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Urinary Tract Infection in Women (Discharge Care)
- Urinary Tract Infection in Women
- Discharge Care
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WHAT YOU NEED TO KNOW:
A urinary tract infection (UTI) is caused by bacteria that get inside your urinary tract. Most bacteria that enter your urinary tract come out when you urinate. If the bacteria stay in your urinary tract, you may get an infection. Your urinary tract includes your kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra. Urine is made in your kidneys, and it flows from the ureters to the bladder. Urine leaves the bladder through the urethra. A UTI is more common in your lower urinary tract, which includes your bladder and urethra.
Seek care immediately if:
- You are urinating very little or not at all.
- You have a high fever with shaking chills.
- You have side or back pain that gets worse.
Call your doctor if:
- You have a fever.
- You do not feel better after 2 days of taking antibiotics.
- You are vomiting.
- You have questions or concerns about your condition or care.
- Antibiotics help fight a bacterial infection. If you have UTIs often (called recurrent UTIs), you may be given antibiotics to take regularly. You will be given directions for when and how to use antibiotics. The goal is to prevent UTIs but not cause antibiotic resistance by using antibiotics too often.
- Medicines may be given to decrease pain and burning when you urinate. They will also help decrease the feeling that you need to urinate often. These medicines will make your urine orange or red.
- Take your medicine as directed. Contact your healthcare provider if you think your medicine is not helping or if you have side effects. Tell him or her if you are allergic to any medicine. Keep a list of the medicines, vitamins, and herbs you take. Include the amounts, and when and why you take them. Bring the list or the pill bottles to follow-up visits. Carry your medicine list with you in case of an emergency.
Follow up with your doctor as directed:
Write down your questions so you remember to ask them during your visits.
Prevent another UTI:
- Empty your bladder often. Urinate and empty your bladder as soon as you feel the need. Do not hold your urine for long periods of time.
- Wipe from front to back after you urinate or have a bowel movement. This will help prevent germs from getting into your urinary tract through your urethra.
- Drink liquids as directed. Ask how much liquid to drink each day and which liquids are best for you. You may need to drink more liquids than usual to help flush out the bacteria. Do not drink alcohol, caffeine, or citrus juices. These can irritate your bladder and increase your symptoms. Your healthcare provider may recommend cranberry juice to help prevent a UTI.
- Urinate after you have sex. This can help flush out bacteria passed during sex.
- Do not douche or use feminine deodorants. These can change the chemical balance in your vagina.
- Change sanitary pads or tampons often. This will help prevent germs from getting into your urinary tract.
- Talk to your healthcare provider about your birth control method. You may need to change your method if it is increasing your risk for UTIs.
- Wear cotton underwear and clothes that are loose. Tight pants and nylon underwear can trap moisture and cause bacteria to grow.
- Vaginal estrogen may be recommended. This medicine helps prevent UTIs in women who have gone through menopause or are in peri-menopause.
- Do pelvic muscle exercises often. Pelvic muscle exercises may help you start and stop urinating. Strong pelvic muscles may help you empty your bladder easier. Squeeze these muscles tightly for 5 seconds like you are trying to hold back urine. Then relax for 5 seconds. Gradually work up to squeezing for 10 seconds. Do 3 sets of 15 repetitions a day, or as directed.
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Urinary Tract Infection (UTI): Symptoms, Causes, Treatment
What Is a Urinary Tract Infection?
A urinary tract infection, or UTI, is an infection in any part of your urinary system, which includes your kidneys, bladder, ureters, and urethra.
If you’re a woman, your chance of getting a urinary tract infection is high. Some experts rank your lifetime risk of getting one as high as 1 in 2, with many women having repeat infections, sometimes for years. About 1 in 10 men will get a UTI in their lifetime.
Here’s how to handle UTIs and how to make it less likely you’ll get one in the first place.
Symptoms of UTIs
The symptoms of a UTI can include:
- A burning feeling when you pee
- A frequent or intense urge to pee, even though little comes out when you do
- Cloudy, dark, bloody, or strange-smelling pee
- Feeling tired or shaky
- Fever or chills (a sign that the infection may have reached your kidneys)
- Pain or pressure in your back or lower abdomen
Types of UTIs
An infection can happen in different parts of your urinary tract. Each type has a different name, based on where it is.
- Cystitis(bladder): You might feel like you need to pee a lot, or it might hurt when you pee. You might also have lower belly pain and cloudy or bloody urine.
- Pyelonephritis(kidneys): This can cause fever, chills, nausea, vomiting, and pain in your upper back or side.
- Urethritis(urethra): This can cause a discharge and burning when you pee.
Causes of UTIs
UTIs are a key reason why doctors tell women to wipe from front to back after using the bathroom. The urethra — the tube that takes pee from the bladder to the outside of the body — is close to the anus. Bacteria from the large intestine, such as E. coli, can sometimes get out of your anus and into your urethra. From there, they can travel up to your bladder and, if the infection isn’t treated, can continue on to infect your kidneys. Women have shorter urethras than men. That makes it easier for bacteria to get to their bladders. Having sex can introduce bacteria into your urinary tract, too.
Some women are more likely to get UTIs because of their genes. The shape of their urinary tracts makes others more likely to be infected. Women with diabetes may be at higher risk because their weakened immune systems make them less able to fight off infections. Other conditions that can boost your risk include hormone changes, multiple sclerosis, and anything that affects urine flow, such as kidney stones, a stroke, and a spinal cord injury.
UTI Tests and Diagnosis
If you suspect that you have a urinary tract infection, go to the doctor. You’ll give a urine sample to test for UTI-causing bacteria.
If you get frequent UTIs and your doctor suspects a problem in your urinary tract, they might take a closer look with an ultrasound, a CT scan, or an MRI scan. They might also use a long, flexible tube called a cystoscope to look inside your urethra and bladder.
Treatments for UTIs
If your physician thinks you need them, antibiotics are the most common treatment for urinary tract infections. As always, be sure to take all of your prescribed medicine, even after you start to feel better. Drink lots of water to help flush the bacteria from your body. Your doctor may also give you a medication to soothe pain. You might find a heating pad helpful.
Cranberry juice is often promoted to prevent or treat UTIs. The red berry contains a tannin that might prevent E. coli bacteria — the most common cause of urinary tract infections — from sticking to the walls of your bladder, where they can cause an infection. But research hasn’t found that it does much to reduce infections.
Experts are also looking at new ways to treat and prevent UTIs, including vaccines and things that boost your immune system.
If a man gets a UTI, they’re likely to get another. About 1 in 5 women have a second urinary tract infection, and some have them again and again. In most cases, each infection is brought on by a different type or strain of bacteria. But some bacteria can invade your body’s cells and multiply, creating a colony of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. They then travel out of the cells and re-invade your urinary tract.
Chronic UTI Treatment
If you have three or more UTIs a year, ask your doctor to recommend a treatment plan. Some options include taking:
- A low dose of an antibiotic over a longer period to help prevent repeat infections
- A single dose of an antibiotic after sex, which is a common infection trigger
- Antibiotics for 1 or 2 days every time symptoms appear
- A non-antibiotic prophylaxis treatment
At-home urine tests, which you can get without a prescription, can help you decide whether you need to call your doctor. If you’re taking antibiotics for a UTI, you can test to see whether they’ve cured the infection (although you still need to finish your prescription). t.
How to Prevent UTI Re-Infection
Following some tips can help you avoid getting another UTI:
- Empty your bladder often as soon as you feel the need to pee; don’t rush, and be sure you’ve emptied your bladder completely.
- Wipe from front to back after you use the toilet.
- Drink lots of water.
- Choose showers over baths.
- Stay away from feminine hygiene sprays, scented douches, and scented bath products; they’ll only increase irritation.
- Cleanse your genital area before sex.
- Pee after sex to flush out any bacteria that may have entered your urethra.
- If you use a diaphragm, unlubricated condoms, or spermicidal jelly for birth control, you may want to switch to another method. Diaphragms can increase bacteria growth, while unlubricated condoms and spermicides can irritate your urinary tract. All can make UTI symptoms more likely.
- Keep your genital area dry by wearing cotton underwear and loose-fitting clothes. Don’t wear tight jeans and nylon underwear; they can trap moisture, creating the perfect environment for bacteria growth.
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Do you get discharge with Cystitis?
What is Cystitis?
Cystitis is an inflammation of the bladder that’s usually caused by irritation or a bacterial infection, however it can also be caused by certain types of medication, hygiene products and even pregnancy. While it is more common in women, men can also experience Cystitis.
Is Cystitis the same as a UTI?
You may know what a urinary tract infection (UTI) is and how the symptoms manifest themselves, but do you know what Cystitis is or how it differs from other UTIs? Cystitis is a kind of UTI that only affects the bladder, however you can also have a UTI of the urethra (Urethritis) and the kidneys (kidney infection). Therefore, Cystitis is a type of UTI but there are other forms of urinary infections that you can contract too.
What causes Cystitis?
Cystitis is usually caused by a growth of bacteria that turns into a bacterial infection. However, there are other causes, such as if the bladder is irritated for another reason.
Most bacterial infections are thought to occur when bacteria that live in the bowel get into the bladder through the urethra. You can increase the risk of getting Cystitis when you:
● Have sex
● Wipe from back to front after going to the toilet
● Have a urinary catheter
● Use a diaphragm as a form of contraception
To help reduce your chances of contracting Cystitis, you should go for a wee after sexual intercourse and always wipe from front to back after going to the toilet.
There are other things that can increase your risk of getting Cystitis. These include menopause and diabetes.
If you’re going through the menopause, the lining of the urethra can shrink. This could allow more bacteria to pass through which may make you more likely to get an infection. During menopause, the natural balance of bacteria in the vagina changes too, so whereas previously, the ‘good’ bacteria might have been able to fight off the ‘bad’ bacteria, this may no longer be the case.
If you suffer from diabetes, your chances of getting Cystitis are higher because of the increased levels of sugar in your urine. This additional sugar provides a good environment for bacteria to multiply and grow in.
As previously mentioned, Cystitis can also be caused by irritation to the bladder. This irritation can be due to friction from sex, overly scented soaps and bubble bath or damage caused by surgery. To reduce your risk, you could swap to a more natural, soap-free feminine hygiene wash.
What are the symptoms of Cystitis?
