Is soy sauce bad for acid reflux: Is Soy Sauce Acidic? (Should You Continue Using It)
Is Soy Sauce Acidic? (Should You Continue Using It)
If you’re like me and like to enjoy one of the world’s favorite sauces, you might be wondering if it’s acidic and if you can continue to add it to your favorite meals. I mean come on, sushi without soy sauce is just bland. I need that extra kick from the soy sauce.
Is soy sauce acidic? Yes, soy sauce is considered to be acidic. Its pH value is around 5 with one of the bestsellers, Kikkoman Soy Sauce, having a pH of 4.8. Therefore, most of the people with GERD do not recommend it because it might cause them acid reflux.
RELATED: IS BREAD ACIDIC?
What is soy sauce exactly?
Soy sauce is probably man’s oldest prepared seasoning and is widely used in both Oriental and American cuisine. It’s a yummy fermented soy product. Five companies account for 50% of total soy sauce production.
There are two basic types of soy sauce:
- fermented soy sauce (NBSS), and
- soy sauce made from hydrolyzed vegetable proteins (HVP).
What is the pH of soy sauce?
As I’ve already mentioned, the pH of soy sauce is around 5 (4.8 for Kikkoman). Although that might seem to be closer to a neutral level of 7, it is still considered to be acidic. And this acidity is actually what gives it its “refined, rounded tartness“.
Soy sauce also contains around 1.0% lactic acid and more than 10 other organic acids including succinic acid.
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A pH of 0 is totally acidic, while a pH of 14 is completely alkaline. A pH of 7 is neutral.
Is cooked soy sauce acidic?
You can reduce the amount of acidity while cooking food, including when cooking with soy sauce, by sprinkling small amounts of baking soda. You can add it until the tart flavor of the food is reduced but remember to taste the food often so that the taste of baking soda doesn’t take over the taste of the meal.
Another great tip is to cook dishes only for the shortest time possible so that water isn’t cooked away and acid isn’t concentrated in a smaller volume of food.
Cooking with soy sauce doesn’t necessarily make it more or less acidic, especially if you add it towards the end of cooking.
RELATED: Is Coca-Cola acidic?
Is soy sauce bad for acid reflux?
GERD is a very individual disease – what affects you negatively may be fine for others.
While it might not be the worst for GERD, it sure isn’t going to help if you’re battling with acid reflux. Soy sauce does have a considerable amount of acids inside that contribute to that distinguished flavor. A good tip is to incorporate high-alkaline foods into high-acid foods, as the alkalinity reduces the acidity.
Include high-alkaline foods into high-acid foods, as the alkalinity reduces the acidity.
RELATED: IS SPINACH ACIDIC?
What will happen if I eat soy sauce every day?
Japanese people tend to live the longest and they probably eat more soy sauce than anyone in the world. Could there be a correlation? Hmm…
The daily consumption of soy sauce in Japan is estimated at about 30 ml per person according to the data from the Japan Soy Sauce Brewers Association.
Naturally brewed soy sauce contains about 1-1.6% nitrogen, 17% -19% simple sugars, and 1% -2% organic acids. Free amino acids, especially glutamic acid, make up about 45% of the nitrogen and are responsible for the umami flavor.
What are the side effects of soy sauce?
Naturally brewed soy sauce is more healthy and has more health benefits than chemically produced soy sauce (duh). Chemically produced soy sauce contains a toxic substance called 3-MCPD. And there have been multiple recalls of soy sauce products that exceed safe limits of the substance.
So while chemically manufactured soy sauce is made quicker and cheaper, the resulting soy sauce tastes inferior, contains some toxic compounds and may require extra colors and flavors.
Also soy sauce in general is high in sodium, can be high in MSG, contains significant amounts of amines, including histamine and tyramine, and wheat and gluten.
I know, it has all the good parts!
RELATED: ARE BANANAS ACIDIC?
What sauce is good for acid reflux?
If you suffer from a really bad acid reflux, the best would be to mix your own sauces from scratch and from ingredients that have a proven track record of not triggering your disorder.
Most sauces aren’t too complicated to make and you’ll be in complete control of ingredients used unlike the Russian roulette of cooking with store-bought sauce.
RELATED: Is Chicken Acidic?
If you have GERD, it’s best to skip soy sauce or use it in small amounts as it is acidic Besides tasting great, soy sauce has many health benefits as well. And if you continue to use it it’s best to go for the naturally brewed soy sauce (NBSS) as it has more benefits than the chemically produced one (HVP).
Alicia is the senior content editor and writer here at Food FAQ. She has extensive experience in the restaurant and hospitality industry and management. When not eating food for “research”, she’s watching “Friends” for the 100th time.
Tips on Eating Out With GERD
If you’d rather swallow fire than eat out at your favorite restaurant, gastroesophageal reflux disease, or GERD, could be to blame. But before you swear off restaurant meals for good, check out these smart tips on dining out:
Overeating is a surefire way to aggravate the symptoms of reflux. A full stomach applies pressure on your lower esophageal sphincter, says Roberta Anding, a registered dietitian and spokesperson for the American Dietetic Association. Yet most restaurants pile two or more servings onto one entrée-size plate. To help control GERD while eating out:
- Ask the waiter for a half portion.
- Share a meal with your dining partner.
- Order two small appetizers for your main course.
- Take half your entrée home in a to-go bag.
- Eat slowly
You can read about the various causes of GERD and not clearly recognize yourself among the many descriptions. That’s because individuals are unique and different things – including foods – trigger GERD. Because people are not genetically identical, Anding says, you must learn which specific foods aggravate your reflux symptoms – and keep track of them. Anding suggests that when you dine out you ask the waiter how a dish is made. A menu might list pasta with cream sauce, but that could be a red cream sauce. If tomatoes trigger your symptoms, then you’ll wish you had ordered something else.
Some foods are notorious for causing GERD to flare up. While it’s important to know which foods specifically contribute to your reflux symptoms, here are a few general menu guidelines:
Avoid acidic foods. For example:
- Condiments like ketchup, mustard, and vinegar
- Tomato-based sauces and soups
Steer clear of citrus fruits. For example:
- Oranges, lemons, grapefruit, and limes – whole or in juice form
- Any seafood dish cooked or basted in lemon juice
Forgo fried foods. For example:
- Anything sautéed in butter or oil
- French fries, onion rings, fried fish, potato chips
Forget about fatty foods. For example:
- Fatty cuts of meat, such as prime rib, duck, and sausage
- Meals made with high-fat dairy, such as cheese, cream, and butter
Pass on spicy foods. For example:
- Spicy peppers, red pepper flakes, wasabi, salsa, and hot sauce
- Finally, go easy on garlic, shallots, and onions.
