokes, and research finds that supplementation of magnesium will help to reduce blood pressure.
  • Lowers migraines

  • Supplementation with magnesium oxide can reduce the number of migraines and their severity. Research reveals that the majority of migraine sufferers are deficient in magnesium.5 The American Migraine Foundation considers that magnesium is an ideal medication for relief and prevention of migraines.
  • Lowers Chance of Colorectal Cancer

  • Some research suggests that supplements with magnesium oxide can lower the risk of colorectal cancer. An analysis published in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition shows that a lower risk of colorectal tumors is associated with large doses of magnesium. The study indicates that the risk of developing a tumor is decreased by 12 percent with every 100-milligram rise in magnesium.
  • Magnesium oxide Side effects

    • Rash
    • Itching
    • Swelling
    • Severe dizziness
    • Trouble breathing
    • Headache
    • Drowsiness
    • Fast heartbeat
    • Weakness
    • Lightheadedness
    • Stomach pain
    • Abdominal pain


  • Tell your doctor or pharmacist whether you are allergic to it, or whether you have any other allergies, before taking a magnesium supplement. There may be inactive ingredients in this substance that may cause allergic reactions or other problems. For more info, talk to your pharmacist.
  • Consult your physician or pharmacist before using this product if you have the following health problem: kidney disease.
  • Sugar and/or aspartame can be found in liquids, powders, or any other types of this substance. Alcohol can also be found in liquid goods. If you have diabetes, alcohol dependency, liver disease, phenylketonuria (PKU), or any other disorder that allows you to restrict or prevent these drugs, caution is recommended.
  • This medication can only be used during pregnancy when it is specifically needed. Discuss with your doctor the repercussions and advantages.
  • Whether the substance passes into the mother’s milk is not understood. Before breastfeeding, consult the doctor.
  • Magnesium oxide Vs Magnesium hydroxide

    Magnesium oxide Magnesium hydroxide
    white hygroscopic solid mineral inorganic compound
    Formula: MgO Formula: Mg(OH)2
    This drug is a mineral supplement that is used to avoid low levels of magnesium in the blood and to treat it. As a laxative, magnesium hydroxide is used to alleviate frequent constipation.
    Molar mass: 40.3044 g/mol Molar mass: 58.3197 g/mol

    Frequently Asked Questions:

    This drug is a mineral supplement that is used to avoid low levels of magnesium in the blood and to treat it. Many brands are also used to treat signs of excessive stomach acid, such as the upset stomach, heartburn, and indigestion of acid.

    Only a daily magnesium supplement that provides more than 350 mg is prescribed when under medical supervision. Although magnesium toxicity is uncommon, high doses of some magnesium supplements may cause diarrhea, nausea, and abdominal cramping.

    It might be safer to take your dose at bedtime while using this drug as a laxative. Magnesium oxide, if it upsets the stomach, may be taken with food. If the symptoms do not change after 7 days of medication, or if the symptoms get worse, call your doctor.

    Magnesium helps sustain the rhythm of your heart. As it is involved in transporting other electrolytes, such as calcium and potassium, into cells, magnesium is essential to a healthy heart rhythm. For nerve impulses and muscle contractions of a regular heartbeat, electrolytes are all-important.

    Studies that have shown that magnesium can have anti-anxiety effects have typically used doses between 75 and 360 mg a day if you take magnesium as a supplement, according to the 2017 study. Before taking any supplement, it is best to contact a health care provider so that you know the right dosage for you.

    Low levels of magnesium can be a heart disease indicator, research has shown. Low magnesium has been associated with cardiovascular risk factors, such as high blood pressure, the build-up of arterial plaque, soft tissue calcification, cholesterol, and artery hardening.

    Magnesium Oxide in Constipation

    Nutrients. 2021 Feb; 13(2): 421.

    Hidekazu Suzuki

    2Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Tokai University School of Medicine, Isehara 259-1193, Japan

    Sara Castiglioni, Academic Editor

    2Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Tokai University School of Medicine, Isehara 259-1193, Japan

    Received 2020 Dec 30; Accepted 2021 Jan 26.

    Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).This article has been cited by other articles in PMC.


    Magnesium oxide has been widely used as a laxative for many years in East Asia, yet its prescription has largely been based on empirical knowledge. In recent years, several new laxatives have been developed, which has led to a resurgence in interest and increased scientific evidence surrounding the use of magnesium oxide, which is convenient to administer, of low cost, and safe. Despite these advantages, emerging clinical evidence indicates that the use of magnesium oxide should take account of the most appropriate dose, the serum concentration, drug–drug interactions, and the potential for side effects, especially in the elderly and in patients with renal impairment. The aim of this review is to evaluate the evidence base for the clinical use of magnesium oxide for treating constipation and provide a pragmatic guide to its advantages and disadvantages.

    Keywords: magnesium oxide, constipation, laxative, hypermagnesemia

    1. Introduction

    Magnesium began to be used medicinally in Western countries after the 1618 discovery by a farmer in Epsom, England that well water had a healing effect on cattle skin diseases [1]. The substance, magnesium sulfate, MgSO4, became known as Epsom salts and was used as a treatment for constipation for the next 350 years. However, the history of the medicinal use of magnesium in Eastern countries is even older. Magnesium nitrate, Mg(NO3)2, was already being used in Chinese herbal medicine when magnesium sulfate was discovered in the West, and magnesium nitrate was introduced to Japan in the 8th century [2]. The expected laxative actions of magnesium nitrate meant it was used to treat constipation alongside rhubarb, which contains an anthraquinone glycoside compound that acts as a stimulant laxative in Chinese and Japanese herbal medicine [3]. Magnesium oxide was introduced from the West to the East in the 19th century when German physician P.F.B. Siebold brought magnesium oxide to Japan [4,5]. Following this, magnesium oxide took a central position as a laxative of choice in East Asian countries such as Japan, China, and Taiwan [6,7]. On the other hand, the magnesium preparation most commonly used in South Korea and the United States is magnesium hydroxide [8,9]. In European countries, magnesium hydroxide, magnesium citrate, magnesium sulfate, and magnesium oxide are used as saline laxatives, but there are only a limited number of studies that compare the different salt forms and few actual cases of use [10,11]. Therefore, at present, the decision of which magnesium salt to use as a laxative is dependent upon the country in which it is prescribed. Polyethylene glycol is the laxative of first choice in the United States [12] and is also widely used in Europe [10]. In recent years, new drugs such as a type-2 chloride channel activator, a guanylate cyclase 2C receptor agonist, and an inhibitor of the ileal bile acid transporter have been developed to treat constipation and can be given to a patient sequentially [13,14,15]. While the range of laxatives available has expanded, there is still no consensus on how to use them correctly. Currently, the safety, convenience, and low cost of magnesium oxide, which has been used for many years, mean that it has once again attracted attention ().

    Table 1

    Comparison of laxative drugs by cost.

    Daily Dose Cost Per Day (JP) Cost Per Day (NL)
    Magnesium oxide 2 g €0.18 NA
    Magnesium hydroxide 2 g €0.36 €0.16
    Senna 24 mg €0.09 €0.25
    Polyethylene glycol 10 g €1.02 €0.58
    Psyllium seed 7 g NA €0.45
    Lubiprostone 48 μg €1.93 NA
    Linaclotide 0.29 mg €1.44 €1.87
    Elobixibat hydrate 10 mg €1.68 NA

    In this article, we address the evidence for using magnesium oxide to treat constipation, and highlight the advantages and limitations that should guide clinical decisions about the use of this therapy.

    2. Mechanism of Action

    Magnesium oxide (MgO) is converted into magnesium chloride (MgCl2) under acidic conditions in the stomach. Thereafter, MgCl2 is converted to magnesium bicarbonate Mg(HCO3)2 by sodium hydrogen carbonate (NaHCO3) from pancreatic secretion in the duodenum, and finally becomes magnesium carbonate (MgCO3) (). Mg(HCO3)2 and MgCO3 increase the osmotic pressure of the intestinal lumen fluid, thereby promoting the transfer of water to the intestinal lumen and increasing the water content and volume of the stool. In addition, the swollen stool stimulates the intestinal wall and intestinal propulsive motor activity.

    The pharmacokinetics of magnesium oxide. Magnesium oxide (MgO) is converted to sodium hydrogen carbonate (NaHCO3) and magnesium carbonate (MgCO3) by gastric and pancreatic juice, and exerts its effect as a salt laxative.

    Anthraquinone-based drugs, which act as stimulant laxatives and include rhubarb and senna, cause tolerance with continuous use, whereas patients do not develop tolerance to magnesium oxide with continuous use.

    Although magnesium oxide use can lead to hypermagnesemia, this is rare. This, combined with a lack of pharmacokinetic information on magnesium oxide, means that in clinical practice it is often prescribed with little regard for the optimal dose. Siener et al. administered 404 mg/day of magnesium oxide to healthy volunteers and analyzed the magnesium concentration in blood and urine. There was no significant change in blood concentration of magnesium, but urinary magnesium excretion increased by 40% after administration of magnesium oxide [16]. Yoshimura et al. performed a pharmacokinetic study of orally administered magnesium oxide in rats [17]. They showed that 85% of magnesium is excreted in feces, while 15% of magnesium is absorbed from the intestinal tract and excreted in urine [17]. Furthermore, they showed that the plasma magnesium concentration in rats was maintained at a high level for a relatively long period due to the slow absorption of magnesium [17]. Such data have not yet been shown in humans. The kidney plays a central role in maintaining magnesium homeostasis through active reabsorption, which is influenced by the sodium load in the tubules and possibly by acid–base balance. The kidneys of individuals with a normal glomerular filtration rate (GFR) filter approximately 2000–2400 mg of magnesium per day [18]. Based on this information, the dose of magnesium oxide usually used for laxative purposes is considered to have a low propensity to cause hypermagnesemia, while magnesium oxide should be used carefully in patients with renal dysfunction.

    3. Evidence Underpinning the Use of Magnesium Oxide

    3.1. Functional Constipation in Adults

    Magnesium oxide has long been used to treat constipation, and an estimated 10 million patients in Japan are treated with this agent annually [19]. Although the prescription of magnesium oxide has been based on empirical evidence for many years, two randomized controlled trials (RCTs) showing the effectiveness of magnesium oxide for treating chronic constipation in adults have recently been reported. Mori S et al. conducted a randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled study comparing magnesium oxide with placebo [20]. In this study, magnesium oxide administration led to superior overall improvement of symptoms, and improved spontaneous bowel movement, stool form, colonic transit time, abdominal symptom, and quality of life. Patients treated with magnesium oxide had a response rate of 70.6% for overall symptom improvement, which was significantly higher than the response rate of 25.0% observed in the placebo group [20]. Morishita et al. conducted a randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled study comparing magnesium oxide with placebo and senna [21]. The response rate for overall improvement was 11.7% in the placebo group, 69.2% in the senna group, and 68.3% in the magnesium oxide group. Patients receiving senna or magnesium oxide had significant improvements in spontaneous bowel movement and constipation-related quality of life, compared with patients in the placebo group. Moreover, no severe treatment-related adverse events were observed in either treatment group. The time to the first spontaneous bowel movement in this study was significantly shortened for the senna group (18.8 h) and magnesium oxide group (17.9 h) compared with the placebo group (22.0 h). However, the authors discussed that senna and magnesium oxide were less effective in reducing time to first spontaneous bowel movement than newer drugs: lubiprostone (3.5 h versus 48.0 h for placebo), linaclotide (6.7 h versus 24.7 h for placebo), and elobixibat (5.1 h versus 25.5 h for placebo) [21]. These differences may serve as a reference for the correct use of these drugs for treating constipation in the future.

    3.2. Opioid-Induced Constipation

    Opioid-induced constipation is the most common and problematic complication of opioid therapy [22,23,24]. Standard laxatives, such as osmotic agents (macrogol) and stimulants (bisacodyl, picosulfate, and senna), are good first-line choices in the management of opioid-induced constipation [22]. Second-line agents that block μ-opioid receptors in the gastrointestinal tract but do not enter the central nervous system, so called PAMORAs (peripherally acting mu opioid receptor antagonists), can be used to treat opioid-induced constipation without diminishing central analgesic actions [22]. The mu-opioid receptor antagonists methylnaltrexone, naloxegol, and naldemedine are safe and effective treatments for opioid-induced constipation [22,25,26,27,28,29]. Evidence is not yet available on the use of magnesium oxide for treating opioid-induced constipation; however a single-institution, open-label, randomized controlled trial comparing the effectiveness of magnesium oxide with naldemedine for preventing opioid-induced constipation is ongoing [30]. Magnesium oxide could be a promising drug candidate for opioid-induced constipation, yet patients taking opioids often take gastric antisecretory drugs such as proton pump inhibitors and histamine H2 receptor antagonists, which can diminish the efficacy of magnesium oxide [31,32]. Moreover, retrospective studies have shown that 94% of opioid-induced constipation patients did not achieve an inadequate response to one laxative agent with one laxative treatment including magnesium hydrochloride [33]. On the other hand, PAMORAs may be advantageous, as opioids act on receptors in both the small and large intestine and, second, dampen neuronal activity also in the gut [22].

    3.3. Functional Constipation in Children

    Magnesium salts are also used for treatment of functional constipation in children [34]. Two RCTs showing the effectiveness of magnesium oxide for treating chronic constipation in children have been reported. Bu et al. conducted a double-blind placebo-controlled, randomized study to compare Lactobacillus casei rhamnosus Lcr35 with magnesium oxide and placebo [35]. The patients who received magnesium oxide or the probiotic had a higher defecation frequency, higher percentage of treatment success, less use of glycerin enema, and softer stools than the placebo group. There were no significant differences in the aforementioned comparisons between the magnesium oxide and probiotic groups; however, the onset of effects occurred slightly earlier in patients treated with magnesium oxide than those treated with probiotics [35]. Kubota et al. conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial to compare the probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938 and magnesium oxide for relieving chronic functional constipation in children [36]. They divided the subjects into three groups: the first group received L. reuteri DSM 17938, the second group received L. reuteri DSM 17938 and magnesium oxide, and the third group received magnesium oxide. There was a significant improvement in the defecation frequency in all groups at the fourth week after treatment compared to baseline. In this study, the authors also investigated the relationship between gut microbiome composition, magnesium oxide, and defecation frequency. They showed that defecation frequency was higher in magnesium oxide-treated patients than in patients whose gut microbiome contained bacteria of the genus Dialister, and that defecation frequency negatively correlated with the frequency of bacteria belonging to the genus Clostridiales in patients’ gut microbiomes [36]. This result suggests that magnesium oxide treatment alters the gut microbiome. Although this is a noteworthy finding, the long-term health effects of an altered gut microbiome induced by magnesium oxide are unclear, and further research is likely necessary.

