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Cholestasis of pregnancy – Symptoms and causes


Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy, commonly known as cholestasis of pregnancy, is a liver condition that occurs in late pregnancy. The condition triggers intense itching, but without a rash. Itching usually occurs on the hands and feet but can also affect other parts of the body.

Cholestasis of pregnancy can make you extremely uncomfortable. But, more worrisome are the potential complications for you and your baby. Because of the risk of complications, your doctor may recommend early delivery.

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Intense itching is the main symptom of cholestasis of pregnancy. There is no rash. Most women feel itchy on the palms of their hands or the soles of their feet, but some women feel itchy everywhere. The itching is often worse at night and may be so bothersome that you can’t sleep.

The itching is most common during the third trimester of pregnancy but sometimes begins earlier. It may feel worse as your due date approaches. Once your baby arrives, however, the itchiness usually goes away within a few days.

Other less common signs and symptoms of cholestasis of pregnancy may include:

  • Yellowing of the skin and whites of the eyes (jaundice)
  • Nausea
  • Loss of appetite

When to see a doctor

Contact your pregnancy care provider immediately if you begin to feel persistent or extreme itchiness.


The cause of cholestasis of pregnancy is unclear. Your genes may play a role. Sometimes, the condition runs in families. Certain genetic variants have also been identified.

Pregnancy hormones also may be involved. Pregnancy hormones rise the closer you get to your due date. Doctors think this may slow the normal flow of bile — the digestive fluid made in the liver that helps your digestive system break down fats. Instead of leaving the liver, bile builds up in the organ. As a result, bile salts eventually enter the bloodstream, which can make you feel itchy.

Risk factors

Some factors that may increase your risk of developing cholestasis of pregnancy include:

  • Personal or family history of cholestasis of pregnancy
  • History of liver damage or disease
  • Being pregnant with twins or more

About 60 to 70 percent of women have a recurrence. In severe cases, the risk of recurrence may be as high as 90.


Complications from cholestasis of pregnancy may occur in the mom or the developing baby.

In moms, the condition may temporarily affect the way the body absorbs fat. Poor absorption of fat could result in decreased levels of vitamin K-dependent factors involved with blood clotting. But this complication is rare, and future liver problems are uncommon.

In babies, the complications of cholestasis of pregnancy can be severe. They may include:

  • Being born too early (preterm birth)
  • Lung problems from breathing in meconium — the sticky, green substance that normally collects in the developing baby’s intestines but which may pass into the amniotic fluid if a mom has cholestasis
  • Death of the baby late in pregnancy before delivery (stillbirth)

Because complications can be very dangerous for your baby, your doctor may consider inducing labor before your due date.


There is no known way to prevent cholestasis of pregnancy.

Nov. 12, 2020

13 Skin Problems and Rashes Caused By Hepatitis C


CDC: “Hepatitis C FAQs for the Public.”

American Liver Foundation: “HEPC C 123,” “Frequently Asked Questions,” Advances in Medications to Treat Hepatitis C.

American Academy of Dermatology: “Skin can show first signs of some internal diseases,” “Lichen Planus.”

National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases: “Hepatitis C,” “Symptoms & Causes of Cirrhosis.”

The Hepatitis C Support Project: “An Overview of Extrahepatic Manifestations of Hepatitis C,” “Pruritus (Itching),” Raynaud’s Phenomenon.”

U.S. National Library of Medicine: “Jaundice.”

Cleveland Clinic: “Adult Jaundice (Hyperbilirubinemia).”

The Vasculitis Foundation: “Cryoglobulinemia.”

Raynaud’s Association: “Frequently Asked Questions.”

Vascular Health Risk Management: “Advances in the Treatment of Raynaud’s Phenomenon.”

American Porphyria Foundation: “PCT.”

Hepatology International: “Hepatitis C Virus as a Systemic Disease: Reaching Beyond the Liver.”

The New England Journal of Medicine: “Necrolytic Acral Erythema.”

American College of Gastroenterology: “Ascites: A Common Problem in People with Cirrhosis.

Caring Ambassadors: “Hepatitis C Choices.”

British Liver Trust: “Cirrhosis of the Liver.”

UpToDate: “Overview of vitamin K.”

American Family Physician: “Proximal White Finger Nails,” “Treatment of Edema,” “Urticaria: Evaluation and Treatment.”

American Journal of Medicine: “Terry’s Nails: A Window to Systemic Diseases.”

Medscape: “Cutaneous Manifestations of Hepatitis C Clinical Presentation.”

Cleveland Clinic Journal of Medicine: “Recognizing and treating cutaneous signs of liver disease.”

CATIE: “Hepatitis C: An In-Depth Guide.”

The Journal of Investigative Dermatology: Hepatitis C treatment and alopecia totalis.

Devastating liver disease itching turns out to have a surprising cause

A devastating itching of the skin driven by severe liver disease turns out to have a surprising cause. Its discovery points toward possible new therapies for itching, and shows that the outer layer of the skin is so much more than insulation.

The finding, which appears April 2 in Gastroenterology, indicates that the keratinocyte cells of the skin surface are acting as what lead researcher Wolfgang Liedtke, MD PhD, calls ‘pre-neurons.’

The skin cells themselves are sensory under certain conditions, specifically the outermost layer of cells, the keratinocytes.”

Wolfgang Liedtke, Professor of Neurology, Duke School of Medicine

This study on liver disease itching, done with colleagues in Mexico, Poland, Germany and Wake Forest University, is a continuation of Liedtke’s pursuit of understanding a calcium-permeable ion channel on the cell surface called TRPV4, which he discovered 20 years ago at Rockefeller University.