Choose Cuisines Carefully
Going out for ethnic or fast food? The following are some smart and not-so-smart choices for people with GERD.
At an Asian restaurant…
- Steamed dishes made with vegetables, chicken, tofu, beef, or pork
- Noodles in broth
- Egg drop, clear, or miso soup
- Sushi with soy sauce (skip the wasabi)
- Steamed dumplings
- Fortune cookies
- Fried eggrolls, dumplings, rice, and crab rangoons
- Wonton soup
- “Crispy” anything
- General Tso’s dishes
- Thai spices
At a Mexican restaurant. ..
- Vegetarian refried beans (made without lard)
- Vegetable burrito or quesadilla without cheese
- Brown rice
- Grilled fajitas
- Mole (chocolate) sauce
- Anything labeled spicy or containing chiles or jalapeño peppers
- Fried tortillas (chips, strips, or salad bowls)
- Sour cream
- Deep-fried ice cream
At an Italian restaurant…
- Broth-based pasta sauces and soups
- Bread sticks
- Salad with light Italian dressing on the side
- Roasted, grilled, or broiled meats
- Grilled, poached, or steamed fish dishes (without cream sauce)
- Cheesy dishes like lasagna, ravioli, and tortellini and anything with an Alfredo sauce
- Tomato-based dishes like red pizza, pasta with red sauce, bruschetta, and tomato soup
- Fried appetizers like zucchini and calamari
- Chicken, veal, and eggplant Parmesan
At a fast-food restaurant. ..
- Grilled chicken sandwich
- Salad with light dressing
- Plain hamburger
- Turkey or ham submarine sandwich with veggies
- French fries
- Fried fish or chicken sandwiches
- Heavy condiments
Assess the Extras
Some extravagances go hand in hand with a fine restaurant meal – specifically, dessert and alcohol. But if you want to walk away with fond memories of your dining experience, it’s important to ask yourself if indulging is really worth it. If you do decide to dive into the “good stuff,” these tips will help guide you into safer waters:
- Enjoy one glass of wine and stop there.
- Look for lighter desserts made with fresh fruit.
- Avoid anything made with chocolate or full-fat dairy, including dishes like crème brûlée, cheesecake, and pudding.
- Split a dessert with your dining partner.
- Choose decaf coffee or tea.
- Resist the chocolate mint candy on the way out; the mint and chocolate deliver a double whammy.
Eating out with GERD can be a challenge. But if you make smart choices and keep track of the foods that tend to aggravate your reflux, you can enjoy a restaurant meal without getting burned by GERD’s side effects. As Anding says: Moderation while eating out will provide reasonable symptom control. You may not walk away without any reflux symptoms, but if you enjoy one glass of wine, a few bites of dessert, and take half your meal home with you, you should be able to enjoy a restaurant meal without severe symptoms. And enjoyment is what a restaurant meal is all about!
The Real Cause of GERD
Last week a study was published in JAMA about the real cause of GERD (gastroesophageal reflux disease) and it got a lot of media attention (as studies often do).
It was announced that researchers at the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center and Dallas VA Medical Center may have found the real cause of GERD.
In a small study of 12 men with severe acid esophageal reflux that was being successfully managed with proton pump inhibitor (PPI) medications, researchers analyzed the changes to the esophageal tissues once the PPIs were stopped.
Not surprisingly, they found reflux returned in 11 of the 12 men. But they found that the damage to the tissues was NOT caused by the chemical exposure of the acid itself (as has long been assumed) but by an inflammatory response in the esophagus to the acid.
Everyone seems to be jumping to the conclusion that all of a sudden, acid reflux is no longer the real cause of GERD but rather, inflammation is now the true culprit.
Here’s a few headlines:
Researchers Discover Actual Cause of GERD
Inflammation, Not Acid, Cause of GERD, Study Suggests
Inflammation is Direct Cause of Acid Reflux
But these are misleading. Because when you read the JAMA study, the acid is still refluxing. It says directly in the results, “Two weeks after stopping the PPI medication, esophageal acid exposure increased. ”
It’s just that the cause of the damage to the esophagus is an inflammatory response to the acid, not the acid itself.
This challenges the long-held belief that acid is directly damaging the esophagus.
But I don’t see what the big deal is here.
The acid is causing the inflammatory response. So the reason for GERD, be it chemical exposure from the acid or an inflammatory response, is still acid reflux. Inflammation is NOT the real cause of GERD as the headlines suggest.
But it’s not acid reflux either.
The Ten Million Dollar Question
Of course, those in the pharmaceutical/medical community are now calling for the development of new drugs to target the inflammation. 🙄
But in my mind, this study doesn’t change anything.
Nobody is asking the 10 million dollar question.
WHY IS ACID REFLUXING INTO THE ESOPHAGUS IN THE FIRST PLACE?
That’s the real cause of GERD. Who cares if it’s the acid itself or an inflammatory response to the acid that’s damaging the esophagus?!
It’s as if a stream of gasoline was flowing uphill along a path and igniting a fire at a specific spot on the path. Firefighters (the pharmaceutical companies) are continually putting out the fire without asking why the gasoline is flowing upwards in the first place.
Proton pump inhibitors (such as Prilosec, Prevacid and Nexium), h3 blockers (Zantac, Pepcid) and antacids (Tums, Rolaids) rarely put out the fire for long. When people stop taking them, the fire comes raging back.
Why Low Stomach Acid is the Real Cause of GERD
It is no surprise that the participants in the study experienced intense esophageal reflux when they stopped taking PPIs. This is known as rebound acid hypersecretion. This occurs when PPI therapy is suddenly stopped and the stomach compensates for the lack of stomach acid by now overproducing acid.
Rebound acid hypersecretion is due to a LACK OF STOMACH ACID.
Those of us in the holistic health community have been saying low stomach acid is the real cause of GERD for decades now. There’s an actual medical term for low stomach acid which is known as “hypochlorhydia. ” Fellow NTP, Margaret Floyd, wrote an excellent article detailing 13 signs you have hypochlorhydria. Guess what #5 is on her list? That’s right, acid reflux.
