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Is milk bad for your heart: Dairy and heart health | The Heart Foundation


Dairy and heart health | The Heart Foundation

Not all dairy products are equal. Discover different types of dairy foods and their impact on heart health.

The dairy food group includes milk, yoghurt and cheese, which can be good sources of calcium, protein, vitamins and minerals. However, they can also contain unhealthy fats such as saturated and ruminant trans fats.

Not all dairy products are equal in terms of the impact on heart health. It’s important to consider the types of dairy foods you eat and the impact they could have on your health. 

Is dairy good for your heart? 

Research into dairy has returned complex results. Overall milk, yoghurt and cheese have a ‘neutral’ effect on your heart health, meaning these foods don’t increase or decrease the risk of heart disease.     

The complexity stems from the fact that dairy foods contain saturated and ruminant trans fats, which can increase LDL cholesterol. LDL cholesterol is commonly known as bad cholesterol, as it can increase the risk of heart disease.  

However, the rise in cholesterol depends on the person and what type of dairy product is consumed.  

The Heart Foundation recommends that milk, yoghurt and cheese can be eaten as part of a heart-healthy diet, but most of the fat in the diet should come from fish, nuts and seeds, and healthy oils.  

Choosing unflavoured milk, yoghurt, and cheese also helps limit the amount of added sugar in your diet. 

How many servings of dairy a day should you have?

As milk, yoghurt and cheese are considered ‘neutral’ for heart health, these foods can form part of a heart-healthy diet. However, you can also have a heart-healthy diet without them.  

Research doesn’t indicate a minimum or maximum portion size or amount of servings. However, the Australian Dietary Guidelines recommend eating between 2-4 serves of milk, yoghurt and cheese a day to make sure you get enough calcium.  

The following are example of serving sizes for milk, yoghurt and cheese: 

  • 1 cup milk 
  • 200g (3/4 cup) unflavoured yoghurt 
  • ½ cup of ricotta or cottage cheese 
  • 40g (2 slices) of hard cheese.  

Full-fat vs reduced-fat dairy 

Some studies have shown that reduced-fat milk, yoghurt, and cheese are healthier; others show the full-fat options as healthier, and others again show no difference between the two.  

The Heart Foundation recommends reduced-fat milk, yoghurt and cheese for people with heart disease or high cholesterol because the fat in dairy products can raise cholesterol levels more for these groups of people. 

However, without enough evidence to say one is better than the other, healthy Australians can take their pick between full-fat or reduced-fat milk, yoghurt, and cheese products. 

What about butter? 

Research shows that butter raises both good and bad cholesterol, with the increase in bad cholesterol overshadowing the rise in good cholesterol. Butter affects people who already have high cholesterol by raising their levels even higher.  

Without evidence to show that butter is good for heart health, The Heart Foundation recommends healthier options. The following make deliciously healthy substitutes: 

  • Olive oil 
  • Avocado 
  • Nut butters 
  • Spreads made with healthier oils, such as olive oil. 

Is ice cream bad for your heart? 

Ice cream, cream and dairy desserts are not part of a heart-healthy diet because they have more sugar and fat, and less protein, vitamins and minerals than other dairy foods.  

The Heart Foundation recommends they should be eaten only sometimes and in small amounts. 

What about dairy alternatives? 

Eating dairy is a personal choice. Some people can’t have dairy foods because of allergies or intolerances. Some people choose not to for individual or health reasons.  

Eating dairy isn’t essential to maintain a heart-healthy diet, but without it, other calcium-rich alternatives should be eaten.  

The best option for dairy-alternative milk – such as soy, almond, oat or rice milk – is one with added calcium and no added sugar. 

A variety of non-dairy foods contain calcium, such as: 

  • Fish with bones 
  • Almonds 
  • Tofu.  

Healthy dairy food options 

Examples of healthy dairy food options include: 

  • Eat unflavoured yoghurt, which can make a great snack or breakfast option. Add fruit or nuts and seeds for extra flavour. 
  • Swap butter for healthier alternatives, such as avocado, olive oil, or oil spreads. 
  • Try cottage or ricotta cheese on wholegrain crackers as a snack. 

Dairy and a heart-healthy diet 

A heart-healthy diet can include dairy, but it’s not essential. While unflavoured milk, yoghurt and cheese have been proven to be ‘neutral’ to heart health, reduced-fat options are the best choice for anyone with heart disease or high cholesterol. 

Butter, cream and ice cream are not part of a heart-healthy diet and should only be eaten sometimes and in small amounts. 

Browse our range of heart healthy recipes

Cardiovascular Disease and Milk Products: Summary of Evidence

Back to Cardiovascular Disease

A large and robust body of evidence indicates that milk products are associated with a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease.


  • Milk products, including those that are higher in fat, are associated with a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease;
  • High-fat milk products have a neutral or beneficial association with cardiovascular disease;
  • Yogurt and cheese are associated with a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease including heart disease and stroke;
  • Several nutrients and other components may explain the beneficial role of milk products on cardiovascular health. These include: calcium, vitamin D, protein, bioactive peptides, fatty acids.


A large and strong body of scientific evidence indicates that milk product consumption is associated with a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease. In fact, the evidence indicates that milk products, including those that are higher in fat such as cheese may help to protect cardiovascular health. This has led researchers to conclude that current evidence does not support a focus on low-fat dairy foods in dietary guidance.

The Evidence

A meta-analysis of 27 prospective cohort studies, published by Gholami et al. in 2017, evaluated the association of the consumption of dairy products on cardiovascular disease.1

  • Dairy consumption was associated with a 10% lower risk of cardiovascular disease and a 12% lower risk of stroke.
  • Dairy consumption was also associated with a 20% lower risk of mortality from stroke.
  • No association was observed between total dairy intake and coronary heart disease.

A meta-analysis of 31 prospective cohort studies, published in 2016 by Alexander et al., examined the association between dairy consumption and the risk of cardiovascular disease.2

  • Dairy consumption, including full-fat dairy, was associated with a 9% reduced risk of stroke;
  • Calcium from dairy sources was associated with a 31% lower risk of stroke;
  • Cheese was associated with an 18% and 13% reduced risk of coronary heart disease and stroke, respectively.

In 2016, Drouin-Chartier et al. published a systematic review of meta-analyses of prospective cohort studies which provides an in-depth perspective on the associations between dairy product consumption and the risk of cardiovascular-related clinical outcomes.3 This review concluded there is no evidence that the consumption of any form of dairy is detrimentally associated with any cardiovascular-related clinical outcome. In fact:

  • High quality evidence indicates total dairy consumption is associated with a lower risk of hypertension;
  • High quality evidence indicates low-fat dairy and yogurt intakes are associated with a lower risk of type 2 diabetes;
  • Moderate-quality evidence suggests total dairy food consumption is associated with a lower risk of stroke, metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes;
  • High to moderate quality evidence indicates the consumption of regular and high-fat dairy does not increase the risk of coronary artery disease, stroke, hypertension or type 2 diabetes.

In 2016, Drouin-Chartier et al. also published a comprehensive review of the evidence from randomized controlled trials examining the impact of dairy foods and dairy fat on cardiometabolic risk factors including blood-lipids, blood pressure, insulin resistance and vascular function.4 This review suggests the focus on low-fat dairy foods instead of regular-fat dairy foods in dietary guidelines is unwarranted.

  • Increasing consumption of dairy foods generally has no significant effect on LDL cholesterol, regardless of their form or fat content;
  • Dairy food consumption has no effect on HDL cholesterol or triglyceride concentrations;
  • Consumption of dairy foods and dairy fat does not appear to impact systemic inflammation;
  • Dairy consumption has no impact on insulin resistance and glucose and insulin homeostasis in the short term; however, may be beneficial in the long-term.
  • Most randomized controlled trials have shown no effect of dairy on blood pressure or vascular function; however, the authors note these results are not consistent with epidemiological evidence that dairy food consumption is associated with a reduced risk of hypertension.

A meta-analysis of 15 prospective cohort studies, published in 2016 by Chen et al. evaluated associations between cheese consumption and the risk of cardiovascular disease, coronary heart disease and stroke. Most of the studies (13/15) followed participants for more than 10 years.5

  • Higher compared with lower cheese consumption was associated with a 14% lower risk of coronary heart disease and a 10% lower risk of stroke and total cardiovascular disease.
  • The largest reductions in cardiovascular disease risk were observed with consumption of about 40 g of cheese per day.

The landmark PURE (Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology) study, assessed the associations between dairy food consumption and the risk of major cardiovascular disease events (i.e., heart attack, stroke, heart failure and death due to cardiovascular causes). This study, published in 2018 based on data from 136,000 adults from 21 countries on 5 continents, followed for a median of 9. 1 years, concluded:6

  • Dairy food consumption (>2 servings/day vs 0) was associated with a 22% lower risk of cardiovascular disease and a 34% lower risk of stroke;
  • Milk consumption (>1 serving/day vs 0) was associated with an 18% lower risk of cardiovascular disease;
  • Yogurt consumption (>1 serving/day vs 0) was associated with a 10% lower risk of cardiovascular disease;
  • Full-fat dairy consumption (>1 serving/day vs 0) was associated with a 32% lower risk of cardiovascular disease.

Potential Mechanisms

The consumption of dairy products has been inversely associated with several risk factors for cardiovascular disease, including: hypertension, obesity, type 2 diabetes and inflammation.

