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Itchy foot liver: The request could not be satisfied


Fatty liver disease: Early signs on feet include red shiny dots, cracked heels and itching

An unhealthy liver with symptoms being ignored could develop into fatty liver disease, a dangerous condition everyone wants to avoid. Before the disease develops the feet will often give clues and signs indicating it’s not functioning properly. What are the three signs found on the feet warning you may be at risk of developing fatty liver disease?

“Cracked heels are a sign of a vitamin B3 deficiency or a omega-3 fatty acid deficiency and one of the functions of the liver is to make bio and help you absorb these fatty acids.

“Cracked heels therefore can indicate a problem with the liver.

“Itchy of the foot is another symptom and is usually found at the bottom of the foot.

“This indicates a backup of fluid into the liver and can indicate an ingested liver it could also be bile backing up and getting a build-up of histamines warning there is a problem with your liver.

In a study published in the US National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health, chronic liver diseases were investigated.

The study found that pruritus (itching) is one of the symptoms encountered in patients with chronic liver diseases.

Although pruritus may not be directly associated with the prognosis or outcome of liver diseases, a recent systematic review showed that pruritus has an impact on health-related quality of life in patients with cholestatic liver diseases, noted the study.

It added: “Pruritus may be an indication for liver transplantation even in the absence of liver failure.”


There is a theory suggesting that raised levels of histamines can cause pruritis, said Medical News Today.

The health site added: “One study reports high levels of histamine in people with cholestatic liver disease.

“However, the authors note that there is no correlation between the severity of pruritis and histamine concentration.

Little niggles can mean VERY different things at different times of day 

Coughs, sneezes, aches and pains can strike for many reasons, and the time of day they occur can be a clue to working out their cause and how to treat them.

Here, the experts reveal why timing could be the key to discovering why you are feeling unwell.


MORNING: If you wake up with a headache, it could be due to sleep apnoea, where the walls of the throat collapse during sleep, interrupting breathing.

Sleep apnoea, characterised by snoring, can cause levels of carbon dioxide (CO2) to rise in the blood. Too much CO2 can create a build-up of acid, known as acidosis, leading to headaches.

Experts reveal why timing could be the key to discovering why you are feeling unwell

‘Symptoms usually improve as the day progresses,’ says Dr Louise Selby, a GP based in Guildford.

Inflamed sinuses can also be a cause, as mucus builds up overnight and can’t drain if you’ve been lying horizontal. The pain lessens as people move, as this helps to clear blockages.

Migraines, debilitating headaches which can last for days, often start in the morning. ‘Many sufferers wake up with migraine,’ says Dr Fayyaz Ahmed, a consultant neurologist and trustee of the charity the Migraine Trust. ‘One theory is that oxygen levels drop due to slower respiration while sleeping, which might trigger migraine in those susceptible.’

DAYTIME: Chronic daytime headaches can be caused by too much coffee or other caffeinated drinks. The effects tend to be cumulative, so the headaches strike in the afternoon as your intake rises.

Caffeine is a diuretic, so causes dehydration, which in turn causes headaches. This could be due to the brain, which is 80 per cent water, shrinking and pulling away from the skull, triggering pain receptors.

If you wake up with a headache, it could be due to sleep apnoea

Caffeine’s diuretic effect acts on the renal tubules (tiny tubes inside the kidneys that filter the blood). The kidneys reabsorb some water and nutrients from the blood, excreting the remainder as urine.

‘Caffeine inhibits the reabsorption process of fluid, so more is passed out through the bladder,’ explains Professor Chris Eden, a consultant urologist at the Royal Surrey County Hospital in Guildford.

Eating sugary snacks such as biscuits at tea-time can also lead to spikes of insulin, followed by a crash in blood sugar levels, leading to headache. This is due to arteries around the brain constricting when glucose levels drop.

EVENING: By the end of the day, stress and eye strain can lead to tension headaches. Muscles around the eye are overworked by looking at a screen, for example, and go into spasm, says Dr Ahmed. ‘This triggers the nerves to transmit pain signals to the brain.’