I explained the mechanism for how low stomach acid causes acid reflux in a recent post detailing the many reasons to stop taking acid blockers and I explain it in much more detail in my book, The 30 Day Heartburn Solution.
Here’s an ultra-brief summary:
Poor digestive fire (low acidity) causes food to sit in the stomach too long. Symptoms include bloating, belching, bad breath and undigested food in your stools. This maldigesting food can expand, ferment and give off gasses that put pressure on the lower esophageal sphincter (LES), the valve that keeps the stomach separate from the esophagus. Over time, the LES can weaken through this continuous increased pressure and push the acidic contents of the stomach back into the esophagus which burns the lining (or in light of the new research perhaps causes an inflammatory reaction).
Now this is not to say that low stomach acid is always the reason for acid reflux. There can be many reasons including structural changes brought about by a hiatal hernia and of course, pregnancy.
But for millions of people who regularly struggle with acid reflux, there’s hope in dietary changes!
Wouldn’t it be nice if more scientific research studied the influence of food on our digestive system and offered real food solutions instead of more drug therapies?
Maybe because there’s no money in natural therapies.
Why Low Stomach Acid is a Form of Inflammation
Though inflammation in the tissues of the esophagus is not the true cause of acid reflux, low stomach acid is in many ways a symptom of general inflammation in the body.
More and more doctors believe general inflammation in the body is the root of many common diseases.
Because stomach acid is required to break down our food, a deficiency in the short-term can lead to bloating in the stomach, belching, nausea, bad breath, gas, gastritis and yes, acid reflux.
Over the long-term, chronically low stomach acid from the overuse of PPIs can lead to a greater risk of infection (source), nutrient deficiencies (source), bone loss (source) and hip fractures (source), to name a few.
So what’s the true cause of low stomach acid?
As with all things, there’s rarely a simple answer. Stress, environmental toxins, infections and hypothyroidism can play a role.
But as a Nutritional Therapist, I think poor diet is the most widespread factor because I’ve seen so many improvements when dietary changes are made.
How to Heal Low Stomach Acid Naturally with Food
First things first, you must remove all pro-inflammatory processed foods.
Because processed food is now so woven into the fabric of our culture, millions of people no longer know the difference between real food and processed food.
Most people today know that foods high in refined sugar are highly processed. But most people don’t know that most grain-based foods are also highly problematic. This flies in the face of conventional dietary advice to “eat more whole grains” but there’s a HUGE difference between modern grains, which are not properly prepared for optimal digestion and traditionally prepared grains, which are.
Traditionally, cultures fermented, sprouted and soaked grains to neutralize some of their inflammatory and hard-to-digest characteristics. But few companies do this anymore.
Americans eat A LOT of grain-based foods, to put it mildly.
If this topic is new to you, Sally Fallon does a nice job explaining the difference between modern and traditional grains in this article.
This is why in my book, step 1 of my protocol is to go grain-free for 30 days.
It’s kind of like killing two birds with one stone. Because so many grain-based foods also are high in sugar by going fully grain-free for 30 days, you’ll be restricting the two most inflammatory foods in the modern diet.
Of course, there’s more to it than that. But that’s a good start. Here’s a short list of other common pro-inflammatory foods:
- Bad fats from nut and seed oils, especially corn, cottonseed, canola and soybean oils
- trans fats such as partially hydrogenated oils (common in processed foods, especially snack products)
- soy (with the exception of traditionally prepared version like miso, natto and soy sauce)
- pasteurized dairy
- food additives and preservatives such as MSG, food colorings, etc.
Restore with REAL Food
Once you’ve removed pro-inflammatory foods, you want to also bring in gut-healing foods which help restore the proper digestive environment to prevent acid reflux.
The three most important are healthy fats, bone broths and fermented foods. These are key pillars in every traditional culture on the planet and have many anti-inflammatory properties.
Dairy can be helpful for some, if unpasteurized, but harmful for many. And of course, fresh fruits and vegetables are important too but seriously, who doesn’t know that?
In my book, I detail the many pillars of a real food diet. All of these are anti-inflammatory and very helpful to restore proper digestive capacity which of course includes proper acid production in the stomach.
If you’d like a more thorough explanation for WHY these foods are so beneficial check out my book, The 30-Day Heartburn Solution, which also includes meal plans and recipes for how to make things like bone broths and fermented foods.
Finally, though this food approach works wonders for most, many who have been on acid blockers for extended periods will often have a very difficult time stopping PPI therapy due to the long-term suppression of stomach acid, which causes the vicious rebound effect explained above. If that describes you, here’s an approach for how to wean off acid blockers.
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The Best Chinese Food Dishes for Avoiding Acid Reflux
Chinese restaurants can be difficult to enjoy if you are prone to heartburn, a common problem created by acid reflux. The dishes may contain ingredients that trigger reflux, and, unlike foods prepare at home, you don’t have control of what is included in certain dishes.
This doesn’t mean that you have to avoid Chinese restaurants and give up on Chinese takeouts at home. With a few precautions, you reduce the risk of reflux and continue to savor the flavors of Chinese cuisine.
Daniel Frauchiger/Getty Images
What to Avoid
When looking at the choices on a typical Chinese menu, it is easy to be lured by dishes that sound too tasty to resist. Even so, you need to look at each dish individually and ask yourself if they contain any ingredient that triggers heartburn in you as an individual.
Acid reflux triggers can vary by person to person, with some ingredients affecting an individual with reflux more than others. With that said, there are a number of triggers that commonly affect people with acid reflux.
When ordering a Chinese meal, start by striking off fatty foods, fried foods, and spicy foods as well as dishes made with viscous sauces. These include:
- Egg rolls
- Spring rolls
- Crab rangoon
- Shrimp toast
- Barbecued spareribs
- Fried chicken wings
- Hot and sour soup
- Crispy fried noodles
- Fried rice (which can sometimes be very oily)
- Sweet and sour dishes
- Curried dishes
- Crispy beef, chicken, pork, or fish dishes
- Dishes made with garlic sauce
- Szechuan dishes (which are more likely to be spicy)
If you aren’t sure what is in a dish or how a dish is prepared, don’t be afraid to ask.
You can also request alterations or substitutions if a dish you love contains an ingredient you know will trigger heartburn. For example, you can ask that chilis be omitted from cold sesame noodles or that a side dish of fried rice be substituted with plain steamed rice.