The effects of dairy foods may be mediated by a number of specific micronutrients, amino acids, fatty acids, and probiotics. 7  

Several nutrients found in dairy products may be beneficial to cardiovascular health (summarized in the table below).8,9 Furthermore, there is evidence to suggest that the complex matrix of dairy foods as a whole rather than just individual components may be as important to improving cardiovascular health.8

Milk componentPotential mechanistic action
Vitamin D
  • Improvement of blood lipid profile
  • Increase in insulin sensitivity
  • Blood pressure control via the regulation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system
  • Decrease in vascular resistance and blood pressure
  • Improvement of blood lipid profile
  • Inhibition of fat absorption by binding with fatty acids to form insoluble soaps
  • Blood pressure management
Protein and bioactive peptides
  • Increase in satiety levels
  • Improvement of blood lipid profile
  • Reduction in blood pressure through the inhibition of the angiotensin-1 converting enzyme
Dairy fatty acids, e. g., conjugated linoleic acid
  • Weight management via the inhibition of adipogenesis and the regulation of lipogenesis
  • Improvement of blood lipid profile
  • Increase in insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance
  • Anti-inflammatory effect


Current evidence indicates that milk products are not associated with an increased cardiovascular risk, regardless of their fat content.

In fact, a large and strong body of evidence suggests the consumption of dairy foods, including milk, cheese and yogurt, can help to protect cardiovascular health.

In addition, the evidence to date does not support current recommendations to choose lower fat dairy foods instead of full-fat dairy foods, such as regular-fat cheese.

Milk products are complex foods containing many key nutrients. Additional mechanistic studies are needed to fully understand how these components or the dairy food matrix may help reduce cardiovascular risk.

cardiovascular disease
, saturated fat
, coronary heart disease
, stroke
, bioactive peptides
, conjugated linoleic acid

Is full-fat dairy safe for your heart?

You may have heard the news that whole dairy products are actually good for your heart.

The findings suggested that two or more servings of full-fat dairy was associated with a 22 percent lower risk of heart disease, 34 percent lower risk of stroke and 23 percent lower risk of death from cardiovascular disease among 136,000 study subjects in 21 countries followed for nine years.

But don’t jump on the full-fat bandwagon just yet. Low-fat still rules when it comes to a heart-healthy diet.

“We’re still on the low-fat dairy train,” says Mary Gardner, RD, LDN, an outpatient dietitian at Edward Hospital.

And she’s not alone.

The American Heart Association recommends a low-fat diet for heart health. Adults should have two to three servings of low-fat dairy products per day, children should have two servings, teenagers and older adults can have four servings per day. A serving consists of an 8-ounce cup of milk, 1-1/2 to 2 ounces of low fat cheese or 6 ounces of low-fat yogurt.

“You still need portion control … even if it is low-fat,” says Gardner.

Why low-fat?

The American Heart Association recognizes the conflicting reports suggesting whole dairy can be good for your heart, but points to years of research indicating that saturated fats (found in larger amounts in whole dairy products such as butter, cheese and milk) can be bad for your heart.

While Gardner works with patients to lower their fat intake, she doesn’t eliminate it. Whole milk, for example, can be replaced with one percent or skim milk. Instead of whole-fat cheese products, opt for lower-fat (not necessarily no-fat) cheese. “We try to meet them in the middle,” she says.

But it’s not just about dairy, Gardner notes.

An active lifestyle helps keep the heart healthy as do other smart eating choices, such as including whole grains, fruits and vegetables, and lean meats in your meals.

“You can’t just have low-fat dairy and have high-fat meats,” she says. “It’s not going to help your heart. You have to have a combination of everything from all the different food groups.”

Your heart is in good hands when you choose us for heart care. Learn more.

People who eat more dairy fat have lower risk of heart disease, study suggests

An international team of scientists studied the dairy fat consumption of 4,150 60-year-olds in Sweden — a country with one of the world’s highest levels of dairy production and consumption — by measuring blood levels of a particular fatty acid that is mostly found in dairy foods. Experts then followed the cohort for an average of 16 years to observe how many had heart attacks, strokes and other serious circulatory events, and how many of them died.

After statistically adjusting for other known cardiovascular disease risk factors including age, income, lifestyle, dietary habits and other diseases, researchers found that those with high levels of the fatty acid — indicative of a high intake of dairy fats — had the lowest risk of cardiovascular disease, as well as no increased risk of death from all causes.

The team then confirmed these findings in other populations after combining the Swedish results with 17 other studies involving a total of almost 43,000 people from the US, Denmark and the UK.

“While the findings may be partly influenced by factors other than dairy fat, our study does not suggest any harm of dairy fat per se,” Matti Marklund, senior researcher at the George Institute for Global Health in Sydney and joint senior author of the paper, said in a statement.

“We found those with the highest levels actually had the lowest risk of CVD (cardiovascular disease). These relationships are highly interesting, but we need further studies to better understand the full health impact of dairy fats and dairy foods,” he said.

Lead author Kathy Trieu, a researcher at the George Institute, said consumption of some dairy foods, especially fermented products, had previously been associated with benefits for the heart.

Dairy products are rich in nutrients

“Increasing evidence suggests that the health impact of dairy foods may be more dependent on the type — such as cheese, yoghurt, milk, and butter — rather than the fat content, which has raised doubts if avoidance of dairy fats overall is beneficial for cardiovascular health,” she said in the statement.

“Our study suggests that cutting down on dairy fat or avoiding dairy altogether might not be the best choice for heart health,” she added.

“It is important to remember that although dairy foods can be rich in saturated fat, they are also rich in many other nutrients and can be a part of a healthy diet. However, other fats like those found in seafood, nuts, and non-tropical vegetable oils can have greater health benefits than dairy fats,” Trieu said.

Brian Power, lecturer at the Department of Health and Nutritional Sciences at Ireland’s Institute of Technology Sligo, said the study encourages us to “rethink what we think we know about food and disease.”

“Dairy products do not need to be avoided,” Power, who was not involved in the study, told CNN in an email. “This is largely lost in its translation when communicating what we know about healthy eating.”

Data suggest correlation rather than causal link

Alice Lichtenstein, director and senior scientist at Tufts University’s Cardiovascular Nutrition Laboratory, told CNN that her biggest concern was that the study results could be interpreted to suggest that all full-fat dairy products will reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease, adding: “the bulk of the data do not support consuming full fat dairy products to reduce CVD risk.

She said the study data showed that the group with the highest biomarker of dairy intake also had, among other things, a significantly lower BMI, were more physically active, had a lower smoking rate, lower rates of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease, a higher level of education, higher intakes of vegetables, fruit and fish, and lower intake of processed meat — hence, a higher diet quality — all factors associated with a lower risk of cardiovascular disease.

“They were controlled for in the statistical analyses, however, residual confounding cannot be ruled out. The data reported are for associations, however, associations cannot establish causality,” she told CNN in an email, adding that it was also noteworthy that the authors could not identify what type of dairy products their cohort consumed.

The research was published in the journal PLOS Medicine.

Are butter, cheese and whole milk really good for you?

News reports have suggested that whole milk and full-fat dairy products could be good for you, but are they really healthier than low-fat versions? We go behind the headlines.

13 September 2018

The research

New research has found lower rates of death and heart and circulatory disease in people who eat more dairy products.

The international collaboration of researchers asked over 135,000 people in 21 countries to complete a food diary at the beginning of the study, and followed their health for an average of 9.1 years.

Over the 9 year period, 3.5% of people in the group with the highest dairy intake (more than 2 servings per day) developed major cardiovascular disease compared to 4.9% of people consuming no dairy. The high intake group also had a lower rate of stroke (1.2% vs 2.9%) and death (3.4% vs 5.6%) than the no dairy group.

The research is not telling us that whole-fat dairy is any better for us than low-fat dairy

The research, published in The Lancet, found lower rates of heart and circulatory disease regardless of whether people were consuming full-fat or low-fat dairy. The research is not telling us that whole-fat dairy is any better for us than low-fat dairy.

It’s important to remember that because this study was observational, it can only show us an association between different factors rather than a cause and effect. For example we don’t know whether people who eat more dairy might also have healthier lifestyles overall.

The results support current advice that dairy can be consumed as part of a healthy balanced diet to reduce the risk of heart and circulatory diseases. The study’s authors conclude: “…consumption of dairy products should not be discouraged and perhaps even be encouraged in low-income and middle-income countries where dairy consumption is low.”

The BHF view

Victoria Taylor, Senior Dietitian at the British Heart Foundation, said: “There are a number of limitations to the research and so it’s important not to jump to conclusions about this study.

“Dairy products don’t need to be excluded from the diet to prevent heart and circulatory diseases and are already part of the eatwell guide, which is the basis for our healthy eating recommendations in the UK. In this study the people with higher intakes were having about two to three portions of dairy a day, which is in line with current advice.

“Currently, it’s recommended that we choose reduced fat dairy as our overall intakes of saturated fat exceed recommendations. This recommendation won’t change as a result of this research. More research is needed to help us confirm the true role of dairy in relation to heart and circulatory disease.”

How the research was reported

Many newspapers focussed on the fact that the study found better outcomes in people consuming more than two servings per day of whole-fat dairy compared to those consuming less than half a serving. The Sun reported: “Drinking three glasses of whole milk a day can help you live longer, a huge global study has discovered. It can also protect against heart disease and stroke — flying in the face of current medical advice to choose skimmed instead.”

This coverage gave the impression that the study had revealed whole-fat dairy to be better for your health than low-fat versions – however, the study did not find this. It simply showed that higher overall dairy consumption – whether whole-fat or low-fat dairy – was associated with a benefit.

National guidelines are based on evidence that consuming too much saturated fat is known to increase cholesterol levels, which is a known risk factor for heart and circulatory diseases

Other coverage focused on cheese and/or butter, but this did not accurately reflect the study either. For instance Newsweek led with the headline “Eating cheese and butter every day linked to living longer”. But although the study found a benefit from consuming dairy products generally, when the scientists looked at specific types of dairy products, they found that intake of cheese or butter was not associated with any health benefits, whereas consuming at least one serving of milk or yoghurt was linked with better outcomes.