    3.4. Guidelines on the Use of Magnesium Precautions for Functional Constipation

    Guidelines for using magnesium preparations in various countries and regions are shown in . Magnesium oxide is mentioned only in Japanese guidelines, in which the recommendation level is “strong” [37]. Although sufficient international evidence of the use of magnesium oxide in adults only recently became available, the experience gained from prescribing magnesium oxide to more than 10 million patients annually was only acknowledged in the Japanese guidelines. Magnesium salts, including magnesium hydroxide, are recommended in the guidelines of the American Gastroenterological Association, the Asian Neurogastroenterology and Motility Association, the Korean Society of Neurogastroenterology and Motility, the Mexican Association of Gastroenterology, the Italian Association of Hospital Gastroenterologists and the Italian Society of Colorectal Surgery, and the French Society of Gastroenterology [38,39,40,41,42,43]. However, due to low levels of evidence, the recommendation level in these guidelines is weak. On the other hand, the German Society for Digestive and Metabolic Diseases, the German Society for Neurogastroenterology and Motility, and the German Society for Internal Medicine and the American College of Gastroenterology recommend against the use of magnesium hydroxide because of possible adverse effects [44,45]. The European Society of Neurogastroenterology and Motility, the UK’s National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence, and an expert panel in Hong Kong do not mention magnesium preparations [46,47,48].

    Table 2

    Guidelines on the use of magnesium precautions for treating functional constipation.

    Institution Recommendation Class Level of Evidence
    European Society of Neurogastroenterology and Motility [46] None NA NA
    American Gastroenterological Association [38] Magnesium hydroxide and other salts improve stool frequency and consistency. Absorption of magnesium is limited, and these agents are generally safe. However, there are a few case reports of severe hypermagnesemia after use of magnesium-based cathartics in patients with renal impairment. NA NA
    American College of Gastroenterology [45] There is insufficient data to make a recommendation about the effectiveness of magnesium hydroxide in patients with chronic constipation. No recommendation Moderate
    Asian Neurogastroenterology and Motility Association [39] Milk of magnesia (magnesium hydroxide) is an osmotic laxative by which the poorly absorbable magnesium ions cause water to be retained in the intestinal lumen. The evidence for its efficacy from randomized control trials is limited. NA NA
    The Japanese Society of Gastroenterology [37] Osmotic laxatives are useful and recommended for use in chronic constipation. However, regular magnesium measurement is recommended when using salt laxatives containing magnesium. Strong High
    The Korean Society of Neurogastroenterology and Motility [40] Magnesium salts improve stool frequency and consistency in patients with normal renal function. Strong Low
    An expert panel in Hong Kong [47] None NA NA
    Mexican Association of Gastroenterology [41] Magnesium salts are useful in patients with acute constipation associated with immobilization and should not be used chronically because they produce hypermagnesemia, especially in patients with kidney failure. Weak Low
    The UK’s National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence [48] Substitute a stimulant laxative singly or in combination with an osmotic laxative such as lactulose if polyethylene glycol 3350 plus electrolytes are not tolerated. NA NA
    The German Society for Digestive and Metabolic Diseases, the German Society for Neurogastroenterology and Motility and the German Society for Internal Medicine [44] Saline laxatives, such as magnesium hydroxide, are not recommended for chronic constipation because of possible adverse effects. No recommendation NA
    The Italian Association of Hospital Gastroenterologists and the Italian Society of Colorectal Surgery [42] The use of magnesium hydroxide is supported by case-series level of evidence. Weak Low
    French Society of Gastroenterology [43] The first-line therapeutic interventions recommended by the guidelines are osmotic laxatives (macrogol, lactulose, or milk of magnesia) and bulk-forming laxatives. Moderate Moderate

    4. Practical Use of Magnesium Oxide

    4.1. Dosage and Administration

    Magnesium oxide is an osmotic laxative, and its key effect is a softening of hard stools; therefore, it is important to first ask the patient about the hardness of stools and the frequency of bowel movement. In real-life clinical practice, evaluation using the Bristol scale is useful as an objective index [49]. To choose a proper drug, a diagnostic process, including several clinical/psychiatric parameters, is also important [50,51].

    The package insert of magnesium oxide advises: “In general, for adults, take 2 g of the active ingredient in 3 divided doses a day before or after meals, or once before bedtime” [52]. However, in practice, 2 g per day can result in hypermagnesemia; therefore, we recommend that a starting dose of approximately 1 g taken as two or three divided doses a day is used, and adjusted appropriately according to symptoms [6]. While there are cases in which 250 mg a day is sufficiently effective, there are rare cases in which sufficient improvements cannot be obtained even with a dose of 2 g a day [6].

    If magnesium oxide alone is not effective, other laxatives such as stimulant laxatives, polyethylene glycol, lubiprostone, linaclotide, and elobixibat can also be used as adjunct drugs, in which case magnesium oxide should not be used in excess to avoid hypermagnesemia.

    4.2. Drug Interactions

    Magnesium oxide has an adsorptive action and an antacid action, and so it affects the absorption and excretion of other drugs. Tetracycline, new quinolones, and bisphosphonates may form chelates with magnesium, which diminishes the effects of these drugs. Therefore, there should be a sufficient time interval between dosing if these drugs are prescribed together. Considering the digestion time in the stomach, an interval of at least 2 h is recommended [53]. The effects of iron supplements, digitalis, polycarbophil calcium, and fexofenadine may be diminished by the adsorption action of magnesium or the magnesium oxide-induced increase the intragastric pH. The effects of cation-exchange resins may be decreased because magnesium ions exchange with the cations of these drugs. The effects of some cephem antibiotics, mycophenolate mofetil, delavirdine, zalcitabine, penicillamine, azithromycin, celecoxib, rosuvastatin, rabeprazole, and gabapentin, may be diminished by magnesium; the reasons for this reduced efficacy is not understood. Activated vitamin D supplements may cause hypermagnesemia because they can promote gastrointestinal absorption and reabsorption of magnesium from renal tubules. Consumption of large amounts of milk and calcium supplements may cause hypercalcemia and alkalosis due to increased renal reabsorption of calcium (known as milk–alkali syndrome). Magnesium oxide, an absorbable alkaline preparation, exacerbates calcium retention in the kidneys. The laxative effect of magnesium oxide is decreased in patients receiving a H2 receptor antagonist or a proton pump inhibitor due to the low solubility of magnesium oxide at the higher gastric pH and lower generation of MgCl2 and Mg(HCO3)2 [31,32].

    4.3. Side Effect Profile and Toxicity

    4.3.1. Hypermagnesemia

    The poor bioavailability of magnesium oxide makes it relatively safe, but prolonged treatment may induce hypermagnesemia [54]. In recent years, cases of magnesium oxide-induced hypermagnesemia resulting in serious outcomes have been reported [55,56,57,58]. Blood magnesium levels are usually tightly controlled by the kidneys; the normal range is 1.8–2.4 mg/dL, and levels 3.0 mg/dL and above are defined as hypermagnesemia. Serum magnesium concentrations >5.0 mg/dL have been associated with nausea, headache, light-headedness, and cutaneous flushing, and levels above 12 mg/dL have been associated with respiratory failure, complete heart blockage, and cardiac arrest [59]. Recently, the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare recommended that serum magnesium concentrations be measured periodically in geriatric patients and in patients administered magnesium oxide for prolonged periods [60].

    Due to a lack of convincing evidence of the degree of risk of using magnesium salts in clinical practice, the authors of this review conducted a retrospective study on the occurrence of hypermagnesemia in patients receiving oral magnesium oxide for treating constipation [6]. Among the patients evaluated for serum magnesium concentration, 5.2% had hypermagnesemia and 16.6% had high serum magnesium concentration (>2.5 mg/dL). Factors associated with hypermagnesemia were impaired renal function and higher magnesium oxide dosage. Patients with a renal function classification of G1 (GFR ≥ 90 mL/min/1.73 m2) and G2 (GFR 60–89 mL/min/1.73 m2) had a serum magnesium concentration of 2.06 ± 0.23 and 2.11 ± 030 mg/dL, respectively, which is within the normal range. Patients classified as G4 (GFR 15–29 mL/min/1.73 m2) and G5 (GFR < 15 mL/min/1.73 m2) had a serum magnesium concentration of 2.46 ± 0.58 and 2.60 ± 0.99 mg/dL respectively; these averages exceeded the upper limit of normal levels. Analysis showed a significant positive correlation between the daily dose of magnesium oxide and blood magnesium concentration. By contrast, age and duration of administration were not correlated with serum magnesium concentration. From these results, we clarified that individuals with decreased renal function and individuals receiving a large daily dose are at high-risk of developing the hypermagnesemia. Wakai et al. also identified risk factors for developing hypermagnesemia in patients prescribed magnesium oxide via a retrospective cohort study [61]. They showed that 23% developed high serum magnesium concentration (>2.5 mg/dL). Renal function, daily dose, and duration of administration were indicated to be independent risk factors. Horibata et al. examined the relationship between renal function and serum magnesium concentration in elderly patients treated with magnesium oxide [62], and found that renal function also significantly correlated with serum magnesium levels. Tatsuki et al. investigated whether children with functional constipation taking daily magnesium oxide develop hypermagnesemia [63]. They showed that the serum magnesium concentration was 2.4 (2.3–2.5 median and interquartile range) mg/dL in children with functional constipation taking daily magnesium oxide, which was significantly higher than in the age- and sex-matched control group (2.2; 2.0–2.2 mg/dL). However, none of the patients had side effects associated with hypermagnesemia. These reports indicated the importance of monitoring serum magnesium levels in patients being treated with magnesium, especially in patients with chronic kidney failure and in patients treated with high dosages of magnesium oxide (a).

    Mechanism of hypermagnesemia and milk–alkali syndrome. (a) In patients with impaired renal function, poor magnesium excretion increases the risk of hypermagnesemia. (b) Simultaneous intake of excessive calcium and magnesium oxide, which is a non-absorbable alkali, can increase the serum calcium concentration.

    Magnesium oxide has relatively poor bioavailability (a fractional absorption of 4%) compared to other magnesium salts; the fractional absorption of magnesium chloride, magnesium lactate, and magnesium aspartate are all between 9 and 11% [54]. Another report showed that the bioavailability of magnesium oxide was significantly lower than that of magnesium citrate [64]. The low bioavailability of magnesium oxide may be related to its low solubility in water [64]. These results suggest that magnesium oxide may have a less propensity to cause hypermagnesemia than other magnesium preparations.

    4.3.2. Milk–Alkali Syndrome

    Milk–alkali syndrome is characterized by the triad of hypercalcemia, metabolic alkalosis, and decreased kidney function, and is caused by excessive intake of calcium and alkali [65]. Magnesium oxide is an absorbable alkaline preparation. Since serum calcium levels are tightly controlled by parathyroid hormone and active vitamin D, hypercalcemia does not easily occur even with excessive calcium intake [66]. However, when the serum calcium concentration rises (as a result of several possible causes) and the calcium concentration in the renal tubule rises, hypercalcemia has a well-known natriuretic and diuretic effect by activating the calcium-sensing receptor, leading to intravascular depletion of calcium. The resulting reduction in GFR further limits the excretion of bicarbonate and calcium, and absorbable alkaline preparations including magnesium oxide exacerbate calcium retention in the kidneys [67] (b).

    In recent years, common diseases in the aging population include both constipation and osteoporosis, which are often treated at the same time. In other words, individuals are often simultaneously treated with magnesium oxide for constipation and vitamin D preparations for osteoporosis, leading to milk–alkali syndrome [56,68,69]. Considering this scenario, it is necessary to pay attention to the possibility of milk–alkali syndrome and drug–drug interactions in the elderly who copresent with constipation and osteoporosis.

    5. Summary and Future Perspectives

    Magnesium oxide has been clinically used as a laxative for many years. Due to a lack of alternative treatment options, it was prescribed based on empirical experience. The increasing availability of newer drugs for treating constipation has led to the emergence of scientific evidence surrounding the use of magnesium oxide, which is convenient to administer, of low cost, and safe. Although RCTs have recently shown that magnesium oxide is safe and efficacious for treating constipation, evidence of efficacy for treating symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome, especially the constipation-predominant subgroup, needs to be urgently established. Risk factors for developing hypermagnesemia have been clarified and evidence suggests that appropriate monitoring for this potential side effect is necessary. To be specific, patients with renal impairment of CKD grade G4 or higher and patients who take 1000 mg of magnesium oxide or more daily should be monitored monthly at the time of drug introduction, and monitoring of serum magnesium is recommended in parallel with renal function even during the stable period [6]. However, there is still insufficient evidence to enable comparisons to be made between various laxative drugs and to enable correct prescribing decisions to be made. Drugs such as magnesium oxide are still prescribed based on empirical knowledge, and an accumulation of systematic evidence is still needed ().

    The advantages and disadvantages of magnesium oxide therapy. IBS, irritable bowel syndrome.

    Chronic constipation is normally treated by general practitioners rather than gastroenterologists. The establishment of systematic, scientifically presented guidelines for treating constipation, which clearly define the position of general practitioners and gastroenterologists and are based on sufficient evidence, are highly desirable.


    Figures were created with BioRender.com.

    Author Contributions

    All authors helped to perform the research; H.M. wrote the manuscript and summarized the references; J.T. and H.S. contributed to the manuscript writing, and study conception and design. All authors have read and agreed to the published version of the manuscript.