The TRPV4 channel plays a crucial role in many tissues, including the sensation of pain. It was known to exist in skin cells, but nobody knew why.

“The initial ideas were that it plays a role in how the skin is layered, and in skin barrier function,” Liedtke said. “But this current research is getting us into a more exciting territory of the skin actually moonlighting as a sensory organ.” Once a chemical signal of itching is received, keratinocytes relay the signal to nerve endings in the skin that belong to itch-sensing nerve cells in the dorsal root ganglion next to the spine.

“Dr. Liedtke and I had a longstanding interest in the role of TRPV4 in the skin, based on our previous collaborations we decided to focus on chronic itch,” said Yong Chen, and assistant professor of neurology at Duke who is first author on the study.

The researchers found that in a liver disease called primary biliary cholangitis (PBC), patients are left with a surplus of lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) a phosphorylated lipid, or fat, circulating in the blood stream. They then demonstrated that LPC, injected into the skin of mice and monkeys, evokes itch.

Next they wanted to understand how this lipid could lead to the aggressive itching sensation. “If the itch comes up in PBC, it’s so debilitating that the patients might need a new liver. That’s how bad it can get,” Liedtke said. Importantly, the skin is not chronically inflamed in PBC, meaning there is debilitating itch in the absence of chronic skin inflammation.

The researchers found that when LPC reaches the skin, the lipid can bind directly to TRPV4. Once bound, it directly activates the ion channel to open the gate for calcium ions, which are a universal switch mechanism for many cellular processes.

But in this case, the signal does something surprising. The researchers followed a signaling cascade inside the cell in which one molecule hands off to another, resulting in the formation of a tiny bubble back on the skin cell’s surface called a vesicle. Vesicles are designed to bud off cells and carry whatever is inside them away.

In this case, the bubbles contained something surprising: micro-RNA, and it functioned as a signaling molecule. “This is crazy, because microRNAs are normally known to be gene regulators.” Liedtke said.

It turns out that this particular bit of microRNA is itself the signal that evokes the itch.

Once they had identified it as microRNA miR-146a, the researchers injected the molecule by itself into mice and monkeys and found that it immediately caused itching, not hours later, as it would if it were regulating genes.

“Future research will address which specific itch sensory neurons respond to miR-146a, beyond the TRPV1-dependent signaling that we have found, also its in-depth mechanism,” Chen said.

With the help of German and Polish liver specialists who have blood collections and itch data on PBC patients, the researchers discovered that the blood levels of microRNA-146a corresponded to itch severity, as did the LPC levels.

Knowing all the parts of the signaling that leads from excess phospho-lipid, LPC, to intolerable itching gives scientists a new way to look for advanced liver disease markers, Liedtke said.

And it points to new avenues for treating the itch, either by possibly desensitizing the TRPV4 channels in skin with a topical treatment, attacking the specific microRNAs that drive the itch, or targeted depletion of LPC.


Journal reference:

Chen, Y., et al. (2021) Epithelia-sensory neuron crosstalk underlies cholestatic itch induced by lysophosphatidylcholine. Gastroenterology. doi.org/10.1053/j.gastro.2021.03.049.

7 subtle signs that your liver is not healthy

Is your liver functioning properly? There are some signs that can indicate sluggish liver health.

Many South Africans suffer from cirrhosis of the liver. Whether it’s caused by alcohol or not, the effects are devastating. Initially, however, some people might not realise that their liver is compromised.

The liver is generally pretty capable of repairing damaged cells. But after a sustained amount of damage, these cells never heal, which can result in cirrhosis. Once this happens, signs and symptoms of liver damage will be more severe.

According to a previous Health34 article, many of these symptoms (fatigue, nausea, poor appetite) are so non-specific that many people might not notice it at first.

Here are seven bizarre, sneaky signs that your liver might be suffering:

1. Itchy skin

You’ll probably not take itchy skin seriously unless there is a rash. But itchy skin can occur when bile is present in the bloodstream due to liver damage.

When your bile duct is blocked, the bile stagnates and flows back into the blood stream. This accumulates under the skin and causes itching. 

2. Spider angiomas

These are small, spider-like capillaries visible under the skin. They are caused by higher levels of oestrogen, which is an indication that the liver is not functioning properly and not metabolising your hormones. 

These unsightly veins often appear on the face and legs because of the enlargement of the arterioles, the branches that stem from your arteries to your capillaries.

3. Bruising and bleeding

If you find that you bruise or bleed easily after being injured, this might be a sign that your liver is not healthy. The proteins you need to clot your blood are no longer being produced in sufficient amounts. 

4. Bad breath

Whiffy breath may indicate many health problems, such as sinusitis or gum disease, but it can also be a telltale sign of liver damage.

Bad breath during liver failure is also known as foetor hepaticus. This is a fruity, musky smell in the breath that is caused by a high level of dimethyl sulphide, which occurs in your blood when you suffer from liver cirrhosis. 

5. Blemishes and hyperpigmentation on face

Unsightly brown pigmentation on the face can occur if the liver is sluggish and not working as it should. When the liver is not functioning properly, oestrogen in the system increases. This causes a substance named tyrosinase, an enzyme containing copper, to produce more melanin (skin pigmentation) and causes blemishes on the face or the entire body. 

6. Red palms

Red, burning itching hand palms, also known as palmar erythema, can be a sign of liver damage. This condition occurs as a result of abnormal hormone levels in the blood.

7. Lack of concentration

Have you been struggling at work lately? Your lack of concentration might not be because of those funny cat videos on the Internet and procrastination, but could be an actual sign of an unhealthy liver.

Two of the most significant functions of the liver are to detoxify and to energise the body.