The Express suggested the study represented a “moo-turn” and called into question national guidelines which encourage people to opt for low-fat dairy products in order to lower their saturated fat intake. These guidelines are based on evidence that consuming too much saturated fat is known to increase cholesterol levels, which is a known risk factor for heart and circulatory diseases. This study does not provide any evidence that challenges that. Nor does it show that full-fat dairy is better than low-fat dairy.

Earlier this year the Government’s Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition (SACN) published a consultation on saturated fat, which is part of a process of regularly assessing available evidence to see if guidelines should change. The British Heart Foundation’s advice around nutrition and lifestyle is always based on national guidelines, so we will be paying close attention to any future changes to make sure we reflect these in our information.

Many papers acknowledged the importance of assessing new studies in the context of all available evidence, and quoted an accompanying article published in The Lancet, in which experts stated that these results are “…not the ultimate seal of approval for recommending whole-fat dairy over its low-fat or skimmed counterparts. Readers should be cautious and should treat this study only as yet another piece of evidence (albeit a large one) in the literature.”

  • Is your dairy knowledge udderly brilliant? Take our milk quiz to find out! 
  • Get more detail about the fat and salt content of different cheeses in our guide to “The good, the bad and the ugly” of cheeses.

Is drinking milk good for your heart?

Is drinking whole milk ok for heart health or should you switch to skimmed milk or soy or almond milk?

Written by Debjani Arora | Published : November 20, 2017 9:48 AM IST

There is this eternal debate over milk: is it beneficial for your heart or not. Most nutritionists and experts believe that since whole milk is rich in saturated fat and cholesterol it can increase the risk of heart diseases and up one’s cardiovascular risk. But we cannot ignore the fact that consumption of milk is also necessary. It is a rich source of calcium and helps to improve bone health and heart health too. This is the reason some doctors and nutritionists suggest making a switch to low-fat milk to reap the benefits of milk.

Whole milk vs skimmed milk

However, recently some studies claimed that probably milk (whole or skim) might not be all that bad for your heart. In 2014 a study published in Current Nutrition Reports tried to explore the effects of milk on cardiovascular health. Eighteen observational studies were reviewed, the results of which indicated that total dairy intake does not contribute to cardiovascular disease incidence or death. Based on available data, it appeared that milk, cheese, and yogurt are not directly associated with cardiovascular disease risk. A series of studies examined the relationships between dairy consumption, such as milk (whole, semi-skimmed, fat-free), cheese, butter, cream, yogurt, and ice cream, and the relative risks for CVD, including CHD and stroke. One such meta-analysis which included nine prospective studies indicated that the highest versus lowest amounts of total dairy consumption reduced the relative risk of CHD by 8 percent another showed that milk consumption reduced the risk of stroke by 21 percent. The study also observed that in 600,000 multi-ethnic people there was an inverse association between milk intake and CVD risk. There was a six percent decreased risk associated with each people who had 200 ml/day of milk consumed. According to this study, neither milk (full-fat or low-fat) nor butter was associated with the incidence of CVD in this study.

Animal milk vs plant-based milk

Many people give up drinking milk in a bid to protect their heart or some make a shift from drinking cow s milk to plant-based milk like soy milk, almond milk etc. A study published in 2016 in the journal Food and Research explored the benefits of switching from animal-based milk to plant-based ones. This study had the evidence that intake of milk and dairy products were associated with reduced risk of childhood obesity. In adults, intake of dairy products was shown to improve body composition and facilitate weight loss. In addition, intake of milk and dairy products was associated with a neutral or reduced risk of type 2 diabetes and a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease, particularly stroke. Among cancers, milk and dairy intake was inversely associated with colorectal cancer, bladder cancer, gastric cancer, and breast cancer, and not associated with risk of pancreatic cancer, ovarian cancer, or lung cancer, while the evidence for prostate cancer risk was inconsistent [2].

These two studies showed that there was very less evidence to prove that drinking milk could have been harmful to heart health. If you are concerned about your heart health and want to make a healthy change probably switching to low-fat milk is a good idea. But make sure you are your calcium requirements from other foods and munching on nuts and flaxseeds to reap the benefits of good fats. If you have a heart problem, remember cutting down on whole milk (because of its saturated fat) alone won t help. Instead, cut down on other vices like smoking, drinking, sedentary lifestyle, etc and make healthy diet choices. As far as milk is concerned drinking 200 ml of milk every day will not be too much harm.


[1]Rice, B. H. (2014). Dairy and cardiovascular disease: a review of recent observational research. Current nutrition reports, 3(2), 130-138.
[2]Thorning, T. K., Raben, A., Tholstrup, T., Soedamah-Muthu, S. S., Givens, I., & Astrup, A. (2016). Milk and dairy products: good or bad for human health? An assessment of the totality of scientific evidence. Food & nutrition research, 60(1), 32527.

Image source: Shutterstock

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Is whole milk worse for your heart than cheese? Study

Saturated fat has developed a bad reputation due to associations between increased consumption and risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD). As a result, national dietary guidelines often recommend populations decrease their intake.

The UK Government, for example, recommends unsaturated fats be selected. “As part of a healthy diet, you should try to cut down foods and drinks that are high in saturated fats and trans fats and replace some of them with unsaturated fats,” ​advises the NHS.

It’s a similar story in Denmark, where the Danish Veterinary and Food Administration (DVFA) dietary guidelines, published in 2013, recommend Danes ‘eat less saturated fat’ and ‘choose low-fat dietary products’. This is due to low-fat variants’ reduced content of saturated fat when compared to high-fat variants.

However, in recent years, nutritional advice has shifted. More research has focused on the effects of consuming whole foods, suggesting that nutrients and biologically active components – as well as the physical structure of food (for example solid vs liquid) – should be taken into account.

Researchers in Denmark have therefore sought to investigate links between dairy products and the development of cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome. A review of available scientific literature could serve to update DVFA’s recommendation of dairy consumption.

Whole milk fares poorer than cheese

The researchers analysed systematic reviews and meta-analyses concerning consumption of conventional, high-fat, and low-fat versions of milk, yoghurt, and cheese. Butter studies were also analysed.

Relevant outcomes included IHD, peripheral artery disease, ischemic stroke, and haemorrhagic stroke.

Findings revealed that whole milk is associated with a higher risk of developing cardiovascular disease. Overall, however, the literature suggested that intake of yoghurt, cheese, butter and low-fat milk is associated with lower or no risk of development of cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome.

The researchers also sought to determine whether intake of skim milk and intake of cheese with different fat contents played a role in increased public health risks, however concluded there was insufficient data to draw conclusions.

More population studies wanted

Given that whole milk was found to be associated with a higher risk of development cardiovascular disease, but cheese was not, could it be that the structure of food – i.e solid vs liquid – played a role?

No, according to Marianne Uhre Jakobsen, study author and lecturer at the Technical University of Denmark (DTU). “But it is possible that the health effects of nutrients vary depending on the food source – including the physical structure of food,” ​she told FoodNavigator.

The researchers suggested more population surveys would help provide more concrete conclusions. Specifically, the scientists want studies that investigate differences between men and women, because in high-low meta-analysis, for example, they found a higher intake of cheese is associated with lower risk of IHD among women, but not among men.

Source:Nature Research
‘Intake of dairy products and associations with major atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases: a systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies’
Published online 14 January 2021
DOI: https://doi. org/10.1038/s41598-020-79708-x
Authors: Marianne Uhre Jakobsen, Ellen Trolle, Malene Outzen, Heddie Mejborn, Manja G. Grønberg, Christian Bøge Lyndgaard, Anders Stockmarr, Stine K. Venø and Anette Bysted.

90,000 Dairy products for adults – harm or benefit?

Maltseva Oksana Aleksandrovna


On the question of whether or not adults should drink milk, not a single dozen copies have broken. Some talk about the insane benefits of milk. After all, milk is life itself. Others say that milk and adults are incompatible things.

Who is right in this dispute?

But first, let’s define the terminology.

Many confuse – they call lactase deficiency lactose. This is not true. There is no such term as lactose deficiency.

It is correct to say:

  • lactose intolerance
  • lactase deficiency
  • lactose intolerance
  • Lactase deficiency

It’s simple. A person has a lack of the enzyme lactase, so he is lactose intolerant – a substance that this enzyme breaks down.

Now let’s get back to our milk.

Are milk and milk products normal food for an adult?

One of the main arguments of opponents of eating dairy products is that this type of food is unnatural for humans.

And this is true. If you think about it, people are the only living creatures on planet Earth that drink milk in adulthood, and not only milk of their own kind, but also obtained from other mammals.

Milk is designed to quickly raise newborn offspring. But an adult does not need to be nurtured quickly. So why is he drinking milk then?

Before the agricultural revolution, people drank milk, but in the same way as all other mammals on the planet. That is, only the breast milk of their mothers in infancy. In other words, the human species was formed in the complete absence of milk feeding in adulthood.

Everything is clear and logical.

However, scientific research shows that because people in many regions of the Earth have been eating dairy products for thousands of years, their genes have changed. And now they, even as adults, are able to assimilate milk much more efficiently than their distant ancestors or those members of the human race who come from “non-dairy” regions.

Why is milk and some dairy products so difficult for an adult to digest?

The main carbohydrate in milk is lactose, or “milk sugar”, made up of two simple sugars, glucose and galactose.

In infancy, the human body produces the enzyme lactase, which successfully breaks down the lactose of breast milk. But as a person gets older, the production of lactase decreases, the ability to absorb lactose decreases and may completely disappear.

It has now been established that 75% of the human population on the globe is unable to assimilate lactose in adulthood, that is, it has lactose intolerance (lactase deficiency). Not everyone has this intolerance strongly. But to one degree or another, it is the case for many.

I must say that in different regions of our planet, lactose intolerance has a different distribution.

As can be seen from the data presented in the figure, our country, Europe, North America and Australia suffer from lactose intolerance much less than Asia, Africa and South America.