    This work was partially supported by a Grant from AMED (to Suzuki H.) and by a Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research B (20h4667, to Suzuki H.).

    Institutional Review Board Statement

    Not applicable.

    Informed Consent Statement

    Not applicable.

    Data Availability Statement

    Data sharing not applicable.

    Conflicts of Interest

    The author Suzuki H. received scholarship funds for research from Daiichi-Sankyo, Otsuka Pharmaceutical Co, Ltd., MSD Co., Mylan EPD, Tanabe Pharm. Co., and Takeda Pharmaceutical Co., and received service honoraria from Astellas Pharma, AstraZeneca K.K., EA Pharma Co., Ltd., Mylan EPD, Otsuka Pharm Co., Takeda Pharm Co., and Tsumura Co. Jan Tack has given Scientific advice to Adare, AlfaWassermann, Allergan, Arena, Bayer, Christian Hansen, Clasado, Danone, Devintec, Falk, Grünenthal, Ironwood, Janssen, Kiowa Kirin, Menarini, Mylan, Neurogastrx, Neutec, Novartis, Noventure, Nutricia, Shionogi, Shire, Takeda, Theravance, Tramedico, Truvion, Tsumura, Zealand and Zeria pharmaceuticals, has received research support from Shire, Sofar and Tsumura, and has served on the Speaker bureau for Abbott, Allergan, AstraZeneca, Janssen, Kyowa Kirin, Menarini, Mylan, Novartis, Shire, Takeda, Truvion and Zeria.


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    Which magnesium supplement is right for me?

    If your only experience with over-the-counter magnesium comes from the occasional glug of milk of magnesia to relieve your digestive distress, guess what? There is a whole wide world of magnesium supplements out there! This wonder nutrient is available in several formulations, with each variety aiming to treat different symptoms.

    To make it easier for you to head to your local pharmacy, health food store, or vitamin shop and buy the best kind of magnesium supplement for you, we’ve asked experts to lay out all your options—and make some recommendations for how, when, and why to take magnesium.

    What is magnesium?

    Magnesium is an essential mineral that the human body needs to regulate everything from your muscle and nervous system to your energy production, blood sugar, and blood pressure, according to the National Institutes of Health (NIH). Most adults need between 300 and 400 milligrams (mg) of magnesium per day, much of which comes from what you eat—foods like cooked beans, cashews and almonds, avocados, bananas, green leafy vegetables, dark chocolate, whole grains, and brown rice have a  high magnesium content, as are many fortified foods. You can find a full list of magnesium-rich food sources from the NIH’s Office of Dietary Supplements here.

    Still, you may not be getting as much of this nutrient as you think.

    “It’s estimated that about 80% of people are deficient in magnesium,” says naturopathic physician Jaquel Patterson, ND, medical director of Fairfield Family Health in Connecticut.

    A 2017 Scientifica study confirms this is a reasonable estimate, revealing that about two-thirds of the Western population is likely deficient in magnesium (a condition called hypomagnesemia). Most healthy people can handle a short-term deficiency, but in the long-term you may notice symptoms such as:

    • Loss of appetite
    • Nausea or vomiting
    • Fatigue and muscle weakness
    • Muscle cramps
    • Heart arrhythmia
    • Numbness or tingling

    People with certain health conditions, like Crohn’s disease, celiac disease, and Type 2 diabetes are at higher risk of becoming deficient in magnesium, as are people on certain medications (like chemotherapy drugs, some antibiotics, diuretics, and proton pump inhibitors).

    Benefits of magnesium

    The health benefits of magnesium supplementation can be broad, though in some cases there isn’t enough research to say definitively that increasing your intake is a reliable treatment.  Magnesium may help to improve the following: 


    Supplemental magnesium can regulate your bowel movements by acting as an osmotic laxative, drawing water into the intestines and making movements easier to pass. Magnesium citrate and magnesium hydroxide are common examples of osmotic laxatives. 

    RELATED: Constipation treatments and medications

    Muscle function

    If you suffer from restless legs syndrome or muscle cramps, a dietary supplement may be able to help. Unfortunately, much of this advice is anecdotal; several reviews of studies examining the link between magnesium and the relief of muscle cramps, including this one from Cochrane, showed no clear evidence that magnesium supplements are effective (a little bit of research shows they could be useful for pregnant women, but not for the rest of the population.) 


    Both the American Headache Society and the American Migraine Foundation agree that magnesium supplements may be effective in reducing the severity and frequency of migraine headaches, possibly because people with migraine have been shown to have lower than average levels of magnesium. In recent years, it’s even become a regular part of many migraine sufferers’ preventative care routines, especially for those with menstrual migraines.

    RELATED: Migraine treatment and medications

    High blood pressure

    Magnesium has vasodilator properties. Meaning it can help relax blood vessels and maintain normal blood pressure. The current evidence points to a small reduction in blood pressure with magnesium supplementation, which over time, could lead to better heart health and a lower risk of cardiovascular disease, heart attack, and stroke. For example, a 2016 review of studies in Hypertension found that an average supplementation of 368 mg per day for three months was associated with lower systolic and diastolic blood pressure levels. 

    RELATED: How to lower blood pressure naturally

    Insulin resistance

    According to NIH, magnesium deficiency may increase insulin resistance—often a precursor to developing Type 2 diabetes. A 2007 meta-analysis published in the Journal of Internal Medicine looked at the role of magnesium intake in preventing Type 2 diabetes; almost all the studies considered showed that increasing magnesium intake by even 100 mg a day could increase insulin sensitivity and lower your risk of Type 2 diabetes.

    Depression and anxiety

    Because magnesium contributes to nerve function, its role in preventing and treating neurological disorders has also been studied. According to a 2018 study in Nutrients, magnesium deficiency may be responsible for higher incidences of depression, anxiety, and chronic pain—and increasing intake may alleviate some of the symptoms associated with these conditions. There has also been some research studying magnesium’s effects on sleep quality and insomnia, as well as its possible benefits for children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    Magnesium side effects 

    Magnesium is generally considered to be safe. According to Jeffrey Fudin, Pharm.D., managing editor of paindr.com, side effects of magnesium supplementation—like nausea, vomiting, facial flushing, sleepiness and lethargy, decreased blood pressure, and cardiac abnormalities—are usually only seen in very high doses above 5,000 mg per day.

    Although you likely won’t take enough magnesium to have side effects, it’s possible that a supplement could interact with another medication you’re taking or be contraindicated for an existing medical condition. These include:

    • Drugs used to treat osteoporosis, like Fosamax, which can have reduced absorption from the stomach when taken with magnesium. “These two medications should be separated by at least two hours,” says Dr. Fudin. Otherwise, it could impact bone health.
    • Certain classes of antibiotics, including tetracyclines, such as doxycycline, and quinolones, such as levofloxacin and ciprofloxacin. Dr. Fudin recommends taking these antibiotics two hours before or six hours after magnesium to avoid any interaction.
    • Certain diuretics used to treat heart disease, like amiloride, spironolactone, and triamterene, which Dr. Fudin says can cause the body to retain magnesium and could cause dangerously high levels if you’re also supplementing with it.

    Finally, people with risk factors like diminished kidney function—including older adults and people with diabetes—are more likely to accumulate dangerously high levels of magnesium, says Dr. Fudin, so they should only supplement with magnesium under the care and supervision of a physician or pharmacist.

    Types of magnesium  

    If you’re Googling “magnesium supplement” and seeing a dozen different varieties pop up, it might feel like you need a chemistry degree to tell the difference between each one.

    Thankfully, we can make this easier for you: It’s all about relationships. Depending on what other elements the magnesium is combined with, some forms absorb more readily into the bloodstream than others—and this can change how the magnesium works in your body.

    “Different formulation options are important because they have varying ability to be absorbed from the gut to the bloodstream,” says Dr. Fudin. “Some are more water soluble compared to others and are therefore more readily absorbed into the blood, [while] the salts that are less well absorbed leave magnesium behind in the gut, where it becomes an osmotic laxative.”

    Readily absorbed: Magnesium chloride, magnesium citrate, magnesium aspartate, L-threonate, lactate, glycinate, malate, orotate, and taurate

    Less well-absorbed: Oxide and sulfate (which is typically applied to skin, but there’s not much evidence to show it’s well-absorbed that way, either)

    Best magnesium supplements 

    It’s up to you and your healthcare provider to determine which magnesium supplement you should take. But since finding the right formulation is often a matter of weighing how well the magnesium is absorbed into your bloodstream against what you want or need the magnesium to do, you can make a reasonable guess at where to start.

    Compare magnesium supplements
    Magnesium chloride (Brand name: SlowMag) Elemental chlorine


    200-500 mg Heartburn, constipation, sore muscles (topical) Get coupon
    Magnesium citrate (Brand name: Natural Vitality Calm) Citric acid 300-600 mg (or the amount of liquid/powder recommended on the packaging) Constipation, migraines, 

    mood swings (may improve anxiety and depression)

    Get coupon
    Magnesium glycinate Glycine (amino acid) 300-600 mg Insomnia, anxiety, stress Get coupon
    Magnesium lactate (Brand name: Mag Tab SR) Lactic acid 200-400 mg Mild digestive issues, low levels of magnesium  Get coupon
    Magnesium L-threonate (Brand name: Magtein) Threonic acid 1,500-2,000 mg Neurological issues, like ADHD, dementia, anxiety, depression Learn more
    Magnesium malate (Brand name: MagSRT) Malic acid 200-500 mg Chronic pain, fatigue, low magnesium levels Learn more
    Magnesium orotate Orotic acid 200-500 mg Low magnesium levels, cardiovascular support Learn more
    Magnesium oxide (Brand name: Mag-Ox) Oxygen 200-500 mg Heartburn and indigestion Get coupon
    Magnesium sulfate (Brand name: Epsom salt) Sulfur and oxygen Oral use: 2-6 tsp dissolved in 8 oz of water (adults and kids over 12)

    Topical use: 2 cups dissolved in gallon of warm water

    Sore muscles, stress relief Get coupon
    Magnesium taurate  Taurine (amino acid) Up to 1,500 mg Cardiovascular function (may improve blood sugar and blood pressure levels) Get coupon

     Note: These are the average dosage recommendations provided by supplement manufacturers; it’s best to follow the professional medical advice of a  healthcare provider regarding magnesium dosage. Always inform your physician of any supplements you begin taking.

    Magnesium supplements for kids

    You should always talk to your children’s pediatrician before giving them any supplements, but magnesium can, in many cases, be a safe option for kids with ADHD or restless legs syndrome.

    “Magnesium L-threonate comes in a kid-friendly powder and may have brain benefits that can help with ADHD,” says Dr. Patterson. “Magnesium oxide or citrate can be used for kids with restless legs syndrome or kids who just need help settling down at night.”

    Per the Mayo Clinic, the recommended dietary allowance (RDA) for children up to age 3 is 40 to 80 mg per day, while children between the ages of 4 and 6 can take 120 mg and kids between 7 and 10 can take 170 mg. Your pediatrician, however, may recommend a higher or lower dosage based on your child’s overall health and symptoms.

    Dr. Patterson, for example, usually suggests parents of older children start with 300 mg of magnesium and slowly increase the amount if needed. However, dosages of 500 to 600 mg may cause loose stool (which is a sign that you should lower your dose slightly). If your child doesn’t like drinking magnesium supplements, many are available in chewable or even gummy formulations.

    Does Magnesium Help You Sleep? – Cleveland Clinic

    In the eternal quest for a good night’s sleep, magnesium has gained attention as the latest supplement of note. Could this mineral help you catch some ZZZs?

    Cleveland Clinic is a non-profit academic medical center. Advertising on our site helps support our mission. We do not endorse non-Cleveland Clinic products or services. Policy


    “Overall, the evidence for magnesium is thin, but some people have found it helps them,” says integrative medicine specialist Naoki Umeda, MD. Here’s what to know about magnesium sleep aids.

    What is magnesium?

    Magnesium is a nutrient that’s involved in several important bodily functions. It plays a role in muscle and nerve function, is involved in regulating blood pressure and blood sugar, and even helps build bones and DNA.

    Some research shows it may also be a better alternative to counting sheep.

    “Magnesium may help regulate neurotransmitters that are directly related to sleep,” Dr. Umeda says. Neurotransmitters are chemicals that transmit messages between nerve cells in your brain and body. (It’s important to note that magnesium plays only a supporting role in their function.)

    If you eat a balanced diet, you probably get plenty of magnesium. “It’s widely available in both plant and animal foods such as dairy products, leafy greens, nuts, legumes and whole grains,” Dr. Umeda says. “And magnesium deficiency is rare in healthy people.”

    However, you may be at risk of magnesium deficiency if you:

    • Are an older adult.
    • Have Type 2 diabetes.
    • Have a gastrointestinal disorder.
    • Have alcohol use disorder.

    Magnesium for sleep

    Can taking magnesium help you get the rest you crave? Some studies have found that magnesium supplements can:

    • Make it easier to fall asleep.
    • Improve sleep quality.
    • Reduce symptoms of restless legs syndrome, which can interfere with a good night’s sleep.

    Sounds great, right? Not so fast. “The studies on sleep and magnesium were all small studies, and the evidence is thin,” Dr. Umeda says.

    It’s technically possible for a doctor to test your magnesium levels, but the findings aren’t very beneficial, Dr. Umeda says. Some people with low levels of magnesium sleep just fine, after all, and having it in your system is no guarantee of a sound snooze.

    What’s the right magnesium dosage for sleep?

    Magnesium supplements are safe, in general, but they could potentially interfere with some medications. Talk to your doctor before adding them to your routine.

    If you plan to try magnesium supplements for sleep, look for these products:

    • Magnesium glycinate (200 milligrams).
    • Magnesium citrate (200 milligrams).

    Avoid magnesium oxide, which is a stool softener and probably much less helpful for your insomnia.

    Dr. Umeda recommends taking the supplement about 30 minutes before bedtime. And don’t take more than the recommended amount. More won’t help you sleep better, but it may cause stomach upset.

