Is tonsillitis airborne: Is Tonsillitis Contagious? Infection Transmission & Symptoms
Tonsillitis Inflammation: The Basics
Many medical issues can affect your ears, nose, and throat, which is why there are specialists that focus on these issues. One of the most common ENT issues that people suffer from is tonsillitis. Many people may be aware of a sore throat, but they may not always know whether it’s strep throat, tonsillitis, or simply a cold. If you have pain in your throat and want to know the severity of your condition, here are the basics of tonsillitis inflammation.
What is Tonsillitis?
Your tonsils are located in the back of your throat in the form of two lymph nodes. Tonsils are a part of the body’s immune system, and their purpose is to protect your body from getting an infection. However, in some cases, the tonsils themselves can become infected. When the tonsils become infected, then you’re dealing with the illness called tonsillitis.
One of the easiest ways you can tell tonsillitis apart from a sore throat is by looking at the tonsils themselves—they’ll have a more swollen and reddish appearance. This is what a doctor will look for if you decide to go in and visit an ENT. In some cases, your tonsils may have white or yellow spots on them as well.
Besides inflammation, plenty of other common symptoms are associated with tonsillitis. Perhaps the most common and easiest to identify is a sore throat. If you’re suffering from tonsillitis, you may also have the following symptoms:
- Bad breath
- Stiff neck
- Poor appetite
People commonly get sick due to airborne germs, viruses, and bacteria, which is why the tonsils are there as a line of defense. The most common way to contract tonsillitis is through a virus, but bacterial infections can also be the culprit. Tonsillitis is contagious, so it’s important to keep your distance from those you may have it. If you’re suffering from it yourself, make sure that you stay home from work or school for at least 24 hours as you recover.
How to Avoid Tonsillitis
If you’re worried about getting tonsillitis, you can follow a few methods in order to prevent this medical issue. The easiest thing you can do is wash your hands with soap and warm water, making it a habit to do so after you’ve touched the area around your mouth. In addition to washing your hands, you also shouldn’t share anything with someone who is sick. A final way to avoid tonsillitis is to regularly replace your toothbrush every three months. By taking advantage of these methods, you decrease the risk of obtaining tonsillitis.
Who’s at Risk?
While anyone can get tonsillitis, it’s more common for children to get it. Tonsillitis can spread easily among school-age children. If you’re an adult who experiences frequent throat pain and tonsillitis, there may be a bigger issue at play, and you may require surgery.
How Long Does It Last?
It can be easy to confuse tonsillitis and a common strep or sore throat, but the easy distinction is how long they both last. Tonsillitis can last over a week, while you may only suffer from a sore throat for a few days. If you do notice that you have tonsillitis for a decent amount of time, you should go see the doctor for further treatment.
Different Types of Tonsillitis
You can actually suffer from one of several different types of tonsillitis. The type of tonsillitis you have can play a role in how long you suffer from the sickness and the symptoms you experience.
- Acute tonsillitis: The first type you need to worry about is acute tonsillitis. This is when tonsillitis symptoms last less than ten days. Acute tonsillitis is a less serious type of the illness. Certain treatments may still be necessary, but you can usually cure this type with home remedies and medicine.
- Chronic tonsillitis: This is when symptoms occur over a longer period of time. Because of this, seeing a doctor is completely necessary.
- Recurrent tonsillitis: This is the third and final type of tonsillitis you can suffer from. The main difference between recurrent tonsillitis and the other two types we mentioned above is that this type is a reoccurring issue you have been dealing with. Recurrent tonsillitis is defined as having it seven times in one year, more than five a year over the course of two years, or more than three times over three years.
Issues from Tonsillitis
Tonsillitis isn’t considering an incredibly dire medical condition, but if you’re suffering from it, it still requires your attention due to the issues that can come with it. Some of the most common issues that derive from tonsillitis include:
- Sleep apnea: This is a sleeping disorder that makes it difficult to breathe as you sleep. Sleep apnea is dangerous because it can lead to a heart attack, diabetes, cancer, or other disorders. This is typically identified by loud snoring while you’re sleeping; however, untreated tonsillitis can lead to this issue as well.
- Halitosis: This is another name for bad breath, and it can be caused by several issues. These might include your diet and medical conditions such as postnasal drip, mucus buildup, and, of course, tonsillitis.
- Oral issues: Because tonsillitis occurs in the mouth, you may experience oral issues such as tooth decay if you don’t treat the condition.
It’s never a bad idea to visit a doctor if you’re experiencing pain, especially if symptoms are persistent. To treat tonsillitis at home, you can take use some home remedies to take care of it, such as gargling with warm salt water or drinking tea. You can also take antibiotics prescribed by a doctor to help you fight the infection and make the symptoms go away. There’s also chance you might have to have your tonsils removed, which is a procedure called a tonsillectomy. This will happen if you suffer from recurrent tonsillitis.
If you think you may be suffering from tonsillitis, make sure to pay our Cypress ENT office a visit. We can take care of all your asthma, allergy, and ENT needs.
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Strep Throat: It’s in the Air
Strep throat is most common in children and teens, although it can occur at any age. S pyogenes tend to live in the nose and throat, so coughing, sneezing, and close contact can spread the infection. Although the infection is most likely to spread when symptoms are most severe, it can be transmitted for up to 3 weeks.3
Strep throat usually has an incubation period of 1 to 4 days after initial acquisition of the infection. Symptoms can range from mild to severe. Symptoms often include sudden onset throat pain, pain on swallowing, red tonsils and throat, swollen lymph nodes in neck, fever, headache, rash, nausea, vomiting, and body aches. White patches of pus can often be seen at the back of the throat and on the tonsils. Small red spots near the back of the soft or hard pallet are also sometimes seen (Figure4).1,2
It is important to note that the vast majority of sore throats are of viral origin and can have similar symptoms to strep throat.
Serious complications can arise if strep throat is not treated appropriately. Abscesses can form when a collection of pus develops around the tonsils or at the back of the throat. This will require frequent drainage and antibiotic therapy.2
Scarlet fever due to strep throat can result in a rough red rash and is usually seen in patients younger than 18 years. This disease is easily treated with antibiotics.1
Acute rheumatic fever is a serious complication that can occur 2 to 4 weeks after the onset of strep throat.1 The body’s immune system attacks joints, skin, and the heart, which can result in permanent damage to the heart valves or heart muscle and may result in congestive heart failure.
Poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis is an immune-mediated response most common in children younger than 12 years. This condition can lead to kidney damage, but frequently improves with treatment.1
Streptococcal toxic shock syndrome is caused by the release of toxins by group A Streptococcus. This is a potentially life-threatening condition that causes low blood pressure, fever, rash, and potential organ failure.1
Strep throat can be definitively diagnosed using a rapid antigen detection test, which is done in office and takes about 10 minutes. If the test result is positive, strep throat is confirmed. A negative result does not automatically exclude strep throat because 5% to 30% of test results are false negative.1,5
If a rapid antigen test result is negative, a throat culture is generally sent to a lab for further testing. Throat cultures tend to take 24 to 48 hours and are considered the gold standard for diagnosis of strep throat.1,5
Predictive factors of strep throat that can help differentiate strep and viral infections include fever, absence of cough or runny nose, patient age between 5 and 15 years, early spring or late fall illness, redness and swelling of tonsils or throat with exudate, and enlarged and tender lymph nodes in the neck. 1
Antibiotic therapy is indicated after a positive strep test result. Amoxicillin or penicillin is first-line therapy. If a patient is allergic to penicillins, cephalosporins or macrolide antibiotics are recommended alternatives. Antibiotics should be taken for a full 10 days, even though improvement may be seen within just a few days.4
The painful symptoms of strep throat can be managed with home remedies such as gargling with warm salt water, drinking warm liquids with honey or lemon, sucking on cold fruit pops or throat lozenges, using a vaporizer or humidifier, and taking OTC pain medications (eg, acetaminophen, ibuprofen).
Dr. Kenny earned her doctoral degree from the University of Colorado Health Sciences Center. She has 20+ years’ experience as a community pharmacist and works as a clinical medical writer based out of Colorado Springs, Colorado. Dr. Kenny is also the Colorado Education Director for the Rocky Mountain Chapter of the American Medical Writers Association and a regular contributor to Pharmacy Times®.
- Strep throat. emedicinehealth website. emedicinehealth.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=58851&pf=2. Accessed October 16, 2016.
- Strep throat. Mayo Clinic website. mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/strep-throat/symptoms-causes/dxc-20165964. Accessed October 16, 2016.
- Strep throat. KidsHealth website. kidshealth.org/en/parents/strep-throat.html?view=ptr&WT.ac=p-ptr. Accessed October 16, 2016.
- Strep throat. MedlinePlus website. https://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000639.htm. Accessed October 16, 2016.
- Strep throat: topic overview. WebMd website. webmd.com/oral-health/tc/strep-throat-topic-overview#1. Accessed October 16, 2016.
Tonsillitis – an overview | ScienceDirect Topics
Tonsillitis refers to inflammation of the tonsils. The tonsils form a ring of lymphoid tissue (Waldeyer ring) in the pharynx, consisting of the palatine tonsils, adenoids, lingual tonsils, and tubal tonsils. However, by convention, the terms “tonsillitis” and “tonsils” often are used when specifically referring to the palatine tonsils, which are located between the palatoglossal and palatopharyngeal folds in the lateral walls of the oropharynx.
Tonsillitis can be acute or chronic. Acute tonsillitis primarily affects pediatric patients and may be caused by various pathogens (e.g., Streptococcus pyogenes, Haemophilus influenzae, adenovirus, influenza virus, parainfluenza virus, enteroviruses, Epstein-Barr virus, herpes simplex virus). There is typically a sudden onset of sore throat. Other possible findings include dysphagia, tonsillar hyperplasia, cervical lymphadenopathy, halitosis, fever, and headache. With acute viral infection, there may be cough, coryza, and conjunctivitis. In addition, children with acute tonsillitis sometimes experience abdominal pain and vomiting. Clinical examination typically shows swelling and erythema of the palatine tonsils, at times accompanied by pus or a yellow-white exudate. Potential complications include airway obstruction and peritonsillar or parapharyngeal abscess formation. With streptococcal infection, further potential sequelae include scarlet fever, rheumatic fever, and glomerulonephritis. Patients with chronic tonsillitis may develop cervical lymphadenopathy and tonsilloliths (see next section).
Rapid antigen testing or cultures may aid in the diagnosis of streptococcal infection, which usually is treated with antibiotics (e.g., penicillin) and supportive therapy. Acute viral tonsillitis is managed by supportive therapy (i.e., rest, fluids, warm salt water gargle, topical anesthetics, single-dose dexamethasone, acetaminophen, and/or ibuprofen). Chronic tonsillitis may respond to broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy. Tonsillectomy may be considered for patients with recurrent, persistent, or severe disease.
What is tonsillitis? Tonsillitis refers to inflammation of the pharyngeal tonsils. The inflammation may involve other areas of the back of the throat including the adenoids and the lingual tonsils (areas of tonsil tissue at the back of the tongue). There are several variations of tonsillitis: acute, recurrent, and chronic tonsillitis and peritonsillar abscess.
Viral or bacterial infections and immunologic factors lead to tonsillitis and its complications. Nearly all children in the United States experience at least one episode of tonsillitis. Because of improvements in medical and surgical treatments, complications associated with tonsillitis, including mortality, are rare.
Who gets tonsillitis?
Tonsillitis most often occurs in children; however, the condition rarely occurs in children younger than two years. Tonsillitis caused by Streptococcus species typically occurs in children aged five to 15 years, while viral tonsillitis is more common in younger children. A peritonsillar abscess is usually found in young adults but can occur occasionally in children. The patient’s history often helps identify the type of tonsillitis (i.e., acute, recurrent, chronic) that is present.
What causes tonsillitis?
The herpes simplex virus, Streptococcus pyogenes (GABHS) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), cytomegalovirus, adenovirus, and the measles virus cause most cases of acute pharyngitis and acute tonsillitis. Bacteria cause 15-30 percent of pharyngotonsillitis cases; GABHS is the cause for most bacterial tonsillitis.
What are the symptoms of tonsillitis?
The type of tonsillitis determines what symptoms will occur.
- Acute tonsillitis: Patients have a fever, sore throat, foul breath, dysphagia (difficulty swallowing), odynophagia (painful swallowing), and tender cervical lymph nodes. Airway obstruction due to swollen tonsils may cause mouth breathing, snoring, nocturnal breathing pauses, or sleep apnea. Lethargy and malaise are common. These symptoms usually resolve in three to four days but may last up to two weeks despite therapy.
- Recurrent tonsillitis: This diagnosis is made when an individual has multiple episodes of acute tonsillitis in a year.
- Chronic tonsillitis: Individuals often have chronic sore throat, halitosis, tonsillitis, and persistently tender cervical nodes.
- Peritonsillar abscess: Individuals often have severe throat pain, fever, drooling, foul breath, trismus (difficulty opening the mouth), and muffled voice quality, such as the “hot potato” voice (as if talking with a hot potato in his or her mouth).
What happens during the physician visit?
Your child will undergo a general ear, nose, and throat examination as well as a review of the patient’s medical history.
A physical examination of a young patient with tonsillitis may find:
- Fever and enlarged inflamed tonsils covered by pus.