Symptoms can vary depending on how severe your infection is. Most common symptoms include:
● Burning or stinging pain when you urinate
● Needing to wee more frequently than normal
● Urine that’s dark and cloudy
● Strong-smelling urine
● Pain in your tummy
● Blood in your urine
Mild Cystitis can clear up on its own and you could try taking paracetamol or ibuprofen for the pain or applying a hot water bottle to your tummy or between your thighs. However, if your symptoms last for longer than three days or are severe, you should see your doctor for advice and potential treatment. Severe symptoms include fever, vomiting and pains in your back. These symptoms could suggest that the infection has moved from your bladder to your kidneys and you should seek immediate treatment.
If you regularly suffer from Cystitis, you should try drinking more water to flush the infection out of your bladder. If you are prescribed antibiotics for the infection, you should finish the course – don’t stop taking them when your symptoms disappear, as some bacteria could remain in the bladder and the infection may return. Avoid having sex until the condition has fully cleared up.
Can Cystitis cause discharge?
Discharge of any colour, smell or texture is not usually a symptom of Cystitis. If you’re experiencing thick, white discharge, you could have Thrush. Thrush is a yeast infection that can be treated with antifungal medication. Thrush can sometimes be confused with Cystitis as it can also cause a stinging or burning sensation, particularly during sex or when you go for a wee.
If you think you have Thrush, you should speak to your doctor about your symptoms and potential treatment.
Urinary Tract Infection – Female
Is this your child’s symptom?
- Your child was diagnosed with a urinary tract infection (UTI)
- The most common UTI is a bacterial infection of the bladder. The medical name is cystitis.
- Your child is taking an antibiotic for the UTI
- You are worried that the fever or pain is not getting better fast enough
Symptoms of UTI
- Pain, burning or stinging when passing urine
- Suspect pain if a young child starts to cry while passing urine
- The feeling of “can’t wait” to pass urine may occur. This is called urgency.
- Passing small amounts of urine at a time often. This is called frequency.
- New onset of day or night -time wetting
- Pain in the lower tummy may also occur. If the kidney is infected, the pain is in the flank. The flank is the side right below the ribs.
- UTIs are a common cause of fevers without other symptoms in young children.
- The urine may be cloudy and have a bad odor. Sometimes, there is some blood in the urine.
Causes of UTI
- UTIs are caused by bacteria that travel up the urethra into the bladder. The opening of the urethra is just above the vagina.
- The vulva is the area outside the vagina. Soaps can cause this area to be red, sore and itchy. This can lead to UTIs. Stool that gets on the vulva is another big factor. This can happen with careless wiping. It can also happen with constipation.
- A rare cause is if the bladder isn’t emptied all the way. Reason: Urine that stays in the bladder too long can become infected.
- Cystitis is more common in girls than boys. This is due to the much shorter length of the urethra in girls.
Diagnosis of UTI
- A clean catch urine sample needs to be tested. A UTI is confirmed by finding white blood cells in the urine. A positive culture for bacteria is also needed.
When to Call for Urinary Tract Infection – Female
Call 911 Now
- Not moving or too weak to stand
- You think your child has a life-threatening emergency
Call Doctor or Seek Care Now
- Side (flank) or lower back pain and new onset since starting antibiotic
- Stomach, side or back pain and worse since starting antibiotic
- Vomited 2 or more times and interferes with taking antibiotic
- Fever over 104° F (40° C)
- Shaking chills
- Age less than 1 year and any symptoms worse
- Taking antibiotic more than 24 hours and you think your child is worse
- Your child looks or acts very sick
- You think your child needs to be seen, and the problem is urgent
Contact Doctor Within 24 Hours
- Blood in urine and new onset since starting antibiotic
- Taking antibiotic more than 24 hours, and pain with passing urine is severe. (Plus the pain is not better 2 hours after taking pain medicine)
- Taking antibiotic more than 48 hours and fever still there or comes back
- Taking antibiotic more than 3 days and pain not better
- You think your child needs to be seen, but the problem is not urgent
Contact Doctor During Office Hours
- You have other questions or concerns
Self Care at Home
- Bladder infection on antibiotic with no other problems
- Questions about prevention of bladder infections
Seattle Children’s Urgent Care Locations
If your child’s illness or injury is life-threatening, call 911.
Treatment for a Bladder Infection
- What You Should Know about Bladder Infections:
- Bladder infections are common in girls.
- Most infections do not respond to the first dose of an antibiotic.
- Often the bladder symptoms do not improve the first day.
- Here is some care advice that should help.
- Keep Giving the Antibiotic by Mouth:
- UTIs need a prescription antibiotic. It will kill the bacteria that are causing the bladder infection.
- Give it as directed.
- Try not to forget any of the doses.
- Give the antibiotic until it is gone. Reason: To keep the bladder infection from flaring up again.
- Pain Medicine:
- For pain when passing urine, give a pain medicine.
- You can use an acetaminophen product (such as Tylenol).
- Another choice is an ibuprofen product (such as Advil).
- Use as needed.
- Fever Medicine:
- For fevers above 102° F (39° C), give an acetaminophen product (such as Tylenol).
- Another choice is an ibuprofen product (such as Advil).
- Note: Fevers less than 102° F (39° C) are important for fighting infections.
- For all fevers: Keep your child well hydrated. Give lots of cold fluids.
- Give More Fluids:
- Give extra fluids to drink. Cranberry juice may be helpful.
- Reason: Fluids dilute the urine so that it does not sting.
- Baking Soda Baths – For Young Girls:
- Soak for 10 minutes to remove germs and to help with healing.
- Add 2 ounces (60 mL) baking soda per tub of warm water.
- Reason: Baking soda is better than vinegar for young girls.
- During soaks, be sure she spreads her legs. This allows the water to cleanse the genitals.
- Repeat baking soda soaks 2 times per day for 2 days.
- Vinegar Warm Water Soaks – For Older Girls After Puberty:
- Soak the genital area for 10 minutes to remove irritants and decrease pain.
- Add 2 ounces (60 mL) vinegar per tub of warm water. Reason: After puberty, vinegar water matches the normal acid level of the vagina.
- During soaks, be sure she spreads her legs. This allows the water to clean the genital area.
- Repeat vinegar water soaks once per day until is better.
- Young Girls – Avoid Soaps:
- Avoid bubble bath, soap, and shampoo to the vulva. Reason: They are irritants and can lead to a UTI.
- Only use warm water to clean the vulva area.
- What to Expect:
- Fever is usually gone in 48 hours.
- Pain and burning are often much better in 48 hours.
- Frequency (passing small amounts of urine often) is also usually better in 48 hours.
- Bladder infections occur more than once in 10% of girls.
- For any future fever without other symptoms, call your doctor’s office. Your child should be seen for a urine check.
- Return to School:
- Bladder infections cannot be spread to others.
- Your child does not need to miss any school or child care.
- Call Your Doctor If:
- Pain when passing urine becomes severe
- Fever lasts over 48 hours after starting the antibiotic
- Vomiting and can’t keep down the antibiotic
- You think your child needs to be seen
- Your child becomes worse
Prevention of Bladder Infections in Girls
- Tips for How to Prevent UTIs in Girls:
- When your child bathes, clean the genital area with warm water. Soap is not needed for young girls.
- Don’t use bubble bath, shampoo or other soaps in the bath water. Reason: They are irritants.
- Keep bath time less than 10 minutes. Your child also should pass urine right after baths.
- Teach your daughter to wipe herself correctly from front to back after a stool.
- Drink enough fluids each day to keep the urine light-colored.
- Pass urine at least every 4 hours during the day and avoid “holding back. “
- Wear cotton panties. Reason: To allow the skin to breathe. Your child doesn’t need to wear panties during the night.
- Avoid constipation.
- Call Your Doctor If:
- You have other questions or concerns
And remember, contact your doctor if your child develops any of the ‘Call Your Doctor’ symptoms.
Disclaimer: this health information is for educational purposes only. You, the reader, assume full responsibility for how you choose to use it.
Last Reviewed: 05/30/2021
Last Revised: 03/11/2021
Copyright 2000-2021. Schmitt Pediatric Guidelines LLC.
Sign and Symptoms of Urinary Tract Infection (UTI)
A UTI or urinary tract infection occurs when harmful bacteria, such as E. coli, take root anywhere in the urinary tract, including the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra. For many people — including the 50 to 60 percent of women who experience a UTI in their lifetime — the infection can be uncomfortable and very painful. The thing is, not everyone experiences the same UTI symptoms. (1)
RELATED: 8 Home Remedies for Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) Symptoms
Common UTI Symptoms and Signs
The urine of most healthy, properly hydrated people appears light yellow or clear and is nearly free of odor. It also causes zero pain or discomfort to pass.
But for the majority of people who experience a urinary tract infection, that’s not the case. Instead, they will likely encounter at least one of the following indicators:
- A consistent and strong urge to urinate When your bladder and urethra are inflamed, this mucks up the receptors that signal when you need to pee.
- Pain or burning while urinating Bacteria irritates the lining of the urinary tract, which then spurs inflammation that can cause an unpleasant sensation.
- Passing only small amounts of urine at a time UTIs can cause the urethra to swell, which hinders the amount of urine that’s passed.
- Cloudy urine It’s thought that cloudiness occurs because your body’s white blood cells have built up while your system tries to eliminate the offending bacteria.
- Strong-smelling urine Bacteria can cause a fishy odor.
- Red, pink, or cola-colored urine This indicates the presence of blood.
- Pelvic pain or pressure This is felt in the center of the pelvis and can mimic the sensation of bloating. (2,3)
- A full feeling in the rectum This UTI symptom presents only in men. (4)
- Passing gas in your urine Called pneumaturia, it occasionally occurs when your UTI causes air to be passed with your urine. (5)
- Mucus- or pus-like urethral discharge This UTI symptom is more common in men than women. Here, your bladder and urethra’s natural mucus is attempting to clear the body of germs.