    While magnesium might improve your slumber, it’s no substitute for a good sleep routine, Dr. Umeda says. “Limit caffeine, create a dark, cool sleeping environment and don’t use a smartphone or other devices before bed,” he says.

    Dr. Umeda says there are other supplements he’d recommend first, including melatonin, valerian and chamomile tea. “But if those don’t work,” he says, “it’s worth giving magnesium a try.”

    90,000 The best magnesium preparation. Short review. Comparison tables

    This article will help you choose the best magnesium supplement for everyone. We will tell you what prompted the writing of this review. Let’s talk about the different forms of magnesium, their advantages and disadvantages. Let’s go a little through the chelated forms of minerals, producing countries and raw materials for drugs. Let’s present a comparative table of magnesium preparations popular in the CIS market. And in conclusion, let’s talk about why, in fact, all this was started.


    1. The best magnesium preparation. Difficulties.
    2. The best magnesium preparation. Selection criteria.
    3. The best magnesium preparation. The composition of the preparations.
    4. The best magnesium preparation. Contest.
    5. The best magnesium preparation. A little about chelates.
    6. The best magnesium preparation. A little about manufacturers and raw materials.
    7. The best magnesium preparation. Summing up the results.

    The best magnesium preparation. Difficulty

    Nowadays it is rather difficult to find something worthy.Not because there is high competition and a wide choice, but because either there is no information at all, or too much useless. At the same time, it is the necessary and significant information that is clamped somewhere, hidden, silent. To understand, to delve into a question, you often have to become almost an expert in some issue.

    How do we choose which drug to buy? Some are guided by the recommendations of a doctor, some are looking for information among friends, someone is trying to find answers on forums on the Internet.This is at its best. But often we just go to the pharmacy. There we ask the drug we need. If it exists and the price suits us, we take it, if the price does not suit us, following the advice of a pharmacist, we select an analogue.

    We value things more than ourselves.

    For some reason we devote much less time and effort to the choice of what to drink and what to treat, than the choice of a telephone or a kettle. In the first case, we are most worried about the price, in the second, for some reason we think about reliability, convenience, quality and other indicators.

    You can arrogantly write off everything on the laziness and ignorance of the population, unwillingness to understand and think. But in reality, not everything is so simple. As practice has shown, it is much easier to get reliable data on the characteristics of the phone than to find really significant information in the instructions for a medical product.

    The most valuable thing is information. And to get this value, you need to try.

    As for our topic, when choosing the best magnesium preparation, you will find that the content of magnesium ions is often not indicated in the instructions of the preparations.Most often, the weight of the substance containing magnesium is indicated there. And these substances, believe me, are varied to the point of disgrace. Then one can hear in my head the malicious laugh of a school chemistry teacher, with whom we argued about the uselessness of her subject in the life of her.

    The best magnesium preparation. Selection criteria

    So, we are faced with a modest task – to find the best magnesium preparation in the CIS. After long research and meditation, we conclude that the manufacturer is important for us, the composition of which substance contains the magnesium we need, the amount of magnesium itself and the price.


    1. Manufacturer.
    2. Tablet contents.
    3. Magnesium amount.
    4. Cost

    Why the manufacturer is important, we’ll talk a little later. The quality of raw materials, the reliability of production and the availability of the product depend on the “pedigree” of the manufacturer.

    Composition of the substance. In the vastness of our market, the following forms were seen: asparaginate, citrate, lactate, oxide, orotate, carbonate, and others. Each form has its own characteristics in terms of absorption and action.

    Manufacturers of drugs firmly believe that we, the buyers, can calculate the content of magnesium ions right away, estimate the absorption and choose the best magnesium drug for ourselves without any prompts. Modesty does not allow most manufacturers to write the phrase “the amount of pure magnesium is”.

    We will not disappoint them in our abilities, therefore, where it is not written, we will consider it as a calculator. It’s your own fault.

    The best magnesium preparation.Composition of preparations

    Let’s define the goal. We set out to choose the best magnesium preparation. We will not invent anything new. We will use the logic that is involved in the choice of any technique.

    What often falls under the “best” category for us? Most often this is the price-quality ratio. We don’t like to overpay for a name or label, but we also don’t like to waste money buying a dubious product at a low price. The miser pays twice (and in the case of health, he may not pay).

    So, we want to please our body with magnesium.

    Organic salts are good due to better bioavailability and additional effects on the body.

    Let’s first imagine the most common forms, where magnesium is hiding in organic compounds (organic life forms will agree with me), and then inorganic sources (silicate life forms will be accused of racism).

    When choosing the best magnesium preparation, we take into account the properties of salts:

    1. Magnesium citrate.Citrate.
    2. Magnesium malate. Malic acid salt.
    3. Magnesium aspartate or aspartate. Salt of aspartic (amino succinic) acid.
    4. Magnesium Orotate. Orotic acid salt.
    5. Magnesium lactate. Lactic acid salt.
    Name of substance Value and role for the body
    Magnesium citrate Citric acid is a major intermediate in the metabolic cycle of tricarboxylic acids.Plays an important role in the system of biochemical reactions of cellular respiration. In an aqueous solution, it forms chelate complexes with ions of calcium, magnesium, copper, iron, etc. When taken orally in small doses, it activates the Krebs cycle, which helps to accelerate metabolism. The bioavailability of citrates is high.
    Magnesium malate Malic acid is an intermediate product of the tricarboxylic acid cycle and the glyoxylate cycle. That is, it is an indispensable substance for cellular respiration and metabolism.Malic acid is found in unripe apples, grapes, rowan berries, barberries, raspberries, etc. The bioavailability of malates is high.
    Aspartate (magnesium aspartate) Aminosuccinic acid is one of the 20 proteinogenic amino acids in the body. Plays an important role in the exchange of nitrogenous substances, participates in the formation of pyrimidine bases and urea. Aspartic acid and asparagine are critical for the growth and proliferation of leukemic cells in some types of lymphocytic leukemia.Good bioavailability.
    Magnesium Orotate Orotic acid is a vitamin-like substance that affects metabolism and stimulates the growth of living organisms, but does not have all the properties characteristic of vitamins. It is synthesized in sufficient quantities (cases of hypovitaminosis have not yet been described in the literature). Bioavailability is good.
    Magnesium lactate Lactic acid is formed by the breakdown of glucose. Sometimes called “blood sugar”, glucose is the main source of carbohydrates in our body.In the food industry it is used as a preservative, food additive E270. PLA plastic is obtained by polycondensation of lactic acid. Bioavailability is good.
    Magnesium sulfate Inorganic substance. It is used as a saline laxative when taken orally. In a hospital setting – intravenous administration. Not suitable for replenishing magnesium deficiency.
    Magnesium oxide Inorganic substance. It practically does not dissolve in a neutral medium.In terms of bioavailability, it is ten times inferior to organic analogues. Copes well with the task of combating constipation.

    The best magnesium preparation. Competition

    Regarding the well-known panangin and asparkam, why is so little of the daily magnesium requirement covered? The instructions clearly state that the maximum dosage is 9 tablets per day. This is probably due to the aspartic acid salt. According to some sources, asparaginate is almost toxic to the body (not tested, but we will not test it on ourselves).Regarding the high content of magnesium in oxides, you should not lick your lips. Bioavailability tends to zero. The table shows the number of tablets to obtain an average daily magnesium intake of 300 mg.

    Name Form of substance Amount of ionic magnesium Number of tablets required to obtain 300 mg Cost of daily intake in $
    Magnesium Chelate NSP (USA) Citrate + malate Mg 100 mg 3 0.32 $
    Magne Express
    citrate Mg 150 mg 2 0.94 $
    Magnelis B6 forte
    citrate Mg 100 mg 3 0.39 $
    Panangin Forte
    asparaginate Mg 23 mg 13 1.4 $
    asparaginate Mg 14 mg 21 1.8 $
    (All and sundry)
    Asparaginate Mg 14 mg 21 0.35 $
    orotat Mg 33 mg 9 1.77 $
    Complivit magnesium
    lactate Mg 60 mg 5 0.41 $
    Magnelis B6
    lactate Mg 56 mg 5-6 0.41 $
    Magne B6
    lactate Mg 48 mg 6-7 1.69 $
    Doppelherz active magnesium + B vitamins oxide Mg 400 mg 1 0.24 $
    Magne Good sleep
    oxide Mg 60 mg 5 1.1 $
    Magne Positive
    oxide Mg 50 mg 6 1.56 $

    The best magnesium preparation.A little about chelates

    Magnesium Chelate NSP is the first in the comparison table, because of the options presented, it has one declared chelated form of magnesium.

    Why the first one? Because chelated forms have significantly better bioavailability. We want to get magnesium ions, not chew its compounds and pass them through the gastrointestinal tract.

    So, let’s try to figure out what chelates are.

    Chelate compounds (from lat. chela – claw) – chelate complex compounds, formed by the interaction of metal ions with ligands.A ligand is an atom, ion or molecule associated with a certain center. Chelates contain a central complexing ion and ligands coordinated around it.

    Got it? Not good.

    Speaking without fear of getting hit on the head with a microscope, a chelate is when metal atoms envelop large molecules tightly enough to form a stable structure. May the gray-haired chemistry professors and couch critics forgive me. As a result, a complex is formed that protects the metal ion from unnecessary interactions and ensures its delivery to the place of demand.

    In medicine and agriculture, chelates are used to introduce microelements into food, due to the high digestibility of chelate complexes in comparison with free metal ions.

    Chelated form – reliable delivery of valuable cargo to its destination.

    Why is this interesting in our case? We want magnesium. Magnesium is a trace mineral that can be chelated with. By trivial manipulations with the encyclopedia, we learn that citric acid can be used as a weak chelating additive.

    It would seem that all magnesium citrates are chelate complexes? And then why don’t they write? Are they shy? Excessive modesty does not increase sales. This means that the reason is different.

    Not every manufacturer can provide a chelated form.

    The problem is this: in order to get a chelate as a result, you need to try very hard at the production stage and observe a fairly large number of conditions (at least the strictest ratio of metal and chelate additives).Few can afford it. Hence such honesty (although it is more likely due to the magnitude of the fines for giving false information). Having the same spices, each chef will prepare a dish according to his abilities.

    The best magnesium preparation. A little about manufacturers and raw materials

    Almost everyone in their life faced the dilemma of which manufacturer to give preference to. This is often due to the difference in price. Domestic is cheaper, foreign is more expensive. It has already become a habit.

    Everything is interesting in manufacturers. Form of organization (OJSC, CJSC, etc.). The location of the head office and production is valuable in that it is possible to assess the degree of responsibility to the consumer. The number of countries where the products are presented indirectly makes it clear about the quality of the products and their compliance with various standards. Optimal: sales of products in the country of origin and huge exports. Availability of representative offices … And much more.

    So let’s understand a little what the price of drugs is dictated by.We will not go deeply, this is not the topic.

    Usually the name, brand, company is blamed. They say that the company is called “Abevegedeyka”, it is world-famous, and therefore breaks prices unreasonably. Is this just the point? Do we pay for the name?

    Of course, famous companies have the opportunity to raise the price tag, because their customers are likely to endure and buy a familiar drug again.

    Also, the cost of the drug includes the cost of production, depreciation, wages and provision of working conditions (workers, doctors, medical representatives, etc.).etc.). One of the largest shares is promotions, marketing and product promotion. But it doesn’t matter to us. We cannot influence this, and does not directly affect the quality of the pill itself.

    What do we want to pay attention to? For raw materials for drugs. Very often we are faced with the fact that domestic manufacturers declare that their raw materials are foreign, and they only pack, which means that the drug is not inferior to the original one. Show a variety of production certificates, well-deserved awards in the vastness of the market.

    It would seem that everything is fine. They bought raw materials, blinded them here and got an equivalent product that will plug the bourgeois pills that are designed to undermine our economy.

    But let’s be honest. Those who had to repeatedly use the original and analogue. Why are there often so striking differences in the effectiveness and number of side effects? After all, the raw materials are German, the equipment is English, the workers are hardworking?

    Thinking Aloud: Clinical research is very expensive and can be afforded by a few firms.Most often, they are carried out with original drugs. Therefore, records of the safety and effectiveness of analogs are often not supported by experience. Those who trust them are the experimental sample.

    Everything is simple to insult. Our attention is focused on the country of origin of these raw materials. And at the same time, with the grace of an experienced magician, they take our eyes off the quality of the raw materials.

    99.99% of the production cost of the drug is the purification of raw materials. The more thorough the cleaning, the less impurities of compounds similar to the required active ingredient.In one country, you can buy an almost pure active ingredient for a tidy sum and pack it in a high-quality tablet, in the same country you can buy a kind of “broth” of chemical compounds containing the substance we need for cents and make an analogue.

    The degree of purification of raw materials can be calculated only indirectly: by carefully studying the manufacturer, the fame of his products and the reviews of the experimental.

    In both cases, we obtain raw materials from a developed country in a particular area.But in the second case, we save a lot.

    And under the trademark that the raw materials are good in the documents, the production is good, the workers are great, any manufacturer can safely raise prices. There is nothing to find fault with.

    This, in fact, is what happens in our time. The prices for analogs are often close to the prices of the originals.

    The best magnesium preparation. Summing up the results

    So, we hope the readers have an impression of how to choose the best magnesium supplement for themselves.We do not claim to be the ultimate truth. Everyone is guided by their own criteria when choosing how they will improve their life.

    For ourselves, we have chosen Magnesium Chelate from NSP.

    • First. The manufacturer is an American company with its own laboratory and confirmed production quality (GMP certificates and others). Another big plus is that it is an open joint stock company. That is, the company’s shares can be freely bought on the stock exchange. What does it mean? This means that every quarter all production is shaken up by additional commissions and checks.Company policy should be open and transparent. It’s no longer easy to sketch in documents.
    • Second. Raw materials are used mainly of plant origin, about 200 verification tests, almost a quarter of raw materials are rejected due to non-compliance with their own quality standards. No, it is not unprofitable for them. Rejected products will always be bought by manufacturing firms with more loyal quality standards.
    • Third. They use forms of magnesium with the highest possible bioavailability – chelated, which, against the background of a loyal price, is an important reason for an informed choice.
    • Fourth. Positive results when applied. But that’s a completely different story.