- Group A beta-hemolytic Streptococcus pyogenes (GABHS) can cause tonsillitis associated with the presence of palatal petechiae (minute hemorrhagic spots, of pinpoint to pinhead size, on the soft palate). Neck nodes may be enlarged. A fine red rash over the body suggests scarlet fever. GABHS pharyngitis usually occurs in children aged 5-15 years.
- Open-mouth breathing and muffled voice resulting from obstructive tonsillar enlargement. The voice change with acute tonsillitis usually is not as severe as that associated with peritonsillar abscess.
- Tender cervical lymph nodes and neck stiffness (often found in acute tonsillitis).
- Signs of dehydration (found by examination of skin and mucosa).
- The possibility of infectious mononucleosis due to EBV in an adolescent or younger child with acute tonsillitis, particularly when cervical, axillary, and/or groin nodes are tender. Severe lethargy, malaise and low-grade fever accompany acute tonsillitis.
- A grey membrane covering tonsils that are inflamed from an EBV infection. (This membrane can be removed without bleeding.) Palatal petechiae (pinpoint spots on the soft palate) may also be seen with an EBV infection.
- Red swollen tonsils that may have small ulcers on their surfaces in individuals with herpes simplex virus (HSV) tonsillitis.
- Unilateral bulging above and to the side of one of the tonsils when peritonsillar abscess exists. A stiff jaw may be present in varying severity.
Tonsillitis is usually treated with a regimen of antibiotics. Fluid replacement and pain control are important. Hospitalization may be required in severe cases, particularly when there is airway obstruction. When the condition is chronic or recurrent, a surgical procedure to remove the tonsils is often recommended.
Copyright 2010. American Academy of Otolaryngology – Head and Neck Surgery
Why Does Your Tonsillitis Keep Coming Back?
The worst thing about tonsillitis is how it can come back to haunt you. Just as you thought you’re out of the woods, you suddenly feel a recognizable sting inside your throat. You’re having difficulties in swallowing again. At first, you dismiss the thought and remain in denial. You’ve probably told yourself, I just got past this. There’s no way I’m getting it again.
The worst thing about tonsillitis is how it can come back to haunt you. Just as you thought you’re out of the woods, you suddenly feel a recognizable sting inside your throat. You’re having difficulties in swallowing again. At first, you dismiss the thought and remain in denial. You’ve probably told yourself, I just got past this. There’s no way I’m getting it again.
After reaffirming yourself, your tonsillitis won’t come back, and you suddenly feel the chill. You become lethargic, and you’re once again in the pangs of annoyingly familiar symptoms. You rush to the mirror, open your mouth, and alas pus-filled tonsils greet you good morning.
Where did you go wrong? Read on to retrace your steps.
Watch Out for Patient Zero
You’re already aware that tonsillitis is caused by bacteria and germs which are mostly not common as compared to your mouth’s natural microflora. Once these foreign invaders become too comfortable, the tonsils, the first barriers of defense in your mouth, produce white blood cells to fight off infection. Since pathogens cause the illness, it’s necessary to isolate yourself or your patients who can develop a potential contagion. Sharing personal items, toiletries especially toothbrushes, is a big no-no.
Aside from person-to-person contact, it’s worth noting how tonsillitis-causing viruses and bacteria can be transmitted either through airborne droplets released during coughing or sneezing. These droplets can latch on to surfaces. Make sure your utensils and personal items are far away from people with a contagious type of tonsillitis.
Don’t worry, patients with tonsillitis are considered non-contagious after 24 to 48 hours of their doctor-prescribed antibiotic regime.
Skip the Stick
If you’re a heavy smoker, expect recurrent tonsillitis and a whole bunch of trouble for your tonsils. Tobacco smoking has impactful effects on your health, especially for lymphoid tissues such as your tonsils.
Nicotine, along with all the harmful chemicals present inside a cigarette stick aggravates all the three types of tonsils in your body namely, the adenoids (located behind the nose), lingual (located at the back of your tongue), and pharyngeal tonsils (situated at the sides of your throat). When you inhale and exhale tobacco smoke, all of these tissues take the beating.
Ultimately, smoking attacks your immune system making you more vulnerable to infections. Yes, even chronic and persistent tonsillitis.
How’s Your Oral Hygiene?
With good dental care and hygiene, tonsillitis-causing bacteria have less chance of causing problems. Go beyond merely brushing your teeth. Floss at least once a day and always rinse with dentist-prescribed mouthwash to kill stubborn bacteria.
Having stellar oral-care habits makes your mouth less hospitable to bacteria. Be sure to gently brush your teeth, tongue, cheeks, and gums using a soft-bristled brush. Also, try using antibacterial toothpaste get rid of cavities and plaque build-ups where microbes like to seek refuge in.
Not following your prescribed antibiotic regime has long-standing effects which pose a significant threat to your tonsils. If you’ve been diagnosed with bacteria-caused tonsillitis, staying faithful to your medication is an absolute must. When you fail to do so, bacteria in your body develop a resistance. When they come back to plague your tonsils, they’ll surely pack more punch.
The truth is, your tonsils job of safeguarding you from infections is a lot harder than it looks. Other patients have it harder, though. Their tonsillitis sometimes develops to ear infections, scarlet and rheumatic fever.
Needless to say, tonsillitis is already a handful. You don’t have to experience the same pain and trouble again. Upon reading all the preceding precautions, which are you most guilty of ignoring?
To schedule a time to come in, call us at (281) 356-3351
Viral Pharyngitis: Background, Pathophysiology, Epidemiology
Several viruses can cause viral pharyngitis.
More than 100 different serotypes of rhinovirus cause approximately 20% of cases of pharyngitis and 30-50% of common colds. These viruses enter the body through the ciliated epithelium that lines the nose, causing edema and hyperemia of the nasal mucous membranes. This condition leads to increased secretory activity of the mucous glands; swelling of the mucous membranes of the nasal cavity, eustachian tubes, and pharynx; and narrowing of nasal passages, causing obstructive symptoms. Bradykinin and lysyl-bradykinin are generated in the nasal passages of patients with rhinovirus colds, and these mediators stimulate pain nerve endings. The virus does not invade the pharyngeal mucosa. Transmission occurs by large particle aerosols or fomites.
In children, adenovirus causes uncomplicated pharyngitis (most commonly caused by adenovirus types 1-3 and 5) or pharyngoconjunctival fever. The latter is characterized by fever, sore throat, and conjunctivitis. Unlike rhinovirus infections, adenovirus directly invades the pharyngeal mucosa, as shown by the viral cytopathic effect.
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is the causal agent of infectious mononucleosis. EBV usually spreads from adults to infants. Among young adults, EBV spreads through saliva and, rarely, through blood transfusion. In addition to edema and hyperemia of the tonsils and pharyngeal mucosa, an inflammatory exudate and nasopharyngeal lymphoid hyperplasia also develop. Pharyngitis or tonsillitis is present in about 82% of patients with infectious mononucleosis.