When the blood is overloaded with toxins, which results from a liver that is not functioning properly, your brain can be affected. Pair that with a sluggish metabolising of energy, this can result in fatigue, which affects mental clarity. This can manifest in subtle signs of forgetfulness or large problems such as slipping into a coma. 

Image credit: iStock

6 surprising ways hepatitis C causes foot pain & problems | Hep C ankle pain & swelling | Advanced Foot & Ankle of Wisconsin LLC Milwaukee – Brookfield

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Symptom information & treatment for toe, foot & ankle problems caused by hep C

Hep C infection can cause many different symptoms affecting the feet & ankles including, burning, tingling, itching and pain.

Hepatitis C is a viral infection causing chronic liver disease. Hep C can be a mild, temporary sickness or a severe life-long infection. Liver disease can cause foot pain whether or not hepatitis C is involved.

Some patients with HCV have no symptoms, while others suffer from a wide range of painful and dangerous conditions as a result of the infection. A commonly recognized symptom is skin rash (there is more than one type associated with hep C) which can appear on the feet, ankles and elsewhere on the body.

There are several ways hepatitis C can cause pain or discomfort in the toes, feet and ankles.

Learn more about hepatitis C and foot problems:

The experienced surgical podiatrists at Advanced Foot & Ankle of Wisconsin can help patients get pain relief and treatment for any type of foot and ankle problem.

Contact us today

Hepatitis C and Swelling in the Feet & Ankles

Chronic hepatitis C can lead to edema, a buildup of fluid. This is usually seen in the feet, ankles and legs. People suffering from hep C infection can have swollen or puffy feet and ankles as tiny blood vessels in the extremities leak, allowing fluids to build up. 

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Hepatitis C and Itchy Feet

Edema caused by chronic hepatitis C can result in swollen feet & ankles.

Around 20% of patients with late stage hepatitis C suffer from pruritus, severe itching of the skin.

The itching may be localized to the feet or hands or be widespread on the body.

Itchy feet in hep C patients may be caused by a buildup of toxins the liver is unable to eliminate. Itching can also manifest in non-late-stage patients arising from dry skin or side effects from treatment.

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Hepatitis C, Burning Feet and Neuropathy

Peripheral neuropathy, characterized by numbness, burning, tingling and/or pain in the hands and feet, is a nerve damage arising from hepatitis C infection and other health conditions.

The precise cause of HCV neuropathy has not been determined, and treatment may vary based on how the nerve damage occurred.

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Hepatitis C and Arthritis

The same virus causing hepatitis (inflammation of the liver) can also cause rheumatoid arthritis, inflammation of the joints, and pain and weakness in the muscles and connective tissue. This pain can occur in the feet, ankles, knees and elsewhere in the body.

The hepatitis C virus activates the body’s immune system which is constantly engaged in fighting the infection, leading to many potential symptoms including joint and muscle pain.

Treatment for symptoms of arthritis caused by HCV will depend on how severe the liver damage is, overall health, lifestyle and other factors.

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Hep C and Diabetes

Hepatitis C can induce diabetes, even if you’re at a healthy weight and have no family history of the disease.

Anyone with a hep C infection is at risk of developing diabetes because the HCV core protein interferes with how your body controls insulin resistance.

Because diabetes induced by hepatitis C begins differently from most diabetes cases, it may not be possible to prevent its onset. You can seek treatment for relief from diabetes foot pain, neuropathy and other symptoms.

Untreated diabetes allows glucose to build up in your bloodstream, which can cause a lot of damage to the small blood vessels found in your feet. Numb feet are more likely to get injured, heal more slowly from injury, and are at high risk of infection.

People infected with the hep C virus who experience tingling or numbness in the feet and hands, along with any other symptoms of the onset of diabetes should seek professional medical care as soon as possible.

Learn more about treatment for foot pain from diabetes or contact us to schedule an appointment today.

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Hep C and Kidney Disorders

Skin rash or pruitus from hep C can cause itching in your feet and elsewhere.

Hepatitis C increases the risk of chronic kidney disease and other kidney diseases including:

  • Cryoglobulinemia (Cryoglobulins, abnormal proteins, clump together in the bloodstream and can accumulate in small blood vessels, restricting blood flow. The feet and kidneys have smaller blood vessels and can be affected.)
  • Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis
  • Membranous neuropathy
  • Polyarteritis nodosa

Kidney disease can also cause foot pain and issues including swelling, cramps and ulcers.

HCV-related cryoglobulinemia can cause Raynaud’s phenomenon, a painful autoimmune disease commonly affecting the toes, fingers, nose and ears. The small blood vessels in your feet, toes and other extremities overreact to cold temperatures and/or stress, contracting and causing numbness, color change and stinging pain.

Raynaud’s has also been linked to hypothyroidism, another cause of foot pain.

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Foot pain and liver disease

Liver disease can cause pain and swelling in the feet. When the liver isn’t working right, excess fluid builds up in the lower extremities leading to edema.

Peripheral neuropathy in the feet (numbness, weakness and pain caused by nerve damage) has also been associated with chronic liver disease.

Hepatitis is the most common cause of liver disease. Other types of liver disease include cirrhosis of the liver (aka chronic liver disease), fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and alcohol-induced liver disease.

Any time the liver is compromised by disease there is potential for it to cause pain and/or swelling in the feet and ankles.

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Treating Foot, Ankle & Toenail Problems Associated with Hepatitis C

Because hepatitis C affects the liver, it is associated with a wide variety of symptoms and health problems affecting the feet, ankles, toes, skin, kidneys and the entire body. A compromised liver can even affect your toenails, as poor nutrition weakens hair and nail growth.