What to Order
The following list of Chinese menu items may be kinder to your stomach and esophagus if you suffer from heartburn. None are fried or spicy. Most are relatively light and either have no sauce or are lightly sauced. Examples include:
- Wonton soup
- Velvety corn soup
- Egg drop soup
- Steamed dumplings
- Summer rolls
- Steamed pork buns (vegetarian fillings are the safest)
- Satay skewers (peanut sauce on the side)
- Steamed fish dishes (sauce on the side)
- Cantonese steamed chicken
- Steamed shrimp with broccoli
- Peking duck (without the skin)
Many people consider sauces to be central to Chinese cuisine and can’t do without them. To savor Chinese flavors with less risk of heartburn, ask for sauces to be placed on the side whenever possible. You can’t do this with many Chinese dishes but can with most steamed dishes, satays, or dumplings.
If you do decide to order an old favorite, like chicken with cashews or moo goo gai pan, consider ordering for the table, serving yourself a smaller portion with plenty of plain rice. You can do the same with lettuce cups, removing the excess filling and replacing it with some steamed white or brown rice.
If dining at a restaurant with a limited menu, check the menu online, and call in advance to query the ingredients and ensure that the dish is still available. Doing so can prevent you from being stuck with nothing to eat or eating something that causes heartburn.
Smaller restaurants are also more likely to make adjustments, particularly if you give them advanced warning.
A Word From Verywell
If you are prone to heartburn, speak with your doctor if it occurs more than twice weekly and/or is getting worse. You may be experiencing a more serious condition called gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) that requires medications, medical management, and lifestyle modifications.
If left untreated, GERD can lead to serious health complications, including esophageal ulcers, esophageal strictures, Barrett’s esophagus, and esophageal cancer. Early diagnosis can place you on treatments to better avoid these problems.
13 Common Foods Causing Your Digestive Problems
While it may be stinky and smelly, poop is a good thing—but it’s not always an easy thing to do. In order to ensure your digestive system runs smoothly, you have to consume foods that can easily pass through your body after they give you an energy boost and stray from the foods that cause digestive problems.
If we’re being honest, though, we’re not exactly a nation of healthy food lovers. Many of us tend to favor the taste of less-than-stellar foods that cause digestive problems. These foods don’t pass through the digestive system as easily as say, oatmeal, or an apple. The result? Heartburn, cramping, acid reflux, inflammation, and infection. And yes, all of these things are as horrible and uncomfortable as you might imagine.
So how can you tell if you’re digestive system is suffering? You don’t have to “go” every day to be considered regular, according to the Mayo Clinic; however, if you’re heading to the loo for number two fewer than four times per week, it’s time to get to a doctor—and then head to the grocery store.
After you’ve filled your cart with foods that make you poop, scan through your cabinets and fridge and toss out the foods that cause digestive problems below. While a ground beef or soy sauce may seem innocent enough, these types of foods are essentially creating an irritating, stool-stopping sludge in your stomach.
Think your daily soda or seltzer habit isn’t hurting your digestion? Think again. According to a study published in the journal Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases, drinking carbonated beverages can contribute to acid reflux. The bubbles in fizzy drinks can cause stomach discomfort and burping—a lot of burping.
Soy sauce—every sushi lover’s condiment of choice—is high in something called advanced glycation end products or AGEs, according to study published in the Journal of the American Dietetic Association. AGEs are harmful because they contribute to increased intestinal permeability, which you may know as leaky gut syndrome. The digestive disorder can lead to conditions like irritable bowel syndrome, celiac disease, and even food allergies. The main lesson here: If you tend to get backed up after ordering in sushi, try skipping the soy sauce to see how your body reacts. We promise sushi is delicious without the stuff!
There are a number of reasons you should be weary of saccharin-sweetened foods. Not only has the additive been found to cause cancer in laboratory animals, a 2014 study published in the journal Nature found that saccharin damages the good bacteria that thrives in the human gut. Not only can this negatively impact digestion, it can increase the risk for glucose intolerance and diabetes, too. Ditch sugar-free sweets, jams, and canned fruits that are made with saccharin, and dial back your intake of the sweet stuff with the help of these 30 Easy Ways to Stop Eating So Much Sugar, instead.
It may be fast, but fried drive-thru grub can seriously slow your digestive system down. After you eat a plate of fries, for example, the stomach has to call on the liver and gallbladder to release bile to digest all the fat, which can stall the digestion process, according to the book “Advancing Medicine with Food and Nutrients.” But the trouble doesn’t end there. Fried foods are one of the foods bad for heartburn because they relax the lower esophageal sphincter, which is responsible for preventing backflow from the stomach into the esophagus. As a result, you’re more likely to have acid reflux and heartburn after your meal.
Gut microbiome research, or the study of how the foods we eat upset or enhance the bacteria that live in our stomachs, is a growing field of research. While certain things like yogurt and kimchi help healthy bacteria thrive, other foods, when eaten in excess, have the opposite effect. For example, a study published in the journal Nature found that certain bad bacteria (which are connected to things like gut inflammation and disease) tend to flourish in stomachs of those who follow a meat-heavy diet. But fear not, protein devotees! This doesn’t mean you have to give up burgers and steaks for good, just make sure your portions are reasonable and opt for grass-fed beef (one of these foods worth paying more for) instead of corn-fed, conventional meat.
The black sheep of the nutrition world, high fructose corn syrup gets a bad rep for some pretty good reasons. Not only can it make you fatter and wreak havoc on your skin, eating the stuff has been linked to gas, bloating, and stomach pain, such as abdominal cramping, according to the U.S. Departments of Health and Human Services. Sadly, it’s lurking in a ton of different processed foods, from salad dressing and yogurt to candy bars and soda. The moral of the story: Be sure to read food labels before you nibble.
Waiting for your green bananas to turn yellow can feel as time-consuming as watching paint dry. However, there’s a good reason to avoid the green ones. According to the Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, unripe bananas are high in tannins. In sensitive individuals, excess tannins can cause constipation by slowing down the digestive processes. (Those who don’t have tummy trouble, however, can actually benefit from this slower process. Learn more about that here!) If you typically notice issues after you eat green-ish bananas, practice patience and wait for your fruit to ripen.