Herpes simplex virus
Herpes simplex virus (HSV) types 1 and 2 cause gingivitis, stomatitis, and pharyngitis. Acute herpetic pharyngitis is the most common manifestation of the first episode of HSV-1 infection. After HSV enters the mucosal surface, it initiates replication and infects either sensory or autonomic nerve endings. The neurocapsid of the virus is intra-axonally transported to the nerve cell bodies in the ganglia and contiguous nerve tissue. The virus then spreads to other mucosal surfaces through centrifugal migration of infectious virions via peripheral autonomic or sensory nerves. This mode of spread explains the high frequency of new lesions distant from the initial crop of vesicles characteristic of oral-labial HSV infection.
Pharyngitis and sore throat develop in about 50% of the patients with influenza A and in a lesser proportion of patients with influenza B. Severe pharyngitis is particularly common in patients with type A. The influenza virus invades the respiratory epithelium, causing necrosis, which predisposes the patient to secondary bacterial infection. Transmission of influenza occurs by aerosolized droplets.
Pharyngitis caused by parainfluenza virus types 1-4 usually manifests as the common cold syndrome. Parainfluenza virus type 1 infection occurs in epidemics, mainly in late fall or winter, while parainfluenza virus type 2 infection occurs sporadically. Parainfluenza virus type 3 infection occurs either epidemically or sporadically.
Pharyngitis caused by coronavirus usually manifests as the common cold. As in rhinovirus colds, viral mucosal invasion of the respiratory tract does not occur.
The major groups of enteroviruses that can cause pharyngitis are coxsackievirus and echovirus. Although enteroviruses are primarily transmitted by the fecal-oral route, airborne transmission is important for certain serotypes. Enteroviral lesions in the oropharyngeal mucosa are usually a result of secondary infection of endothelial cells of small mucosal vessels, which occurs during viremia following enteroviral infection in the GI tract.
Respiratory syncytial virus
Transmission of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) occurs by fomites or large-particle aerosols produced by coughing or sneezing. The pathogenesis of RSV infection remains unclear, although a number of theories exist. Immunologic mechanisms may contribute to the pathogenesis of the severe disease in infants and elderly patients.
Acute acquired cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is transmitted by sexual contact, in breast milk, via respiratory droplets among nursery or day care attendants, and by blood transfusion. Infection in the immunocompetent host rarely results in clinically apparent disease. Infrequently, immunocompetent hosts exhibit a mononucleosislike syndrome with mild pharyngitis.
Human immunodeficiency virus
Pharyngitis develops in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) as part of the acute retroviral syndrome, a mononucleosislike syndrome that is the initial manifestation of HIV infection in one half to two thirds of recently infected individuals.
Fever, Sore Throats, Itchy Eyes
What Is Strep Throat?
Strep throat is a throat infection caused by group A Streptococcus bacteria (group A strep), which cause irritation and swelling of the tonsils and throat.
Your throat is the cylindrical pathway that connects your mouth to your windpipe and esophagus. The technical term for the throat is pharynx, this is why a sore and inflamed throat caused by a group A Streptococcus infection is also referred to as streptococcal pharyngitis. Another term for strep throat is streptococcal tonsillitis (inflammation of the tonsils). A majority of sore throats are due to viral infections, but the most common bacterial cause of a sore throat is due to strep throat.
Complications of Strep Throat
A strep throat can be the source of more serious health problems in other parts of the body when left untreated. Colonies of bacteria can make it to the kidneys, heart, and other organs.
Diagnosing Strep Throat
Quick diagnostic tests are utilized to check if a sore throat is caused by group A Streptococcus so swift antibiotic therapy can be prescribed.
Strep throat is infectious and easily spreadable. Although it is most common in children, the infection can be transferred in airborne particles to anyone.
Symptoms of Strep Throat
Symptoms of strep throat include red, inflamed, and swollen tonsils and a sore throat. Tonsils may be covered in white patches of pus.
Other symptoms include:
- Pain with swallowing
Treatment for Strep Throat
Recovery from strep throat for people in good health is done at home by taking prescribed antibiotics as directed. Additional treatment can also include measures to assist in relieving symptoms and keep the body as strong as possible to lower the risk of developing further problems. Self-care steps include drinking adequate amounts of fluids, taking medications to ease body aches and fever, and resting.
Prescribed antibiotics are required for curing strep throat. Seek prompt medical care if you have strep throat symptoms, such as fever and sore throat; if you have increased swelling of the tonsils; or if you have a diagnosed case of strep throat that is not getting better with antibiotics.
More serious problems arising from strep throat, such as rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease, can be serious, even life threatening in rare cases. Seek immediate medical care (call 911) if you, or somebody you are with, have difficulty breathing, are unable to swallow, or have a change in consciousness or alertness.
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90,000 Tonsillitis in children – causes, symptoms, diagnosis and treatment of tonsillitis in Moscow in the children’s clinic “SM-Doctor”
Description of the disease
Tonsillitis is a disease of the upper respiratory tract characterized by the presence of an inflammatory process in the tissues of the tonsils. The diagnosis and treatment of this disease is carried out by an otolaryngologist (ENT).
Description of the disease
Tonsillitis refers to an inflammatory disease common in childhood, in which the focus of inflammation is localized in the tonsils. Most often, the disease occurs in children 5-10 years old, but it can develop at an older / younger age. Tonsillitis is infectious in nature, that is, it occurs when bacteria, viruses and (less often) fungi enter the child’s body.
There are two forms of tonsillitis – acute and chronic. Acute tonsillitis is nothing more than a sore throat familiar to everyone. Pathology is characterized by a rapid course and pronounced symptoms. The chronic form of tonsillitis has an asymptomatic clinical picture and occurs with frequent inflammation of the tonsils or as a result of untreated tonsillitis.
Tonsillitis brings significant discomfort to the child – the patient suffers from severe sore throat, high body temperature, inability to eat and drink normally. In addition, in the absence of treatment in the organs and systems of the body, a number of complications can occur: sepsis, rheumatic diseases, myocarditis, pyelonephritis, vasculitis, etc.
Symptoms of tonsillitis
The manifestations of tonsillitis directly depend on the form of the course of the disease. So, chronic tonsillitis is characterized by mild sore throat, discomfort when swallowing, bad breath, subfebrile fever (temperature within 37-37.9 ° C).
The acute form of tonsillitis has more characteristic symptoms. The following manifestations indicate that the child has a disease:
- Intense sore throat, aggravated by swallowing, eating, talking;
- partial or complete loss of voice, hoarseness;
- swelling and hyperemia of the tonsils;
- a sudden increase in body temperature to 39-40 ° C, which lasts for about a week;
- general weakness;
- enlarged lymph nodes.
90,023 body aches;
The occurrence of any of these symptoms is a serious reason to consult a qualified otolaryngologist.