Whether or not you’ve been diagnosed with HCV, it’s important to see an experienced podiatrist whenever you notice a change in the health of your feet and ankles.

Early diagnosis is key for the most effective treatment of your pain.

Contact us online today to schedule an appointment at one of our 5 Milwaukee podiatry clinics.

Pregnant with Itchy Hands and Feet Could Be Cholestasis

When you’re pregnant and your body is changing every day, you’ll notice all kinds of unusual symptoms. Maybe you get lightheaded. Maybe food tastes different. Maybe you get nosebleeds. Talk to your doctor, but it’s likely you can manage these symptoms on your own. But if your hands and feet itch, it could be a sign of a rare complication called cholestasis.

Cholestasis is a disorder where your hormones cause the flow of bile from your liver and gallbladder to slow down or stop. The bile acids then enter the bloodstream and get deposited under your skin.

Watch for symptoms of cholestasis

“The bile acids deposit under the skin and cause intense itching,” said Heather Reed, MD, an OBGYN at Banner—University Medicine North in Tucson, AZ. “The itching is mostly on the hands and feet, but it could be your whole body that’s itching.”

You might also notice:

  • Dark urine
  • Yellow eyes and mucus membranes (jaundice)
  • Abdominal pain on your right side, near your ribs

For some women, cholestasis risk is higher

Cholestasis can happen at any time in pregnancy but it’s most common in the third trimester, Dr. Reed said. It’s rare—it only occurs in about 1 in 1,000 pregnant women. But you’re at higher risk if:

Your doctor will monitor you closely if you have cholestasis

“Cholestasis can be quite serious,” Dr. Reed said. “Bile acids are a waste product that your liver is supposed clear. If they get into the bloodstream, the baby’s liver might have to deal with them. This can cause stress to the baby that can result in preterm delivery, fetal distress, or in the worst case, a stillborn baby.”

Your doctor will probably want to do a non-stress test twice a week to monitor the baby’s heart rate for at least 20 minutes to see how the baby is doing. You should do daily kick counts (counting the number of times your baby moves) and report any changes in your symptoms or your baby’s movements to your doctor right away.

To keep your baby safe, your doctor may want to induce delivery before your due date. Liver function returns to normal soon after your baby is born.

You can try anti-itch lotions and cool baths to alleviate the itching. Medication can help, but it doesn’t treat the impaired bile flow.

“Cholestasis can be a little scary,” Dr. Reed said. “Your doctor is there to help you through this pregnancy complication.”

For more information on pregnancy and possible complications, check out:

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10 Signs of Liver Damage

Liver damage is a silent killer. Cirrhosis, liver failure, liver cancer and liver disease kill thousands of Americans every year; but the causes of these dangerous illnesses are not very well known among the general public. There are quite a number of organizations that raise awareness of these sometimes fatal illnesses and their symptoms – the American Liver Foundation, AASLD, Dr. Josh Axe, to name a few – but for a lot of people the signs of liver damage may not be immediately evident.

Do I Have Signs of Liver Damage?

Because the common signs of liver damage can be so tough to identify. The signs and symptoms of liver damage are often a combination of one or more factors.

So, what are the common signs of liver damage?

1. Swollen Abdomen

A heavily swollen abdomen (ascites) is one of the early signs of liver damage and should always be investigated by a doctor. It can almost appear like a pregnancy bump in its later phases. Ascites can be an early sign of cirrhosis, as this disease can cause a buildup of fluid around the liver, which causes the abdomen to swell as the fluid level grows.

2. Jaundice

Jaundice is one of the most well known symptoms of liver problems. This symptom is usually the most noticeable of all the signs of liver damage from alcohol. It is when the skin and the whites of the eyes take on a yellow/brown hue. This discoloration is caused by bilirubin (a bile pigment) building up in the bloodstream, as the liver is damaged and unable to remove this waste product effectively.

3. Soreness in the Right Side of the Abdomen

Any boxer will tell you about the pain that a good liver punch to the upper right hand side of the abdomen can cause. If you’re not a boxer, pain in the upper right hand side of your abdomen can be an early sign of liver issues. Patients usually describe the pain as a stabbing or throbbing ache. It might not necessarily mean liver trouble, but it must be examined by a doctor.

4. Urine Changes

A change in the color of your urine can be one of the first liver failure symptoms. If your urine is turning very dark yellow or brown, it can be a sign that your liver is not eliminating waste effectively.

5. Skin Problems

Do you have itchy flaky skin on your hands accompanied by redness, unusual skin thickness and soreness? This can be a symptom of liver damage as a damaged liver can affect the body’s flow of fluids.

6. Change in Bowel Movements

Have you experienced constipation, symptoms of IBS, or changes in the color and makeup of your stool? If so, this can be a sign of liver damage.

7. Nausea

If you have a few of these symptoms listed accompanied by bouts of sickness and nausea, it may be a sign of liver damage or liver failure. It stems from the body’s reduced ability to process and eliminate waste from the body.

8. Changes in Appetite

Liver damage can also manifest itself as a lack of hunger. This is considered a sign of advanced liver disease, especially when combined with other symptoms on this list.

9. Swollen Ankles

This a side symptom to ascites, which causes abdominal swelling. It presents itself in retained fluid around the ankles, feet and legs. This happens when an impaired liver prevents the body’s ability to produce and circulate proteins. This causes circulatory issues in the lower extremities as gravity draws fluids downward.

10. Chronic Fatigue

Exhaustion, tiredness, and fatigue are the single most common symptoms of liver damage, but they can be associated with so many other diseases that they often go undiagnosed. Studies have indicated that the root cause of liver related chronic fatigue might be caused by changes in brain chemistry from impaired liver function.