Caffeine inhibits the reabsorption process of fluid, so more is passed out through the bladder

Tension headaches, often a pain at the temples, can last from 30 minutes to several days. ‘Keep a diary, so you can work out what may trigger it for you,’ advises GP Louise Selby. ‘Think about your posture and take regular screen breaks, so you can rest your eyes.’

Even looking out of a window for five minutes every hour can help, since it lets eye muscles relax.

Cluster headaches – excruciating headaches that occur in groups – can strike at the same time each night, typically around 2am, says Dr Andy Dowson, director of headache services at King’s College Hospital and chairman of Migraine Action’s medical board.

‘This may be related to disrupted sleep cycles – when people move between deep sleep, lighter, rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, and almost waking,’ says Dr Dowson. The area at the bottom of the brain, the brainstem, is involved in regulating this cycle and also has a role in migraine.

‘In trials we’ve found migraine originates in the hypothalamus, which is in the brainstem,’ says Dr Dowson. This could be why cluster headaches and some migraines occur at night.


Sneezing throughout the day is more likely to be caused by a virus such as the common cold

MORNING: The main cause of early morning sneezing is allergy.

‘The sneeze reflex is suppressed during sleep so people with allergies may only start sneezing when they wake, although they’ve been exposed to dust mites or fungal spores all night, as the allergens are still present in the nose when you wake,’ explains Dr Selby’

Air conditioning can also dry out the nasal passages, leading to sneezing first thing. ‘Sometimes sinusitis, inflammation of the sinus lining, can lead to morning sneezing, as when a sufferer starts to move, mucus drains from the sinuses, which can irritate the delicate nasal lining,’ says Dr Selby.

DAYTIME: Sneezing throughout the day is more likely to be caused by a virus such as the common cold. ‘You are more likely to have a temperature if you are sneezing through the day due to a virus,’ says Dr Selby.

EVENING: Sneezing that worsens at the end of the may be down to hay fever. Dr Peter Burt, an aerobiologist at the University of Greenwich, explains: ‘Pollen rises throughout the day and begins to fall back to the ground as the temperature drops, exposing you to a higher level of pollen.’

Dr Selby suggests steps to minimise the problem: ‘Simple things such as keeping the windows shut can help, as it keeps airborne pollen out.’ Also try to shower in the evening to wash pollen dust off before you settle down to sleep.

‘Some people benefit from using saline nasal washes (warm, salty water),’ adds Dr Selby. ‘If you are taking 24-hour antihistamines and you tend to suffer at night, take your medication three hours before bed, as this is how long it takes to reach peak efficacy.’

Night-time coughing is common in people with asthma


MORNING: Coughing first thing can be caused by chronic obustructive pulmonary disease, an umbrella term for lung conditions including bronchitis and emphysema – patients cough to clear lungs of mucus collected overnight.

The coughing reflex is suppressed during sleep, although the biological mechanism for this is not well understood.

People with asthma, caused by inflammation in the airways, also report coughing in the early morning. ‘The body clock has a role to play because levels of anti-inflammatories like cortisol are lowest in the early morning’ explains Dr Richard Russell, the honorary medical adviser to the British Lung Foundation. As levels of cortisol rise throughout the day, this chemical reduces the inflammation in the lungs, easing coughing.

DAYTIME: Coughing throughout the day is typical of a viral infection, including flu or a cold.

However, Dr Selby says:, ‘If you cough after a meal, it could be gastric reflux, when digestive juices from the stomach splash back into the gullet, causing a sensation of burning and a coughing fit.’

It can also be linked to medication. ACE inhibitors, used to control blood pressure, can cause a dry, irritating cough. ACE inhibitors are usually taken in the morning, one hour before breakfast, which is why symptoms tend to be worse during the day.

EVENING: Night-time coughing is common in people with asthma, with 61 per cent of patients in one study saying it prevents them sleeping well.

Our breathing is naturally slowest after midnight, resulting in less effective transfer of oxygen into the bloodstream and carbon dioxide out, says Dr Russell.