- Incontinence Lack of bladder control is particularly apparent in the elderly. (2,3)
When the kidneys are infected, other noticeable symptoms may include:
- Fever, shaking, and chills
- Nausea and vomiting
- Upper back, side, or groin pain (2)
While it’s been long noted that confusion in the elderly is a sign of UTI, a 2019 report in BMC Geriatrics concludes that there’s insufficient evidence connecting the symptom to that diagnosis. (6)
RELATED: Causes and Risk Factors of Urinary Tract Infections
UTI Signs and Symptoms in Children Are Different
UTIs are the second most common type of infection in children, behind ear infections. (7) Unfortunately, early symptoms of UTI in young children are not always apparent. And sometimes there are no UTI symptoms at all, or your child is simply unable to articulate the UTI symptoms he or she is experiencing. When it comes to babies under 2 years old, parents need to tune in to these signs of a urinary tract infection: (8)
- Fever A fever of 104°F or higher may be the sole symptom in babies. It’s also the most common symptom of UTI during baby’s first two years. (9)
- Jaundice Up to 18 percent of babies with prolonged or worsening jaundice also have UTIs. When jaundice occurs one full year after birth, it’s a strong indicator of UTI. (10)
- Poor feeding or failure to thrive
- Vomiting or diarrhea
- Crying while urinating (8)
Meanwhile, older children generally have similar symptoms to adults, including urgency, cloudy urine, and pain during urination. For children who’ve already been toilet trained, bed-wetting is also a sign of a UTI. (8)
Is It Possible to Have a UTI Without Any Symptoms?
Yes. Symptoms of a UTI can vary, and it’s not entirely uncommon for someone to experience no symptoms of a urinary tract infection. It’s estimated that 1 to 5 percent of younger women experience asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB), which is a UTI without the classic symptoms. (This is also called asymptomatic urinary infection.) While it’s unclear why the bacteria involved with urinary tract infections sometimes don’t cause symptoms for these people, we do know that instances of symptom-free UTIs increase with age. Up to 16 percent of women older than 65 have been found to have ASB, and that number grows to almost 20 percent for women over 80. (11) Other factors that increase your chances of an asymptomatic UTI are:
- Urinary catheter use
- Abnormalities of the genitourinary tract
- Spinal cord injuries
- Diabetes (12)
Can Food or Drink Worsen Symptoms of a UTI?
Yes. You may experience a flare of your UTI symptoms after drinking alcohol or coffee or consuming other well-known bladder irritants. (13) Here are some items that should be avoided if you’ve been diagnosed with a UTI:
- Caffeinated beverages
- Carbonated drinks
- Artificially sweetened beverages
- Acidic fruits such as oranges, grapefruits, lemons, and limes (14)
- Spicy foods (14)
Are UTI Symptoms Always an Indicator of a UTI?
No. Women with symptoms of a UTI whose tests don’t show any infection may have:
It’s also worth noting that bladder cancer, bladder stones, and an enlarged prostate in men can also cause changes in urination that mimic urinary tract infection, such as red or pink urine; having to urinate more often than usual; and painful or burning urination. While these symptoms are more likely to be brought on by a urinary tract infection, if you’re concerned, bring your worry to your healthcare professional. (16)
What are the symptoms of different vaginal infections?
What are the different types of vaginal disease are there and there symptoms?
There are a few different kinds of infections or irritations you can get on your vulva or vagina. When the vulva or vagina gets irritated, it’s called vaginitis.
Symptoms of vaginitis may include itching and burning in your vulva or vagina, redness, vaginal discharge that is different than normal (strong odor, white or green color, very thick or foamy), pain during sex or masturbation, burning when you pee, and/or feeling like you have to pee often. Everyone’s body is different, so people don’t always have the same symptoms. And which symptoms you have often depend on what’s causing the problem.
Sometimes vaginitis is caused by a reaction or allergy to something that irritates your genitals (like perfumed soap or scented tampons). If this is the case, usually the symptoms will go away when you stop using whatever’s irritating you. If symptoms don’t go away or get worse, you should see a doctor or nurse to find out what’s going on.
Other times vaginitis happens when the environment inside your vagina gets thrown off balance. This can make the natural yeast or bacteria that live in healthy vaginas grow too much and cause yeast infections or bacterial vaginosis. Yeast infections usually cause thick, white discharge, and may be itchy and uncomfortable. Bacterial vaginosis can also be itchy or painful, and you may notice more discharge than normal with a strong, fishy smell. Yeast infections and bacterial vaginosis can be cured with medication, so make sure to see a nurse or doctor if you have any of these symptoms.
It’s also common for people with vulvas to get infections in their urethra (the tube that carries pee from your bladder out of your body). This is called a urinary tract infection, or UTI. UTIs happen when certain bacteria get into your urethra and cause an infection. The most common symptoms for UTIs are pain or burning when you pee, and feeling like you need to pee all the time. Just like with other bacterial or yeast infections, UTIs can usually be fixed pretty quick with some antibiotics from the doctor.
Finally, some infections are passed during sex. These are called sexually transmitted infections, commonly known as STDs. There are many STDs with different symptoms. But most of the time people with STDs don’t have any symptoms at all (or don’t really notice them), so they may not even know they have one. The only way to know for sure if you have an STD is to get tested. The best way to avoid STDs is to not have any oral, anal, or vaginal sex. If you do have sex, using condoms can reduce your chances of getting STDs. And getting tested regularly (at least once a year) will help you stay healthy.
Remember, you can’t diagnose a medical situation over the internet. If you have questions about symptoms you may be having, contact your local Planned Parenthood health center or go see your doctor as soon as possible.
-Kendall at Planned Parenthood
urinary tract infection,
90,000 Another power bank. Self-assembled ENB. Refinement for high charge current Android.
Another review of the next power bank. This time it is self-assembled. Also under the cut is its alteration to be able to charge Android phones (at least my LG G2) with full current.
Acquired fundamentally self-assembled, for several reasons:
1) Most Chinese power banks “do not report” the capacity. In order not to suffer with its measurement, with the return of money, and other problems, I would rather put my own batteries, the more that
2) There are 18650 lights at home.There are megavelophars that use the same 18650 batteries. There are a lot of batteries, if you can take a supply with you, or replace a suddenly out of order (although this has never happened to me).
The power bank is quite compact, slightly longer than the battery itself. Equipped with a sliding black cover. There are no backlashes, the monolith and the weight of normal batteries are felt in the hand.
We plug in the meter from the previous review and see a current of only 0.44 A. For my phone in active use mode, played on the Internet, this is very little. This current is enough to simply maintain the charge at the same level, but I would still like to charge the phone and unfasten it from the extra wire. The phone also swears, says that the charging is weak, I will not consume it at full strength.
To clear our conscience, let’s check the charging from the complete power supply. 1.21 A, on an incomplete wire. This means that you need to modify the battery pack itself. I walked with a multimeter, on the complete power supply, two middle contacts, DATA + and DATA-, are short-circuited, which means that the same should be done on the power bank.
2 screws, everything is simple for now.
And here it is not easy at all. It was possible to bend the lower latch only with a thin strip of steel, a simple ruler does not fit – it is too wide. Here they are, the secrets of the solidity of the case.
2 more screws and the filling becomes visible. Resistive dividers are visible on the central pins of the USB port. Perhaps their denominations are made to deceive Apple products. We solder a small wire on top of them.
It should look something like this.
The semi-assembled test showed that everything worked as expected. Now my electronic assistant has got a full-fledged food. This power bank has just declared an output current of 1 A.
It is a pity that the sellers of the power bank do not inform about this, for which products their devices are intended.
PS: I was very pleased with how the store itself worked. The next day after the order, the manager wrote that the equipment was changed at the factory, and unfortunately, it no longer includes a USB cable, how should we, they say, return the money? I said that it was a pity, but I would agree without a wire.Attach any other microUSB lanyard if possible. They did just that, they sent in an extra lace.
Power Bank ENB 2A x 18650 – “Excellent PowerBank. You can say 3 in 1.
A charger for 18650 batteries, a case for carrying batteries and, accordingly, a good power bank !!! ”
Back in 2015, near the end of it, I decided to quit smoking altogether and switch to electronic cigarettes. I got myself in great and powerful China such a topical and to this day a bunch of Evic VTC Mini + Subtank Mini + 18650 batteries (maybe I’ll write reviews for this later), by the way, which I still use.The question arose about choosing and buying an inexpensive, but at the same time, relatively high-quality charging for these 18650 batteries themselves, and preferably, not even desirable, but necessarily for at least 2 slots. Having rummaged in all sorts of trash of the Internet, I went to, of course, where without him is Great and mighty China))) PowerBank ENB 2A for two 18650 batteries and a maximum charge current of 2 amperes immediately caught my eye. I thought, why not kill two birds with one stone, because for a small price I get a small, but as it turned out later, a high-quality charger and plus a portable small power bank.
As a charger, the ENB 2A made me very happy. Ability to charge one or two batteries at the same time. The tester measured that the charging / discharging voltage does not go beyond the permissible range for 18650 batteries. The maximum voltage of a fully charged battery was 4.18 volts, and a fully discharged battery (when using the device as a power bank) was 3.1 volts, which is normal. It is also possible to use ENB 2A as a power bank with two installed batteries, or with one, which is buzzing.
There is an indicator on the front of the device that informs us about the approximate amount of charge / discharge of the batteries. It works like this: if the LED glows red, then the charge level ranges from 0-33%, orange 33-66%, green 66-100%, respectively.
At the moment, I just took it off the charge, poked it on the round button in the middle and from about 30 times just took a photo, it turns off quickly. In general, it is lit green, which corresponds to a battery charge of 66-100%.
At the top there is an input / output for charging and using the device as a power bank via a regular usb / micro usb cable.
USB cable included. Small, about 60 centimeters. And by the way, it cannot be used for data transmission, the Chinese gentlemen cut something there in this cable)))) is intended only for charging.
Well, inside it looks like this. Carefully!!! Lovers of collecting homemade mechanical mods (mech mods) may like it.
On the Internet, this device costs about 10 dollars, somewhere it is more expensive, but somewhere it is cheaper))))) I really like it.So, I would also advise others who are looking for an inexpensive charger.
1941. To intercept! Flight book of the “Stalinist Falcon”
In January – March, the daily record of departures in the flight book is carried out with the note: “Flights under the program of flight commanders courses, order of the NKO (People’s Commissar of Defense) 279” . And Vasily Stalin then, bypassing this official level, went directly to the courses for squadron commanders in Lipetsk.
Father improves the piloting technique, and the inspector enters into the flight book notes about the slightest mistakes: he draws his attention to “ late gas delivery after the exit from the coup ” and “ sharp input into the coup “, to “ air “.
January 17 four flights on UTI-4 and the fifth flight – verification with aerobatics (turns, corkscrew, combat turn, coup, immelman, barrels, spiral): overall rating – 4. Allow instructor flights with flight personnel. Commander of the 2nd air squadron of the Flight Commander Courses at 24 AD, Captain (illegible signature).
24th AD is a fighter aviation division (IAD) formed in 1940 on the basis of the 57th air brigade, which included the 16th, 34th and three more fighter aviation regiments.Division Commander Colonel I. D. Klimov.