Symptoms of lactase deficiency in adults

Symptoms of lactose intolerance in adults range from severe to mild, depending on how much of the lactase enzyme the body can produce.

Symptoms of the disease begin to appear in the interval from 30 to 120 minutes after dairy products enter the digestive tract.

Symptoms of lactase deficiency include:

  • bloating
  • pain (usually cramping) in the lower abdomen
  • Belly rumbling and flatulence
  • diarrhea (sometimes loose stools with foam)
  • nausea and vomiting.

Typically, symptoms of lactase deficiency increase with age.And, as he gets older, a person who calmly drank milk in his youth may lose the opportunity to even eat ice cream. This is a completely normal development of events. No worries.

Symptoms of lactase deficiency in infants

Lactase deficiency in infants is very rare. The symptoms of this condition are:

  • severe diarrhea with foamy stools
  • vomiting
  • dehydration
  • diaper rash
  • extremely slow weight gain

In addition to lactose intolerance, there is also a food allergy to the protein components of milk.Unlike lactase deficiency, which is more common in adults, food allergies usually manifest in children.

Symptoms of milk allergy

Symptoms of the development of an allergic reaction to milk protein occur in the period from several minutes to several hours after the milk enters the body.

The first symptoms are:

  • urticaria
  • shortness of breath
  • vomiting

Further may appear:

  • diarrhea (stools often bloody)
  • abdominal cramps
  • cough and wheezing when breathing
  • runny nose and lacrimation
  • rashes around the mouth
  • babies have colic

Milk allergy is a much more dangerous condition than lactose intolerance. It can potentially end in death as a result of anaphylactic shock.

How to distinguish lactose intolerance from milk protein allergy?

Usually, you can diagnose yourself on your own at home, simply based on the history:

  • intolerance increases with age and rarely manifests itself before adolescence – an allergy occurs in a child
  • symptoms of deficiency include only gastrointestinal troubles – allergies manifest themselves as breathing problems and skin rashes
  • the symptoms of intolerance increase more slowly than the allergic reaction
  • with intolerance, the symptoms manifest themselves the more severe, the more lactose enters the body – the development of an allergic reaction occurs even with microscopic ingestion of milk protein
  • lactase deficiency does not manifest itself when using fermented milk products, cheeses, butter – an allergy to milk protein occurs when any dairy products enter the body

As you can see, there are quite a few differences, and they are significant. However, if we are talking about a very small child with a severe reaction to breast milk, the diagnosis should be made only by a doctor and only on the basis of tests.

So can you drink milk?

Both milk and cream can be drunk as tolerated.

That is, if you digest milk very well, then you can drink it.

But if after a dairy meal you feel some discomfort, do not force yourself to consume this product, guided by the fact that it is supposedly useful.

If it is useful, it is not for you. Since with poor assimilation of any product, there can be no benefit from it in principle.

When it comes to milk, it is important to understand the following: natural milk is useful – not pasteurized and obtained from free-pasture cows.

You can’t just buy such milk in a store. The same milk that is sold in the store carries a very small amount of nutrients.

So, there is no reason to poison yourself with what you do not assimilate or assimilate very hard.

Which dairy products are good for you?

What dairy products can and should be eaten by almost everyone? Except for those who are allergic to milk protein.

  1. Butter, which is the very healthy saturated fat that protects a person from the occurrence of many diseases, including gaining excess weight.
  2. Cheese also belongs to fatty foods, which, among other things, are one of the best snacks for weight loss.
  3. Fermented dairy products – kefir, yoghurt, sour cream, etc. All of these foods contain probiotics, which are essential for proper weight loss and overall health.
Which dairy products should not be consumed by anyone?

Low fat.


When it comes to dairy products, milk, you cannot give any general advice – to drink or not.It all depends on your genetic code.

If you are created by nature to drink milk as an adult, then drink.

If you have problems with the assimilation of milk, urgently exclude it from your diet. But do not refuse at the same time the use of other healthy dairy products – butter, kefir, yogurt, cheese and sour cream.

Benefits and harms of dairy products

Mikhalina Akulova


This is partly true.

Milk is a source of protein, vitamins and microelements: calcium, potassium, magnesium and zinc. However, some people are better off avoiding dairy products.

What are the benefits of dairy products

Modern nutritional recommendations include milk and dairy products – yoghurts, kefir, cheese and cottage cheese – as sources of complete protein. This means that they contain the entire set of essential amino acids: this is the name for those amino acids that are not synthesized in the human body and must be supplied with food.Besides, milk contains a lot of calcium, vitamins and other micro- and macronutrients. And fermented milk products are a source of beneficial bacteria for health.

Canadian Diet Guidelines

American Diet Guidelines 2020-2025 PDF 32. 2 MB

Protein is necessary for the construction of the body’s own cells, the functioning of the immune system and the transport of substances – for example, hemoglobin carries oxygen.

Proteins also perform regulatory functions, that is, they allow the body to adapt to internal and external changes.For example, the protein hormone insulin helps transport glucose from the blood into the cells. And muscles are also made of proteins.

Calcium is used for bone synthesis. It is not obvious to everyone, but the bones of our body are living structures. Even in adulthood, they constantly break down and grow again.

An overview of the role of calcium in the human body – Merck Medical Reference

In addition, calcium is involved in blood clotting and wound healing.It also helps maintain normal blood pressure and control muscle contraction, including the heart.

Vitamins are essential molecules for a healthy life. They help enzymes – biological catalysts – to work, but they are synthesized in the body in insufficient quantities, so they must enter it with food.

Some studies link the presence of milk in children’s diets with a reduced risk of obesity, and fermented milk products of low fat in the diet of adults with a decrease in the risk of cardiovascular diseases.

In addition, there is evidence that older people who consume milk have higher levels of glutathione, an antioxidant that protects the brain from harmful effects.

The fact is that the work of neurons requires a large amount of oxygen, which is consumed in oxidation reactions. If local blood flow is disturbed, for example, in atherosclerosis, the cells do not receive enough oxygen. As a result, aggressive under-oxidized substances – free radicals – accumulate in the brain.They damage neurons and accelerate their death. Antioxidants, in particular glutathione, protect the brain from free radicals, thereby slowing down the processes of neurodegeneration.


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How much milk and dairy products to consume

For many people, drinking milk is the easiest way to get the protein, calcium and vitamin D needed to keep your heart, muscles and bones healthy and functioning properly.

The optimal amount of dairy products for children 2-3 years old is two servings per day, 4-8 years old – two and a half servings. Children over 9 years old and adults are advised to eat about three servings a day.

American Diet Guidelines 2020-2025 PDF 32.2 MB

The amount of dairy products for children under 2 years old is determined by what other products are in their diet, the way they eat and the general state of health. If in doubt about the correct selection of the child’s diet, consult a pediatrician.

A portion of dairy products is:

  1. cup – about 250 ml – any liquid dairy products. For example, milk, drinking yogurt or kefir;
  2. a piece of cheese 40-50 g – about two slices 2-3 mm thick, the size of a palm, taking into account the fingers of an adult;
  3. Two 100 g jars of yogurt;
  4. 200 g frozen yoghurt or dairy desserts.

How much dairy products cost to eat per day

To How many servings What’s included
Adult 3 A glass of kefir + two jars of yogurt + two slices of cheese
Child 2-3 years old 2 Half a glass of milk + a slice of cheese + 100 g of ice cream + a jar of yogurt

How many servings


What’s included

A glass of kefir + two jars of yogurt + two slices of cheese

Child 2-3 years old

How many servings


What’s included

Half a glass of milk + a slice of cheese + 100 g of ice cream + a jar of yogurt

This amount of dairy products will provide you with the daily calcium needed for bone health. In addition, one serving of dairy products contains about 20% of the daily intake of vitamin D from food. This vitamin allows calcium to be incorporated into bones and is involved in many regular processes. One serving of dairy products covers 10% of the daily requirement for potassium, a macronutrient that supports heart contractions.

WHO Guidelines for Healthy Eating 2020

It is also important to pay attention to the composition of dairy products. It is best to opt for the less fatty options, as they are higher in calcium, potassium and vitamins and less saturated fat.The use of the latter is associated with an increased risk of developing cardiovascular diseases, so it is important to control their amount in the diet. Thus, energy from saturated fat should not exceed 10% of daily calorie intake – this is about 22 g for a norm of 2000 kcal per day.

What is the accusation of dairy products

Despite the fact that dairy products are included in all recommendations about healthy eating, their use is surrounded by a lot of myths. Let’s take a look at a few of the most popular ones.

Milk breaks out pimples. The link between dairy products and acne is indeed being actively studied. Cumulative data from scientists have shown that drinking milk can increase the number of rashes in people between 7 and 30 years old if they drink more than a glass of milk per day. At the same time, those who consume low-fat dairy products are more likely to encounter acne.

Dairy Consumption and Acne – Nutrients meta-analysis of 78,529 people, 2018

However, the researchers emphasize that the body’s response to each product will be determined by many factors: the ratio of proteins, fats and carbohydrates in it, the amount of minerals and salts, structure, fermentation level and heat treatment time, as well as the current state of the body.

In other words, in people prone to breakouts, the number of actual acne may increase due to the consumption of milk, but even then this is not the root cause of acne. Fermented milk products will not affect the condition of the skin.

Milk stimulates mucus production. Some people complain that even a few sips of milk leads to accumulation of mucus in the nasopharynx. This symptom is not associated with either intolerance or allergies. In 1993, a study was conducted in which patients complaining of mucus were divided into two groups.One group was given milk and the other was given imitation soy. As a result, no statistical difference was found between the two groups. So the researchers showed that not only milk affects the secretion of mucus.