Causes of tonsillitis
Tonsillitis is an infectious disease that occurs under the influence of a bacterial, viral, or fungal infection. Most often, the disease is caused by bacteria – streptococci, staphylococci, pneumococci and Haemophilus influenzae. Viral tonsillitis can be caused by the herpes virus, influenza and parainfluenza, as well as enterovirus and adenovirus infections.In rare cases, the cause of the disease is fungi, mycoplasmas and chlamydia.
Pathogenic microorganisms enter the respiratory tract of a child by airborne droplets, passing from person to person. A healthy body is able to fight the infection on its own, infection occurs only if there are factors that contribute to a decrease in the defenses of the child’s body, for example:
- vitamin deficiency;
- the presence of chronic inflammatory diseases in the oral cavity and pharynx – caries, stomatitis, pharyngitis, etc. ;
- frequent contact with sick people;
- poor ecological situation, dustiness of the air;
- exposure to external irritants, allergens.
In addition, tonsillitis is often found in children with peculiarities of the anatomical structure of the lymphoid apparatus of the nasopharynx – deep and narrow lacunae of the tonsils, multiple slit passages and adhesions that complicate the process of emptying the lacunae.
Diagnostics of tonsillitis
Tonsillitis is a serious disease that requires timely diagnosis and individually tailored treatment.Self-medication can cause irreparable harm to children’s health, therefore, if there is any suspicion of upper respiratory tract pathology, the patient should be shown to an experienced doctor.
At the initial appointment, the ENT doctor will collect anamnesis (medical history), clarify the symptoms of the disease, the duration of their presence, the presence in the history of previous acute inflammatory processes. Then the specialist proceeds to the examination of the pharynx (pharyngoscopy) and palpation of the lymph nodes. During the examination, the doctor uses a special instrument – the pharyngoscope, which allows you to study in detail the condition of the palatine tonsils of the child.If you suspect the presence of diseases concomitant with tonsillitis, you may need to consult a dentist, rheumatologist, pediatric cardiologist and other narrow-profile doctors.
To confirm the diagnosis and exclude possible complications, a small patient is sent to undergo a series of laboratory and instrumental examinations:
The research results will allow the specialist to identify the true cause of the disease, to determine the features of the course of the disease and the presence of concomitant disorders in the child’s body.
Treatment of tonsillitis
The methods of therapy are directly dependent on the nature of the infection and the form of the disease. So, with bacterial tonsillitis, the patient is prescribed a course of antibiotics, with the viral form of the disease – anti-inflammatory drugs, with fungal – antifungal drugs. The name and dosage of the drug is selected exclusively by the doctor. Excessive independence of parents can lead to irreversible consequences.
To eliminate the unpleasant symptoms accompanying tonsillitis, the following means can be prescribed to the patient:
- antipyretic drugs in the form of syrup, tablets or suppositories;
- rinses with antiseptic solutions;
- local anesthetic and anti-inflammatory sprays, lozenges;
- rinsing the lacunae of the tonsils (carried out with a special syringe under the supervision of a specialist).
In addition, physiotherapy procedures have proven themselves well in the treatment of angina and chronic tonsillitis:
In the event that the parents of a sick child sought medical help too late, and the disease became irreversible, and conservative methods did not bring the expected result, surgical treatment (tonsillectomy) may be required.
Prevention of tonsillitis
In order to prevent tonsillitis in a child, parents should adhere to the following rules:
- Gradually temper the child’s body.
- Provide your child with a balanced, healthy diet with all the nutrients needed for childhood.
- From an early age, to acquaint the child with sanitary norms – the rules of washing hands, brushing teeth, etc.
- Timely eliminate any inflammatory processes in the oral cavity and pharynx.
- Avoid crowded places during periods of epidemics.
- Do not self-medicate!
In the clinic for children and adolescents “SM-Doctor”, the diagnosis and treatment of tonsillitis are carried out by specialists with many years of experience in otolaryngology.The use of modern high-tech equipment allows our doctors to achieve high results in the treatment of ENT diseases. Sign up for a consultation with qualified pediatric otolaryngologists!
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Mosina Ekaterina Ivanovna
Pediatric otolaryngologist, doctor of the highest category
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Pediatric otolaryngologist, pediatric otolaryngologist-audiologist, operating specialist
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Pediatric otolaryngologist, doctor of the highest category
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Pediatric otolaryngologist, operating specialist
Shishkov Ruslan Vladimirovich
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Casanova Anna Vladimirovna
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Tonsillitis (tonsillitis) – inflammation of the tonsils (“tonsils”) of viral or bacterial origin.
The tonsils are a paired organ in the back of the throat that serves as a kind of filter that traps microbes on the way to the respiratory tract. The tonsils make antibodies to fight bacteria, but sometimes the tonsils themselves become inflamed.
Tonsillitis is acute and chronic. Depending on the causes, bacterial and viral tonsillitis are distinguished.
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The diagnosis of “tonsillitis” is made on the basis of examination, measurement of body temperature, analysis of a smear from the throat. Redness of the soft palate, arch, uvula and tonsils is visually determined; plaque, film, or sores on the tonsils.
- severe sore throat, especially when swallowing and speaking
- weakness, body aches
- high, up to 40 degrees, temperature
- swelling (enlargement) of the tonsils and lymph nodes in the neck
- redness of the mucous membrane of the throat and tonsils, plaque on the tonsils.
The patient needs to stay in bed, take medications to reduce fever and pain, rinse the throat with a solution of soda or salt (a teaspoon in a glass of warm boiled water), furacilin before medical appointments.
Treatment of tonsillitis requires the use of antibiotics (with a bacterial nature). For the treatment of viral tonsillitis in Kazakhstan, interferon ointment is used. With the fungal nature of the disease, anti-candidiasis drugs are prescribed.In addition, various types of rinses (antiseptic, herbal), lozenges, medicines to relieve symptoms (fever, aches) are recommended. The whole complex of treatment is prescribed only by a doctor (therapist or otolaryngologist)!
After the end of the acute period, physiotherapeutic procedures (ultraviolet irradiation, laser therapy, phonophoresis, diathermy) may be prescribed.
Adherence to a diet is useful: light, non-hot and cold food should only be in liquid or pureed form: soups and broths, cereals, mashed potatoes.As with any infections, you need to drink plenty of fluids, in the acute period, observe bed rest. The patient is, if possible, isolated from other family members, since the disease is contagious. Separate dishes, towels, etc. stand out.
Some forms of tonsillitis require surgery, such as an abscess. If the methods used do not help and there is a danger of spreading the infection to other organs, removal of the tonsils is required.
Recently, cryotherapy (“freezing” of the affected areas of the tonsils) has begun to be used in the treatment of chronic tonsillitis.
Prevention: improving immunity, hardening (dousing, swimming, in small children – air baths), proper nutrition, treatment of all sources of chronic infection: caries, sinusitis, chronic tonsillitis.