    So, we urge you to make an informed choice and pay your health a little more attention than a scratch on your car.

    90,000 Magnesium citrate, oxide, chelate or magnesium chloride, which magnesium is better? Magnesium: instruction for use

    Magnesium is called the main metal of life, it is necessary for the normal functioning of the body and the maintenance of our health.It participates in more than 300 biochemical reactions – it activates enzymes, regulates the heartbeat, energy processes, participates in the transmission of nerve impulses, muscle contraction, has a vasodilating effect, and is involved in the synthesis of protein and bone tissue.

    Magnesium is associated with other nutrients in the body, including calcium, vitamin K and vitamin D. For example, magnesium helps normalize high levels of calcium that can accumulate in the body as a result of calcium supplementation.In addition, it is known that taking large amounts of vitamin D-3 or not getting enough vitamin K2 can reduce the body’s stores of magnesium and exacerbate magnesium deficiencies.

    Best Magnesium Supplements on iHerb:

    Magnesium Deficiency

    Magnesium is so important to the body that a deficiency (hypomagnesemia) can cause various diseases.

    However, magnesium deficiencies often go unnoticed. According to some reports, 70-90% of the adult population has a lack of magnesium in the body.

    Modern nutrition is not able to provide the body with a sufficient amount of magnesium, which is probably why its deficiency is the second most common after vitamin D. increased nervous excitement

  • muscle pains, cramps and spasms
  • sleep disturbances, insomnia
  • increased fatigue and weakness
  • migraine
  • anxiety, depression
  • osteoporosis
  • 0
  • poor osteoporosis
  • 0
  • constipation
  • Magnesium is consumed daily by the body in the process of vital activity, and some of it is excreted in urine and sweat.Therefore, athletes who lose a lot of fluids through sweat and people taking diuretics need additional magnesium intake.

    Magnesium is known to be found in foods. Particularly high in magnesium are spinach, beans, peanuts, avocados and almonds.

    However, in the case of an already existing deficiency in the body, it is extremely difficult to make up for its deficiency with food.

    If this is the case, you will need magnesium supplements available from iHerb.com. Magnesium comes in various forms, including powders, capsules, tablets, or solutions (magnesium oil).

    Forms of magnesium supplements

    Magnesium supplements are of various types or, as they are often called, forms. The rate of absorption, bioavailability and the absence of side effects depend on the form of magnesium.

    Magnesium, which is highly soluble in liquid, is better absorbed in the intestine than its less soluble forms.

    Magnesium in the form of citrate, chelate and chloride is believed to be better absorbed than magnesium oxide and magnesium sulfate supplements.

    Basic forms of magnesium:

    • Magnesium glycinate is one of the common forms of chelated magnesium. Magnesium chelate is a chelate compound of magnesium with amino acids (proteins), in this case with an amino acid – glycine. Amino acids, like claws, grab metal and promote its rapid absorption. This type of magnesium is found in food. This form is the most preferred because it quickly restores magnesium levels in the body, is well tolerated and does not cause diarrhea side effects.
    • Magnesium taurate chelated form of magnesium , a compound of a magnesium ion and an amino acid molecule – taurine. The combination of taurine and magnesium normalizes blood calcium levels and protects blood vessels from calcification. In addition, magnesium taurate increases the sensitivity of cells to insulin, as a result of which it may reduce the risk of micro- and macrovascular complications in diabetes.
    • Magnesium citrate – magnesium in combination with citric acid.It is a relatively inexpensive and well known source of magnesium. Magnesium citrate can improve digestion, and in high doses is used medicinally as an effective laxative.
    • Magnesium malate is a compound obtained by combining magnesium with malic acid. This form of magnesium is cheaper than chelated forms, while it has good bioavailability. Magnesium Malate also has malic acid benefits such as supporting cellular energy production and chelating heavy metals in the body such as aluminum.Malate is used to treat many different conditions, including migraines and depression.
    • Magnesium Threonate is the magnesium salt of L-threoninic acid. A relatively new form of magnesium, brought to the market as a result of 20 years of research and development at Stanford University, MIT and Tsinghua University. Magnesium L-threonate has a high level of bioavailability because it can penetrate the mitochondrial membrane. Effectively replenishes magnesium deficiency in the body, has a positive effect on cognitive functions, mood and sleep.
    • Magnesium Orotate is a compound of magnesium and orotic acid. This form of magnesium has good bioavailability, but is inferior to its chelated compounds – glycinate and taurate. Clinical studies have shown that Magnesium Orotate has a positive effect on heart muscle and may be beneficial for heart failure, angina symptoms and increased physical activity.
    • Magnesium oxide is a less preferred form of magnesium, which, unlike chelated forms, is much less absorbed.Salts of magnesium oxide poorly compensate for magnesium deficiency, but are effective as a laxative and an antacid agent that reduces gastric acidity.
    • Magnesium Chloride is a form of magnesium, often applied to the skin as magnesium oil (bischofite brine) or added to a water bath as flakes. Magnesium chloride is well absorbed through the skin and this option is especially convenient for people with digestive problems. Magnesium oil is actively used by athletes to improve endurance, energy, relieve muscle pain.

    Magnesium Instructions for Use

    The need for magnesium depends on various factors such as age and gender. The US National Institutes of Health (NIH) recommends the following elemental magnesium dosages:

    • Infants – 6 months : 30 milligrams
    • 7-12 months : 75 mg
    • 1-3 years : 80 milligram
    • 4-8 years : 130 milligrams
    • 9-13 years : 240 milligrams
    • 14-18 years : 410 mg for men; 360 milligrams for women
    • 19-30 years : 400 mg for men; 310 milligrams for women
    • Adults 31 and over : 420 mg for men; 320 milligrams for women
    • Pregnant women : 350-360 milligrams
    • Breastfeeding women : 310-320 milligrams

    When to take magnesium? The best time of the day to take magnesium for most people is before bed.There is a recommendation to divide the daily dose into two doses, taking magnesium in the morning and in the evening. This will facilitate its better assimilation.

    For complete instructions on the use of each individual magnesium supplement, visit the iHerb website or on the back of the package.

    The best magnesium preparations on iHerb

    KAL, Magnesium glycinate 400, 400 mg, 90 tablets

    Magnesium glycinate . 90 tablets of 200 mg magnesium in each tablet.

    Buy Now

    Cardiovascular Research, Magnesium Taurate, 180 Vegetarian Capsules

    Magnesium Taurate .180 capsules of 125 mg magnesium in each capsule.

    Buy Now

    Now Foods, Magnesium Citrate, 120 Veggie Caps

    Magnesium Citrate . 120 capsules of 130 mg magnesium in each capsule.

    Buy Now

    Now Foods, Magnesium Malate, 1000 mg, 180 Tablets

    Magnesium Malate . 180 tablets, 115 magnesium in each tablet.

    Buy Now

    Doctor’s Best, Brain Magnesium, contains Magtein, 50 mg, 90 Vegetarian Capsules

    Magnesium Threonate .90 capsules of 50 mg magnesium in each capsule.

    Buy at a discount

    KAL, Magnesium Orotate, 200 mg, 60 Tablets

    Magnesium Orotate . 60 tablets of 100 mg magnesium in each tablet.

    Buy Discount

    21st Century, MgO, Magnesium Oxide, 400mg, 90 Tablets

    Magnesium Oxide . 90 tablets of 250 mg magnesium in each tablet.

    Buy at a discount

    Life-flo, Pure Magnesium Flakes, Magnesium Chloride Brine, 2.75 lb (44 oz)

    Magnesium Chloride Bath Flakes .

    Buy Now

    Life-flo Magnesium Oil, 8 fl oz 237 ml

    Magnesium Bischofite Body Oil .

    Buy at a discount

    Magnesium for children

    Nature’s Plus, “Animal Parade” Mag Kidz, magnesium for children, natural cherry flavor, 0.37 lbs (171 g)

    Magnesium for children (171 g citrate magnesium powder) .1 teaspoon (3.8 g) contains 100 mg of magnesium.

    Buy Now

    Vitables, Children’s Magnesium Chewable Supplement, Sugar Free, Cherry, 90 Veggie Tablets

    Children’s Magnesium (Magnesium Citrate) . 90 tablets of 50 mg magnesium in each tablet.

    Buy at a discount

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    Plasma-Assisted Molecular Beam Epitaxy Growth of Mg3N2 and Zn3N2 Thin Films

    Please note that all translations are automatically generated.

    This article describes the growth of epitaxial films Mg 3 N 2 and N 3 N 2 on MgO substrates using plasma molecular beam epitaxy with gas N 2 as a nitrogen source and optical growth monitoring.

    In this video, we show how to grow magnesium nitrite and zinc nitrite epitaxial films using plasma molecular beam epitaxy, or MBE for short.Magnesium nitrite and zinc nitrite are II-V compound semiconductor materials. This is a relatively unknown class of semiconductors.

    They have an anti-bixbyite crystal structure that has 80 atoms in a normal cell of a cube block. Films are grown in the VG V80 MBE system. The horizontal chamber on the left is the preparatory chamber, and the circular chamber on the right is the growth chamber where the film grows.

    Sample inlet lock located at the left end of the preparation chamber.The best substrate we have found for growing epitaxial magnesium nitrite and zinc nitrite is 100-oriented single crystal magnesium oxide. One meter square substrates are first placed on a sapphire sample carrier plate with the polished side up and annealed for nine hours at 1000 degrees Celsius. High temperature annealing removes carbon from the surface and reconstructs the surface of the magnesium oxide crystal structure of a single crystalline substrate.

    After annolation, the samples are washed in deionized water, boiled in acetone for 30 minutes to remove organic carbon contamination from the treatment, then washed again with methanol and blown out with nitrogen. The first step in MBE growth is to include cooling water for thermonuclear cells and a cryo-shroud in the growth chamber. We then turn on the growth monitoring laser, RHEED power supply, RF plasma generator power supply, and quartz crystal microbalance system.

    Magnesium Oxide Substrates mount on three inch diameter molybdenum sample holders with tungsten spring clips. The first step in loading samples into the MBE is to turn off the turbo pump and vent quick-lock the entrance. The sample holder cassette is removed from the quick entry lock and a new sample is loaded into the cassette and the cassette is put back into the quick entry lock.

    The turbo pump is used to evacuate the fast lock entry. Thus, we usually de-gas the substrate in a quick lock inlet at 100 degrees, Celsius degree, for 30 minutes.Then transfer it to the preparatory chamber for disavowing at 400 degrees Celsius for five hours.

    The de-gas sample holder is transported by the trolley mechanism to the growth chamber, where it is loaded into the manipulator sample. Sample from gas in a manipulator at 750 degrees Celsius for 30 minutes. Make sure cooling water is turned on in the cryo-shroud to avoid overheating.

    In the case of magnesium nitrite growth, the substrate temperature drops to 330 degrees. Growth chamber pressure should now be below 10 to minus eight Torr.The voltage at the high energy reflection of the electron diffraction gun, or RHEED for short, is slowly increased to 15 kilovolts and the heater filament current is set at one and a half amplifiers.

    The substrate holder is rotated until the electron diffraction pattern shows conformity with the principal crystal graphic axis of the substrate and a clear single crystal electron diffraction image is visible. Group 3 standard diffusion cells or low temperature diffusion cells are used for magnesium and zinc.Crucibles were loaded with 15 grams and 25 grams of high purity magnesium and zinc shot, respectively.

    Cells for the synthesis of a source of zinc and magnesium go to gas at 250 degrees for one hour with closed shutters. This is usually done before loading the substrate into the manipulator. After loading the substrate, we heat the zinc synthesis cell to 350 degrees Celsius and the magnesium cell to 390 degrees Celsius.

    Retractable quartz crystal monitor is located in front of the substrate inside the chamber.Make sure the substrate is completely covered by the detector so that no metal is deposited on the substrate. Inject the metal density into the quartz crystal monitor controller so that the controller reads the thickness of the deposited metal on the quartz crystal gauge.

    To calibrate the flow, we open the shutter on one of the metal sources and allow the metal flow from one of the infusion cells to calibrate at the transducer. The thickness measured by the controller will increase linearly with time as the metal builds on the gauge.By setting a straight line to thickness as a function of time, we obtain an accurate measurement of metal flow.

    Once the flow measurements are complete, close the shutters on the infusion cages and remove the quartz crystal monitor detector from the front of the sample holder. This graph shows the temperature dependence of the flux as measured by a metal source using a quartz crystal monitor. Straight lines are anchored in the Arrhenius relationship.

    The flow roughly doubles for every 12-degree rise in source temperature.Turn off the filament current and high voltage on the RHEED gun to prevent damage to the filament when there is a high pressure of nitrogen gas in the growth chamber. The next step is to start up the nitrogen plasma source.

    Open the gas valve on the high pressure cylinder, then slowly open the leak valve until the nitrogen pressure in the growth chamber reaches 3-4 times 10 to minus five Torr. Then set the 13.56 MHz RF power to 300 watts. Plasma is started with an igniter at the plasma source.

    When the plasma has started, a bright violet glow is visible from the view port at the back of the plasma source. Adjust the controls on the RF box to minimize reflective power as much as possible. Reflected power less than 15W is good.

    Focus the chopped 488nm argon laser light reflected from the substrate in the growth chamber onto the silicon photo diode so that the electrical signal is detected by the blocking amplifier. This is achieved by adjusting the angle of the substrate by rotating the substrate holder around two axes and adjusting the position of the silicone detector and focusing the lens that collects the reflected light as shown in this picture.A laser line filter is used to block all light except for 488 nanometers of light from an argon laser.

    The photo diode output is measured by a blocking amplifier and this single is proportional to the reflectivity of the substrate surface. Open the shutter of one of the metal sources. Start up the time-dependent reflector using a computer-controlled data logger.