Belief in milk mucus – 1993 study in the journal Appetite describing the main respiratory symptoms depending on a person’s belief in the harmfulness of milk

Belief in milk mucus: sensory analysis comparing cow’s milk and soy placebo – placebo -controlled study in the journal “Appetite”

However, some people do experience discomfort from milk and milk-based products: shortness of breath, coughing, or nasal congestion.This reaction is explained by an increase in the viscosity of the sputum, but not an increase in its amount. This is unpleasant, but not dangerous.

Of course, for the patient there is no difference whether the mucus becomes thicker or more, people simply exclude irritating foods from the diet. In this case, it is important to remember that a dairy-free diet relieves symptoms, but does not affect the root cause of mucus, milk only makes the problem more noticeable. If you experience any discomfort after milk, be sure to consult a doctor.

Milk “sucks” calcium out of the bones. Milk is sometimes associated with an increased incidence of fractures in older women. In such cases, people are likely to confuse cause and effect. The absorption of calcium required for the synthesis of new bone tissue depends on the level of hormones and vitamin D in the body of a particular person. Postmenopausal women are undergoing hormonal changes, and older people often suffer from vitamin D deficiency. As a result, older women may experience bone thinning, which means they are at higher risk of fractures.Milk is not to blame for this.

Vitamin D Deficiency in the Elderly: Risk Factors and Drug Effects on Vitamin D Status – Avicenna Medical Journal 2018

Milk Consumption and Bone Health throughout Life – Critical Reviews in Food and Nutrition Science, 2020 year

On the contrary, milk helps to synthesize bone tissue. Protein and calcium, combined in dairy products, have a beneficial effect on bone formation.

Milk makes you fat. In fact, consumption of low-fat dairy products contributes to weight loss. Several servings of milk throughout the day help you feel full and keep your appetite at an optimal level.

Study of the effect of milk on the appetite of slimming obese women – British Journal of Nutrition, 2010

Dairy products are a rich source of proteins, vitamins and minerals necessary for the body. However, even such a useful and generally safe product, if misused, can harm health.As part of dairy products, it is important to control the amount of salt, sugar and fat, as well as to prevent the growth of dangerous bacteria in it.

How to minimize possible harm from milk

In order for dairy products to remain healthy, it is important to comply with a number of restrictions.

Read the ingredients in the store carefully. Despite WHO recommendations, some manufacturers add too much sugar and salt to foods.

WHO recommendations on salt and sugar intake

Salty cheeses – feta cheese, suluguni, feta – contain up to 7% salt.A portion of this cheese will cover more than half of the daily salt requirement – about 3 out of 5 g recommended. For comparison: semi-hard cheeses, such as “Russian”, “Gollandskiy”, “Gouda”, “Edam”, contain half as much salt – no more than 3%.

Gost for pickled cheeses

Gost for semi-hard cheeses

This does not mean that you can not buy factory-made dairy products, but it is better to give preference to plain yoghurts and less salty cheeses.

Be careful when preparing homemade fermented milk products. You can ferment milk and make yogurt, kefir or yogurt on your own, at home. At the same time, it is very important to carry out home fermentation clean. Milk is a rich breeding ground for the reproduction of microorganisms, which is why fermented milk products are so easily obtained from it. Unfortunately, both beneficial and hazardous bacteria and fungi can multiply in such an environment. Eating contaminated foods can lead to intestinal upset and, in bad cases, even death.

To prevent something dangerous from growing in the jar, observe the following rules during fermentation:

  1. Thoroughly wash work surfaces.
  2. Sterilize the jars and lids in which you intend to ferment milk; pour boiling water over the dishes that you will use when cooking.
  3. Use only pasteurized milk. Open the package just before you start cooking.
  4. Milk or kefir left open will not be suitable as a starter culture.They may contain microorganisms that are hazardous to health and multiply during fermentation. Use special leavens.

Starter cultures for kefir, yoghurt and curdled milk are available in pharmacies and online stores

Who shouldn’t drink milk

Milk is not equally good for all people. Medical organizations distinguish two conditions in which it is necessary to limit the consumption of dairy products.

Dairy products and dietary alternatives – Bulletin on the UK Department of Health website, NHS

Casein allergy. Casein is the main protein in milk. An undesirable reaction to it usually manifests itself at the first contact with the product and is similar to other allergies: a person develops itching, rash or symptoms from the gastrointestinal tract – nausea, abdominal pain, diarrhea. You may have a stuffy nose, shortness of breath, or a cough. If you notice these symptoms in a child, see a doctor immediately.

What to do if I suspect my child is allergic or intolerant to cow’s milk – another bulletin on the UK Health website, NHS

Milk protein allergy is one of the most common food allergies in infants.About 7% of babies under the age of one year suffer from it. Interestingly, many children “outgrow” their allergies and can drink milk as adults.

Lactose intolerance is a condition that affects 68% of the world’s population. Lactose is milk sugar that requires the enzyme lactase to break down. The intestinal cells of people with lactose intolerance do not produce the required amount of the enzyme, so the sugar remains in the digestive system, where it is digested by bacteria, producing gas.The latter accumulate in the intestines and provoke diarrhea, vomiting, rumbling or pain in the abdomen, and general weakness.

Estimates of Lactose Absorption Disorder by Country, Region and World – A 2017 meta-analysis in The Lancet: Gastroenterology and Hepatology, including studies on 62,910 people PDF, 561 KB

At the same time, many people with lactose intolerance can still drink a little milk and eat fermented milk products freely: bacteria in yogurt or kefir can secrete enzymes that help absorb up to 90% of sugar.For those whose bodies react to even trace amounts of lactose, lactose-free analogues can be consumed, which contain the same macro- and micronutrients as whole versions, but the lactose is removed from them using a special industrial process.

Effect of the activity of microbial lactase in yogurt on the digestion of lactose in the intestine – a study in humans with lactase deficiency in the British Journal of Nutrition, 2007

Milk “Parmalat comfort” ultra-pasteurized lactose-free 1.8%.Price: 88 R with a discount. Source: “Ozon” Milk “Prostokvashino” ultra-pasteurized lactose-free 1.5%, 0.97 liters. Price: 97 R. Source: “Yandex-market”

How to understand if I can milk

Allergy or milk intolerance has no specific symptoms. If you notice any digestive discomfort after eating any food, see your doctor. While you’re waiting for a consultation, try keeping a food diary. Write down the time you eat, the foods you ate, the approximate serving size, and how you feel.This tool will help your doctor better understand your diet and reactions to foods.

If your doctor suspects an intolerance or allergy, he may suggest that you refrain from foods containing milk for 2-4 weeks. This is enough time to see if the symptoms improve.

Lactose Intolerance – DOH bulletin NHS

How to replace dairy products

Milk is an important, irreplaceable part of a healthy diet.If you don’t like dairy products, can’t eat them, or want to diversify your diet, look at other sources of calcium, protein, and vitamins.

Soy milk, fortified with calcium and vitamins, is similar in nutritional composition, for example, protein content, and methods of use to cow’s milk and can completely replace the latter in the diet.

American Diet Guidelines 2020-2025 PDF 32.2 MB

Other types of plant milk – rice, oatmeal, almond, coconut – differ from cow milk in the ratio of macronutrients, but are often fortified with calcium, therefore they can be used as sources of this micronutrient or for variety, but not as a complete alternative to dairy products.

By the way, it is not necessary to look for complete milk analogues. It is enough to add to the diet more foods that contain what milk is most rich in – calcium, potassium and vitamin D.

Fish is rich in calcium, potassium and vitamin D. At the same time, the largest amount of calcium is found in small fish that are eaten with bones, such as sprat, sardines or smelt.

Calcium – DOH bulletin NHS

Plant sources of calcium

Calcium content in 100 g

625 mg

% of the daily value for children 2-3 years old


% of the daily value for adults and children 4-8 years old


% of the daily value for adolescents 9-18 years old


Calcium content in 100 g

350 mg

% of the daily value for children 2-3 years old


% of the daily value for adults and children 4-8 years old


% of the daily value for adolescents 9-18 years old


Calcium content in 100 g

250 mg

% of the daily value for children 2-3 years old


% of the daily value for adults and children 4-8 years old


% of the daily value for adolescents 9-18 years old


Calcium content in 100 g

200 mg

% of the daily value for children 2-3 years old


% of the daily value for adults and children 4-8 years old


% of the daily value for adolescents 9-18 years old


Red beans

Calcium content in 100 g

150 mg

% of the daily value for children 2-3 years old


% of the daily value for adults and children 4-8 years old


% of the daily value for adolescents 9-18 years old


The diet of children under two years of age depends on many factors, it is better to discuss it with the pediatrician

US Department of Agriculture Handbook

Plant sources of calcium

The diet of children under two years old depends on many factors, it is better to discuss it with the pediatrician

In addition, there is a lot of calcium in unrefined sesame – 90 mg per tablespoon.But beware: peeled white seeds, which are most often found in stores, have almost no calcium.

And potassium, which is also found in milk, is abundant in potatoes, carrots, tomatoes, bananas, peaches and legumes – soybeans, beans, lentils.


  1. Milk is an excellent source of protein, vitamins and minerals, including calcium, which is important for muscle and bone health. However, there are other foods that contain these nutrients as well.For example, fish, vegetables, fruits, seeds and legumes.
  2. Dairy products that are low in fat and added sugar are a healthy addition to any diet as long as the person is not allergic or intolerant. Consult your doctor if you are in doubt about the safety of dairy products for your body.
  3. Contrary to popular myths, milk is not the root cause of acne, it does not leach calcium from the bones or make you fat. On the contrary, milk is very useful for preventing fractures and contributes to weight loss.
  4. The inclusion of fermented milk products in the diet will not only help to diversify the diet, but also reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases. Yogurt, kefir or yogurt also contain probiotics that are essential for the health of the digestive system.