Transition of the disease into a chronic form, paratonsillar abscess (paratonsillitis, phlegmonous tonsillitis), which is characterized by increasing sore throat, fever, difficulty swallowing, profuse salivation, pharyngeal edema.Surgical opening of the abscess is required.
Errors in the treatment of tonsillitis cause complications such as pyelonephritis, glomerulonephritis, myocarditis (inflammation of the heart), endocarditis, heart valve damage, heart disease, cholangiohepatitis, rheumatism of the joints, inflammation of the nervous system, polyarthritis. Tonsillitis during pregnancy can cause fetal malformations.
Tonsillitis is provoked by viruses and bacteria (mainly hemolytic streptococcus A), fungi.Tonsillitis as a symptom is caused by diseases such as syphilis, measles, mononucleosis, diphtheria, agranulocytosis, leukemia, scarlet fever. Caries and other infections of the oral cavity also become the cause.
Tonsillitis is contagious, transmitted by airborne droplets. The disease is promoted by lowered immunity, hypothermia, unfavorable climate, air pollution, malnutrition, general weakening of the body; curvature of the nasal septum, adenoids or nasal polyps. The chronic form of tonsillitis often occurs against the background of purulent sinusitis and dental caries.90 015 90 000 Influenza and ARVI
Flu and other acute respiratory viral infections are among the most common infectious diseases. Hundreds of viruses that can cause colds are activated each year during the off-season.
Fever, cough, sore throat, chills, weakness, nasal congestion, frequent headaches are obvious signs of these diseases.
For treatment, symptomatic and antiviral drugs are used.Timely measures taken will help to suspend the further development of the disease or to transfer it in a milder form.
Viruses are quickly transmitted from person to person by airborne droplets or by contact. Often, the rapid spread of infection takes on the character of an epidemic. Therefore, doctors around the world are concerned about the development of preventive measures to avoid infection and mitigate the negative consequences of ARVI. Prevention of influenza and other acute respiratory viral infections includes a whole range of measures, which includes vaccination, taking antiviral drugs and more.
ARVI is a group of diseases caused by viruses and manifested mainly by damage to the respiratory tract. The most dangerous of these is the flu. A doctor can make a diagnosis based on the combination of clinical manifestations of the disease and receive confirming results of laboratory diagnostics.
Causes and symptoms of ARVI
SARS can cause parainfluenza virus, influenza (types A, B, C), rotavirus, adenovirus, respiratory syncytial virus, rhinovirus, Coxsackie and ECHO enteroviruses, coronavirus.Symptoms of SARS, which include influenza, can be different, but all are characterized by the following symptoms: they are accompanied by fever and one or more symptoms such as chills, headache, general malaise, loss of appetite, and certain lesions of the respiratory system, which may include rhinitis, pharyngitis, tonsillitis, laryngotracheitis, bronchitis, and sometimes conjunctivitis. Symptoms depend on the type of virus and the characteristics of the individual’s body. Children usually have more respiratory problems than adults.In a child, even a common cold, easily tolerated by adults, can cause complications in the form of bronchitis and pneumonia. Adults in most cases easily tolerate colds. However, the flu is a serious illness that causes them to have dangerous complications.
Causes and symptoms of influenza
Influenza is caused by an RNA-containing orthomyxovirus that attacks the mucous membrane of the upper respiratory tract.The disease is accompanied by severe intoxication with severe headaches, joint and muscle pains, an increase in body temperature up to 40 degrees. The main difference between flu and colds is a severe course. The influenza virus actively spreads by aerosol in the first 5-6 days from the onset of the disease.
Possible complications of the flu
The greatest number of deaths from influenza is associated not with the disease itself, but with the complications that frolic as a result of it.With an unfavorable course of influenza, a bacterial infection can join it, causing pulmonary, cardiovascular complications, complications from the nervous system, ENT organs, which occur most often in children, pregnant women, people with weakened immunity and chronic pathologies of the respiratory system (groups risk). The most dangerous complication of influenza is pneumonia, which is the leading cause of high deaths from influenza. Persons at risk are advised to pay increased attention to prevention, to vaccinate, and to start treatment in a timely manner.
The drug Arbidol is indicated for the prevention and treatment of influenza and other acute respiratory viral infections (ARVI) in adults and children. According to the medical instructions, Arbidol is active against influenza A and B viruses (Influenza virus A, B), as well as other viruses that cause acute respiratory viral infections (coronavirus (Coronavirus) associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), rhinovirus (Rhinovirus), adenovirus (Adenovirus), respiratory syncytial virus (Pneumovirus) and parainfluenza virus (Paramyxovirus)).
The possibility of using the drug Arbidol for acute respiratory viral infections of various etiology is due to the universal mechanism of action of the drug, which consists in blocking the stage of penetration of viruses into the cell (virus fusion). Due to this mechanism of action, the drug Arbidol has a wide spectrum of antiviral activity against viruses that cause various acute respiratory infections, including against coronaviruses (Coronavirus), which has been proven by numerous studies.
Traditional medicine uses several effective ways to fight infection. So how is chronic tonsillitis treated?
Taking medications, using solutions
In case the disease did not give complications, it is important to use local treatment, which involves a complex of several procedures:
• Anesthesia of the inflamed tissue area
• Removal of pathogenic microbes – antiseptic treatment the focus of inflammation
• Influence on the root cause of the disease – antiviral agents and antibiotics for tonsillitis are considered the main methods of treatment of infection
• Mechanical cleaning of tissue from pathogenic enzymes
• Restoration of the surface of the epithelium.
Stomatidin® is the ideal solution for the treatment of tonsillitis of any form. The drug acts in a complex manner, providing a long-term anti-inflammatory, antibacterial and antifungal effect (maintains an active concentration for almost 8-10 hours, and in some cases for a longer period – up to 65 hours).
Unlike most antiseptics, antibiotics and antiviral agents, which often have toxic or allergic effects, Stomatidin® will help get rid of unpleasant symptoms and eliminate negative effects on the body.
Many have heard about the effectiveness of using various solutions for colds, but how to gargle with tonsillitis? It is necessary to use astringent, antiseptic, antibacterial agents. Stomatidin® combines all of the above: thanks to the effective active ingredient in the composition, it can be used as the main agent for the treatment of tonsillitis.
Physiotherapy procedures are used exclusively as part of complex therapeutic therapy.To fight the infection, UV irradiation (sanitation) of the tonsils, pharynx, warming the throat, as well as laser therapy are used to reduce the swelling of the glands, to reduce the severity of the focus of inflammation.
Such a radical therapeutic measure is provided in exceptional cases, since the tonsils are an important organ of the immune system. Removal of these glands is advisable only in the absence of a proper reaction of the body to the effect of conservative methods of therapy.