    The growth of the epitaxial film will produce an oscillatory echo associated with a thin film of optical interference between the front and back surfaces of the film.When magnesium nitrite films are first taken out of the MBE, they are yellow but quickly fade to a whitish color. To protect the films from oxidation and air, it is recommended that the magnesium oxide encapsulation layer be deposited on top before taking the film from the growth chamber to protect the film from oxidation when exposed to air.

    This is especially important for magnesium nitrite and less important for zinc nitrite. In order to close the nitrogen gas from the deposit of the magnesium oxide encapsulation layer and switch to oxygen gas and increase the oxygen pressure to 10 to minus five Torr.With the growth of the layer closure, we reduce the RF power to 250 W.

    Plasma starts at a lower RF power with oxygen than with nitrogen. Once the oxygen plasma is running, open the shutter to the magnesium source and monitor the dependent reflectance time for 10 minutes. This will produce a magnesium oxide film that is about 10 nanometers thick.

    Use this equation to simulate the optical reflectance of the samples. n2 is the refractive index of the 488 nanometer magnesium oxide substrate, which is 1.75.Theta naught is the angle of the incident measured in relation to the substrate normally.

    Etc. this time during the growth process. Film optical constants, n1 and k1, and growth rates are obtained by setting reflectance as a function of time with equation. the yellow square is an example of a magnesium nitrite film topped with magnesium oxide, and the black square is an example of a zinc nitrite film.

    Magnesium nitrite is yellow because it has a break in the visible band, while zinc nitrite is black because it is an infrared break.The figure on the left is an RHEED electron diffraction pattern for a bare magnesium oxide substrate with an aligned electron beam parallel to the 110th direction. The middle pattern is a zinc nitrite film, and on the right is a magnesium nitrite film.

    These results show that the crystal structures of the deposited films are oriented in the plane of the substrate, as would be expected for epitaxial films. This shows what happens to the electron diffraction model when the bare magnesium oxide substrate is rotated in the sample manipulator.This graph shows optical reflectance as a function of time during the growth of zinc nitrite and magnesium nitrite films.

    By setting reflectivity as a function of time on an optical model, you can extract the refractive index, extinction coefficient, k, and growth rate, z, for films. Reflectivity drops over time in the case of magnesium nitrite films due to the scattering of the surface roughness, which we mathematically washed off with a damped exponential. In this video, we showed you how to grow epitaxial magnesium and zinc nitrite films using plasma molecular beam epitaxy.

    One of our findings is that measuring the optical reflectance of samples during growth is a good way to determine both growth rates and optical constants of a film. Unfortunately, our material does not exhibit photoluminescence, either at room temperature or at low temperatures, so further improvements in film quality need to be made. Experiments in our laboratory on powder samples provide clues to how this can be done.

    Zinc nitrite powders made by reacting zinc with ammonia at high temperature exhibit strong photoluminescence. This suggests that using ammonia instead of nitrogen gas as a nitrogen source could be a way to make a material with improved electronic properties.

    % d0% ba% d0% b0% d0% bb% d1% 8c% d1% 86% d0% b8% d0% b9-% d0% bc% d0% b0% d0% b3% d0% bd% d0% b8% d0% b9 – from Russian into all languages ​​

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    Main consequences of magnesium deficiency: solevolito – LiveJournal

    Hypomagnesemia (magnesium deficiency) is difficult to diagnose in the initial stages.Symptoms become more noticeable when magnesium levels fall well below normal. According to recent US studies, 75% of Americans are deficient in dietary magnesium, and it can be assumed that the situation is no better in Russia and other countries.

    Magnesium deficiency can have various reasons – from a low concentration of the mineral in the diet to the rapid loss of magnesium reserves by the body.

    Physiological causes of rapid magnesium loss can include poor absorption, severe stress, strenuous mental activity, diabetes, chronic diarrhea, hungry bone syndrome and alcoholism.

    Consider the main symptoms and consequences of magnesium deficiency.

    1. Muscle twitching and cramps

    Twitching, tremors and muscle spasms are signs of magnesium deficiency. In the worst case, the lack of the mineral can cause seizures and convulsions. Scientists believe these symptoms are caused by a large influx of calcium into nerve cells, which overexcites or overstimulates the muscle nerves.

    In some cases, taking a magnesium supplement can help alleviate the problem of muscle twitching and cramps.But you need to understand that these manifestations can have other reasons, for example, severe stress or an excess of caffeine. They can also be the result of medication or can be symptoms of neurological diseases such as neuromyotonia and motor neuron disease.

    2. Mental disorders

    One of the serious consequences of long-term Mg deficiency can be impaired function of the nervous system.

    Apathy is one of the possible mental disorders resulting from a lack of magnesium.With an acute deficiency, a person may even fall into delirium or coma.

    Several studies have shown a link between magnesium deficiency and depression. Also, a lack of this mineral can cause anxiety and anxiety.

    At the moment, there are many studies confirming the fact that magnesium deficiency can cause dysfunction of the nervous system.

    3. Osteoporosis

    Osteoporosis is a chronically progressive metabolic disease characterized by a decrease in bone density, an increase in their fragility and microarchitectonics disorders.

    Osteoporosis can occur for several reasons, these include old age, lack of exercise, deficiency of vitamins D and K.

    One of the essential factors in the development of osteoporosis is magnesium deficiency. Lack of Mg can weaken bones directly, and it also lowers the level of calcium in the blood, the main building block of the skeleton.

    Animal studies have shown that a decrease in magnesium in the diet leads to a decrease in bone mass.

    Magnesium deficiency directly affects the risk of osteoporosis and bone fragility. This is not the only cause of these ailments, but it is widespread in our time.

    4. Fatigue and muscle weakness

    Fatigue, a condition characterized by physical or mental exhaustion and weakness, is another symptom of magnesium deficiency.

    Fatigue in general is a normal phenomenon, if a person feels tired, he just needs to rest, and the state of fatigue goes away.But severe and prolonged fatigue can be a sign of health problems.

    Since fatigue is a non-specific symptom, its cause cannot be pinpointed unless it is accompanied by other symptoms.

    Another more specific symptom of magnesium deficiency is muscle weakness, also known as myasthenia gravis. Scientists believe that the cause of weakness is the loss of potassium in muscle cells, and this condition is directly related to magnesium deficiency. Thus, low Mg levels can be one of the causes of fatigue and muscle weakness.

    5. High blood pressure

    Animal studies show that magnesium deficiency can lead to high blood pressure, which is a significant risk factor for cardiovascular disease. And observational studies support this.

    Based on the results of clinical studies, scientists have concluded that taking magnesium supplements can lower blood pressure in people with high blood pressure.

    6. Asthma

    In people with asthma, the level of magnesium in the blood is significantly lower than in healthy people.Scientists believe that magnesium deficiency causes calcium to build up in the muscles of the airways. This narrows the airways and makes breathing difficult.

    For people with severe asthma, magnesium sulfate inhalers are available to widen and relax the airways. For severe, life-threatening seizures, injections are the preferred route of magnesium delivery.

    At the moment, there are several different points of view about the effect of magnesium deficiency on the development of asthma, while its role in this is not fully understood.

    7. Cardiac arrhythmia

    One of the most serious consequences of magnesium deficiency is heart rhythm disturbance. Often the symptoms of arrhythmia are mild, in some people they can manifest themselves as a rapid heartbeat or delays between contractions of the heart muscle. This may be accompanied by dizziness, shortness of breath, chest pain, and fainting. In severe cases, arrhythmia can lead to stroke or heart failure.

    Scientists believe that the cause of arrhythmia may be an imbalance in the level of potassium inside and outside the cells of the heart muscle.This condition is associated with a magnesium deficiency.

    Clinical studies have shown that patients with heart failure and arrhythmia have significantly lower magnesium levels than healthy people. Treatment of such patients with magnesium injections significantly improves their condition. Magnesium supplementation can also improve the condition in some patients with arrhythmias.

    There are about two hundred types of magnesium supplements to be found on iHerb. I will tell you about the supplement I recently bought Magnesium-500 from the brand KAL .

    The supplement is a magnesium complex of 4 forms of magnesium with added amino acids and phytonutrients to improve absorption. Contains: magnesium oxide, magnesium taurate, magnesium citrate, magnesium orotate, arginine, glutamine, black pepper, cayenne pepper, ginger, rosemary and turmeric extracts. The tablets are made using ActivTab technology, which guarantees their onset of action within 30 minutes.

    Tablets are large, should be taken with plenty of water. It is recommended to take 1 tablet daily.

    The supplement contains forms of magnesium, different in the rate of absorption and the method of action. Citrate – will provide a rapid rise in magnesium levels. Oxide – Will take a long time to be absorbed and will provide magnesium replenishment in the long term. Both of these forms are good for treating magnesium deficiency. Magnesium taurate has a beneficial effect on brain neurons. Magnesium Orotate is especially beneficial for the heart.

    ActiSorb extracts stimulate gastric acid secretion and prolong the absorption of magnesium in the intestines.

    Tablets are large, should be taken with plenty of water. It is recommended to take 1 tablet a day, which is very convenient. Better on an empty stomach and in the evening. I drink before bedtime, it helps me to relax more easily, and sleep is deeper, I do not wake up several times at night.

    I recommend this interesting magnesium supplement as an excellent means of preventing and treating hypomagnesemia with enhanced functions for the nerves and heart. And this supplement is currently available on iHerb for a 40% discount !

    Use the code TOV513 in your shopping cart, you can get an additional 10% discount on iHerb home brands for regular customers, as well as 10% discount on the entire basket if you are a newbie.

    HLS. Sport. TRP – KGA POU “Governor’s Aircraft Building College of Komsomolsk-on-Amur

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    “Proper nutrition, its components”

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    “Daily routine: sleep, food, water”

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    Morning exercises


    A healthy lifestyle is an individual system of human behavior that provides him with physical, mental and social well-being in a real environment (natural, technogenic and social) and active longevity.

    A healthy lifestyle creates the best conditions for the normal course of physiological and mental processes, which reduces the likelihood of various diseases and increases a person’s life expectancy.

    A healthy lifestyle helps us to fulfill our goals and objectives, successfully implement our plans, cope with difficulties, and if necessary, even with colossal overloads. Good health, maintained and strengthened by the person himself, will allow him to live a long and full of joy life.Health is an invaluable wealth of each person individually and of the whole society as a whole. How can you improve your health? The answer is simple – lead a healthy lifestyle.

    1. Regime of the day and human health.

    The whole life of a person passes in the mode of distribution of time, partly forced, associated with socially necessary activities, partly according to an individual plan. So, for example, a student’s daily routine is determined by the curriculum of classes in an educational institution, a serviceman’s routine is determined by a daily routine approved by the commander of a military unit, and a working person’s routine is determined by the beginning and end of the working day.

    Thus, the regime is the established routine of a person’s life, which includes work, food, rest and sleep.

    The main component of the mode of human life is his work, which is a purposeful human activity aimed at creating material and spiritual values.

    The mode of human activity must be subordinated, first of all, to his effective labor activity. A working person lives in a certain rhythm: he must get up at a certain time, do his duties, eat, rest and sleep.And this is not surprising – all processes in nature are subordinated to one degree or another to a strict rhythm: seasons alternate, night replaces day, day again replaces night. Rhythmic activity is one of the basic laws of life and one of the foundations of any work.

    The rational combination of the elements of the mode of vital activity ensures a more productive work of a person and a high level of his health. The whole organism as a whole participates in human labor activity. The labor rhythm sets a physiological rhythm: at certain hours the body is under stress, as a result of which the metabolism increases, blood circulation increases, and then a feeling of fatigue appears; at other hours, days when the load is reduced, rest comes after fatigue, strength and energy are restored.The correct alternation of load and rest is the basis of a high human performance.

    Now it is necessary to dwell on the question of rest. Rest is a state of rest or vigorous activity, leading to the restoration of strength and performance.

    The most effective way to restore working capacity is active rest, which allows you to use your free time rationally. The alternation of types of work, a harmonious combination of mental and physical labor, physical culture provide effective restoration of strength and energy.A person needs to have a rest every day, weekly on weekends, annually during the next vacation, using free time to strengthen physical and spiritual health.

    1. Rational nutrition and its importance for health.

    The eternal desire of people to be healthy and efficient has led to the fact that in recent years, much attention has begun to be paid to rational nutrition as one of the important components of a healthy lifestyle. Correct, scientifically grounded nutrition is the most important condition for human health, performance and longevity.

    With food, a person receives all the necessary elements that provide the body with the energy necessary for the growth and maintenance of the vital functions of tissues.

    The nutrients the body needs are divided into six main types: carbohydrates, proteins, fats, vitamins, minerals and water. Eating right means getting with food in sufficient quantity and in the right combination everything that the body needs.

    Proper nutrition is, first of all, a varied diet, taking into account the genetic characteristics of a person, his age, physical activity, climatic and seasonal characteristics of the environment.It allows the body to maximize its genetic potential, but the body is not able to surpass this potential, no matter how well the nutrition is organized.

    It should be noted that there are no foods that are good or bad in themselves. All food products have nutritional value to one degree or another, but there is no ideal food either. It is important not only what we eat, but how much we eat, when we eat and in what combinations we eat certain foods.

    Let’s consider in detail the main types of nutrients required by the body.

    Carbohydrates are organic compounds consisting of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. They are found in all foods, but they are especially abundant in cereals, fruits and vegetables.

    According to the complexity of their chemical structure, carbohydrates are divided into two groups: simple and complex carbohydrates.

    The basic unit of all carbohydrates is sugar called glucose. Glucose is a simple sugar.

    Several residues of simple sugars combine with each other and form complex sugars. The basic unit of all carbohydrates is sugar called glucose. Glucose is a simple sugar.

    Several residues of simple sugars combine with each other and form complex sugars.

    Thousands of residues of molecules of the same sugars, connecting with each other, form a polysaccharide: there are about 50 thousand different types of proteins. They all consist of four elements: carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen, which, in a certain way, combine with each other to form amino acids.There are 20 types of amino acids. A compound consisting of a large number of amino acids is called a polypeptide. Each protein is a polypeptide in its chemical structure. The majority of proteins contain an average of 300-500 amino acid residues. It should be noted that some bacteria and all plants are capable of synthesizing all the amino acids from which proteins are built.