Milk and its substitutes: what is useful, what is harmful

  • Jessica Brown
  • BBC Future

Photo by, Getty Images

Milk plays a vital role in the life of all mammals – from the very first days after birth.But there is an opinion that drinking the milk of another mammal is unnecessary, unnatural and even harmful.

Man is the only animal that drinks milk from other animals. In general, people have an unusual relationship with this white liquid. Most animals stop drinking milk in early childhood, as more and more complex foods become necessary for them to eat. Why do people keep drinking it?

People living in areas of the world where cows were domesticated (including in northern Europe and North America), only 10 thousand years ago developed the ability to digest lactose.

As a result, the body of about 30% of the world’s population continues to produce lactase (an enzyme necessary for the assimilation of lactose) into adulthood. For the rest, this stops with the exit from infancy.

Thus, most people have lactose intolerance, which allows Europeans to perceive milk drinkers as an anomaly. In the “dairy regions” of Europe, only 9% of people are lactose intolerant.

Still, some Europeans would like to reduce their milk consumption – for example, due to the environmental consequences of animal husbandry.And the question of the effect of milk on health – even for those whose bodies are capable of producing lactase – is not fully understood.

All of this has led to the emergence of a huge variety of alternatives to cow’s milk on supermarket shelves.

But are there any health benefits of giving up milk and starting to drink only milk substitutes? Or does cow’s milk provide us with essential nutrients that are only in it? And is it true that milk actually exacerbates lactose intolerance in most people?

Cow’s milk is an excellent source of protein, calcium and essential nutrients such as vitamin B12 and iodine.It contains magnesium, which is essential for bone and muscle development, whey and casein (phosphoprotein), which have been shown to play a role in lowering blood pressure.

The UK National Health Service recommends that children between the ages of one and three years take 350 mg of calcium daily for normal bone development. This dose is found in about 300 ml of milk (just over half a pint in British).

But when it comes to adults, research on whether milk helps our bone health is conflicting.

Photo by Getty Images

Photo caption,

For children aged one to three years, it is recommended to take 350 mg of calcium per day for normal bone development

Although calcium is necessary for bone health, it is not at all obvious that a diet of foods rich in calcium, will keep our bones from breaking.

A number of studies have not confirmed that milk drinkers have a significant reduction in fracture risk. What’s more, some studies have found that milk adds to the likelihood of fractures.

For example, a Swedish study showed that women who drink more than 200 ml of milk daily (less than one glass) are at increased risk of fractures.

True, the study was empirical and scientists warned that it is better not to interpret its results too boldly. After all, it could be that those prone to frequent fractures simply drank more milk, the study authors warn.

But during adolescence, calcium is very important for bone development, says Ian Givens, a food chain specialist at the University of Reading in England.

Photo author, Getty Images

Photo caption,

One study found that women who drank more than 200 ml of milk daily (less than one glass) had an increased risk of fractures

Health problems

There is another concern , expressed in the last few decades: together with milk we consume hormones. Cows are milked when they are pregnant, and at this time the level of estrogen (sex hormones) in their body increases 20 times.

While one study linked such high estrogen levels to human breast, uterine and ovarian cancers, Laura Hernandez, a breastfeeding biologist at the University of Wisconsin, says consuming hormones in milk is not a problem …

“After all, human milk also contains hormones – we are mammals,” she notes.

A recent study confirms that estrogens in milk are not harmful to the health of mice.In order for them to somehow affect the reproductive system of rodents, there must be 100 times more of them than is contained in cow’s milk.

Researchers found an increase in estrogen levels in female mice and a decrease in testosterone levels in male mice only when the dose of estrogen was increased 1000 times over the normal dose.

Photo author, Getty Images

Photo caption,

Cow’s milk contains estrogens, but their small amount is unlikely to have any effect on human health.

It is highly unlikely that humans are a thousand times more sensitive to estrogens than mice, says study author Gregor Madzic from the Center for Animal Genomics at the University of Ljubljana (Slovenia).

Research has also found a link between milk consumption and heart disease, due to the fact that milk contains saturated fat. But the fat content of whole milk is only about 3.5%, fat-free milk – from 0.3 to 1.5%, while unsweetened milk alternatives made from soy, almonds, coconut, oats and rice have a lower fat content than whole milk.

In one study, scientists divided its participants into four groups (depending on the amount of milk they consume). They found that only those who drank the most (almost a liter a day) had an increased risk of heart disease.

This connection may have arisen because those who drink a lot of milk generally follow an unhealthy diet, says Jyrki Virtanen, an epidemiological nutritionist at the University of Eastern Finland.

“Only a very high intake of milk can harm,” he says. “But so far no research has indicated that moderate consumption of milk can be harmful.”

Photo author, Getty Images

Photo caption,

It is possible that those who drink a lot of milk follow an unhealthy diet in general.

In addition, there is a possibility that people with lactose intolerance may well drink cow’s milk in small quantities.Some experts point out that some symptoms (bloating, cramps) are the body’s response to the accumulation of lactose, and each person has a different threshold after which such symptoms occur.

According to American nutritional scientist Christopher Gardner, studies have shown that many are able to tolerate moderate amounts of dairy products.

Demand for alternatives

There is much less research on the effects of milk substitutes on the body.

It is enough to look at supermarket shelves to understand that there is a demand for alternatives to milk and it is growing.

The main ingredient in these drinks (for example, coconut or almonds) is processed and then dissolved in water with the addition of other elements, including stabilizers.

If we talk about proteins, soy milk is the best substitute for cow’s milk. Of the alternatives, this is the only drink that contains a similar amount of protein.

However, the proteins in milk replacers can be “wrong,” Givens points out: “They can contain significantly lower quality protein than cow’s milk, and protein quality is extremely important for the bones of children and the elderly.”

Photo author, Getty Images

Photo caption,

Soy milk has a lot of proteins, but they are not of the quality that can be recommended for children or the elderly

There are no studies from which it would be possible to conclude that we can get enough nutrients from the main ingredients of these alternative drinks, says Sina Gallo, a nutritionist at George Mason University, Virginia. Yes, they may contain micronutrients, but drinking almond milk and eating almonds are very different things.

Milk replacers usually add nutrients that are also found in cow’s milk, such as calcium. But scientists do not know if this is as good for health as the substances naturally formed in cow’s milk are.

Research is needed to understand the health effects of calcium supplementation in milk alternatives.

“Calcium bioaccumulation can happen differently when the drink is fortified, and this is the main question for such drinks,” Gallo emphasizes.“Cow’s milk contains other things, including fats, which can interfere with the bioavailability of nutrients.”

Meanwhile, in the United States, cow’s milk is fortified with vitamin D, and studies show that the benefits are about the same as obtaining

But experts warn that we shouldn’t assume that these alternatives will replace natural milk for babies, says nutritionist Charlotte Sterling-Reid – even if they are fortified.

“Cow’s milk is very nutritious, and fortified plant milk doesn’t always contain all of these elements,” she warns.

Photo by Getty Images

Photo caption,

Experts warn: we must not assume that alternatives will replace natural milk for children

Sterling-Reed is convinced that we need clear advice from the health authorities on whether alternatives can replace milk its for kids and seniors.

There are also concerns about what, and what is missing, in milk replacers. Cow’s milk contains naturally occurring lactose, a carbohydrate often referred to as milk sugar, while alternative drinks often contain added sugar that is far more harmful to health.

Choosing between milk and alternatives to milk is not a choice between healthy and unhealthy, points out Laura Hernandez. You look at what ingredients are in a particular drink and choose the one that suits you personally.

For example, those who are not lactose intolerant but are at increased risk of developing osteoporosis or heart disease may choose low-fat cow’s milk. And those who are concerned about environmental issues can choose a drink that produces the lowest environmental impact.

Whatever your choice, you may not necessarily be missing out on important nutrients if your overall diet is balanced. And in most cases, milk can be replaced with alternatives without health consequences.

“While it is not necessary to avoid milk, it is also not necessary to drink it,” says Virtanen. “It can be substituted with other foods. There is no single dietary component or food that cannot be dispensed with. Everything is replaceable.”

To read the original of this article in English, visit BBC Future .

Dairy products: harm or benefit

Today Restart Fitness will tell you about the dangers of many of your favorite dairy products.We think there are plenty of fans of these products. How so, after all, we were told from a very young age that milk is one of the basic foodstuffs, since it is extremely useful due to the content of fats, proteins, calcium and vitamins and supposedly has a positive effect on the formation of the skeleton and teeth. In fact, everything is completely different. In reality, the use of milk of animal origin is unnatural for humans.

Dairy products lead to colds, severe runny nose, cause allergies, disrupt digestion, cause abdominal upset, increased gas production, promote mucus accumulation, disrupt lung function, cause asthma and respiratory diseases, lead to cancer, cause silicon deficiency, wash out calcium from the body, destroys bones and teeth, leads to weight gain and kidney disease, as it forms kidney stones, causes arthritis, impairs the functioning of the heart and blood vessels, develops atherosclerosis, increases the level of bad cholesterol, causes headaches, is the cause of chronic fatigue, worsen skin condition, form acne, contribute to the development of sclerosis, and are also seriously addictive.

After such a description, let’s be honest, I want to give up milk forever. All milk from shops is pasteurized, and in the process of pasteurization (or in other words, in the process of heating the milk) calcium is converted into calcium phosphate. In the human body, it forms stones in the pancreas and kidneys. But natural country milk is also extremely harmful for digestion. Milk contains lactose. For many people, it is simply not absorbed, diarrhea, pain and bloating occur, and as a result, poisoning.Dairy products acidify our body, and as you know, an acidic environment is an ideal place for the development of all kinds of fungal and oncological diseases. Agree, now there are so many factors for the acidification of the body.