Indications for surgery:
• severe edema and enlargement of the organ, provoking serious violations of the respiratory and swallowing functions
• severe toxic-allergic form of the disease
• abscesses in the tonsils
• progression of a chronic disease against the background of regular courses of treatment
• frequent exacerbations (5 and more per year)
• development of complications (rheumatic heart disease, rheumatic fever)
To correctly determine how to treat tonsillitis, a specialist finds out the nature of the inflammatory process, its form, type of sore throat.
synlab: Scarlet fever
Scarlet fever is a widespread infectious disease with epidemics on all continents.
How can you get infected? The causative agent of scarlet fever is group A streptococcus. The infection is transmitted by airborne droplets upon contact with a sick person. A contact-household transmission mechanism is also possible through toys, books, towels, dishes. A person becomes contagious from the moment of illness.The incubation period is usually short – 2 to 7 days.
Symptoms. Clinically, the disease begins acutely with a sudden rise in temperature to 39 ° C, vomiting, sore throat. Severe intoxication, headache, weakness are immediately noted. After a few hours or the next day, a rash appears, usually in the form of small dots on the background of reddened skin. It is especially densely located on the cheeks, which become bright red, shading the pale, not covered with a rash, nasolabial triangle and chin.Other typical areas of intense rash are on the sides, lower abdomen, groin, armpits, under the knees. The rash lasts 3-5 days, but it can disappear much earlier. Mild scarlet fever usually occurs with short-term rashes. When you press on the skin, a white streak remains at the site of the rash. Itching is not pronounced.
The most persistent symptom of scarlet fever is angina; the entire pharynx (tonsils, uvula, arch) becomes bright red. In the first days, the tongue becomes covered with a thick gray-yellow bloom, and from the 2-3rd day it begins to peel off from the edges and from the tip, becoming also bright red, with pronounced papillae (“crimson tongue”).Manifestations of sore throat persist up to 7-9 days. It happens that the diagnosis of scarlet fever by its early signs has not been established, then a late symptom becomes important – peeling of the skin, which begins at 2-3 weeks.
Mode during treatment. A special diet for scarlet fever is not required, the child should be fed according to age, excluding hard-to-digest, fatty and spicy foods. In the first 5-6 days, the child should remain in bed, then, if he feels well, he can get up, but until the eleventh day, the regimen remains at home.Kindergarten, school (first-second grades) can be attended no earlier than 22 days after the onset of the disease.
7-10 days after the child recovers, it is necessary to show the doctor, as well as to perform control tests of urine and blood, ECG. Even in the absence of deviations, the same examination is repeated after another 3 weeks.
Complications. Among the complications of scarlet fever can be otitis media and sinusitis. In addition to them, post-streptococcal diseases – infectious-allergic (toxic) myocarditis and nephritis – may occur after a previous illness.Scarlet fever often causes exacerbation of rheumatism, and sometimes serves as an impetus for its development.
There is no vaccine against scarlet fever !!!
Quarantine measures for a sick child and an increase in the body’s immune defense can serve as a way to protect against disease.
General strengthening measures
• Hardening of the body,
• Rational nutrition,
• Compliance with the rules of hygiene,
• Ventilation of premises,
• Timely detection and treatment of diseases of the gums and teeth, tonsillitis, sinusitis, otitis media.
If your child falls ill with an acute infectious disease, pediatricians of SINLAB will give competent recommendations on its treatment and prevention.
If you have a sore throat, what to do
Angina is an inflammation of the tonsils as a result of infection. It is transmitted by airborne droplets, through the inhaled air. With a weakened immune system, it is enough to be near a sick person to “catch” an infection.One of the most common causes of angina, in addition to fungi and viruses, is staphylococcus aureus. It is constantly present in the human body, but with a weakening of the immune system, it becomes the cause of the disease. The disease most often, as statistics show, overtakes people under 30 years old, at a more mature age, angina is much less common and is seasonal.
Symptoms of sore throat.
The main symptom of the disease is redness of the throat, which is visible on examination. Doctors distinguish several different forms of tonsillitis, depending on the degree of damage to the tonsils.With any type of tonsillitis, the symptoms are usually the same.
- Temperature that can last for several days;
- Swollen lymph nodes in the neck;
- Body aches and headache;
- Sore throat of an acute nature;
- Painful swallowing;
- A thick white coating appears on the tongue.
With necrotizing sore throat, there may not be a high fever, but bad breath appears.The tonsils themselves become bright red in any form; in severe cases, small abscesses are visible. It is very important not to confuse sore throat with flu or SARS, otherwise the disease can become chronic or cause various complications. To make the correct diagnosis, you must definitely consult a doctor.
How to treat a sore throat.
Angina requires a comprehensive treatment approach to relieve symptoms, eradicate infection, and prevent complications. As a rule, topical medications are prescribed – sprays, lozenges, antiseptic solutions for rinsing and general action – antibacterial therapy, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic drugs.
To select these drugs, the patient’s age, general condition and form of sore throat are taken into account. The course of treatment lasts from 7 to 10 days. It is impossible to interrupt it earlier, even if the state of health has improved significantly.
It is not necessary to select medicines on your own, as inappropriate medicines can cause many side effects and such treatment can result in hospitalization.
In addition to drug treatment for angina, frequent rinsing of the throat with herbal decoctions of sage, chamomile, and raspberries is useful.It is also useful to drink a hot hour with these herbs, their diaphoretic properties help to “wash out” the infection. After a complete recovery, it is worthwhile to work on hardening the throat so that the disease does not come back again.
Angina | SHiFA Medical Center
What is angina?
This is an infectious disease with local manifestations in the form of acute inflammation of the components of the lymphatic pharyngeal ring, most often the palatine tonsils, caused by streptococci or staphylococci, less often by other microorganisms, viruses and fungi.
In terms of frequency, angina is in third place after SARS and influenza. Statistics say that angina accounts for up to 7% of all human diseases. If we consider infectious diseases separately, then almost every second patient of an infectious profile suffers from angina.
The same impartial statistics have calculated that angina is not a seasonal disease that can develop at any time of the year, and the fall-winter increase in frequency is not as significant as many are used to believe.It is believed that the seasonal increase in the number of cases is caused not so much by a decrease in the temperature of the ambient air, but by a monotonous diet with a lack of vitamins and high humidity.
What microbes cause sore throat?
There are many direct pathogens, and they belong to different groups of microorganisms.
Viruses adenovirus, coronavirus, rhinovirus, syncytial respiratory, influenza and parainfluenza viruses
Bacteria beta-hemolytic streptococcus group A, staphylococci, pneumococci
others Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, fungi, mycoplasmas, chlamydia
Different pathogens predominate at different times of the year.