As follows from this entry in the flight book, one year after the flight school, a full-fledged military pilot at the level of a flight commander was trained in the regiment, who has the right to teach and train other pilots. On the same day, the record of the first instructor flights:
01/17/41, UTI-4. For the instructor, 6 flights, 1 hour 39 minutes.
In the next month and a half, up to ten or more training and instructor flights per day, for example:
16.02.41, UTI-4. Control. 7c, 7d, 7d, 10 flights, 42 minutes;
03/20/41, UTI-4. Instructor’s, 22 flights, 1 hour 44 minutes.
After the course, the squadron commander notes errors in the piloting technique in the flight book: “ sharp turns into the turn” and “large rolls, roll no more than 40 ° in circle flights”. Apparently, my father is piloting too dashingly, especially on turns, which he performs with deep banks.
Judging by the regiment’s Diary, along with flights, the main occupations of the personnel were clearing the airfield from snow and … cross-country skiing.The squadrons were constantly skiing trainings and competitions. When summing up their results, the Olympic principle “The main thing is not victory, but participation” was used and the level of participation of the personnel of each squadron in these competitions was carefully calculated as a percentage.
And finally, on February 9, the highlight of the season, a grand event: “ Mass cross-country skiing named after Hero and Marshal of the Soviet Union SK Timoshenko “. Everyone participates. Only depending on ski training, participants start at distances of 10 or 20 kilometers.At the championship distance of 20 km, the squadron friend of his father, Junior Lieutenant V.I.Bardin, won. Seven months later, they will fly out together to carry out a combat mission, and Vladimir Bardin will die in an air battle.
But so far, in parallel with the clearing of the airfield, skiing lessons, flights on the I-16 and UTI-4, the regiment begins to master the new MiG-3 fighters.
The MiG-3 aircraft
The predecessor of the MiG-3, the I-200 prototype aircraft, made its first flight in April 1940 and reached a record speed of 651 km / h for that time.Therefore, in the conditions of the approaching war, it was decided to accelerate its adoption. Six months later, the first flight of the MiG-3 took place, and a month later, before the completion of the tests of the aircraft, its serial production began. Such rates were expensive: during the tests and organization of serial production of the aircraft in January – March 1941, test pilots A. N. Ekatov, V. F. Kuleshov and S. N. Afanasyev died.
Tests and operation of the MiG-3 showed that it had excellent flight performance at high altitudes, but at low and medium altitudes it was inferior to other fighters in speed and maneuverability.A serious drawback was the weak armament: the absence of cannons, 1 machine gun of 12.7 mm caliber and 2 machine guns of 7.62 mm. In addition, according to the conclusion of experts: “In many flight modes, piloting the MiG-3 was within the power of only physically very strong pilots.”
According to the famous fighter pilot, participant in the wars in Spain, China and with Germany, Hero of the Soviet Union, Major General of Aviation G. N. Zakharov, the MiG-3 “did not forgive piloting mistakes, it was designed for a good pilot.The average pilot on the MiG-3 automatically passed into the category of weak ones. And the weak one simply could not fly on it … From 4 thousand meters and above, he really had no equal … But the practice of hostilities showed that most air battles took place at altitudes from 1.5 to 3 thousand meters. ”
Father said, as always, shortly: “Above 5 thousand meters on the MiG I was the king, lower – it is heavy.”
* * *
The Air Force command ordered to equip the 16th and 34th air regiments with the first production MiG-3 aircraft for their accelerated preparation for the May Day parade.Since February 12, the regiment’s diary contains daily entries: “ 16 pilots and 16 technicians went to plant number 1 to study new mat. parts “. Apparently, at the airfield of plant number 1 in Moscow, where serial production of the MiG-3 began, these pilots took to the air for the first time on the MiG on March 1: “ The release of pilots on a new mat was made. parts. 8 pilots “. 8 more pilots took off on March 7-10.
The first pair of MiGs were driven to the Lyubertsy airfield in the regiment on March 10, 1941 by the commander of the 24th air division, Colonel I. D. Klimov and Pilot Technique Division Inspector Major D. L. Kalarash. Immediately on one of these aircraft, the regiment commander, Major L.G. Rybkin, took off. Ten days later, the father made the first flight on the MiG:
03/20/41, MiG-3. Training flight in a circle, 1 flight, 12 minutes.
However, at the end of March there was a thaw and, although snow clearing and cross-country skiing lost their relevance, it was also impossible to start flying – the airfield became limp. And in April, retraining for a new plane was prevented by non-flying weather.The regiment’s diary notes almost daily: “ Flights disrupted due to bad weather “. Therefore, only a month later, my father received formal permission to fly on a new aircraft:
04/20/1941, UTI-4, rear cockpit, exercise. 1 KBP-41.
… overall rating 4. I authorize flights on the MiG-3.
Commander of the 1st air squadron (illegible signature).
And again bad weather. The command assignment to prepare for the parade was in jeopardy.A rather ambiguous entry appears in the Diary on April 26: “ Flights disrupted due to bad weather. The flight crew studied and plotted the route on May 1 and shot the planes at shooting range ”. But two days later, as it should be before the parade, on the planes “ were preparing weapons for sealing “.
Finally, the day before the May Day parade, there is not a cloud in the sky. The flights began at 5.00 am, and “ leading echelons passed along the parade route through GKP (main command post) and Red Square “.In addition, the pilots took off over and over again, performing training flights:
04/30/41, MiG-3. KBP-41, 5 flights, 1 hour 17 minutes.
During the development of the MiG-3 in the regiment before the parade, one plane crashed, three others made forced landings as a result of flight accidents related to technical malfunctions.
On May 1, 1941, the divisional commander congratulated the regiment personnel on the holiday and wished them successful fulfillment of the important mission. At his signal, the MiG units took off at 12.56, headed for Moscow and marched in formation over Red Square:
05/01/41, MiG-3. Air May Day parade, 1 flight, 1 hour 18 minutes.
After landing in Lyubertsy, the technical staff “ conducted a post-flight inspection and put ammunition on aircraft.” By 18.00 the regiment was again ready for combat work. As can be seen from the flight book, for my father, participation in the air parade is only the seventh flight on a new plane.
For the good organization and conduct of the May Day air parade, the USSR People’s Commissar of Defense declared gratitude to its participants, and some of them were invited to the Kremlin for a reception.
Reception in the Kremlin and about the attitude to the government
Father told me that the officers invited to the Kremlin, JV Stalin and the leadership of the People’s Commissariat of Defense were sitting at covered tables. The officers who wanted to, freely approached JV Stalin, clinked glasses with him, talked about something. The father said, “I didn’t fit.”When JV Stalin left, SM Budyonny had an accordion in his hands, and the evening went on with songs and dances. During the evening, those officers who drank too much were taken out of the hall by the Kremlin servants and sent home in cars.
One of them was thus sent to the Lyubertsy garrison. The duty officer, seeing the condition of the newcomer, immediately arrested him, and in the morning reported this to the regiment commander. The commander’s reaction was instantaneous: the participant of the reception in the Kremlin was on leave for three days, the officer on duty was arrested for the same period.For zeal not in mind and political myopia.
Once I asked my father how he and his friends then treated IV Stalin, taking into account the events of 1937 in the Red Army. He answered briefly:
– We respected our government.
– You have been in the Army since 1938 and, probably, if you were not a witness, you could have heard about what is now called repression, – I continued to insist.
In response, he said: “In our garrison I remember only one case of ‘repression’. The young pilot was walking in the Metropol restaurant in the evening and began to look too persistently at some lady.When the police intervened on her complaint, it turned out that this lady was an employee of a foreign embassy, and the Don Juan had a notebook in her pocket with notes about the MiG-3 aircraft, which we were then mastering. Therefore, the police handed over the detained reveler not to the military, as expected, but to the state security authorities. He returned to the regiment a week later. Pale and haggard. We asked him:
– No, but they fed herring, and they gave little water.
By the way, we all carried such notebooks in our pockets.Only not in restaurants and were more selective when choosing objects of courtship. ”
In this story, I was interested in the very fact of the young pilot’s dinner at the Metropol, to which my father said: “The salary allowed us to do this freely. By the way, I did not earn much less as a lathe operator at the factory. So why shouldn’t we respect our government? ”
* * *
After the parade, there are daily flights to the regiment almost seven days a week. Moreover, for some reason, on Sunday, the flight work was the most intense, as, for example, on May 18, when it lasted more than fourteen hours – from 6.00 to 20.25. True, there were no flights the next day on Monday. Instead of them, probably for relaxation, there is a squadron volleyball competition. But on Tuesday from 5.00 flights again and during their last shooting at air targets before the war, the results of which remained unknown:
20.05.41, KBP-41 exercise. No. 13, shooting at air targets. The number of bullets fired is 60. The cone is lost.
The canvas cone is towed on a long line behind the aircraft as an aerial target.On that day, the cone was lost due to the fact that junior lieutenant A.I. Makarov crashed into it on an I-16. For Alexei, this ended in a forced landing.
In May, the flight book contains records of numerous export flights on the UTI-4 with flight personnel – as a rule, more than a dozen per day:
05/06/41, UTI-4. Aircrew removal, 13 flights, 1 hour 10 minutes;
05/12/41, UTI-4. Aircrew removal, 15 flights, 1 hour 20 minutes;
29.05.41, UTI-4. Aircrew removal, 19 flights, 1 hour 37 minutes.
Probably, this is due to the fact that after in 1940 a significant part of the regiment’s pilots was transferred to the newly formed air units, in January 1941 19 graduates of flight schools arrived, who had to be commissioned.
At the same time, flights were carried out on the course of combat training on the I-16 and on the retraining program on the MiG-3, that is, during the day, literally changing from plane to plane:
15.05.41, I-16. KBP-41, exercise. 28, 13, 4 flights, 3 hours;
05/15/41, MiG-3. Retraining program exercise. 4, 1 flight, 50 minutes.
A week later, mastering the course of combat training on the MiG-3 begins:
05/22/41, MiG-3. KBP-41, exercise. 5, 3 flights, 2 hours 10 minutes.
Talking about this time, my father was surprised: “Before the war, our vacation was canceled since May, we were practically in the barracks position and did not leave the airfield, and the officers of the western districts went through Moscow on vacation to the south.”I remember this when I hear arguments about why the command of the western districts was shot at the beginning of the war.