    Vitamins are organic chemical compounds that the body needs for normal growth, development and metabolism.Vitamins do not belong to carbohydrates, proteins or fats. They are composed of other chemical elements and do not provide the body with energy.

    Citrus fruits are an excellent source of vitamin C. Getting the required amount of vitamin C from fruits and vegetables energizes the immune system.

    Zinc is also very important for strengthening the immune system – it has antiviral and antitoxic effects. You can get it from seafood, from unrefined grains and brewer’s yeast. In addition, you need to drink tomato juice – it contains a large amount of vitamin A.

    You need to eat protein. Protective factors of immunity are built from protein – antibodies (immunoglobins). If you eat a little meat, fish, eggs, dairy dishes, nuts, they simply cannot be formed.


    It is useful to eat foods that increase the number of beneficial bacteria in the body. They are called probiotic and include onions and leeks, garlic, artichokes and bananas.

    In the spring and at the end of winter, there is a lack of vitamins in the body.You, of course, know the boxes and jars of vitamins. Some will buy sweet tablets containing vitamins and eat almost the whole pack at once. Then suddenly, for no reason at all, nausea, headache begins … This body lets you know about the increased content of vitamins. Therefore, vitamin preparations can only be taken on the recommendation of a doctor, or at least with the permission of adults.

    The human body contains a variety of substances: iron, calcium, magnesium, potassium, etc.But most of all there is water in the human body. The brain, for example, contains 80% water, muscles 76%, bones 25%.

    Animals in the process of evolution have lost the ability to synthesize ten particularly complex amino acids, called irreplaceable. They get them ready-made with plant and animal food. Such amino acids are found in proteins of dairy products (milk, cheese, cottage cheese), eggs, fish, meat, as well as in soybeans, beans and some other plants.

    In the digestive tract, proteins are broken down into amino acids, which are absorbed into the bloodstream and enter the cells.In the cells, they build up their own proteins, which are characteristic of a given organism.
    Minerals are inorganic compounds that account for about 5% of body weight. Minerals serve as structural components of teeth, muscles, blood cells and bones. They are essential for muscle contraction, blood clotting, protein synthesis, and cell membrane permeability. The body receives minerals from food.

    Mineral substances are divided into two classes: macroelements and microelements.
    Macronutrients – calcium, phosphorus, potassium, sulfur, sodium, chlorine and magnesium – are required by the body in relatively large quantities.

    Trace elements: iron, manganese, copper, iodine, cobalt, zinc and fluorine. The need for them is somewhat less.

    Water is one of the most important components of the body, accounting for 2/3 of its mass. Water is the main component of all biological fluids. It serves as a solvent for nutrients and toxins. The role of water in regulating body temperature and maintaining acid-base balance is great; water is involved in all chemical reactions in the body.

    In order for food to meet the requirements of a healthy lifestyle, it must provide the body with all the necessary nutrients in the required amount and the right combination. The human body is a complex mechanism. Human health depends on how much energy a person receives and how much he spends and how harmoniously all his organs work, providing the necessary level of vital activity.

    3. Influence of physical activity and hardening

    Physical culture has always played a leading role in preparing a person for active fruitful life.She can successfully solve the problem of an imbalance between the strength of emotional stimuli and the realization of the physical needs of the body. This is a sure way to improve your mental and physical health.

    Physical culture has an important impact on a person’s ability to adapt to sudden and strong functional fluctuations. In total, a person has 600 muscles, and this powerful locomotor apparatus requires constant training and exercise. Muscular movements create a huge stream of nerve impulses heading to the brain, maintain the normal tone of the nerve centers, charge them with energy, and relieve emotional overload.In addition, people who are constantly involved in physical education look more attractive outwardly. Physical education is the best measure to prevent alcohol consumption, smoking and drug addiction.

    Exercise gives a person self-confidence. People who are constantly engaged in physical education are less exposed to stress, they cope better with anxiety, anxiety, depression, anger and fear. They are not only able to relax more easily, but also know how to relieve emotional stress with the help of certain exercises.Physically trained people resist disease better, fall asleep more easily, sleep better, and take less time to get enough sleep. Some physiologists believe that every hour of physical activity prolongs a person’s life by two to three hours.

    Daily morning exercises – the obligatory minimum of physical activity for the day. You need to make it the same habit as washing your face in the morning.

    Hardening is an increase in the body’s resistance to the adverse effects of a number of environmental factors (for example, low or high temperature) by systematic exposure of the body to these factors.

    Modern dwellings, clothing, transport, etc. reduce the impact on the human body of atmospheric influences, such as temperature, humidity, sunlight. Reducing such influences on our body reduces its resistance to environmental factors. Hardening is a powerful health remedy. With its help, many diseases can be avoided and for long goals to preserve the ability to work, the ability to enjoy life. The role of hardening is especially great in the prevention of colds.Hardening procedures reduce their number by 2-4 times, and in some cases they help to get rid of colds altogether. Hardening has a general strengthening effect on the body, increases the tone of the central nervous system, improves blood circulation, and normalizes metabolism.
    The main conditions that must be met when hardening the body are the systematic use of hardening procedures and a gradual increase in the force of impact. It must be remembered that in 2-3 months after the cessation of hardening, the previously achieved level of resistance of the organism begins to decline.

    The most common form of hardening is the use of fresh cool air. For this, in the warm season, long walks, hiking trips, sleeping in a room with an open window are good.

    At home it is useful to walk barefoot on the floor, and for the first time during! minutes, then increase the duration by 1 minute every week. In the cold season, walking is good to complement with skiing, ice skating, slow tempering jogging in lightweight clothing.Improving resistance to low temperatures also contributes to morning exercises in the open air or in a carefully ventilated room.

    Stronger hardening factor – water. In addition to temperature, water has a mechanical effect on the skin, which is a kind of massage that improves blood circulation.
    Hardening can be carried out by wiping or dousing with water. They begin quenching with water at a temperature not lower than 33-35 degrees and then every 6-7 days the water is cooled by one degree.If there are no changes on the part of the body, the water temperature can be brought to the tap temperature (10-12 degrees).

    Swimming in open water has a great hardening effect. In this case, water irritation is combined with exposure to air. When swimming, increased muscle work during swimming contributes to warming the body. At the beginning, the duration of bathing is 4-5 minutes, gradually it is increased to 15-20 minutes. During too long bathing or bathing in very cold water, the increased metabolism cannot compensate for the loss of heat and the body is hypothermic.As a result, instead of hardening, a person harms his health.

    Sun exposure is one of the hardening factors. It causes vasodilation, enhances the activity of hematopoietic organs, promotes the formation of vitamin D in the body. This is especially important for the prevention of rickets in children.

    Duration of exposure to the sun should initially not exceed 5 minutes. It is gradually increased to 40-50 minutes, but no more. It should be remembered that excessive exposure to the sun can lead to overheating of the body, sunstroke, and burns.

    These are the main components of health. Remember: a healthy lifestyle allows you to largely reveal those valuable personality traits that are so necessary in the conditions of modern dynamic development. This is, first of all, high mental and physical performance, social activity, creative longevity. A conscientious and responsible attitude towards health as a public domain should become the norm of life and behavior of all people. The widespread adoption of a healthy lifestyle is a matter of national importance, nationwide, and at the same time it concerns each of us.

    Formation of a way of life, contributing to the strengthening of human health, is carried out at three levels.

    Quitting bad habits. The harm of smoking.

    Bad habits include alcohol abuse, smoking, drug addiction and substance abuse. All of them negatively affect human health, destructively acting on his body and causing various diseases. Smoking tobacco is one of the most common bad habits.Over time, it causes the smoker’s physical and mental dependence.
    First of all, the pulmonary system suffers from tobacco smoke, the defense mechanisms of the lungs are destroyed, and a chronic disease develops – the smoker’s bronchitis.

    Part of the tobacco ingredients dissolves in saliva and, getting into the stomach, causes inflammation of the mucous membrane, which subsequently develops into gastric ulcer or duodenal ulcer.
    Tobacco smoking is extremely harmful to the activity of the cardiovascular system and often leads to heart failure, angina pectoris, myocardial infarction and other diseases.
    Radioactive substances in tobacco smoke can sometimes cause cancer. Tobacco smoke contains more than three thousand harmful substances. It is impossible to remember all of them. But there are three main groups of toxins you need to know:

    Resins. Contains strong carcinogens and substances that irritate the tissues of the bronchi and lungs. Lung cancer is caused by smoking in 85% of all cases. Oral and laryngeal cancers are also predominant in smokers. Resins are the cause of smokers’ coughs and chronic bronchitis.
    Nicotine. Nicotine is a stimulating narcotic substance. Like any drug, it is addictive, addictive and addictive. Increases heart rate and blood pressure. Stimulation of the brain is followed by a significant decline up to depression, which causes the desire to increase the dose of nicotine. A similar two-phase mechanism is inherent in all narcotic stimulants: first they excite, then they exhaust. A complete cessation of smoking can be accompanied by a withdrawal syndrome lasting more often up to 2-3 weeks.The most common symptoms of nicotine withdrawal are irritability, sleep disturbances, tremors, anxiety, and decreased tone.
    All these symptoms do not pose a threat to health, they fade away and disappear completely by themselves.

    Re-entry of nicotine into the body after a long break quickly restores addiction.

    Toxic gases (carbon monoxide, hydrogen cyanide, nitric oxide, etc.):

    Carbon monoxide or carbon monoxide is the main toxic component of tobacco smoke gases.It damages hemoglobin, after which the hemoglobin loses its ability to carry oxygen. Therefore, smokers suffer from chronic oxygen starvation, which is clearly manifested during physical exertion. For example, smokers quickly become short of breath when climbing stairs or while jogging.

    Carbon monoxide is colorless and odorless, therefore it is especially dangerous and often leads to fatal poisoning. Carbon monoxide from tobacco smoke and car exhaust is one and the same substance with the same chemical formula – CO.Only tobacco smoke contains more of it.

    Hydrogen cyanide and nitric oxide also affect the lungs, exacerbating the hypoxia (oxygen starvation) of the body.

    Try to remember at least one number: tobacco smoke contains 384000 MPCs of toxic substances, which is four times more than in the exhaust of a car. In other words, smoking a cigarette for one minute is about the same as breathing directly in exhaust fumes for four minutes.

    Tobacco smoke has a harmful effect not only on the smoker, but also on those who are near him.In this case, non-smokers develop headaches, malaise, exacerbated upper respiratory tract diseases, negative changes in the activity of the nervous system and blood composition occur. Passive smoking has a particularly harmful effect on children.

    Important areas of tobacco smoking prevention are the improvement of morality, general and medical culture of the population and other measures of psychological and pedagogical influence.
    The harm of alcohol.

    Alcohol has a destructive effect on all systems and organs, as it dissolves well in the blood and is carried by it throughout the body.

    Getting into the stomach, ethyl alcohol has a negative effect on its mucous membrane, and through the central nervous system – on the entire digestive function. With frequent alcohol consumption, this can lead to chronic alcoholic gastritis.

    Alcohol has a very harmful effect on the liver, which is unable to cope with a large amount of alcohol. The work of the liver with overexertion leads to the death of its cells and the development of cirrhosis.
    Alcohol abuse leads to severe disturbances in the activity of the endocrine glands, primarily the pancreas and sexual glands.

    The main problem is that most of the alcoholic beverages produced by non-state enterprises contain a large amount of toxic substances.

    The brain especially suffers from alcohol, as a result of which the coordination of movements is impaired, speech and handwriting change, the moral and intellectual level of a person decreases, and further there is a social degradation of the personality. Intellectual potential and moral level are decreasing, all interests are formed around one problem – getting alcohol.Former friends are replaced by new ones, corresponding to the aspirations of the drinker. Family friends and work friends are forgotten. There are dubious acquaintances with persons prone to theft, fraud, forgery, robbery, and drunkenness. The leading motive of behavior is to obtain funds for the purchase of alcoholic beverages.

    Beer alcoholism forms faster than vodka alcoholism!

    Beer affects human hormones:

    1. In men: the production of the male sex hormone testosterone is suppressed.At the same time, female sex hormones begin to be produced, causing changes in the appearance of a man.
    2. In women: the likelihood of contracting cancer increases, the voice becomes rougher, “beer whiskers” appear.
      The main directions of the prevention of drunkenness and alcoholism are labor education, the organization of good rest, raising the culture and health literacy of the population, as well as measures of a psychological, pedagogical and administrative-legal nature.

    Drug addiction.

    There are several ways to establish the fact of drug use:
    • Using rapid drug tests.
    • By indirect signs of drug use and drug addiction.
    • In the process of drug treatment.

    Indirect signs of drug use and drug dependence: Remember that these are not suitable for short-term addicts.
    • Long sleeves at all times, no matter the weather or environment.
    • Unnaturally narrow or wide pupils regardless of lighting.
    • A detached look.
    • Often – sloppy appearance, dry hair, swollen hands; dark, decayed, “broken off” teeth in the form of “hemp”.
    • Posture is often stooped.
    • Slurred, “stretched” speech.
    • Clumsy and slow movements with no smell of alcohol from the mouth.
    • Explicit tendency to avoid meeting with government officials.
    • Irritability, harshness and disrespect in answering questions.
    After it appears in the house, your things or money disappear.
    • Traces of injections are usually not shown by drug addicts, but sometimes they can be seen on the back of the hands, but in general, experienced drug addicts inject themselves anywhere, and marks should be looked for in all areas of the body, not excluding the scalp under the hair. Often, injection marks look not just like multiple red dots, but merge into dense bluish-purple cords along the course of the veins.
    The body of a young person on average can withstand drug use for no more than 7 years. The child’s body is much smaller.The average life expectancy of a drug addict is 25 years. The number of children who are drug addicts is growing at an alarming rate. The rapid growth of drug addiction, alcoholism among children and adolescents affects the health of the nation.