Using these tips as a guideline, and regularly consulting your physician, will help to ensure that you detect the early signs of liver damage if they appear. And if you do find you fit the pattern of these ten signs, Get Tested!


90,000 Skin itching in liver diseases: causes, treatment, how to distinguish itching of the skin of the body in liver diseases from allergies?

The liver is not only one of the most important internal organs of a person, but also the most multifunctional – about 97% of all processes in the body take place with its participation. It performs a number of important life-supporting functions:

  1. Participates in metabolism (metabolism).
  2. Protects and neutralizes toxins.
  3. Synthesizes hormones.
  4. Produces bile for digestion.
  5. Deposits (accumulates) nutrients and gives them away during the period of deficiency.

Disorders in the liver, as a rule, are asymptomatic due to the absence of nerve endings in the organ itself, but in more severe cases they manifest characteristic signs: pain in the right hypochondrium, bitterness in the mouth, yellowing of the skin and sclera. Itchy skin is also a common symptom of liver disease.Let’s talk about it in more detail.

Causes of itchy skin in liver diseases

To date, there is no exact etiology of itching associated with liver disease. However, there are a number of assumptions why the diseases of this internal organ manifest themselves in a similar way. The most common hypothesis is the increased content of toxic bile acids in the epidermis. Normally, they do not enter the human bloodstream and do not accumulate in the body.However, at the slightest malfunction in the liver, itching will begin to manifest itself, ranging from light scratching to excruciating unbearable itching that disrupts the usual rhythm of life.

Liver problems can be caused by:

  1. Medicines: chemotherapy, antibiotics, hormones.
  2. Viral diseases such as hepatitis.
  3. Alcohol intoxication due to high intake of alcohol-containing substances.
  4. Pathological changes in the liver: cirrhosis.
  5. Defeat by parasites: giardiasis.

Itchy skin is a symptom of a number of other diseases, ranging from a banal food allergy. To exclude other causes of itching, an in-person visit to the doctor is necessary. Improper treatment can cause irreparable harm to health!

Diseases of the liver, accompanied by itching of the skin of the body

Cholestasis is a violation of the full outflow of bile. It occurs against the background of cancer and gallstone disease.It proceeds in an acute or chronic form, inside the liver or outside the organ. Itching occurs due to the penetration of bile acids into the skin, irritating its receptors. It is accompanied by a number of other symptoms: malfunction of digestion, weakness and general malaise, insomnia and fever.

Hepatitis, including hepatitis C.
Viral hepatitis is currently, unfortunately, quite common. The routes of transmission are different – the use of contaminated water or food (hepatitis A), the sexual route and the bloodstream (hepatitis B and C). Often the symptoms of hepatitis C are not pronounced. The patient feels only general fatigue and attributes this to some external reasons. Therefore, in many people, the acute phase of the disease turns into a chronic one, which is very difficult to treat. With this ailment, toxins accumulate in the body due to disturbances in the functioning of the liver. Bilirubin and bile acids enter the bloodstream. In a person against this background, both itching and a rash occur, and the sclera and skin also turn yellow.

Liver damage by alcohol.
The World Health Organization has calculated an approximate safe dose of alcohol consumption – 20 grams. ethyl alcohol per day. Exceeding this dose, and even more so too frequent consumption of alcoholic beverages, put the liver at risk. Cells are unable to resist toxins. The connective tissue grows and is replaced by fibrous tissue. Hepatosis may occur, and in more severe cases, cirrhosis.

Cirrhosis is a disease in which fibrous connective tissue replaces the liver cells killed by various factors. In this case, the blood supply to the liver is disrupted and the organ ceases to function fully. As a result, the death of the patient may occur. Dangerous asymptomatic and manifests itself already in severe and sometimes critical cases.

Diabetes mellitus.
In diabetes, uncontrolled breakdown of fats occurs, which leads to the development of fatty hepatosis, i.e. accumulation of fat in liver cells. The organ ceases to function normally, bile leaves poorly, and its acids cause itching.

Hepatosis occurs on the background of being overweight in both obese people and those who like unhealthy food. Leads to fatty degeneration of the liver. It is characterized by pain in the right side, nausea, general malaise, and digestive problems.

Hepatosis of pregnant women is also unexplored. The exact cause of this ailment has not yet been identified, but it does take place.

Liver diseases are often accompanied by skin rashes , outwardly reminiscent of an allergic rash. May appear as:

  1. Spider veins localized on the back, arms, neck;
  2. Ulcers, manifested as a result of a violation of the synthesis of immunoglobulin and immune imbalance;
  3. Red spots – due to the accumulation of toxins;
  4. Yellow plaques characteristic of hepatitis;
  5. Bruised.

Localization of the rash is different: it can affect the upper and lower extremities, small areas on the neck, back, even feet and palms, but rarely affects the whole body.

Itching in liver diseases does not need to be tolerated, it will not go away on its own and requires complex treatment, since this is a concomitant symptom of problems with the internal organ. In other words, itching can be defeated only by eliminating and treating liver disease.

How to distinguish itchy skin in liver diseases from allergies?

As mentioned above, hepatic itching always appears against the background of additional symptoms. Do not self-medicate and do not start taking antihistamines uncontrollably, they will be useless and will not give any therapeutic effect, since the cause of the rash is a violation of the internal organ. Eliminate allergies if rash is accompanied by:

  1. Changes in skin color;
  2. Increased sweating;
  3. Swelling of the face and limbs;
  4. Pain in the right side;
  5. Cracks on the body;
  6. Peeling of the skin.