1941 In the summer camps of Lipica before the war. Ml. Lieutenant G. N. Urvachev in the center
It should be added that by the order of the 24th IAD, even dismissals on “ city leave “, that is, on weekends, were prohibited from April to all personnel. Nevertheless, the regiment commander L. G. Rybkin gave instructions after all “ to fire . .. those who have tickets to the theater “.Apparently, Leonid Grigorievich believed that a visit to the theater strengthens the moral and volitional qualities of the pilots – one of the elements of their combat training. On May 30, the regiment commander, by order, distributed the MiG-3 aircraft between the unit’s pilots. An aircraft with serial number 2448 was assigned to the assistant adjutant of the 1st squadron, junior lieutenant G. N. Urvachev. It should be noted that there were 27 MiGs in the regiment, and 65 pilots, according to the pre-war states. “Donkeys”. In addition, there was a note in the order: “ Pilots who do not have I-16 and MiG-3 aircraft undergo flight training on their own unit ”, that is, there were more pilots in the regiment than aircraft.
1941 Commander of the 6th IAC Colonel I. D. Klimov
On the last peaceful Sunday before the war, June 15, flights again all day from 6.00 to 20.00 hours. Every other day – from 5.00 to 19.30 and after a short break, their night continuation from 22. 00 to 1.00 the next day. But on the eve of the war on June 20 and 21 there were no flights – it was raining.
Altitude training on the MiG-3 began in mid-June. Every day, the pilots, starting at 5000 m, gradually climbed to ever greater altitudes, and on June 19, the regiment had four flights at an altitude of 6000 m and four at 7000 meters.There was still 4500 m to the ceiling of the aircraft, and only two days before the start of the war.
Meanwhile, to strengthen the air defense of Moscow the day before the war, on June 20, 1941, on the basis of the 24th division, the 6th Fighter Aviation Corps (IAC) was formed under the command of Colonel I.D.Klimov. The corps included 11 fighter aviation regiments, which had 389 fighters, including 170 MiG-3s.
The beginning of the war found the regiment in the summer camps of Lipitsa – not far from Serpukhov, where it relocated in early June.An order was received – the new location of the regiment – Vnukovo airfield:
06. 24.41, MiG-3. Flight Lipitsa – Vnukovo, 1 flight, 40 minutes.
Thus, the war for the father began two and a half years after entering the pilot school. He had a year and a half of service in the combatant fighter aviation regiment, 695 flights with a total flight time of 147 hours, including 27 flights and 13 hours on the MiG-3. That is, his total flying time was still significantly less than that of a German flying school graduate.However, the quality of the pilot’s training had to be shown by the beginning of the exam – the war:
06/26/41, MiG-3. Departure on alarm, 1 flight, 30 minutes, altitude 6 thousand m.
This is the first combat sortie. Then, just like other pilots of the regiment, he had almost daily flights “on alarm” , at high altitudes for that time from 5 to 10 thousand meters and lasting about an hour. In one of these sorties, on July 9, Nikolai Tarakanchikov, a classmate of his father in the school of pilots, almost died, albeit for a completely non-combat reason. During takeoff, the engine on his plane “passed”, which fell into the forest and crashed 5 kilometers from the airfield. Nikolai was seriously injured and was sent to the hospital.
On the night of July 22, 1941, German aviation carried out the first massive raid on Moscow, in the repulse of which the 34th IAP also distinguished itself, completing 18 sorties on the MiG-3 and 7 on the I-16. The downed enemy aircraft were credited to the squadron commander, Captain M.G. Trunov, junior lieutenants A.G. Lukyanov and N.G. Shcherbina.
1941 Pilot of the 34th iap junior lieutenant N.G. Shcherbina (08.22.44 – Hero of the Soviet Union)
1941 Pilot of the 34th IAP Junior Lieutenant A.G. Lukyanov ( 03/04/42 – Hero of the Soviet Union )
But there was no confirmation of the fall of these aircraft to the ground, and the regiment commander in reporting each of them carefully pointed out: “the plane can be considered shot down” . Nevertheless, they are officially included in the number of 12 enemy aircraft shot down that night by the pilots of the 6th IAC. The next day, the People’s Commissar of Defense of the USSR, JV Stalin, expressed gratitude to the participants in the repulsion of the raid, and on July 25, many of them were awarded. Nikolai Shcherbina and Anatoly Lukyanov were awarded the Order of the Red Banner, and Mikhail Trunov was awarded the Order of the Red Star.
On 23 and 24 July, the Germans repeated night raids, and in each of them Lukyanov shot down another enemy aircraft in the area of Aprelevka and Golitsyno, respectively. However, there was again no reliable confirmation. Finally, on the afternoon of August 16 near Podolsk, as a result of his attack, a German bomber fell apart in the air in front of numerous “spectators” on the ground, and only one crew member was able to leave it with a parachute.
After July 22, combat missions in the flight book began to be recorded as “patrolling over Moscow”, and from August 1 – “patrolling over Moscow” . Soon, the command decided to move part of the air defense fighter aviation to the west to meet enemy bombers at distant approaches. In this regard, one squadron of the 34th regiment under the command of senior lieutenant A.N.Shokun relocated to Rzhev:
4.08.41, MiG-3. Flight Vnukovo – Rzhev, 1 flight, 55 minutes.
In addition to this entry, a leaf from the father’s notebook was preserved in the flight book:
“Rzhev. Flight 4.8.41 … N = 7.800 …
5. Gerasimov (room)
Yu. I. Gerasimov (com) – senior political instructor, squadron commissar.
In two months, three of these pilots will die in air battles, another one in November will be seriously wounded and taken prisoner. But this is the story ahead, but for now they all began to carry out the tasks that my father wrote down: “Our squadron, based at the Rzhev airfield, attacked groups of bombers heading for Moscow and intercepted scouts (in daylight). She was the first to start performing the tasks of front-line aviation – covering troops, escorting SB (bombers) and attack aircraft, reconnaissance. “
After a week, during which there were daily patrols, the first flight to intercept the enemy:
08/10/41, MiG-3. Interception of the enemy, 2 flights, 50 minutes.
Three days later – four sorties and the first air battle:
08/14/41, MiG-3. Patrolling (crossed out) air combat, 3 flights, 2 hours 06 minutes;
08/14/41, MiG-3. Interception of the enemy, 1 flight, 34 minutes.
Once upon my question: “Do you remember your first air battle?” – Father said: “Much has been forgotten, but I remember the first fight in detail.That day I was on duty, in readiness number 1, that is, I was sitting in the cockpit of my MiG, ready to take off at the first signal from the command post (CP).
The nights were already cool, and I took over duty at dawn, in one tunic. Therefore, climbing into the cockpit, he closed the lamp, warmed up and dozed off. Grandfather Shchukar woke me up with a knock of his fist on the lantern (this is how my father called his aircraft technician):
– Commander, look!
A pair of Messerschmitts-109 circled above the airfield at an altitude of 600–800 m.They could not see my plane, which was in a caponier, camouflaged from above by felled young trees and branches. In addition, our squadron had the goal of intercepting bombers and reconnaissance aircraft that were going to Moscow, and these were front-line fighters. Therefore, I watched them with interest, but calmly.
Combat pair “Messerschmitt-109”
Suddenly, almost running, Shokun appeared next to the cockpit of my plane, who angrily threw:
– Why are you sitting, don’t you see?
– So these are not our goals!
– Take off and drive away.That’s an order!
He turned around and, without looking back, went towards the command post, from where the signal to take off to the pilot on duty was usually given by a rocket. And then the commander, apparently in order not to unmask himself with a rocket, ran to the parking lot himself. I turned to Shchukar. His face was white with rage.
– Commander, if anything happens, I’ll go to court, but I won’t forgive him!
– Thank you, consoled. Let’s get started.
The fact is that this order was, in essence, a sentence. I never got a chance to take off.To do this, it was necessary to roll out of the caponier, taxi to the start, and then take off in a straight line. After lift-off, while there is no height and speed, the plane cannot maneuver and for some time must also fly in a straight line. For the Germans, all this was more than enough to calmly and securely shoot me.
Shchukar was still dark, before the shift, he warmed up the engine well, so it started up “from a half turn”, and I, holding the brakes, moved the throttle lever forward as far as it will go.The propeller roared, camouflage branches and trees, dust and even rubble from the caponier flew up in a column. Now the Germans had my MiG at a glance.
I released the brakes, and the poor MiG did not roll out, as usual, but jumped out of the caponier, and I directly, without turning onto the taxiway, across the runway began to take off on the virgin soil. Therefore, even for a second I could not tear myself away from the control of the plane to look back – where are the Germans? But I already clearly imagined how they from a turn come to me from behind and take in sight.I drew my head into my shoulders and shrank all over behind the armor back, although I realized that its 9 millimeters would not save me from the 20-millimeter cannon shells of the Messers. However, nothing happened, and the MiG took off from the ground. In order to gain speed faster and be able to maneuver, in violation of the rules of piloting, I did not take the handle on myself, but immediately removed the landing gear.
MiG-3 fighter on takeoff
Only when the speed increased, I smoothly climbed and could look back – the 109s were still circling over the airfield. Feeling a great sense of relief and not taking my eyes off the Germans, I caught up with the “Messers” in height. Their engines started to smoke – it means that the Germans gave full throttle, their planes turned in my direction. About forty minutes later, the Germans apparently ran out of fuel, they withdrew from the battle and fled. After landing, I taxied to the parking lot and with difficulty, with the help of Shchukar, got out of the cab. My tunic was drenched in sweat.
Why the Germans did not shoot me during takeoff, explained the pennant that they dropped when leaving.There was a note in it that the next day they again call us to a duel and will not attack on takeoff. ”
Telling this story, my father added that after the first battle he made a conclusion, which he followed throughout the war: “I will spin – I will stay alive.” He clarified that this is not a variant of the well-known vulgarity: “If you want to live, be able to turn around”, but the requirement of continuous maneuvering in aerial combat in order to get out of the enemy’s attack, prevent him from taking aim at you and taking an advantageous position for the attack himself.
The story of my father’s first air battle had a continuation. The next day, he was already paired with another pilot, sitting in readiness number 1, and Shokun the day before agreed with the commander of the I-16 regiment, who was standing at a nearby airfield, that when the Germans arrived and were bound by battle, a link of this regiment would appear and decide the outcome. battle in our favor.
The Germans appeared over the airfield at the appointed time, and a pair of MiGs took off towards them:
08/15/41, MiG-3. Air combat, 3 flights, 1 hour 33 minutes.