In autumn and winter, the disease is most often caused by viruses, and staphylococci are active throughout the year. If in a kindergarten group or a school class there are children with chronically hypertrophied tonsils, enlarged cervical lymph nodes and constantly coughing, then mycoplasma and chlamydia are most likely circulating in the team.
Catarrhal – develops acutely, the patient complains of a burning sensation in the throat, dryness, perspiration, and then there is a slight pain when swallowing.The clinic of asthenic-vegetative syndrome is being observed. The temperature is usually subfebrile. On examination, the tonsils are hyperemic, slightly enlarged, in places they can be covered with a thin film of mucopurulent exudate. Tongue dry, coated. There is a slight increase in regional lymph nodes. Usually clinical manifestations disappear within 3-5 days.
Follicular – debuts with an increase in body temperature to 38-39 ° C. The clinic begins with the onset of severe sore throat when swallowing, often radiating to the ear.Depending on the severity of intoxication, headache, back pain, fever, chills, and general weakness occur. In the general analysis of blood – neutrophilic leukocytosis, eosinophilia, increased ESR. Most often, regional lymph nodes are enlarged, their palpation is painful, in some cases there is an increase in the spleen. Children may have vomiting, symptoms of meningism, confusion, diarrhea. There is hyperemia of the soft palate, tonsils, on the surface of which numerous round, somewhat raised yellowish or yellowish-white dots are visible.Duration of the disease 5-7 days
Lacunar – with symptoms similar to follicular, but more severe. With her, against the background of the hyperemic surface of the enlarged tonsils, yellowish-white blooms appear. The duration of the disease is 5-7 days. In some cases, follicular or lacunar angina can develop as a fibrinous sore throat, when the basis for the formation of a film are bursting suppurating follicles or with lacunar angina, a fibrinous film spreads from the area of necrotic epithelium in the mouths of the lacunae
Fibrinous – characterized by the formation of a single continuous plaque of whitish-yellow color, which can extend beyond the tonsils.This type of angina can develop from a lacunar or run independently with the presence of a continuous film already in the first hours of the disease. In the latter case, an acute onset with high fever, chills, severe symptoms of general intoxication, sometimes with signs of brain damage, is characteristic.
Phlegmonous (Intratonsillar abscess) – Phlegmonous tonsillitis is relatively rare. Its development is associated with purulent fusion of the tonsil area. The defeat is usually one-sided.The amygdala is enlarged, hyperemic, its surface is tense, painful on palpation. On examination, a forced position of the head is characteristic, an increase in regional lymph nodes, painful on palpation. Complaints of sore throat when swallowing, talking; headache, fever up to 39-40 ° C, symptoms of general intoxication. Pharyngoscopy: the amygdala is enlarged, hyperemic, its surface is tense, painful on palpation. Characterized by trismus of the masticatory muscles, an asymmetric pharynx due to the displacement of the uvula and tonsil to the healthy side.The mobility of the soft palate is limited.
Herpetic – often develops in childhood. Its causative agent is the Coxsackie A virus. The disease is highly contagious, transmitted by airborne droplets and rarely by fecal-oral route. Herpetic sore throat debuts acutely, fever appears, the temperature rises to 38-40 ° C, sore throat occurs when swallowing, headache, muscle pain in the abdomen; there may be vomiting and diarrhea. In the area of the soft palate, uvula, on the palatine arches, on the tonsils and the back of the pharynx, small reddish bubbles are visible.After 3-4 days, the bubbles burst or dissolve, the mucous membrane takes on a normal appearance.
Ulcerative-membranous – the cause of ulcerative-membranous sore throat is considered to be the symbiosis of the spindle-shaped bacillus and the spirochetes of the oral cavity, which often live in the oral cavity of healthy people. Morphological changes are characterized by necrosis of the pharyngeal surface of one amygdala with the formation of an ulcer. The patient complains of a feeling of awkwardness and a foreign body when swallowing, putrid breath, increased salivation.Body temperature, as a rule, is not elevated. Moderate leukocytosis in the blood. Regional lymph nodes are enlarged on the affected side. The duration of the disease is from 1 to 3 weeks, sometimes it lasts for several months.
Age at risk
The first description of acute tonsillitis belongs to Hippocrates, this disease accompanies humanity throughout the existence of civilization.
Today, doctors know for sure that the age of risk is from 20 to 30 years. This period accounts for the maximum number of cases.
This happens because this age period corresponds to the highest activity of the lymphadenoid apparatus of the pharynx. In children, these structures are not yet developed, and in people over 30, they begin to fade away – and children with old people get sick much less often. The clinical picture of tonsillitis in the elderly is erased and atypical.
Children with a lymphatic-hyperplastic constitution or a condition in which the lymph nodes are persistently enlarged in the absence of infectious inflammation in the body are also at risk.
Symptoms of tonsillitis
The onset of the disease is always acute when several symptoms are combined:
- fever – an increase in body temperature up to 40 `C with chills;
- sore throat;
- painful and difficulty swallowing;
- signs of general intoxication in the form of headache, weakness, loss of appetite, lethargy, chills;
- enlargement of the cervical lymph nodes.
Diagnostics and treatment
The clinical picture is so typical that diagnosis is not difficult for an ENT doctor.After studying the history of the disease, a clinical examination is performed, in which there are enlarged and inflamed palatine tonsils, enlarged lymph nodes, signs of intoxication of the general condition of the body.
To prescribe adequate treatment, a smear is taken from the surface of the tonsils to determine an infectious, viral or fungal pathogen. A general clinical blood test is also prescribed to determine the severity of the inflammation.
The main diagnostic method is pharyngoscopy.
Treatment tactics begin with broad spectrum antibiotics. If necessary, the doctor can prescribe immunomodulators and herbal medicines.
A sick person is a source of infection, releases active pathogens into the external environment. Therefore, it is necessary to create conditions that limit the spread of infectious and viral spread:
- separate dishes;
- separate towel and bed linen;
- daily wet cleaning of the premises;
- treatment with disinfectant solutions of all surfaces that the patient touches, including door handles and water taps;
- Airing the room several times a day;
- Exclusion of contact with other children or adults.
The most dangerous complications of angina in the early stages:
- acute paratonsillitis or inflammation of the tissue around the tonsils;
- retropharyngeal abscess, which is especially dangerous for young children;
- acute inflammation of the cervical lymph nodes;
- laryngeal edema is a very dangerous condition in which the baby can suffocate if you do not provide medical attention;
- bleeding from the tonsils during necrotic process;
- tonsillogenic sepsis or blood poisoning, which, fortunately, rarely happens, but with development can lead to the death of the patient.
- Delayed complications develop several weeks after the end of the acute process
- rheumatic heart disease, in which the valve apparatus is destroyed;
- rheumatoid arthritis – an autoimmune lesion of the connective tissue of small joints, which leads to deformities and the development of persistent pain syndrome;
- nephritis – inflammation of the kidneys, which is acute and chronic.