They made be super tasty, but these little flat, greasy bites of goodness can wreak havoc on your belly. First of all, they are fried, which means they’re bound to give you acid reflux. The grease also means they’re high in fat, a nutrient that can delay stomach emptying. Potato chips also contain the compound acrylamide, which is created in high-starch foods when they’re fried, roasted, or baked, according to the American Cancer Society. Preliminary human and test-tube studies have linked this compound with cancer, so they’re best to skip for your overall health, too. Not sure what to nosh on instead? Consider digging into some of these low-calorie snacks.
Eggs may be incredible, but for some people, they cause significant constipation, according to the NIH’s National Institute on Aging. While it may seem surprising, egg allergies are fairly common. In fact, they’re the second-most common allergy in infants and young children. If you’re egg-sensitive, eating eggs could lead to some significant stomach side effects and digestive problems, such as constipation and an upset stomach so be sure to stay away!
Conventional bread, cereals, and snacks don’t cause digestive problems for everyone, but they are to those with celiac disease and gluten sensitivity. To come to this finding, researchers divided 61 study participants (a relatively small group) without celiac disease into two groups. The first group took a pill each day that had almost five grams of gluten while the other group took a placebo. After a week, a significant amount of participants reported side effects related to gluten pill consumption, such as bloating, pain, difficulty thinking, and depression.
While no one can seem to agree if tomatoes are a fruit or a veggie, one this is for sure: chronic heartburn sufferers should stay away! Due to their high levels of malic and citric acids, consuming tomatoes and tomato-based foods can stimulate the body to produce gastric acid, which may cause acid reflux, according to Manhattan Gastroenterology.
We hate to rain on the donut parade, but these fried balls of dough aren’t good for your waistline or your digestive processes. Not only are they fried, a cooking process that can cause acid reflux, but they’re also loaded with inflammation-causing sugar–about 20 to 50 grams a pop, according to the Cleveland Clinic. Want to make a healthier version of the morning pastry at home?
Eating foods with an unnatural rich red color are about to become a lot less appealing. A study published in the journal Toxicological Sciences looked at the effects of red dye #2, #40, and #106 on pregnant and male mice. The researchers found all three types of dye caused DNA damage in the colon, stomach, and bladder. Damaged DNA can lead to a number of unwanted side effects ranging from inflammation to cancer. While we can’t be certain humans would suffer the same side effects, we suggest playing it safe and skipping foods prepared with these potentially toxic dyes—especially red 40, which is one of these worst food additives.
The Best and Worst Foods for GERD
What is GERD/acid reflux?
Gastroesophageal reflux disease, or GERD (also called chronic acid reflux) is a condition that occurs when the acid-containing contents in your stomach leak backward up into your esophagus, throat and mouth. Your stomach’s acid then forms a backwash up through your esophagus into your throat and mouth. This backwash can burn your esophagus and throat and cause a sour taste in your mouth.
Everyone experiences acid reflux and heartburn sometimes, but if you have acid reflux more than two times per week over several weeks, are always taking antacids or heartburn medications and you still have heartburn, you may have progressed to GERD. Though many prior prescription medications for GERD are now available over-the-counter, GERD should be managed in conjunction with your healthcare provider because the condition can lead to serious health problems, including cancer, and may require a medical intervention.
Digestive Anatomy and GERD
Your stomach contains gastric juice composed of digestive enzymes, hydrochloric acid and other substances to absorb nutrients. to break down food. The hydrochloric acid breaks down food and the digestive enzymes break up proteins. The acidic gastric juice also kills harmful bacteria that can be present in your food or drink. Mucus covers the stomach wall with a protective coating that works with bicarbonate to protect the stomach wall itself from the hydrochloric acid.
Your esophagus is the tube from your throat to your stomach. When GERD occurs, a valve at the end of your esophagus called the lower esophageal sphincter (LES) does not close tightly as it should or stays relaxed once your food enters your stomach. This can happen for many different reasons, including your diet.
Foods Most Likely to Trigger GERD
Although there is no dedicated GERD diet or acid reflux diet, certain foods can trigger heartburn and those that can help counteract heartburn or do not cause it. These foods cause acid reflux because they cause a delay in the digestive process, which lets food sit in the stomach longer. The worst foods for GERD are spicy foods and those high in fat and salt. Certain drinks may also trigger heartburn. Foods to avoid with GERD include:
- Carbonated beverages
- Chili powder and pepper (white, black, cayenne)
- Citrus fruits and drinks, like orange juice
- Fried food
- Fast food
- Fatty meats such as bacon and sausage pizza
- Potato chips and other processed snacks
- Tomato-based sauces
Foods that Can Calm Stomach Acid
There are many foods that help acid reflux go away. Foods to eat with GERD include:
High-fiber foods usually make you feel full and therefore less likely to overeat. Some examples include:
- Whole grains such as oatmeal, quinoa, barley, whole wheat products and brown rice.
- Root vegetables such as ginger, carrots, beets and sweet potatoes.
- Green vegetables such as lettuce, asparagus, cucumber, broccoli and green beans.
Alkaline foods are those that have a low pH (those with a high pH are more acidic) can help offset extra stomach acid, including:
High water-content foods dilute stomach acid, weakening it. Some watery foods that neutralize acid reflux include:
- Broth-based soups (not tomato)
- Herbal tea (non-caffeinated)
The Importance of Keeping a Food Diary
The foods, spices and beverages that trigger heartburn are different for everyone. Keeping a food diary will help you determine which foods cause symptoms, which don’t, and which actually help. This information will also help your doctor determine the cause of your GERD and make suggestions for your particular diet.
Other Causes of GERD
Overeating or big, heavy meals is a common heartburn trigger, as well as eating too close to bedtime. Other non-food related causes of GERD include:
- Medications, including those for allergies, asthma and high blood pressure, and certain painkillers, sedatives and antidepressants
- Obesity due to increased pressure on the abdomen
- Pregnancy due to increased pressure on the abdomen
- A hiatal hernia, where the upper part of the stomach pushes up into the diaphragm
- Sleeping flat on your back, allowing the acid to easily wash up into your esophagus
- Smoking or being exposed to second-hand smoke
Managing GERD During COVID-19
Managing GERD during the COVID-19 pandemic remains the same as any other time. The only difference for you is upping your willpower, as you may have more difficulty modifying your food choices when staying and working from home. Also, stress eating is likely to be more prominent and can add to acid reflux, both from stress itself and the emotional eating that may come with it.