However, there were no “donkeys” for a long time. Finally, three dots appeared in the sky. The Germans, seeing that reinforcements were approaching the enemy, turned sharply and disappeared into the clouds. The pilots on the I-16 mistook those who were still little acquaintances in the MiG troops for “Messers” and attacked them. It took a while to figure out who is who. Fortunately, there were no casualties, and the parties peacefully dispersed to their airfields, but the messages they exchanged cannot be transmitted in the open press, and by no means because of their secrecy.
In turn, the Germans, apparently, decided not to leave without consequences such non-knightly behavior of Stalin’s falcons. After a while, in the west, a multitude of aircraft, barely visible in the distance, appeared in the sky. The observer from the tower at the edge of the airfield calmed him down, reporting that it was our Yaks returning from the front. But these were Messers. They struck an assault on the airfield on the move, and after that they no longer received proposals for fights.
Nevertheless, on the same day, father was raised to intercept Junkers-88, which he attacked, but lost in the clouds.
About the first air battle
Remembering my father’s story about his first battle, I believe that if he had no chances to survive that day during takeoff, then in the subsequent battle there were also few of them. All the circumstances of this battle were against him, starting with the fact that there were two rivals. Even worse, they were clearly “free hunters” – experienced combat pilots with more than one victory to their credit.
One front-line pilot, when asked what conditions are needed for a pilot to become an ace, replied: “There are many such conditions, but two are the main ones.Firstly, he must stay alive after the first two or three fights, during which he sees nothing, does not understand, and, as a rule, he gets knocked down. Secondly – to shoot down the first enemy plane in order to become a real fighter, confident in himself. ” In that battle, the Germans were already like that, but the father was not.
And, finally, the battle took place at low altitude, where the Me-109 had a clear superiority over the MiG in speed and maneuverability, and against its three machine guns, each Messer had more powerful weapons, including cannons.
“Messerschmitt-109” – the main fighter of the Luftwaffe, produced since 1937 in various modifications. In 1941, near Rzhev, most likely there were Me-109 F – “Friedrich”, which entered service in 1940. The Friedrich with a maximum speed of 620 km / h, a 20 mm cannon and two 7. 92 mm machine guns was considered one of the best Me-109 models (in 1941, in Soviet reference books on the enemy’s combat strength and other Me-109 F documents erroneously designated as He-113).
I have also often wondered why the squadron leader sent his pilot to an apparent and seemingly useless death.I see only one explanation: he had reason to believe that the Messerschmitts flew in to block the airfield and prevent the interceptors from taking off. At this time, German bombers or scouts could freely pass to Moscow. He, of course, understood that the pilot would be killed on takeoff. But he assumed that while the Germans were tinkering with him, one of the other pilots on duty would have time to take off and drive off the enemy fighters.
As follows from the flight book, on August 14, after a 40-minute battle with the Messers, my father made three more sorties to intercept the enemy and patrol.This despite the fact that, according to the front-line fighter pilot II Kozhemyako, “the duration of an air battle is usually 10–20 minutes, maximum half an hour. I must say that after taking off with 30 minutes of air combat, most likely you will not fly anywhere for the second time. You just don’t have enough strength. ”
* * *
Obviously, August 14, 1941 can be considered the second birthday of his father, and a week later – August 20, 1941 – he turned 21. However, the day before, he almost died again after his first night combat missions:
19.08.41, MiG-3. Interception of the enemy, 1 flight, at night, 1 hour 38 minutes;
08/19/41, MiG-3. Interception of the enemy, 1 flight, at night, 1 hour 30 minutes.
During the second flight, the airfield was covered with fog, and my father could not land on it, the plane ran out of fuel, and he made an emergency landing outside the airfield without lowering the landing gear. In the section of the flight book “5. Disasters, accidents, breakdowns, forced landings and other incidents “entry:
19.08.41, MiG-3. Forced landing on the “stomach” due to the outflow of fuel in the region of Sychevka. The crew is unharmed.
Prior to that, the flight book contains notes only about two flights at night in 1940: July 4 – 50 minutes on the I-16 and August 1 – 1 hour 30 minutes on the U-2, and not a single night flight on the MiG- 3. Nevertheless, on August 2, 1941, a strange order of the regiment commander appeared: “ Consider junior lieutenant G. N. Urvachev as having taken off at night on a MiG-3 plane from 08.19.41 “. As you can see, official documents may contain some kind of secret or hide facts of real life.
Night combat missions and about the pilot M. L. Gallai
Night flights, especially for combat use, are one of the most difficult types of flight work, and they require special, long-term pilot training. Out of 170 MiG-3 pilots in the 6th Aviation Corps, only 8 pilots had such training by the beginning of the war. When the Germans began night raids on Moscow, it was ordered to lift, if necessary, any air defense pilot, regardless of his training. The order provided that a pilot who lost his bearings in the night sky or was not sure of the ability to land a car could leave it with a parachute.The father laughed: “After this order, we all immediately became night pilots.”
1941 Deputy Commander of the 6th IAC, Head of the Western Sector of Moscow Air Defense Colonel P.M. the German raid on Moscow, after his report at the end of the day to the corps commander that the regiments had flight personnel who had not flown at night, he ordered: “ Let all planes ready to take off immediately go into battle !.”Order those who are not sure of a night landing, let them leave the plane by parachute after the battle.”
During the first week of night raids on Moscow, pilots of the 34th IAP left the aircraft with a parachute six times as a result of “ loss of orientation and fuel consumption “, as indicated in the documents on flight accidents. At the same time, in each case it was noted: “ The pilot is unharmed. The aircraft is subject to write-off “, and in the column” Decision of the superior commander and measures “:” Disassembled with the flight crew and instructions on orientation at night were given. “There was little left – to follow the instructions of the commander.
Apparently, the tension of night combat missions was the cause of other flight accidents. So, after repelling the first night raid, junior lieutenant VS Tsymbal did not lose his bearings, found the nearest airfield Ramenskoye, but, approaching landing, forgot to release the landing gear and flopped down on his “stomach”. However, later Vasily “performed in full”: four days later he “, after using up fuel ” left the plane with a parachute, and a day later “ lost orientation ” and sat down with the landing gear retracted.The commander’s patience ran out: “ Remove from night flights.”
However, the war, probably, teaches as quickly as the instructions of the commanders, only more effectively, and two months later there were pilots in the 34th regiment who could share the acquired experience of night flights. The central newspaper of the Air Force of the Red Army “Stalin’s Falcon” published a long article by two such pilots, Captain M. M. Naidenko and Senior Lieutenant V. A. Kiselev – “From the Combat Experience of Night Fighters.”They gave specific practical advice on how to take off, navigate, search and attack the enemy in a night flight.
Hero of the Soviet Union, Honored Test Pilot of the USSR M. L. Gallay, who in the summer of 1941 on the MiG-3 participated in repelling night raids on Moscow, recalled: “It was necessary to return from a combat mission at night to your airfield with all sorts of tricks , attempts to reach some landmarks visible at night. Basically it was water: black water looks different than black land. “
Honored Test Pilot of the USSR Hero of the Soviet Union M.L. Gallai
Mark Lazarevich Gallai, a famous test pilot and author of wonderful books about aviation, my father introduced me on July 22, 1991, when the 50th anniversary of the repulse of the first German raid was celebrated to the capital. Less than a month was left before the dramatic events of August in Moscow, and the mass media were full of anti-communist invectives, which were discussed in our conversation. Mark Lazarevich said that after reading and listening to all this, he initially decided to quit the Communist Party.However, he did not do this when he read in one newspaper that communists should be shot and hanged. He explained:
– In 1941 the Germans came for this in tanks and planes, but we were not scared and fought with them. Now, if I quit the Party, people might think that I was scared of these newspaper talkers.
Returning to the night events of August 19, 1941, it is clear that the father “ due to the outflow of fuel ” did not leave the car with a parachute, but made an emergency landing on his stomach outside the airfield and, I believe, miraculously survived.In any case, when attempting such landings by that time due to “ loss of orientation and fuel consumption ” six pilots of the 6th corps were killed, four were wounded, and 36 aircraft were completely destroyed or required serious repairs.
By the decision of the regiment commander, this “ case was dismantled with the flight personnel, all landing sites in the Kalinin, Sychevka area were studied in case of landing when the airfield was closed by fog “. One way or another, but after that, the surname Urvachev was in almost every monthly order of the regiment commander that “ for mastering night flights, as well as for night sorties with the performance of combat missions, pay a 10% bonus per month and 10% for each sortie at night “.He became a night light pilot.
Parachutist NS Kulavin and about the parachutes of fighter pilots
I think I understand why my father did not use the parachute, but went on a deadly and, I think, reckless night landing. He always recalled with distaste the two parachute jumps that he had to make in the flying club in accordance with the curriculum. He did not like this business – parachute jumping.
In the section of the flight book “VI. Parachute jumps (introductory, training, forced, etc. ) “In the column” The number of jumps completed by the day of establishment of the flight book “proudly, but lonely stands the figure” 2 “. This is followed by several pages, calculated, judging by their layout, on the records of dozens of parachute jumps of the owner of the flight book, which remained pristine.
Although it is known that fighter pilots must systematically perform training parachute jumps, my father somehow avoided them. I repeat – he did not like this business and compensated for it by selfless friendship, beginning with the war and for the rest of his life, with the professional paratrooper Nikolai Sergeevich Kulavin.
I remember him well – short in stature, but as if imbued with strength, with steel muscles, calm, imperturbable and without one eye, lost under terrible circumstances. In the autumn and winter of 1941-1942. at the Vnukovo airfield, he was an instructor for paratroopers and saboteurs who were parachuted into the German rear. Once for this purpose, he flew in the second cabin of the U-2 with such a saboteur on his knees. An exploding anti-aircraft shell smashed the saboteur’s head, and a fragment of his skull knocked out Kulavin’s eye.Nevertheless, for many years he continued his parachuting classes and in the 50s was even a prize-winner of the parachuting championship of the Armed Forces.
Despite the fact that his father successfully avoided parachute jumps all his flying life, thousands of times, preparing for flight, he had to do the difficult procedure of putting on a parachute with the help of an aircraft technician. The fact that it is not easy can be seen in the photograph of Nikolai Dudnik, pilot of the 178th IAP of the Moscow Air Defense Forces, who is helped by a technician of his plane and a parachute handler to put on a parachute before departure.