This happens to everyone but people with asthma are less able to cope with reduced airflow, so are more likely to suffer from evening coughs.

Bedrooms are also full of common allergy triggers – including house dust mites in bedding, soft toys and carpets, which may trigger more severe symptoms in the evening when people are in these rooms.

Why worn joints ache more in the afternoon 

If you have rheumatoid arthritis – where the immune system attacks joints, causing inflammation and pain – this can be worse in the morning.

This is due to the body clock that drives the inflammation process, explains Dr Qing-Jun Meng, a circadian biologist at the University of Manchester.

‘During the night, the body releases more cytokines, chemicals which can trigger inflammation if produced in too high quantities,’ he says. During the day, cytokines naturally drop again, reducing the inflammation and offering some pain relief. However, people with osteoarthritis – caused by wear-and-tear – can find pain worsens as the day progresses and more pressure is put on joints.

‘We do see a huge variability between individuals, but classically there are several peaks of pain during the day which coincide with greatest activity patterns,’ says Dr Meng.

‘Early afternoon is a common time for pain to peak, and then again in the early evening when people start relaxing.’ Pain is more noticeable when there are fewer distractions.


MORNING: Waking up with an itchy rash could be due to insect bites.

‘If you are bitten during the night, you will only feel it when you wake,’ says GP Dr Louise Selby. Bed bugs also make their presence felt first thing. Their bites aren’t noticed at the time because they inject anaesthetic chemicals and anticoagulants to prevent you waking.

DAYTIME: Itching may be a sign of solar urticaria – skin irritation triggered by exposure to sunlight. It causes hives within minutes and they can last for up to two hours after exposure.

Antihistamines can help and symptoms can be relieved by washing skin in cool water.

Scabies, where a mite burrows into skin causing intense itching, also causes daytime itching.

EVENING: ‘If a patient comes to me complaining of skin itching which worsens at night, I ask them if they use biological washing powder,’ says Dr Selby.

‘This is a common cause because their skin is in contact with the bedding for long periods overnight. Switching to non-biological powder can resolve the issue.’

Feathers in pillows and duvets can also cause allergic dermatitis in some individuals.

People suffering from liver disease, which can be caused by excessive alcohol consumption, often complain of skin itching and this tends to be worse in the evening and is most severe on the soles of the feet and the palms.

This is because bile salts, which help the liver remove waste, are deposited in the skin in the evening. Drugs such as albumin cause these bile salts to be excreted through the gut and help reduce this itching.

‘If you are bitten during the night, you will only feel it when you wake,’ says GP Dr Louise Selby

9 Reasons Why Your Feet Itch | Get Relief

4. Psoriasis

  • Red, itchy plaques on your feet
  • Thick, silvery scaling
  • Pustules (pus-filled bumps) on the soles of your feet
  • Thick, yellow, or brittle nails
  • Joint pain (arthritis) or back pain

Psoriasis is an autoimmune disease that can affect any part of the skin, including the soles of the feet. It occurs when the immune system mistakenly attacks your skin, triggering your skin cells to regenerate faster than normal. It’s not clear what causes the attack, but genetics and environmental factors likely play a role.

When psoriasis affects the feet, it usually develops on the palms of your hands too. This is called palmoplantar psoriasis.

Symptoms vary, depending on the type of psoriasis you have. Forms of the disease include plaque psoriasis, pustular psoriasis, and nail psoriasis. Some people have psoriatic arthritis, which also causes swollen and painful joints.


There is no cure for psoriasis, but there are several treatment options. These include topical steroids, an oral medication called acitretin, ultraviolet light therapy, or oral or injectable immunosuppressants.

People with psoriasis have sharply demarcated red plaques on the feet and often have pustules. Those with contact dermatitis have an itchy, red rash in the shape of the contact allergen. Those with eczema, or dyshidrotic dermatitis, have small blisters on their feet. Lastly, people with foot fungus have scaling diffusely on their feet or in between the toes, and may also have toenail fungus. —Dr. Levy

5. Hives

  • Itching
  • Pink or red skin rash that may be slightly raised
  • Welts (red bumps or splotches)
  • Burning and stinging

Hives, or urticaria, are swellings of the skin that are often itchy. They can be caused by a particular food, medication, viral infection, or autoimmune disease. But for many people, there’s no obvious reason.