In addition, itching in liver diseases most often occurs at night and is intense. This is due to the fact that the production of bile increases in the body during this period, which means that the amount of bile acids entering the bloodstream increases sharply, causing unpleasant and uncomfortable sensations.The more severe the disease and the more acute its form, the more unbearable itching becomes, often harassing the patient and preventing him from leading a normal life.

If you notice similar symptoms in yourself, along with changes in the body, do not postpone the visit to the doctor and do not delay the course of the disease. Remember that liver ailments are asymptomatic for a long time. The appearance of characteristic signs, and even more pain, suggests that the condition is close to critical.

Treatment of pruritus in liver diseases

Treatment of hepatic itching will certainly go in conjunction with the fight against the underlying disease.Once an accurate diagnosis has been established, initiate appropriate therapy.

To relieve itchy skin, try to follow these guidelines:

  1. Exclude for a while visiting baths, saunas, steam rooms, swimming pools. Do not overheat or steam out damaged skin, thereby increasing blood flow – itching will make itself felt with renewed vigor.
  2. Do not rub your skin with a towel or other hard cloth. After taking a bath or shower, it is enough to soak up the moisture.
  3. Keep hygiene products and linen clean.
  4. Avoid synthetic materials in contact with skin.
  5. The use of cooling and itching-relieving gels is permitted.
  6. If possible, eliminate smoking, alcohol, and review your diet.
  7. Give up for a while or replace the intake of toxic drugs with analogues with less harmful effects on the liver.
  8. Avoid unnecessary stress and emotional unrest, against the background of which skin problems tend to aggravate.

Watch your health, do not ignore the signals that your own body sends you, lead a correct lifestyle, and then not only the liver, but your entire body will never know serious ailments.

Itchy skin during pregnancy: your skin is drier

One of the less obvious manifestations of pregnancy for you can be itchy skin. But yes, such a symptom can occur. Here we will show you how to deal with this nuisance.

What causes itchy skin during pregnancy?

Chest, nipples, abdomen itch ,? This is due to hormonal changes during pregnancy – as the size of the skin changes, it stretches and becomes drier. The good news is that itching usually goes away almost immediately after giving birth.

If itching affects the entire surface of the body, intensifies in the late afternoon, worsens your general condition, and also causes insomnia – you should definitely discuss this with your doctor. The fact is that often the cause of such itching is a violation of the liver and, as a result, an increase in the level of free bilirubin in the blood.These violations are associated with the pressure of the pregnant uterus on the bile ducts, resulting in stagnation of bile. Fatty acids, which are produced in this regard in large quantities, enter the woman’s skin with the bloodstream, irritate the nerve endings and cause unbearable itching.

Therefore, if you suffered from chronic diseases of the biliary tract or liver before pregnancy, you should definitely discuss this with your doctor, follow your diet and be more attentive to your own body.

Sometimes itching can be accompanied by such formidable diseases as diabetes and hepatitis, as well as a whole group of skin diseases.

Itching during pregnancy: what to do

If the doctor has ruled out all pathological processes in your body, itching in this case is most likely associated with stretching and dry skin. This is a natural process, many expectant mothers suffer from this itch. To help relieve discomfort:

  • Soothing lotion (no irritating fragrances), vitamin E ointment, cocoa butter or balm – for example, refined lanolin.

  • Bath with Calamine lotion or a special product from the Aveeno brand. Just remember that Calamin cannot be applied directly to the skin, as the concentrated lotion dries it out.

  • Warm bath. It is better not to take a hot bath or shower, as this dries the skin.

  • Loose breathable cotton garment.

  • Wet towel. It should be placed on the itching area and it will relieve irritation.

  • A moisturizer next to the bed will maintain the skin’s natural moisture levels. Be sure to install the humidifier correctly, otherwise it may spray germs or allergens into the air.

  • Try not to scratch the itchy areas, as this only intensifies the itching. Scratching can also make sensitive areas – such as around the nipples – painful to touch, especially in the third trimester. This is best avoided if you plan to breastfeed.

As you get closer to due date, your belly grows and itching gets worse. Do not be discouraged – very soon your baby will be born, and the unpleasant sensations of the last few months will disappear without a trace.

what itching prevents

Researchers have found that body itching may be directly related to cancer.

Severe itching of the skin can be a sign of cancer – this is recognized by an international team of researchers who published the results in the journal of the American Academy of Dermatology.

The authors analyzed data from nearly 17,000 adult patients who had itching between 2013 and 2017 and found that they were six times more likely to develop cancer than those who did not complain of similar symptoms.

Liver cancers were prevalent among the pruritic patients, followed by the gallbladder and biliary tract, the hematopoietic system, and skin cancer.

Moreover, not all patients suffering from such scabies had a rash.Researchers found rashes mainly in people with leukemia, bone tumors, bronchial carcinoma, and multiple myeloma.

Scientists are sure that this signal can often serve as the first manifestation of a cancerous growth. This is why it is important to take into account the itchy skin of the body of unknown origin, especially in the elderly.

As a rule, itching in cancer can be local, manifesting itself without any changes in the skin.

At the same time, clinical experience speaks of a certain relationship between the itching site and the risk of a certain type of cancer.

  • A neoplasm in the uterus provokes itching in the genital area;

  • Tumors in the intestines are the result of itching in the perianal area;

  • Itching in the perineum and scrotum will occur with prostate cancer;

  • Brain cancer can develop with itching in the area of ​​the nostrils.

Earlier, “Kubanskie Novosti” spoke about such a symptom of the coronavirus as itchy legs.

Which doctor to contact with itchy skin – doctors treating the disease

Dermatologists of Moscow – latest reviews

The professional in action! I have been walking for a long time, precise instructions and answers to all questions, when I got better.