Pilot of the 178th IAP of Moscow Air Defense ND Dudnik
ND Dudnik during the war made 426 sorties and shot down 6 enemy aircraft. After the war – Chief of Staff of the Moscow Air Defense District, Major General of Aviation. Dismissed from the Army, in the 80s he was the chairman of the Council of Veterans of the 6th IAC, where he actively collaborated with the Chairman of the Council of Veterans of the 34th Aviation Regiment G. N. Urvachev. In my father’s flying life, the parachute turned out to be necessary only for the convenience of sitting on it in the cockpit of the fighter.To this end, the parachutes of the pilots were not attached on the back or chest, as in normal parachutists, but hung below the back. Therefore, the fighter pilot, heading for his plane, walked not with the firm gait of an air fighter, but with a “vskoryaku”. There is a direct analogy with birds, graceful in flight and awkward on the ground.
Lieutenant Kuznetsov reports on the completion of the assignment. Western Front
In a number of works, a photograph of a MiG-3 pilot returning from a combat flight is published, which clearly shows the location of the pilot’s parachute from behind.Signed under the photo: “Lieutenant Kuznetsov reports on the completion of the mission. Western Front “. This is a good friend and brother-soldier of his father Fyodor Andreevich Kuznetsov. After the war, being decommissioned from flight work, he remained in aviation, was the head of reconnaissance of one of the air formations, and in this capacity in 1962 he ended up in Cuba during the Cuban missile crisis, and then, like his father, lived and worked in Lyubertsy … According to his father, in the fall and spring in 1941 and 1942. he flew in boots and a leather raglan.It was believed that they could save the pilot in case of a fire on board, since the skin does not burn, but charred. However, it was not clear how the parachute straps of the leg loops were fastened with a long-floor raglan, until I saw photographs of fighter pilots, where it can be seen that these straps are passed between the raglan’s floors and through its slit in the back. However, this, apparently, did not add grace to the pilots in movement either.
* * *
Meanwhile, judging by the flight book, after the next combat sortie on September 1, there was a two-week break in flights. Remembering my father’s stories, I think that this is due to the following circumstances.
By the end of August, a number of the squadron’s pilots were “horseless” – they lost their aircraft as a result of a German attack on the airfield and during air battles. One of them, his friend, followed on his father’s heels and asked:
– Zhora, let me fly on your plane, what do you feel sorry for?
Father, laughing, told: “Yes, it was not a pity. But the German was getting closer and closer to Rzhev, and from day to day we were waiting for the order to return to Vnukovo.If you have a plane, you will be home in an hour, but no, you have to stomp for a week, and it’s not a fact that you’ll get there. ” However, the friend eventually got his way and flew off on a combat mission on his father’s plane. He returned in the evening without a plane.
And soon an order: the squadron to return to the regiment at the Vnukovo airfield. Who could – flew away. There remained the technicians and the “horseless” pilots, who were given three-line rifles of the 1891 model. Raglan pockets were stuffed with rifle cartridges and grenades. Before leaving, they decided to destroy the airfield facilities so that the Germans would not get it, laid the remaining ammunition under them and set them on fire.However, they did not take into account that among the boxes with ammunition there were RS-82 rockets, which suddenly began to fly around the airfield. I had to lie down to wait out this “shelling”.
Pedestrian crossing Rzhev – Vnukovo
Having thus received a baptism of fire on the ground, we moved east on the road to Moscow. Thirty kilometers later we crossed the Volga and, deciding that it was enough to retreat and it was necessary to give the Germans a fight, we lay down on its high bank. Soon the Germans rolled out onto the opposite bank on motorcycles.A friendly volley of three lines – and their trail is gone. There was no limit to the fighting enthusiasm. But it turned out that it was the forward patrol of the unit, the tanks of which soon appeared on the banks of the river and fired from the cannons. The argument was weighty, and, realizing that this line could not be held with three lines, the squadron’s flight crew continued to move east.
Father rarely recalled this transition and, as always, with laughter and jokes, but it was felt that he had gotten a lot: the chaos of retreat, shelling, killed and wounded, who had to bear on himself, other infantry “charms”.The Germans often rolled along the road, overtaking them, “skidding”, according to their father, parallel to this road along ravines and gullies. Once, mortally tired of the round-the-clock march, he himself almost died, falling into the pitch darkness of the night under the wheels of some kind of military equipment.
After more than half a century, being in the Kalinin region in winter, I heard on the local radio that the Rzhev authorities were allocating three hectares to the Germans for the reburial of the Wehrmacht soldiers who died there. This was, of course, a manifestation of “new thinking” – that is, schizophrenia of public consciousness. When he returned, he informed his father about this and recalled how he and his friends got it in 1941 from the Germans in the Rzhev region. I expected his indignation and indignation, but he suddenly laughed:
– Three hectares is not enough. When we flew back to the Rzhev airfield in the spring of 1943, immediately after its liberation, the corpses of the Germans lay in heaps everywhere. You cannot imagine how many of them were killed there.
In the end, the part of the 34th IAP squadron that remained in Rzhev arrived at Vnukovo.A.N.Shokun first of all led the returning pilots of his squadron to the dining room, where the chief of food was sitting in front of a plate of pancakes and a large bowl of sour cream. He was having lunch. Shokun turned to him:
– Our pilots arrived without certificates, we need to feed them.
– First, let’s figure out who to feed and who not. And while some heroically defend the skies of Moscow, others skedaddle from the Germans as much from Rzhev.
The squadron commander, without changing his voice and facial expression, with the words: “Indeed, we need to figure it out,” carefully took a bowl of sour cream in his hands and threw it over the head of the chief prod.
– Comrades pilots, the waitresses are the same and they have not forgotten you, they will feed you.
* * *
After Rzhev, Sukovo airfield 6 kilometers east of Vnukovo became the new airfield for the regiment’s maneuvering, where in September-November 1941 one of its squadrons was permanently based.
Meanwhile, A.N.Shokun, apparently remembering the forced night landing of his father in Rzhev, first of all arranged for him a flight technique check at night:
09/13/41, UTI-4, rear cockpit, at night.
… The overall assessment of the piloting technique is excellent.
I give permission to continue combat work day and night on the MiG-3 station. Commander of the 2nd air station Lieutenant Shokun.
I must say that Shokun himself two months before, participating in repelling the first raid of German bombers on Moscow on the night of July 22, after running out of fuel, disciplinedly carried out the order of the command and left the car with a parachute. Moreover, the next night he did the same.
From the flight book it follows that by the end of September, practically every day at least 2–4 sorties, mainly to intercept the enemy.
On September 30, the German offensive against Moscow began – Operation Typhoon. The front approached the city, and therefore in the father’s papers there is an entry: “In addition to night raids, in October the Germans began to carry out raids during the day. The bombers were escorted by fighters. ” Further, the father writes: “We, air defense pilots, besides repelling night and day raids (on Moscow) began to perform the tasks of front-line aviation, covered our troops, conducted reconnaissance, accompanied our bombers and attack aircraft, went to attack fascist airfields and ground troops “.
In one of these attacks, an incident occurred that my father reluctantly recalled. After successfully completing the mission without losses, the pilots went home. At this time, one of the aircraft went out of order, turned around and landed on the enemy airfield. The father said with annoyance: “I don’t know why he did it! Maybe he was injured or the plane was hit, the engine was jammed. Do not know”. Special officers were already waiting for them at the airfield in Vnukovo. The conversation was tough:
– Where is the imerek pilot?
– Sat down at the enemy airfield.The reason is unknown.
– Why weren’t they shot on landing?
– During the attack, all the ammunition was used up.
– According to the Combat Regulations and orders of the command, you are obliged to leave part of the ammunition for the return journey.
There was nothing to object – there was such a demand, but the pilots, as a rule, in combat missions shot all cartridges “dry”. The father believed that only the hardest situation at the front and an acute shortage of flight personnel saved them from the tribunal. He recalled that after the war the regiment received a letter from this “name” with a request to confirm his participation in the battles.
Meanwhile, the fierceness of the air battles grew. Historians note the regiment’s combat work during this period:
“In those days, the pilots of the 16th and 34th IAP, the oldest regiments in the Air Force of the Moscow Military District, staffed with well-trained flight personnel, especially showed themselves”;
“The personnel of the 34th Fighter Aviation Regiment acted courageously … Fulfilling the tasks of covering the troops of the Western Front, rail transport and repelling enemy air raids on Moscow, the pilots had to make 5-6 sorties a day.Often the air battles did not stop during the whole daylight hours and under bad meteorological conditions. ”
About the number of sorties per day
About 5-6 sorties per day of the pilots of the 34th regiment in October 1941 writes in his monograph “Aviation in the Battle of Moscow” A. G. Fedorov – Doctor of Historical Sciences, professor, a former experienced pilot, a direct participant in this battle.
According to another participant in the air battles near Moscow, the aforementioned Major General of Aviation N.D. Dudnik: “ In the summer and autumn, it reached six or seven sorties a day – this is very difficult, practically the limit is .”
Recalling this time when the air defense pilots had not only to repel night and day raids on Moscow, but also to carry out the tasks of front-line aviation, my father wrote: “ 6-8 sorties per mission became the norm for us”, and further: “ There were times when the regiment had a dozen serviceable aircraft and the same number of pilots and had to make 7-9 sorties a day ”.
This text is an introductory fragment.
Continuation for liters
90,000 Why do ducklings fall to their feet, how to treat and what to do in general in such a situation
What is the main thing when raising poultry? Properly feed her, maintain and treat her on time, and even better prevent diseases. Today we will talk about a problem that worries so many duck breeders: why ducklings fall to their feet and how to treat this misfortune. Often, such a death on the paws ends up very badly for ducks – right up to their death, so it is important for the owners to know what to do in this situation.
From the article you will learn:
Ducklings fall to their feet: possible causes
The difficulty of finding out the reasons why the ducks fell to their feet is that these birds are characterized by weakness in the paws with many diseases.Therefore, just to say what exactly happened to the ducklings who suddenly fell on their paws offhand is quite difficult. In addition to the very fact that the duckling cannot rise to its feet, it is necessary to examine the chick to identify additional signs that would help establish the correct diagnosis.
Of course, the best option would be to take a few ducklings to the veterinarian or invite a specialist to your home. The doctor will examine the ducklings, perhaps perform an autopsy of a particularly weak one, diagnose and prescribe treatment.But if it is impossible to invite a veterinarian for some reason, consider the following.