Lifestyle changes and medication are often enough to manage GERD. However, if you do not want to give up such a delicious array of foods and your morning cup of joe, moderation is key. Eat small frequent meals during the day as well, instead of bigger, heavier meals. Try to work in foods that help counteract acid reflux and look for recipes to help add flavor. Substitutions may work as well. For example, swap out apple or pear juice for orange juice and herbal tea for black tea. Also try to avoid eating the problematic foods later in the evening, so they’re not sitting in your stomach and then coming back up when you sleep. You don’t have to make all the changes at once.
Surgical Treatment for GERD
If the above modifications and medications are not working and you are still suffering persistent symptoms of acid reflux, you need a thorough evaluation. An exam and diagnostic testing can help find the underlying cause and determine available treatment options.
Advanced Laparoscopic Associates offers surgery options for the treatment of GERD. The LINX is a quarter-sized ring of magnetic titanium beads that wraps the esophagus and reinforces the LES. It is implanted laparoscopically, has a short hospital stay and low rate of complications. Most importantly, its short recovery time means an almost immediate improvement in symptoms and a very brief interruption of your daily life.
Another surgical option is fundoplication, which is an established surgical procedure to strengthen the LES. In the most popular form, known as Nissen fundoplication, surgeons wrap the top part of the stomach—called the fundus—around the bottom of the esophagus and suture it in place. This reinforces the LES and prevents stomach acid from creeping up the esophagus.
Most Nissen fundoplication procedures are now performed laparoscopically, with small incisions, small tools and a flexible camera called a laparoscope attached to a video monitor. As with LINX, hospital stays are brief, recovery time is short and pain levels are low.
If you have tried medication and lifestyle changes to control your GERD and still have frequent symptoms, request an appointment with one of our surgeons today. We will discuss the options available to treat your GERD and come up with a treatment plan that’s right for you.
Top 5 Foods That Ease Your Heartburn
Those who suffer from heartburn are usually familiar with foods that trigger heartburn, from caffeine to fried foods. However, with National Personal Chef’s Day falling on July 16th, it’s a good month to celebrate by experimenting with foods that can help calm your heartburn. Try some DIY recipes or even treat yourself by hiring a personal chef to cook up some yummy, heartburn-free meals!
Here are a few foods/ingredients that you can incorporate into your diet in an effort to prevent the horrible pain of acid reflux:
GINGER: is a natural anti-inflammatory. It has been used for centuries as a natural calming agent for stomach issues. Try chewing a piece of raw ginger or, for a less harsh taste, place ginger in hot water to make ginger tea and drink.
OATMEAL: high in fiber and low in fat makes oatmeal a perfect start to the day. Top it off with bananas, as they are known to fight stomach acid naturally.
BEANS: another great ingredient, full of fiber and protein. Beans are a great alternative to meat, as they prevent heartburn and are very filling.
APPLESAUCE: trying to avoid using oil and butter in foods can be difficult, but you’re setting yourself up for heartburn! Substituting butter and oils with applesauce will prevent this problem. Applesauce will reduce the amount of fat and increase fiber to your meal.
PASTA WITHOUT TOMATO SAUCE: we all crave a hearty plate of pasta from time to time. However, pasta drenched in classic tomato sauce will keep you up all night. Go for a thinner broth sauce instead and using whole-wheat pasta will increase your fiber intake, too!
Substituting your meals with these top 5 ingredients will allow you to have a peaceful meal with reduced chances of heartburn. If you have already tried these tips and still suffer from constant heartburn, make an appointment with Dr. Darido today!
90,000 13 Foods That Fight Acid Reflux | Endoscopic Notes
Most people get heartburn from time to time, but if it occurs two or more times a week, it could indicate gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), a term used to describe chronic heartburn. Heartburn is caused by stomach acid that is pumped up the esophagus. This is called acid reflux, when the valve that separates the esophagus and stomach opens at the wrong time.This valve dysfunction can be caused by certain foods (such as onions or mint), overeating, smoking, and alcohol. A burning sensation in the chest and a sour taste in the mouth are the main symptoms of acid reflux. But some people may have GERD without heartburn. In these cases, symptoms such as chest pain, chronic cough, hoarseness, and the feeling that something is stuck in the throat may be signs of acid reflux. Depending on the severity of the symptoms, it is treated with diet and lifestyle changes, over-the-counter or folk remedies, medications, and / or surgery.It is important to treat GERD, because the disease can progress and over time damage the lining of the esophagus, leading to serious complications and adverse processes.
Oatmeal is the best breakfast and snack any time of the day, recommended for the sour reflux diet.
It is satisfying and does not cause reflux. Even “instant” raisin oatmeal, which does not need to be boiled, is a legal food because oatmeal dampens the acidity of the raisins.
When in moderation, ginger is one of the best foods for sour reflux.
It has been used since ancient times as an anti-inflammatory agent and also for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders.
Ginger root can be easily peeled, sliced or diced, and grated. You can use it to prepare meals, add it to smoothies, drink ginger tea, or snack on gingerbread gummies.
Aloe Vera is known as a natural healing agent and also fights acid reflux.
This product is available as a live plant, but sometimes the leaves and liquid form of Aloe Vera are sold separately at grocery and health food stores.
Aloe vera is used in formulations as a thickener or as a solidifying agent for liquids.
It would be right to eat salad every day. Salad is a staple food for sour reflux, but tomatoes and onions should not be added, as well as cheese and greasy dressings. Sauces containing some acid or fat can be added, but not more than one tablespoon (or less), and not by eye or about!
Bananas are a great snack and with a slightly acidic pH of 5.6 they are generally great for people with acid reflux.However, about 1% of people with acid reflux find that their condition is made worse by eating bananas. So keep in mind: what works for most people may not work for you.
Melon (pH 6.1) is also good for sour reflux. However, as with bananas, a small percentage (1% to 2%) of people should avoid eating bananas.
Also included in this category are white honeydew melon, cantaloupe and watermelon.
Fennel (pH 6.9) Aniseed dill, great food for sour reflux, actually improves stomach function.This crunchy vegetable has a unique flavor – a mild licorice aftertaste. Sliced into thin slices (white bottom), it makes arugula and spinach salad a healthy food. It’s also great for chicken dishes and appetizers, as long as you enjoy that licorice (licorice) flavor.
Chicken and turkey
Poultry is the main element of the reflux diet. It can be boiled, stewed, baked, grilled, but not deep-fried. It would be better to give up skin that contains a lot of fat.
Fish and seafood
Seafood is also a staple food for reflux. They should also never be deep-fried for you. Shrimp, lobster and other shellfish fit perfectly into this diet. It is recommended to use wild fish rather than farm-raised varieties.