Milk is bad for the heart due to its high fat content. Just one cup of milk contains 10% of the daily intake of cholesterol, which is recommended for a person. All this leads to the development of atherosclerosis and, as a consequence, to heart attacks and strokes.Also, dairy products contain animal protein, for the digestion of which the human body releases a large amount of acid, which has a destructive effect on the kidneys. Milk flushes calcium out of the body.

Finally, milk contains animal calcium. Such calcium forms salts in the human body, which are extremely poorly soluble in water. Like animal fats, they form plaques in human vessels. I would also like to note that calcium salts are part of kidney stones.

And one more surprising fact – milk does not enrich the human body with calcium, but on the contrary contributes to its leaching. The fact is that the milk is oversaturated with this element and the body tries in every possible way to remove it. Milk contains harmful hormones and antibiotics that the food industry uses to increase milk production. We recommend using seeds, nuts, and basil as a source of proper calcium. To maintain your health and performance, urgently replace animal milk with vegetable milk, for example, almond, coconut or soy.

I am glad that today many health food stores, as well as cafes and restaurants have similar milk analogues on sale.

90,000 Is Milk Poisonous? Hormones and lactose, analysis of popular nonsense about milk

You’ve probably heard somewhere out of the corner of your ear that milk is poison, because it is full of hormones, and in general adults do not digest dairy products.

Generally speaking, this is partly true. It’s not about milk as such, but about milk sugar, that is, lactose.And about the lack of lactase – an enzyme that helps us digest lactose.

There is almost no such sugar in human breast milk, but in cow’s milk there is quite a lot. Therefore, in distant prehistoric times, by nature, man really could not break down lactose. He could not and suffered greatly from this, until about 5 thousand years ago, one or, at most, a few lucky people in northern Europe, had a gene for lactose tolerance.

There is even an anthropological theory according to which the flourishing of cattle breeding, and after it of civilization, is the result of just such a beneficial mutation, thanks to which a person began to digest milk sugar.Because one cow allows the whole family to survive the cruel winter, whereas if the animal is simply slaughtered and eaten, the meat will end very quickly.

Anyway, this useful gene is found more often today than at any other time in the history of mankind. True, it is distributed unevenly: if in the north of Europe it is found on average in 90% of the population in different countries, then in the south of Europe and in the Balkans it is already found in only half of the population or even less. Therefore, lactase deficiency is also called “Mediterranean syndrome”.For example, only 30 percent of Sicilians and residents of southern France are happy owners of it, and even less among Asians – in some populations, adults, like our ancestors, are not at all able to break down milk sugar.

Yes, lactase deficiency can also increase with age. In the same population in early childhood, it is less common than among adults.

In general, nothing catastrophic usually happens with lactase deficiency.We just do not digest milk sugar, but bacteria that live in our intestines perfectly digest it. As a result, there is some imbalance with all the ensuing consequences – nausea, diarrhea, abdominal pain and other signs of a disorder. But this is in the most extreme cases. Usually, everything is limited to flatulence and unpleasant sensations that make a person avoid fresh milk.

By the way, an important nuance: all this applies only to products made from fresh milk. Cottage cheese, yoghurts and cheeses and other fermented milk products are quite safe even for those who do not have a lucky enzyme.The lactose in these products was eaten by special microorganisms long before us.

And for dessert – about the myth about the notorious hormones in milk that disrupt the human endocrine system.

Indeed, milk contains growth hormone, which is naturally found there – simply because there are hormones in milk. Even industrial milk may actually contain bovine, a growth hormone that is actually used to inject cows to give them more milk.

Growth hormone, however, is a peptide hormone.Without going into biochemical intricacies, a peptide is a simple protein molecule. And proteins, as we know, are completely destroyed in the stomach. There are no such peptide hormones that would enter the stomach with food, and from there would enter the bloodstream unharmed. This is simply not possible. If scientists could figure out a way to get whole peptides through the stomach into the bloodstream, we would have had insulin pills for diabetes patients long ago. And scientists are really struggling to create them, and maybe by 2020 something like this will appear, at least we are promised so.

However, since today all peptides, including hormones, are destroyed in the stomach, milk, which contains a small amount of bovine growth hormone or bovine, is ABSOLUTELY. NO HARMFUL. FOR HUMAN – and approved by all possible authorities around the world.

Only sellers of organic milk, which does not seem to contain hormones, can convince you otherwise. And there is nothing wrong with organic milk, except for its price. However, remember that even the most natural whole milk from cows contains hormones too.Just because it’s milk, damn it.

Drink it and fear nothing. To your health!

Legends of Milk – MK

Some say that it is unnatural for a person to use it. Others talk about its uselessness. Still others say: it is, they say, generally life-threatening, because it causes heart disease … Others, on the contrary, claim that without it a person will simply die.

No, this is not about beer or smoking. So many contradictory myths among the people are caused by … ordinary milk.So what does this product actually give an adult: harm or benefit? And in what quantities should you drink it? About this “MK-Voskresenia” was told by one of the most famous experts on “correct” food – a doctor of the clinic for therapeutic nutrition, a researcher at the Institute of Nutrition of the Russian Academy of Medical Sciences Mikhail Gurvich.

Cow diet

Now more and more people began to ask the question, is it not harmful for adults to drink milk at all? News feeds are full of messages about fresh “anti-milk” discoveries of foreign scientists.For example, one New Zealand Aesculapius allegedly discovered the harmful effects of milk on the heart. In this he blamed the A1 casein protein contained in milk, which, they say, is capable of causing damage to the walls of the arteries. And some European scientists, according to the same news agencies, generally stated that children who regularly drink milk further increase the risk of diabetes. The expert of the Russian Institute of Nutrition disagrees with such conclusions:

“You should not trust such information from the Internet,” says Mikhail Gurvich, “especially if the message does not indicate the institute where this or that mentioned scientist works.Milk cannot be harmful in any way. Avicenna also called dairy products the best food for people. Botkin is a precious remedy in the treatment of heart and kidney diseases. But these are people who have earned world prestige. Although, speaking so about milk, they did not mean, of course, the modern powder, which can be stored for months, but steam, from under a goat or a cow …

“Adults do not need to drink milk – it is absorbed only by a child” – this opinion, so widespread among the people, it turns out, is also a myth.And even to explain where it came from, domestic nutrition experts are now at a loss.

“This is absurd,” says Gurvich. – Don’t repeat all sorts of nonsense. An adult person perfectly assimilates milk, unless he has a lack of the enzyme lactase. But even in this case, he can perfectly assimilate, for example, kefir. And as for the fact that some peoples digest milk better, while others (for example, Indian tribes) – worse, or do not digest milk at all, in fact, no one has conducted serious research.

– But isn’t it harmful for an adult to drink a lot of milk?

– The term “norm” is often used, for example, in preschool institutions. But there it is largely determined by the amount of money that is allocated to children, and not by the influence of milk on their body. It’s like talking about the rate of red caviar: for someone, eating five eggs is already happiness, while someone who has such an opportunity needs three spoons.

By the way, people get fat not from milk, but from the fat it contains.Therefore, the opinion that milk is contraindicated for fat people is also not true. In our clinic, dairy products are even included in weight loss programs. It’s just that for a person inclined to be overweight, it is better to choose milk with a low percentage of fat content – 1-1.5%, and not 5-6%. And then you can drink it in large quantities.

Beware of foams!

But a completely different matter is food allergy and individual intolerance (by the way, it is not related to immunity).

Such milk intolerance may be due to insufficient activity or even the absence in the body of the notorious lactase, which breaks down milk sugar.Its increased fermentation leads to gastrointestinal upset. The second reason may be an increased sensitivity of the body to milk proteins.

“But if one out of a hundred people gets sick from apples, this does not mean that apples are harmful,” says Gurvich.

The manifestations of food allergy to milk are very different. The most common and characteristic – heartburn, bloating, vomiting, flatulence. In practice, by the way, there were even cases when a person could easily drink the milk itself, but the foam made him feel bad.A symptom of such an allergy can be nausea, itching of the skin or hives (!). The fact is that in its chemical composition the foam is somewhat different from milk, although it contains a large amount of substances useful to humans …

By the way, doctors sometimes advise parents, whose children do not like milk froth, to stir the milk while boiling, and cool it quickly when serving, thus preventing froth from forming on the surface of the cooled milk. Adults can also be advised of this.

In general, for those who do not tolerate milk, experts in medical nutrition recommend several ways out.Add it to tea or coffee, or simply limit yourself to milk derivatives – kefir, cheese, cottage cheese …

Remedy for edema

But nutritionists do not doubt whether milk brings real benefits.

– Milk is a weak causative agent of gastric secretion, therefore it is very useful for those who need sparing nutrition – patients with ulcers and gastritis with high acidity, – the expert of the Research Institute of Nutrition lists. – Milk contains a lot of potassium, which means that it is necessary for those who suffer from osteoporosis.And since milk enhances the excretion of fluid from the body, it is often recommended to drink it for edema. In addition, it helps with atherosclerosis, as well as chronic liver and gallbladder diseases.

Doctors have established another important fact: milk reduces blood pressure in hypertensive patients.

Refuting the hypothesis of the same New Zealand scientist who linked milk to diseases of the cardiovascular system, Gurvich notes:

– In case of heart disease, doctors recommend dairy products.This is exactly what a patient needs in such a situation: milk plus vegetables and fruits …

On the contrary, for a long time it was believed that milk helps to avoid many occupational diseases in so-called hazardous enterprises, for which it, as you know, is given to employees. So, 10-15 years ago, scientists had a new hypothesis: milk does not particularly neutralize harmful chemicals. And you just need to give it to employees of enterprises as a general tonic. With the same success, workers, for example, can be given juice or fruit drink.And until now, opinions about whether it is necessary to give milk “for harm”, scientists differ.

If the influence of milk on physical health is evident, then about its effect on the psyche or simply the mood of a person is not yet clear.

– Doctors sometimes recommend milk to patients at night, but only because it soothes the stomach and intestines, says Gurvich. – However, there are cases when it helped with insomnia.