Most often, ducklings fall to their feet for two reasons. The first is malnutrition
ducklings fall to their feet for two reasons
(lack of vitamins and minerals), the second – chicks suffer from external or internal parasites. Sometimes ducklings fall to their feet with infectious diseases, for example, on the forums I met complaints from poultry farmers, in which ducklings fell to their feet with such a disease as salmonellosis.In the first case, adjusting the diet will help, in the second – antiparasitic treatment, in the third, you need to consult a doctor for the appointment of appropriate antibiotics.
How to feed ducklings so they don’t fall on their feet
The food you give your ducklings may be poor in minerals and vitamins. If, in addition to the fact that the ducklings have fallen to their feet, they have such signs as: lethargy, growth retardation, inflammation of the eyes, excessive thinness, ducklings pull the fluff out of each other’s heads – they most likely have vitamin deficiency and measures need to be taken.
In the first week, ducklings need to be fed with a balanced feed with vitamins and microelements. It is best to give them so-called starter food for ducklings or add special premixes. However, this may not be enough.
From the third day the ducklings need to be taught to the grass. At the beginning we try to give the babies nettles. It is rich in vitamins and is well absorbed by chicks. Then we give euphorbia and dandelion leaves, sometimes dill, and later we introduce other greens into the diet.
Grass should be introduced gradually, starting at 10% of the total diet and increasing to 50%. From the second week, you can give the ducklings a mash. The composition of the mash is best to include compound feed, crushed barley, fish oil, chalk, finely chopped grass.
From the third week, compound feed should be excluded from the mash, and the proportion of grass, on the contrary, should be increased to 50% of the diet. You need to feed the ducklings 4 times a day, and between feeding still give greens, preferably plenty. It is especially important to provide greens if you feed your ducklings exclusively with starter food.Whatever the manufacturers write on the packaging, natural food cannot be excluded from the poultry diet. Moreover, additives are important if you are transferring ducks from starter feed to regular feed or grain: during the transition period, the feed becomes poorer in vitamins, the duck’s body is rebuilt and stabilization of the nutrient content is extremely important.
If the ducklings have fallen to their feet, adding ground eggshells, shells, bone meal, finely grated carrots and fish oil to the feed may help.These supplements will compensate for the lack of calcium and vitamin A. Also, if possible, it is good to add cottage cheese and boiled eggs to the food of ducklings from time to time. This will provide the young stock with the necessary proteins and calcium.
When the chicks become older, you can add young corn leaves, grated zucchini, pumpkin, boiled potatoes mixed with mixed feed into the diet. True, with pumpkin and zucchini, it is better to be careful too. You should not transfer the bird only to this type of sack (many poultry breeders sin this).It is just such monotony that can lead to the fall of the ducks on their feet.
What to do if ducklings fall to their feet as a result of an invasion of parasites
The second reason why ducklings fall to their feet is that your birds are suffering from parasites. It could be like
external parasites, and internal – worms. In the fight against this scourge, both timely treatment and prevention are important. In this case, you cannot do without medical intervention.
Outdoor poultry parasites or ectoparasites are arthropods that live on or inside the skin and feathers (mites, down and feathers). They are transmitted from bird to bird and especially often appear in small poultry houses.
Examine the bellies and wings of the ducklings for ectoparasites. If you see an unnatural condition of the feather and skin – take action. To eliminate them, you need to treat the room in which the ducklings are kept with anti-ectoparasitic drugs, and the chicks are added special medicines to their drink or feed, or they are treated with special solutions externally.
Internal parasites in poultry are also removed by drugs.For their appointment, it is advisable to contact a veterinarian. In this case, it is better not to use folk remedies so as not to harm. Moreover, modern drugs are quite effective.
Important notice! If you use any drug to remove parasites, act strictly as directed by your doctor or the instructions attached to the drug. You should not vary the dose at your own discretion, as much as you would like to speed up the result. Preparations of this class are toxic and amateur performance can result in the death of the bird.
For the prevention of parasites, care must be taken that the ducks are not too crowded, as well as that the feeders and drinkers are clean. This is especially important in hot weather, because moisture plus heat is the optimal breeding ground for parasites and fungi. Sometimes prophylactic antiparasitic treatments of cells and poultry can be done.
If you adhere to these simple recommendations and rules for keeping ducks, then the question of what to do when the ducklings fall to their feet and why this happens, you should not have.But even if such a nuisance happened, you should not despair. You just need to take action in time. In the meantime, for relaxation, I advise you to watch an interesting video about how the host of one of the most wonderful video blogs on gardening raises musk ducklings. It’s really worth seeing.
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how the most beautiful shooter of the 2000s got old and why does he need a remaster
After a couple of days of leaks and rumors, the remaster was officially announced for PC, Xbox One, PS4 and Nintendo Switch. They promise a lot of improvements, all this will be released sometime in the summer of 2020 – and it’s good that it will come out. Crysis went down in history as a benchmark that destroyed computers in the late tenths. But what was this game? It’s time to remember.
The main question: is it true that Crysis is so ahead of its time in terms of grafon that it will still give a lot of AAA shit today?
True.I’m not sure that it will be direct to many, but it will definitely give to some. I also had doubts about this. The duckling effect has not been canceled. The game was released thirteen years ago and now – from memory – it seems that it looked a couple of generations cooler than all games in general. To check how it really is, I installed the game without mods and played it for a couple of hours. It wasn’t easy. I had to tinker with fixes and permission, but in the end it still worked.
Crysis in 2020 looks great.The game just has a very clear, nice picture with cool lighting and impressive drawing range. It looks especially good at sunrise and sunset – the sun’s rays are still incredibly beautifully making their way through the palm leaves. The detailing of characters and weapons in many modern games is actually worse. Smoke, fire, beaches and water are gorgeous. There are, of course, weaknesses too. Let’s just say: the stones in life are not so angular and not far away all the textures have aged well if you rest your nose on them.But in any case, this is such a level that an outside observer does not need to make remarks, they say, what did you want, the game was out when it came out.
If you load Crysis with fan packs of 4K textures and ENB add-ons, then it will look as if it was released yesterday. And I want to believe that somehow the game will look like this on modern consoles. Or even better, because the developers are going to screw ray tracing to it. How this will be done is not very clear. But if Crytek pulls off, it will be a precedent – the first ray-traced game on the current generation of consoles.
One of many examples to what level you can swing the graphics of the original Crysis.
And the game is announced for Switch – how is this even possible?
At the same time, Switch will also support ray tracing, according to leaks. How concretely this is possible is a mystery. But in general, the console will easily pull the game – it was released on the Xbox 360 from the PS3. It looked not great there – at the level of medium-low settings. But then not every PC could start it with such a picture.
The level of the previous generation (and even higher) Switch can pull out. There are already examples – the same DOOM 2016, which looks no worse than the version for the basic Xbox One on a portable device. Even clearer – the Switch-version of LA Noire, which looks better on the portable than on the previous generation. In handheld mode, it does not differ at all from the remaster for modern systems. The same can be said for Dark Souls if you lower the 30 FPS limit.
On Xbox One right now, you can play Crysis for backward compatibility, but it’s better to wait for the remaster.
The plot of Crysis is not a high drama, but it keeps you on your toes.
The main characters are elite special forces in nanosuits. They go to a tropical island on a mission. North Korea found something there, you need to find out what – the heroes themselves do not know more. This something turns out to be a huge alien ship and its aggressive inhabitants. Not a very original story, but the vibe of what is happening is like in “Predator”. Trained, ready for anything fighters (well written, by the way) are faced with something they were not ready for.Moreover, the danger of the upcoming discovery is intensified by the game with all its might, and the discharge eventually happens fiery.
Crysis is a good action movie that in the next two games also built a good lore around the original story with aliens. They are worthy of remasters too – and they are most likely just around the corner.
The gameplay of Crysis is fine: today it is perceived as focused on shooting Far Cry without towers and side quests.
About the original Crysis in 2007, they joked that this is a game in which you shoot Koreans for five minutes, and then walk through the swamps for half an hour and shoot at frogs.It really can be played that way. Crysis threw you on huge maps, set tasks, and that’s it; cinematic production was not enough. The game was about freedom: how will you move from point to point, how will you take checkpoints. Some skirmishes can be skipped altogether, bypassing cordons and forest ambushes with bushes.
The main feature of the game is the costume of the main character. He defined three paths of passage: power, fast and stealth. The increase in strength and armor made it possible to win back the tank (by the way, you can also steal real tanks), which enter the enemy base through the front entrance with a grenade launcher.The speed mode was well suited for dodgers: they kill quickly, but you can rush around the level like lightning and give out headshots if there is enough reaction. Well, invisibility is the way of stealth, there is nothing to explain here. The very same invisibility made it possible to rummage through the bushes without firing at all. This is, in fact, the easiest, but also the most boring way.
Well, no one bothered to juggle it all. You can fly into the base on an armored car, drown everything that you see, standing with a machine gun on fire in a hellish flame, and then dissolve into invisibility and then mow down the panicking soldiers.It is quite difficult and takes time to learn. But the payoff is decent: Crysis has really good gunplay and sensible physics.
Apart from the costume modes, there were few tools for entertainment. In fact, they only consisted of mundane weapons: rifles, snipers, pistols, grenades. Not counting, of course, the alien machine gun. But today there is even a certain charm in such asceticism. This is a military version of Halo.
The final third of Crysis is a linear shooter, and in this form the game is also good.
Crysis has some cool directed episodes. The strongest ones are shooting aliens in zero gravity on a spaceship and the final batch on an aircraft carrier. Against this background, I would like to believe that the addon for the first part – Crysis Warhead – will also be included in the remaster. Compared to the original, it is generally more linear and action-based – these are two rather different games.
However, the final Crysis spoiled the impressions of the game for some – too strong a contrast with the rest of the game.From myself, I can say that the main disadvantage of the main sin of episodes with aliens is not linearity, but stupidity of aliens. The Koreans are quite smart in the game: they work in a team, cover each other and competently take a defensive position (although sometimes the AI still fails). Aliens just stick at the hero. But I repeat: it’s still fun and it’s only a third of the game, if not less.
In 2007, Crysis was indeed a benchmark that few people could play properly. It is difficult to assess the gameplay when the game barely gives you fifteen frames.And they advertised it more through the picture – in the end, only she remembered it. But first of all, Crysis is still a great shooter. Authentic, focused, these are almost never made today, so in 2020 the game looks even fresher than at the time of release. And if this time Crysis can be appreciated in all its glory and without technical difficulties – it’s worth doing.