Roots and greens
Cauliflower, broccoli, asparagus, green beans and other greens are all great for sour reflux. Almost all greens and root vegetables are recommended for people following this diet.
Celery has almost no calories due to its high water content, it is a good choice for sour reflux. It also suppresses appetite and is a great source of fiber.
For thousands of years, parsley has been used as a herb to help improve stomach function and aid digestion. Both parsley and parsley are widely available and make a great addition to condiments and garnishes.
Couscous and Rice
Couscous (wheat grits), bulgur (boiled, dried and crushed wheat grits) and rice (especially brown rice) are excellent dishes for sour reflux.A complex carbohydrate is a good carbohydrate!
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Ten Foods To Avoid For Acid Reflux | Harmony of health
To digest food, the stomach produces stomach acid.When food is swallowed, it enters the stomach from the esophagus. Then a valve (called the sphincter muscle of the lower esophagus) closes and separates the stomach from the esophagus. This valve should only open when swallowing and vomiting.
However, there are situations when the valve opens at the wrong time for it. the cause may be:
Increased pressure in the stomach (intra-abdominal pressure) that causes the valve to open and push stomach contents, including acid, into the esophagus;
Products that alter the functionality of the valve, either by relaxing or damaging the cells.It also leads to the reflux of acid from the stomach into the esophagus.
This disease must be identified and treated by a gastroenterologist.
To relieve your condition at home, you can limit the use of those foods that cause acid reflux. Here is a list of them.
Whole grains tend to make up the majority of our staple diet. However, most staple grains such as wheat, wild and brown rice, rye bread, and wholemeal pasta are highly acidic foods.
They should be consumed in moderation. Typically after soaking to eliminate acidic chemicals.
Alternatively, replace them with alkaline foods such as quinoa, millet, buckwheat or oatmeal.
Chicken, beef, fish and other meats are some of the most common acidic foods.
Red meat is especially harmful for acid reflux, as it is high in fat.
Good alternative to meat tofu cheese, soy products and sprouts.
If you eat meat, then choose lean. Such as turkey or lean chicken.
Limit twice a week and chew very well as it is more difficult to digest.
Freshwater fish also tend to be less acidic than saltwater fish.
Alcohol relaxes the muscles, including the muscles of the lower esophageal sphincter. This allows more stomach acid to enter the esophagus, thereby increasing acid reflux.
Reducing the volume and frequency of alcohol consumption can prevent this acid from entering the stomach.
Avoid mixing the drink with acidic juices (such as orange juice) or carbonated drinks.
Instead, choose low acid juices such as watermelon or apricot.
Fatty and dairy products
Several studies have found a link between obesity and acid reflux. Fatty foods, the leading cause of obesity, are unsurprisingly among the main antagonists of acid reflux symptoms.
Fried, fatty and processed foods with saturated fat are the obvious culprits.
However, even healthy dairy products such as butter and cheese also contain fats that increase acid reflux.
Spicy foods with exacerbation of acid reflux act in the same way as fatty foods. Remove hot peppers and other spices from food.
Use other flavor enhancers such as cinnamon, herbs, ginger and sea salt instead.
Avocado is a healthy fruit. But it is originally a lot of fat. They are generally good for your health, but not suitable for those with acid reflux.
If you have mild reflux and are trying to eat less dairy and processed fats, avocados may be a healthier option.
However, those with more severe acid reflux may have to give them up altogether.
Carbonated drinks contain a lot of carbon dioxide, which, when it enters the stomach, increases the lower pressure in the esophageal sphincter.
You can easily replace sparkling water with water or alternatively drink water with a natural taste and slightly acidic juices.
Cocoa is a sour product. When combined with milk and sugar, it aggravates reflux symptoms.
If you consume chocolate regularly, it may be helpful to reduce the amount to one small serving per week.
Dark chocolate is better in this respect than milk or white chocolate.
Coffee and other caffeinated products increase the frequency and severity of acid reflux symptoms.This often happens if you drink a large cup of coffee right after a meal.
Try drinking less coffee (decaffeinated coffee doesn’t always work) or switch to green or lemon tea.
While most are healthy snacks or breakfasts, some acidic fruits can do more harm than good.
Examples include apples, oranges, bananas, berries, peaches, and papayas. Try consuming more alkaline foods such as grapefruits, melons, nectarines, currants, and watermelons.
Replace store fruit juices with fresh and vegetable juices.
Attention! The article is for informational purposes only.
Be sure to consult your doctor or specialist.
6 products that help relieve x-acid reflux
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Heartburn Diet | Magic Eda.ru
Heartburn is a symptom that occurs when the valve between the esophagus and stomach becomes loose and the acidic contents of the stomach are expelled into the esophagus (called reflux). It is at this moment that we experience the most unpleasant sensation – heartburn. As for the reasons … Some people have a weak valve initially.But external factors also contribute to its weakening:
- Sour foods (eg tomatoes and citrus fruits).
- Drinking alcohol.
- Smoking cigarettes.
- Diseases such as diabetes, asthma.
- Hernia of the esophageal opening.
Heartburn Nutrition – Principles
If you suffer from acid reflux, then you are also interested in the topic of nutrition for heartburn. What can you eat and what not? What foods cause heartburn? What is the dietary regimen to avoid exacerbation of the symptom? Obviously, some foods will aggravate your ailments, and some are completely safe and even beneficial.Dietitians have compiled several of these lists, and they will serve as a good starting point for self-planning.
Keep in mind that in addition to ready-made lists, it is advisable to have your own. Keep a food diary and note how a particular food and dish affects you. This will allow you to create a menu and make decisions about changes as accurately and promptly as possible.
See also: Therapeutic diet 1, for gastric and duodenal ulcers
A Few Tips for Managing Heartburn
1.Eat more and less. This will help prevent overproduction of stomach acid.
2. Eat slowly. One way to help you slow down your absorption of food is to place a fork or spoon on the table between bites.
3. Do not go to bed with a full stomach. Eat 3 hours before bed. This will prevent nighttime heartburn.
4. Sleep on a high pillow or raise the head of the bed, sleep on your left side.
5. Avoid your heartburn triggers.Examples of foods and beverages that can cause heartburn include coffee (including decaffeinated coffee), alcohol, fatty foods, onions, garlic, mint, chocolate, citrus fruits and juices, tomatoes, spicy foods, and all kinds of sauces and ketchups.