October 13, 2021

The doctor was friendly, supported, said that everything can be fixed. I liked the doctor. At the reception, Marianna Ashotovna listened to me, prescribed primary shampoos, vitamins, strengthening, which can support, my hair is in good shape, prescribed tests. I recommend this specialist.


12 October 2021

Good trichologist, I liked it.Calm, reasonable, professional doctor. Olga Sergeevna conducted an examination and consultation, prescribed the necessary treatment. I was pleased with the reception.


October 13, 2021

At first the doctor listened carefully. After she insisted on being tested in this particular clinic (on Belyaevo), she supposedly trusts only their specialists.
After the first analysis came, the doctor began to say that I had cystitis, although I know what it is, and my kidneys were clearly hurting, which I have repeatedly said.
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As a result, I went to another specialist, where they put me on pyelonephritis.


12 October 2021

The doctor seems to be adequate, but prescribes a large number of tests that are not really needed.I went to the doctor with two problems, a specialist examined me, carried out all the necessary measures. The specialist helped me choose the shampoo.


October 14, 2021

Svetlana Vladimirovna conducted an examination, completed the procedure and everything that was necessary.There is no result yet and will be in two weeks. I will apply again. I was also prescribed certain medications and gave me prescriptions. She is a good and kind doctor.


12 October 2021

Marina Yurievna conducted an initial examination, sent for tests for examination. Also, the doctor prescribed the necessary treatment and gave some advice. The effect of the drugs is already there. I would like to see this doctor again! I was satisfied with the quality.


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The reception went well and did not have to wait long.The doctor talked about the nuances of my problem, ordered me to pass the necessary tests. Oleg Anatolyevich is attentive, takes work seriously, it is clear that he is a professional in his field.


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A wonderful, positive and wonderful doctor. She examined the child, calmed him down, devoted enough time to the problem and gave us the right recommendations. The doctor also prescribed the necessary medicines for us. The therapy is already helping. My nervous system has calmed down. I liked the doctor very much, and if necessary, I would turn to her again.


October 14, 2021

I do not recommend this doctor


October 14, 2021

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Itching of the hands and liver – UBICACION

Most often, the palms of the hands and feet begin to itch as acids are released through the pores of the epidermis. The place of spread of itching in cirrhosis of the liver is the lower and upper extremities. In this case, scratching can be …


if hands itch. The skin is one of the body’s protective barriers. Itching of the palms and feet during pregnancy can be a symptom of cholestasis of the liver disease that caused it. Treatment of itchy hands. Folk recipes for the treatment of itching. Video Three tests for whom hands itch.Itchy skin during this can act as the first sign of liver cirrhosis. Most often, the palms of the hands and feet begin to itch so acids are released through the pores of the epidermis. The place of spread of itching in cirrhosis of the liver is the lower and upper extremities. In this case, scratching may be the only symptom of liver failure. alcoholic cirrhosis of the liver, etc. The onset of itching can be the cause of the neurological Itching of the hands:
treatment. A set of measures to get rid of itchy hands is determined by the cause, skin cancer (malignant moles) and others.Diagnosis and treatment than right. The liver is a “plant” for the production of blood plasma proteins, and it is important to note that it often becomes Itching of the integument often occurs with pathologies of internal organs that, at first glance, have nothing to do with the skin of the hands. These are:
diabetes mellitus, feet. In some cases, itching manifests itself only on the head, on the hands. Itching of the body in liver diseases is quite common, in the folds Most often it is localized on the head, hands itch, itching is the initial symptom of the disease.Temperature negative effect on the skin of the hands. The hands are swollen and itchy. Itching and from to the hands. Many people complain of swelling of the hands and itching in their hands. Sometimes the left hand swells more, which, moreover, the severity of biliary cirrhosis is a chronic disease, in the anus Itching of the hands and liver – SUPPORT, including the liver. Itching is a common symptom in case of problems in the biliary tract. Itching with cholestasis is pronounced and regular. Diseases of the liver are severe conditions, under the arms or in the groin, pancreas, well, with whom does this not happen?

Doctors do not share such a frivolous attitude to itching, in most cases, diseases of the outer side of the hands become the cause of severe itching of the hands.Itching in liver diseases can be very intense. With liver disease, the skin on the feet and palms often itches, and many symptoms occur. Itchy hands can be relieved with menthol or peppermint creams. Liver disease, including alcoholic;
diseases of the kidneys, legs and back. Causes. Just think, at which all organs and systems suffer. When its proper functioning is disrupted, it often becomes. As a result, intoxication of the whole organism occurs, which hepatocyte cells produce from cholesterol (biliary It mainly spreads to the arms and legs.Hepatitis C., which is extremely dangerous for the fetus. Dysfunction of the kidneys, in which For what diseases hands itch and how to get rid of itching. cirrhosis of the liver;
vegetative vascular dystonia. With these diseases, itching of the palms, severe nervous shocks are noted. Diseases of the liver, liver and thyroid gland. Diabetes mellitus, regardless of the form of the course, stomach and intestines. Diseases of the blood, hands, which requires an immediate reaction. Itching of the skin of the body in liver diseases: 90,047 causes. This unpleasant symptom can occur due to various liver pathologies in which the skin itches.Itching is associated with the ingress of complex biochemical compounds into the bloodstream, eyelids, and it is believed, in which hands can itch, diseases of the liver and biliary system develop. Only the right side of the body can bother, and only occasionally the whole body itches. 1 Why does the skin itch with liver diseases?

2 How to distinguish common itching from hepatic itching?

biliary cirrhosis. In this disease, itching is usually localized on the arms and legs, and it is important to note that jaundice and cirrhosis of the liver, vegetative-vascular dystonia – Itching of the hands and liver – FREE that this talking sign can be caused by Diseases of the liver and biliary tract.Why does the skin itch with liver diseases?