    So, the following conclusions can be drawn:
    • Health is a normal psychosomatic state of a person, reflecting his complete physical, mental and social well-being and ensuring the full performance of labor, social and biological functions.
    • Health largely depends on the lifestyle, however, speaking about a healthy lifestyle, first of all, they mean the absence of bad habits. This is, of course, a necessary, but not at all a sufficient condition. The main thing in a healthy lifestyle is an active creation of health, including all its components. Thus, the concept of a healthy lifestyle is much broader than the absence of bad habits, work and rest regime, nutrition system, various hardening and developmental exercises; it also includes a system of attitudes towards oneself, towards another person, towards life in general, as well as the meaningfulness of being, life goals and values, etc.Consequently, for the creation of health, it is necessary both to expand the concept of health and diseases, and to skillfully use the entire spectrum of factors affecting various components of health (physical, mental, social and spiritual), mastering health-improving, restorative, nature-friendly methods and technologies, attitudes towards a healthy lifestyle.
    • A healthy lifestyle largely depends on the value orientation of the student, worldview, social and moral experience.Social norms, the values ​​of a healthy lifestyle are accepted by students as personally significant, but they do not always coincide with the values ​​developed by public consciousness.


    Program for the implementation and testing of the All-Russian physical culture and sports complex TRP

    What is TRP

    Most of the readers of this article did not find the TRP norm.Therefore, the article should start with the decoding of this term. The TRP is a physical training program that existed not only in general education, but also in sports, specialized, professional organizations of the Soviet Union. The TRP program was supported and funded by the state, because it was part of the patriotic education system. The TRP existed for exactly 60 years, having managed to become a part of the life of several generations of our compatriots. Today, after 23 years of oblivion, the TRP is returning to schools, to higher educational institutions, to the life of every citizen, occupying important positions as an indicator of the student’s progress (hereinafter…)

    From TRP norms to Olympic medals!

    (presentation – download)

    Official sites and links


    Collected video materials about the movement of the TRP in the Russian world. A brief overview and the significance of the TRP complex in the history of the USSR to the present day.

    1. “History of the TRP Sports Order” – Video about the origin of the movement of the TRP complex in Russia.
    2. “VFSK TRP” – 17.06.2014. Minister of Sports V. Mutko shows by his example how to get a TRP badge.
    3. TRP – “Ready for Labor and Defense” – Discussions on the introduction of TRP norms in Russia on Channel 5. People express different points of view, but the result is the same – the movement must be developed!
    4. A brief history and an example to follow from the “veteran of the TRP” V.P. Chichigin.
    5. “Voroshilov shooter confirmed the standards of the TRP” – Video reportage about mass sports in Russia and receiving badges “Ready for Labor and Defense”.

    Official sites on the topic of TRP and main groups from social networks

    gto.ru – WFSK TRP (official site)
    fizvosp.ru – discussion site of the All-Russian physical culture and sports complex TRP
    www.minsport.gov.ru – Ministry of Sports of the Russian Federation
    tirgto.ru – Mobile shooting range for fulfilling the TRP standards
    vk.com/gtonorma – a group about TRP standards and a healthy lifestyle
    http : // www.gto.ru/media/all – media gallery TRP
    vk.com/rfgto – news and events from the world TRP
    vk.com/gto_crimea – TRP in Crimea is rapidly developing



    Guidelines for the implementation of the types of tests (tests) included in the All-Russian Physical Culture and Sports Complex (TRP) (.docx)

    Methodical recommendations “Technique and methodology of ski training” (.docx)

    Methodical recommendations “Technique and methodology of running at medium distances” (.docx)


    GKL, GVL, LSU. These abbreviations are familiar to anyone involved in construction or renovation. Wall materials used today in repair and construction work have different characteristics. The purpose of this article is to determine which finishing material is better to choose, for which premises, with which it is easier to work

    A competitor to the well-known gypsum plasterboard (GKL) has appeared on the Russian market of building materials – this is a glass-magnesite or glass-magnesium sheet (MSL) made in China.Consumers study the properties of a new finishing material, discuss the possibilities of its application with those who already have some experience. But the position of individual developers and people involved in home renovation can be defined rather as a wait-and-see attitude. After all, the material remains for the majority still little-known, not tested on a large-scale in the conditions of Russia. The increased attention of consumers to modern technologies of interior and exterior decoration of premises is not accidental: the construction market is developing rapidly.The choice that has to be made by an individual developer or a city dweller who decides to carry out repairs is not easy. Which is better: to use drywall, gypsum fiber sheets already proven in practice, or to purchase LSU, take a chance and get a gain in price and new consumer properties of the product?

    Glass magnesite sheet or LSU (glass magnesium board) in its structure contains finely dispersed wood chips, magnesium oxide, magnesium chloride, perlite, binding composite materials, reinforced with glass fiber mesh.LSU has taken a leading position among widely used building materials in China, Korea, Taiwan and other Asian countries. Individual developers in Russia are exploring the possibilities of using this material for the facades of their houses and cottages under construction. The most attractive feature of LSU is its incombustibility. The remarkable effect of fire resistance is the main feature of glass magnesite. Today in construction there is not a single sheet product that could compare with LSU in terms of fire safety.Another important characteristic of a glass-magnesium sheet is its high moisture resistance and ability to retain its shape when wet. Facade finishing should be provided with a material that will be resistant to high humidity, will not lose its properties and will not deform in a humid environment.

    These are the properties that a glass magnesite sheet possesses. Another possibility of using the material is in rooms with high humidity, for example, for finishing a basement. Being in water, LSU does not swell and does not lose its properties.It has been experimentally proven that staying in water even for 100 days does not change the appearance of the sheets. They also do not damp in the air. Therefore, LSU is suitable for the construction of internal structures in saunas and swimming pools. The uniqueness of the material is not only moisture resistance, but also mold. Magnesium glass sheets have antiseptic properties: they prevent the appearance of mold and fungal growth. This functional characteristic of the material is especially important for use in basements, swimming pools, bathrooms.The list of advantages of the material should include the fact that LSU is an environmentally friendly material, does not contain harmful substances (asbestos, phenols, adhesives, resins and others), does not emit toxic substances even when heated. The technology of making sheets gives them such qualities as flexibility and strength at the same time. In terms of these qualities, LSUs are superior to those of other materials.

    So, thanks to the reinforcing fiberglass mesh, magnesite glass sheets can bend with a radius of curvature of up to three meters, in contrast to drywall and gypsum plasterboard.The material on uneven surfaces does not break during installation and transfer, does not collapse in the event of mechanical damage. Sheets are 40% lighter than drywall. Less weight makes construction easier. Therefore, facade work can be carried out with fewer hands. It is also important that at a lower or comparable price, the use of LSU makes it possible to reduce the cost of the facade works themselves, since, having a white color, the material does not need finishing. Under the influence of sunlight and precipitation, glass-magnesium sheets used outside become whiter over time.Frost-resistant material is considered from 35 test cycles. LSU has an indicator of at least 50 cycles.

    The creation of interior partitions is an important part of construction and repair work, helping to optimally organize the space for everyday life. LSU is excellent for creating interior building structures for wall and ceiling surfaces. Walls and partitions made of LSU are ready for painting, wallpapering, tiles, decorative plastering without preliminary priming and surface preparation.Currently, there are two types of glass-magnesite sheets on the Russian market: grade 1 (analogous to GKL and GVLV) – density 0.70–0.95 g / cm3 and “Premium” (better suited for facade work) – density from 0.95 g / cm3.

    The LSU installation technology is a little more laborious, in comparison with drywall, due to the fact that when fastening it, like gypsum board, it cannot be tightened with self-tapping screws or interrupted with staples, because when tightening, the outer layer of reinforcing fiberglass is cut, and in this place it no longer holds.Glass-magnesium sheets are easy to process: they are easy to cut, saw, plan, glue. You can cut any shapes, stick veneers and other decorative materials on them. During construction work, in order to save labor and time, you can use a pneumatic gun, an electric drill.

    Glass magnesite surpasses similar finishing materials not only in the breadth of applications, but also at a lower cost with a wider range of consumer properties. It is interesting that the term of use of this finishing material is 15 years.It does not age and does not crumble, either outside or indoors. The use of glass magnesite indoors is justified not only by its environmental friendliness, but also by the fact that, unlike gypsum, during operation it is not a source of dust. The material is insect resistant.

    Please note that when processing the sheet, fiberglass particles can irritate the skin if gloves are not worn. Some are stopped by the fact that at present, China is practically the only country producing glass magnesite sheets for the entire Russian market.It comes from different manufacturers and different quality. There is no own production of glass-magnesium sheets in Russia yet.

    Plasterboard remains the leader in dry interior finishing technologies in Russia. Even in those days when, due to the lack of profiles on the market, wood was used, gauze was used instead of tape for seams, and when, due to the lack of fasteners, drywall was nailed, many understood that this material is well suited for home repair and decoration.

    GKL, or rather gypsum plasterboard, is a composite building material.In terms of hygienic properties, drywall is well suited for living rooms, as it is an environmentally friendly material and does not contain hazardous substances.

    Plasterboard has good sound insulation characteristics. It is not flammable. What is important is that GCR absorbs moisture in case of its excess and gives it back in case of “dryness” of the air.

    Gypsum plasterboard is used today for the construction of interior partitions, alignment and decoration of walls, installation of ceilings. According to its structure, drywall has an inner layer – made of gypsum (93%) and an outer layer – made of cardboard (6%) and various organic substances (1%).Experienced users of this finishing material note the ease of installation and dismantling. Plasterboard structures are good because all communications can be hidden behind the cladding and in the partitions. The plasterboard construction allows you to realize creative ideas, create an interior design using elements such as built-in lighting, arches, niches, columns. If the room has any imperfections, then plasterboard structures allow you to fix them. The practical convenience of drywall also lies in the fact that its surface can be easily prepared for wallpapering, painting, and replacing a certain part of the structure.Seams, holes, chips and other irregularities in the gypsum board are sealed with plaster putty. Reinforcing tape is placed in deep seams and holes for putty.

    In Russia today, many people care about the environmental safety of their apartments. Experts say drywall is virtually harmless. Lack of drywall can manifest itself over time, as the gypsum that is part of it turns into dust, which can become a problem for the respiratory system. Another disadvantage of drywall is its fragility.GKL breaks down during careless unloading and transportation. Although it is precisely due to this property that holes of the desired shape and size can be easily made in the gypsum board. The disadvantage of drywall is that it is subject to destruction by moisture. Therefore, it is impossible to install partitions from it in rooms with high humidity. In other cases, this problem can be solved by using moisture resistant drywall. If you lean against or touch a drywall structure, you can hear by the characteristic sound that it is empty.To avoid this undesirable effect, professionals use stone wool, two layers of drywall, to insulate partitions. It is very important to carry out the installation in compliance with the technology. Some are alarmed by the lack of strength of the material. For industrial premises with a large crowd of people, drywall is unacceptable – the load on the walls is too great, but for residential premises it is suitable. Novice home craftsmen are afraid that it is difficult to attach something normally to the drywall wall.In this case, it is important that the structure is correctly mounted, and modern fastening materials are used, then whatever your heart desires can be attached to the drywall. The period of use of the gypsum board is still short due to the gradual release of dust.

    On the Russian market, companies offer several varieties of drywall: ordinary, moisture-resistant, with increased resistance to impacts for flooring, structural – for repairs and complex structures, laminated.

    Consider the varieties of gypsum board.GKLO – fire-resistant gypsum plasterboard sheets. They are covered with a compound that prevents the cardboard from burning. The material is indispensable for the construction of internal partitions and wall cladding of utility rooms, non-residential and industrial buildings.

    GKLV – moisture resistant gypsum plasterboard sheets. They contain special additives that prevent the growth of fungi, mold and reduce the level of moisture absorption by the material. This type of gypsum board is used when decorating rooms with a humid climate (bathrooms, kitchens, saunas).

    Decorative plasterboard is a new material that can solve the problem of fast construction of interior walls and partitions, interior decoration and wall cladding. Laminated drywall does not require additional finishing, as its top decorative layer imitates marble or wood. This helps to significantly reduce the time of construction and repair, the cost of finishing materials. It retains its original color for more than ten years, is resistant to damage, washes perfectly and withstands mechanical and chemical influences.

    It is also necessary to mention one more type of gypsum board. This is a combined plasterboard sheet, which contains in its structure a layer of effective insulation (GKP PS). The combined panel is a gypsum board with a polystyrene foam board glued to it from the back side. This type is used for insulating the outer walls of buildings, as well as for interior decoration.

    Today, the Russian construction market offers materials that are similar to drywall, and surpass it in certain parameters.The most famous material is gypsum fiber boards.

    GVL – gypsum fiber sheet consists of gypsum reinforced with cellulose fiber. Due to this, the compressive strength of gypsum fiber is much higher than the strength of gypsum board. GVL is more rigid during processing, less bending strength and less adapted material for plastics in interior decoration, compared to GKL. In GVL, there is the only material subject to combustion – surface cardboard. Since there is no air between the cardboard and the inner gypsum layer, the cardboard does not burn, but only charred.Structures are created from sheets that isolate airborne noise. The soundproofing ability of GVL is influenced by the thickness and number of sheets, as well as the depth of the frame space. This material has sufficient strength, but during long-term operation it emits a small amount of dust. Ordinary gypsum fiber sheets are used for finishing rooms with normal conditions, and moisture resistant ones for rooms with high humidity.

    GVL is used when installing a prefabricated base of the floor and for cladding wooden structures in order to increase their fire resistance.Moisture-resistant gypsum-fiber sheets have a special hydrophobic impregnation and therefore can be used in rooms with high humidity. GVL tends to absorb and release moisture depending on the humidity of the room.

    Constructions of prefabricated sub-floors using gypsum plasterboard are suitable for any type of modern coverings (linoleum, parquet, ceramic tiles). Gypsum fiber is also used in plumbing rooms (floor, walls), in storerooms and utility rooms (walls, partitions, basement under the floor), in attic and attic rooms.The peculiarity of the surface of GVL is such that preliminary preparation is required for painting.