6. Stop smoking. Nicotine weakens the muscle that runs the opening between the esophagus and stomach and prevents acid contents from the stomach from being released back into the esophagus.
7. Lose weight. If you are overweight, it makes your symptoms worse.
8.Chew gum. It can provide short-term relief from heartburn by stimulating the production of saliva, which releases excess stomach acid.
9. Drink warm liquid. Drinking a glass of warm water or herbal tea after a meal can help your stomach dissolve the acid.
10. Drink plenty of water to aid digestion. But don’t drink too much water at a time.
11. Learn to manage stress and start doing regular moderate exercise.But not on a full stomach.
Most important: Good foods for heartburn are:
- Bananas and sweet apples
- Vegetables (such as baked potatoes, well-cooked carrots, green beans, peas)
- Lean meat, chicken breast, fish
- Low-fat or low-fat dairy products
Now for more details.
What you can eat with heartburn
Fruit • fresh and dried sweet apples, apple juice with water (not suitable for everyone), bananas
Vegetables • baked potatoes, broccoli, cabbage, carrots, green beans, peas
Meat • lean beef, skinless chicken breasts, egg whites, lean fish
Dairy products • feta or goat cheese, fat-free sour cream, soy tofu
Grains • bread, multigrain or white, bran, oatmeal, cornbread, brown and white rice
Drinks • mineral water
Sweets / Desserts • Low-fat baked goods, natural marmalade
What you can eat with heartburn with care
Fruit • orange juice with water, apple juice; peach, blueberry, raspberry, strawberry, grape, dried cranberry
Vegetables • garlic, onions (in dishes, cooked), leeks, sauerkraut, green onions
Meat • lean beef, chicken
Eggs • scrambled eggs
Fish • fried fish, canned tuna salad, beef or pork hot dog, ham
Dairy products • low-fat yogurt, milk with a fat content of no more than 1%, low-fat cottage cheese (1%), low-fat mozzarella cheeses, cheddar
Cereals • garlic bread, baked goods
Drinks • beer, Cola
Sauces • Ketchup
Sweets / Desserts • low fat baked goods
What not to eat with heartburn
Fruit • orange juice, lemon, grapefruit juice, cranberry, tomato juice, sour fruits
Vegetables • fresh vegetables, French fries, raw onions, tomatoes
Meat • ground beef, pork steaks
Dairy products • sour cream, ice cream, cottage cheese, fatty cheeses
Cereals: macaroni with cheese, spaghetti with sauce
Drinks • any alcohol, coffee, decaf coffee, tea
Fats / Oils • butter
Condiments • vinegar
Sweets / Desserts • high fat biscuits, chocolate, chips
R.S. This article is for informational purposes only and cannot replace medical advice.
90,000 Proper nutrition for GERD – Clinic on Leninsky
The key to solving many problems with the gastrointestinal tract is proper nutrition. The gastroenterologist of the Clinic on Leninsky Katerina Cheskaya tells what can and should be eaten for those who suffer from reflux disease.
What is GERD?
Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a chronic relapsing disease in which there is a spontaneous, regularly repeated reflux of stomach contents into the esophagus. As a result, the lower esophagus is affected. Throwing the contents of the stomach into the esophagus is considered normal if it occurs occasionally and is not accompanied by negative factors. The disease is evidenced by the frequent recurrence of casting and inflammatory processes of the gastrointestinal tract.
GERD is manifested, as a rule, by belching and heartburn, occurring after eating or bending forward, as well as at night. The presence of GERD may also be indicated by pain behind the sternum, radiating to the interscapular region, the lower jaw, and the left half of the chest. There are also signs of GERD that are not directly related to the esophagus – this is cough, shortness of breath, which often occurs when lying down, hoarseness, dry throat, rapid satiety, and bloating. GERD becomes the cause of chronic inflammatory diseases of the nasopharynx (pharyngitis, laryngitis, sinusitis, tonsillitis) in 30% of cases.It has been proven that against the background of GERD there is a risk of developing obstructive pulmonary diseases, including bronchial asthma.
Proper nutrition for GERD
As in the case of many other diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, the main principle of GERD treatment is proper nutrition. There are foods that relax the lower esophageal sphincter, which leads to the reflux of the acidic contents of the stomach into the esophagus. These include; strong tea, coffee, chocolate, citrus fruits, tomatoes, bitterness (garlic, onions), freshly brewed mint.As well as fatty fish, meat and products that cause gas formation: baked goods, hot baked goods, legumes, black bread, cakes, pastries, grapes, cucumbers, carbonated drinks. Alcohol and smoking also reduce the tone of the lower esophageal sphincter.
Here is a list of products that you need to consider when drawing up your menu for the day.
1. Bread: fresh rye bread, pastries and pancakes.
2. Meat: stewed and fried meat dishes from fatty meat, poultry.
3. Fish: fatty fish, fried, smoked, salty dishes.
4. Vegetables: white cabbage, turnips, rutabagas, radishes, sorrel, spinach, onions, cucumbers, pickled, pickled and pickled vegetables, mushrooms.
5. Fruit: Raw, sour, unripe fruit, dried fruit puree.
6. Cereals: millet, pearl barley, barley and corn grits, legumes.
7. Dairy products of high acidity, spicy and salty cheeses.
8. Sweet: halva, chocolate, ice cream, cakes.
9. Drinks: sour, carbonated, fruit drinks, strong tea, coffee and alcohol.
1. Bread: from wheat flour of the first or highest grade, yesterday’s, dry, inconvenient baking.
2. Meat: Beef, veal, chicken, rabbit, turkey, all in the form of cutlets, meatballs, soufflés, mashed potatoes and dumplings.
3. Fish: boiled river fish – pike perch, pike, perch, any low-fat varieties.
4. Vegetables: carrots, cauliflower, potatoes, beets, pumpkin and zucchini.
5. Fruits: Sweet berries, ripe fruits. Preferably mashed or baked.
6. Cereals: oat, semolina, buckwheat (pureed), rice porridge, in water with the addition of milk, boiled noodles.
7. Dairy products: milk, lean cheese and low-fat sour cream. Curd dishes made from pureed cottage cheese, for example, cheese cakes, casserole.
8. Sweet: jam, marshmallow, honey, candy, cream and milk puddings.
9. Drinks: weak tea or cocoa with milk, sweet juices and decoctions.