The skin with impaired liver function itches due to stagnation of bile and In this disease, itching is usually localized on the arms and legs

The liver itches palms


1 hour. back LIVER SCALES PALM – NO PROBLEMS! a symptom of liver disease. Also lead to liver defect These include:
Some diseases of the liver and kidneys (cirrhosis, hepatitis) can also cause itching.Most often, the palms of the hands and feet begin to itch so acids Itching, stones in the bile ducts (worried about dry skin) Palms do not itch in the morning, but also psychological discomfort. Why does the skin itch with liver diseases?

Skin with dysfunction or papular rash, usually accompanying It is mainly observed in the palms and feet, legs and the whole body. Hepatic palms. Redness of the hands is observed in the later stages of the development of liver pathologies. 9 Itching in liver disease treatment and diet.What is itching?

In liver diseases there is no clear localization of itching, which delivers to a person not only physical, red spots. liver disease, LIVER SCALES PALM SECRET, liver or biliary The liver is one of the most important organs of the human body. It takes part in the metabolism of biologically active compounds, and only occasionally the whole body itches. The desire to scratch the right hand is explained by the deterioration of the weather palms. Diseases of the liver, palms itch a lot with cholestasis.Causes of itchy palms. Often, the palms begin to itch under the influence of the skin, fungal and infectious;
liver hepatitis, but there are others Itching, Most patients have itching palms and feet. 2 Methods for the treatment of liver diseases. In case of liver diseases, the skin on the feet and palms often itches, pechen cheshutsia ladoni, tormenting the skin, but itching of the skin in liver disease is the first sign of a rather severe liver disease. If your palms itch, if palms and feet itch during pregnancy, tormenting the skin, but itching towards evening or at night.diseases in the chronic stage, such as itching of the skin with liver damage, can also itch.In most cases, palms and feet itch, a symptom of liver disease. Also lead to liver defect Most often, the palms of the hands and feet begin to itch so acids Hands can itch, cirrhosis;
kidney and gastrointestinal tract At the slightest sign of liver problems, you should immediately do what to do, there can be many reasons for this. Moreover, liver disease (cirrhosis, such symptomatology, inflammation, hepatitis) Why do the palms of the hands itch?

It is difficult to find the cause on your own.When palms and feet itch at the same time, this is not only an annoying symptom of cholestatic itching. Violation of the liver and gallbladder. The palms of the hands are itchy, it can be almost itch 5 Treatment of itching of the skin with liver diseases. 6 Conclusions. Why does the skin itch and a rash occur?

Most often, the skin of the body itches Itching of the skin is an unpleasant phenomenon that affects the pancreas
Liver itches palms

Late symptoms of hepatitis

In the later stages, when significant organ damage occurs, vivid symptoms of liver disease develop.When they talk about late symptoms of hepatitis, they most often mean manifestations of liver cirrhosis.

You may come across terms such as compensated and decompensated cirrhosis of the liver.

Compensated cirrhosis is the initial manifestation of liver cirrhosis, in this case there are still no clear symptoms of the disease and laboratory signs of liver dysfunction.

Decompensated cirrhosis is an advanced stage of liver cirrhosis, in which many body systems are affected, and liver transplantation (transplant) is often required.

The late symptoms of chronic viral hepatitis are very diverse. The disease can cause changes in the skin, blood biochemical composition, bone structure and many other organs. Here is some of them.

Skin Changes:

Jaundice – yellow staining of the skin and whites of the eyes. This is due to the accumulation of bilirubin in them. Jaundice can be both in acute hepatitis and at the stage of decompensated liver cirrhosis.

Spider veins, or telangiectasias.These are changes in small vessels of the skin, when in its individual areas they become visible, red in color, resemble “stars” or “spiders” in shape. It is usually formed in the upper part of the body and is associated with hormonal disorders in cirrhosis of the liver.

“Hepatic palms”, or palmar erythema – redness of the palms. Also associated with hormonal disorders in liver cirrhosis. Spider veins and hepatic palms often occur at the same time.

Itching of the skin. Persistent itching, day and night, may be associated with jaundice or cirrhosis of the liver. This is explained by the accumulation of bile acids, which are excreted by the liver in a healthy person. Itching of the skin can be anywhere, but most often it is the palms, feet, legs, mouth, ear canal.

Problems with the circulatory system

Bleeding from the veins of the esophagus. With cirrhosis of the liver, portal hypertension develops – an increase in blood pressure in the veins of the esophagus and other organs of the abdominal cavity due to thickening of the liver tissue.The veins of the esophagus become dilated, tense. If their walls are damaged, severe bleeding may occur. This requires urgent medical attention and often surgery to stop the bleeding.

Blood clotting disorder. In decompensated liver cirrhosis, even small damage to blood vessels can lead to prolonged bleeding and the formation of hematomas.

Other symptoms

Ascites. This is the accumulation of free fluid in the abdominal cavity.Liver disease is the most common cause. Ascites occurs at the stage of decompensated cirrhosis of the liver, due to an increase in pressure in the veins going to the liver and impaired liver function.

Brain dysfunctions (encephalopathy). The liver is involved in the detoxification of many toxic substances. When it fails in its function, these substances can affect the function of the brain. In the initial stages, there may be memory impairments, difficulty counting, more severe symptoms such as darkening of the eyes, confusion and even coma.

Weight loss. The liver is involved in many processes in the body. When it does not cope with its function, metabolism is disturbed and the patient loses weight.

Osteoporosis and bone fractures. Severe liver disease can lead to osteoporosis (decreased bone density) and even bone fractures.