How to drink herring with?

Other controversies around milk – what they can drink and what not.Salty and spicy (for example, herring or canned cucumbers) washed down with milk, of course, is not accepted, but in fact, according to Gurvich, there are no strict restrictions here. Everyone should look at their own individual reaction.

Moreover, good milk, especially if it is fresh, fresh from a cow, even neutralizes the effect of hot marinades in the body. So such an experiment can, on the contrary, be beneficial.

And by the way, milk is useful and well absorbed not only in its original form, but also in cereals and milk soups.

But what about those who suffer from the notorious milk allergy or simply cannot stand it? Is it realistic to live without milk and still feel normal?

Of course, experts say. Its derivatives are quite suitable – cottage cheese, cheese … And even if for some reason you do not consume dairy products at all, in extreme cases, there is fish and meat. After all, the most important thing that the body gets from milk is animal protein.

So it is up to everyone to decide whether to drink or not drink.The main thing is not to listen to impostors from nutritional science, but to reputable experts. Well, and to the sounds of your intestines, of course.


3 dairy products a day – the norm for healthy people!

“3 dairy products a day” is an information and educational project with the participation of government officials, public organizations and business. The goal of the project is to raise awareness of the residents of our country about the importance of daily consumption of dairy products. It’s no secret that dairy products are one of the fundamental components of a balanced human diet, and as a result, an important part of a healthy lifestyle.According to WHO experts, human health largely depends on nutrition. Therefore, adhering to a healthy lifestyle, paying more attention to a balanced diet, physical activity, avoiding bad habits, we could significantly improve our health.
The strategic goal of the project is to increase the consumption of dairy products from 1-1.5 portions to 3 portions a day.
Just imagine that 10 years ago we consumed 40% more dairy products than we do now! We have something to strive for and where to grow!

Why store milk doesn’t really turn sour

Today, for some reason, it is believed that any products with a long shelf life are not natural, not useful, and sometimes downright harmful.It is believed that manufacturers add something to them that is carefully hidden from us, and only thanks to courageous journalists, the whole criminal plan occasionally comes to the surface.

Today, almost everyone knows that long-term storage milk (the one that can be stored in a closed bag for six months or more) is a hazardous “chemistry” to health. What did the manufacturer put in the bag instead of milk, what antibiotics and how will they affect our health? I myself have more than once seen young mothers in the store, with an arrogant and even squeamish grimace, passing by packages of such milk.They apparently know the secret. And you? Let’s understand the points.

“Antibiotics are added to milk”

They can get there only from cows, which, sometimes, are treated with antibiotics for various infections. And even, it happens, they give it as a prophylaxis. Nobody adds antibiotics to milk. Although, of course, about “no one” – it is difficult to give a guarantee. But if you buy a package of milk from a large producer, then you can be sure that nothing has been added to it, and any incoming raw materials are analyzed at the input.This is called “quality control,” and every large enterprise has it. Milk bought from grandmother on the market should raise much more questions.

“There are antibiotics in milk”

Antibiotics can be found in almost any modern milk. The reason for this is not greedy manufacturers, but the success of analytical chemistry, capable of detecting the smallest quantities of any substances contained in the product. This same analytical chemistry, by the way, regularly detects mercury, cadmium and lead in milk.And if you try hard, then if you want, you can find uranium and gold.

The question that consumers should ask themselves is how many of these substances are there, whether their content does not exceed the established safe doses. Usually do not exceed. Any decent manufacturer monitors the quality of their products, this saves a lot of effort, time and money.

“Milk does not sour for a long time, so it is not natural”

An extremely common misconception. I wonder if those who think so understand the viciousness of this formulation from the point of view of logic? Let me explain.By construction, the statement under consideration is completely identical to the following verbal construction: “Oranges are grown in Florida, so they are not blue.” Did anyone find this expression logical?

Let me explain again. It does not sour – this means that for some reason (more about them later) bacteria do not develop in milk. Naturalness means that it is made by nature, obtained from a cow. These concepts are not related. Milk is always obtained from a cow. In order for it not to sour, special processing methods are used.When you roll a jar of mushrooms at home and they do not sour for several years – at what point in time do they cease to be natural?

“Milk does not sour for a long time, so something is wrong with it”

Strictly speaking, there is something wrong with milk when it turns sour. At this moment, it ceases to be milk and becomes a fermented milk product. It acidifies due to the vital activity of microorganisms (bacteria and fungi), mainly lactic acid. They got their name in connection with the ability to “feed” on milk sugar – lactose, producing lactic acid, which in turn denatures protein and gives sour milk products a sour taste.

These and other bacteria are simply absent in milk for long-term storage – they were destroyed by high-temperature treatment. Therefore, it does not turn sour. Not because antibiotics were added to it, but because all germs were removed from it. With the help of the oldest and most reliable “antibiotic” on the planet – high temperature.

By the way, pathogenic bacteria capable of causing various diseases were also removed from this milk. In this sense, long-term milk is much healthier than fresh country milk, in which you can find a whole zoo with not the most plausible intentions.

“Milk does not sour for a long time even in an open package, which means that something is wrong with it”

As, I hope, it became clear from the previous paragraph, bacteria are needed to sour milk. Lots of bacteria. Any bacteria flying around the kitchen won’t do. You need a specific, lactic acid bacteria.

The environment around us today is relatively sterile compared to a dairy farm. Opening a pack of sterile milk in a clean environment, pouring milk into a glass through a small opening, you will not be able to get a lot of bacteria inside the bag.And those units that can still fly in will fall on the surface of the milk, and on the surface they will multiply, gradually conquering new dairy territories for themselves. It is good if it is on the table in a warm kitchen, but most likely they will have to do this in the refrigerator, in very uncomfortable conditions for them. Didn’t you know that bacteria are extremely inactive at low temperatures? Refrigerators were invented for this very purpose.

Another thing is milk from a cow, or even pasteurized milk, in which there is a certain amount of live bacteria that have not been “killed” by pasteurization.In such a product, all microorganisms are evenly mixed throughout the entire volume.

By the way, if you add sourdough to milk with a long shelf life, mix it and put it in a warm place, then everything is perfectly fermented. Checked repeatedly. You can check it yourself and make sure. This is a very simple experiment, which for some reason many supporters of the version of “milk with antibiotics” do not know before. Maybe they are afraid to be convinced of their own delusions?

“Long-term storage milk goes out, but does not turn sour – it means that something is wrong with it”

This does happen, but it has nothing to do with the quality of the milk.The process of spoilage of this product is controlled by microorganisms, those that “flew” from the air. This is something wrong with them.

Milk contains not only lactose sugar, but also protein and fat. Accordingly, microbes in milk can live not only lactic acid, feeding on lactose. There are so-called “proteolytic”, eating protein (rare article), and “lipolytic”, preferring fat. Some proteolytic bacteria are literally “putrefactive”. In the process of protein processing, they release a number of unpleasant, bitter, and even poisonous substances.The vital activity of “lipolytic” microorganisms leads to the formation of a rancid taste.

As in any other community of living organisms, there is a fierce competition for survival between microbes in sour milk, in which all means are good. Usually it is won by lactic acid. The lactic acid they produce simply reliably inhibits the development of competitors. A freshly opened sterile bag is another matter. The ubiquitous proteolytic bacteria have every chance of getting on favorable milk soil faster than their competitors, and spoiling the product before anyone else.As a result, the milk “goes out”, but not “sour”. But the manufacturers have nothing to do with it.

By the way, ordinary pasteurized milk can “rot” already in the package. Pasteurization, in general, effectively dealing with delicate lactic acid microorganisms, leaves many “putrid” spores alive, which, upon waking up, begin to spoil the product. Sterilization and ultra-pasteurization are practically devoid of such a disadvantage.

“Milk for long-term storage in the refrigerator goes rancid and goes out – it means that something is wrong with it”

Cold, of course, slows down the development of many microorganisms.But it would be naive to think that evolution will bypass cool places and will not populate them with organisms that would feel great in these conditions.

The so-called “psychrotrophic” microorganisms capable of reproduction at low and even at negative temperatures are permanent inhabitants of our refrigerators. They will definitely fly into an open carton of milk. The usual lactic acid microorganisms, even if they are in milk, do not feel very well in the climatic conditions of the refrigerating shelf, much like polar explorers at a station in Antarctica.For the psychrotrophic, these conditions are a resort and home, they are penguins that polar explorers envy, looking out of the window. So they win in the end. And milk as a result – “rotten” and rancid. But the manufacturers are not to blame for anything here either.

For those who still do not believe, I will ask a rhetorical question. Why do the antibiotics, which the manufacturers supposedly add, kill lactic acid bacteria, but do not work on everyone else, allowing the milk to “rot”?

Backfill question

For centuries, for millennia, mankind has been trying to make itself food for long-term storage.We invented the processes of salting, smoking, drying, fermentation – everything that spoils the appearance and nutritional value of products, often making the product more harmful. We did this with only one purpose – to extend the life of our food. Save it as long as possible.

We have achieved our goal. Today we have technologies that extend the life of milk without changing the composition and without harming the body. When and why did it become bad?

Yogurt contributes to the development of stress resistance

The Institute of Biomedicine in Helsinki conducted a study, which revealed an interesting fact – the daily consumption of yoghurt, enriched with useful substances, contributes to the development of stress resistance.

The aim of this study was to evaluate the benefits of consuming yoghurt enriched with bioactive peptides (alpha-lactalbumin, casein tripeptides) and B vitamins in combating chronic stress compared to regular yoghurt.

67 people aged 18 to 63 years, suffering from severe anxiety disorders, took part in a double-blind study by the method of random sampling.

In the course of the experiment, the participants in the active group, who consumed fortified yogurt daily, showed better physical well-being, were less tired and remained in a good mood.