Hives can occur on any part of the skin, including the soles of the feet. Symptoms usually last for less than 24 hours, then show up in a different area.


While minor hives aren’t an emergency, hives can sometimes be part of a serious allergic reaction. If you’re also experiencing swelling of your lips or tongue, trouble breathing, or diarrhea, go to the ER.

Minor hives can be treated with OTC antihistamines. If your symptoms don’t improve after a week or they interfere with your daily life, see your doctor. You may need to take prescription medication to get relief.

6. Scabies


Scabies is an infestation of tiny mites called Sarcopte scabiei. Symptoms develop when the mites burrow into your skin. It’s a contagious condition that can spread rapidly through close contact with groups of people, such as families, nursing home residents, and hospital patients.

The bumps often appear in folds of skin, including the ones on the soles of your feet. Other commonly affected areas include between the fingers, around the waist, and in the armpits.


Scabies is treated with a topical anti-parasite medication (permethrin) or an oral anti-parasite medication (ivermectin). Your doctor may also prescribe topical steroids to help with itching. The itch can last for several weeks after the mite has been treated. This is called post-scabetic dermatitis.

Because scabies is so contagious, you’ll need to wash all of your clothing and linens in hot water. Anyone you live with should also be treated for scabies because people can be carriers without having symptoms.

7. Liver disease

  • Itchy skin
  • Yellow skin and eyes
  • Abdominal pain and swelling
  • Swelling in your legs and ankles
  • Dark urine color
  • Pale stool color
  • Chronic fatigue
  • Nausea
  • Vomiting

When your liver isn’t functioning properly, a yellowish substance called bilirubin builds up in your blood. Bilirubin is formed when red blood cells break down. It’s normally removed from your body by your liver. When your bilirubin levels are high, your skin becomes itchy and turns yellow.


If you have symptoms of liver disease, your doctor will order tests to figure out why your liver isn’t working. These include blood tests and an ultrasound or CT scan of your abdomen.

The itching caused by liver disease can be treated with a gentle hypoallergenic moisturizer, OTC or prescription antihistamines, or, in severe cases, ultraviolet light therapy. Your doctor may also recommend lifestyle changes, such taking lukewarm showers to prevent your skin from becoming dry. If your liver function improves, your itching may stop.

8. Kidney disease

  • Itching
  • Dry skin
  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • Loss of appetite
  • Fatigue and weakness
  • Urine changes
  • Muscle twitches and cramps
  • Swollen feet and ankles

Itching caused by kidney disease is called uremic pruritus. When the kidneys aren’t working properly, it can lead to a buildup of certain substances that they would normally filter from your blood, such as urea. These substances can cause severe itching, especially on your palms or the soles of your feet. The itching may be worse at night.


If you have symptoms of kidney disease, your doctor will do blood and urine tests to figure out why your kidneys aren’t functioning. Treating the itching with OTC or prescription oral antihistamines may be helpful. Other medications that help with nerve conduction, like gabapentin, may be recommended.

If you require dialysis (a procedure that removes excess water and toxins from the blood), the itching may go away after your treatment.

Itching during pregnancy | Pregnancy Birth and Baby

Mild itching is common in pregnancy because of the increased blood supply to the skin. As your pregnancy progresses and as your baby grows, the skin of your abdomen is stretched and this may also feel itchy.

Mild itching is usually nothing to worry about, but if the itching becomes severe it can be a sign of a serious liver condition called obstetric cholestasis. This affects fewer than 1 in 100 pregnant women, but needs medical attention.

Mild itching

Wearing loose clothes may help prevent itching, as your clothes are less likely to rub against your skin and cause irritation. You may also want to avoid synthetic materials and choose natural fabrics such as cotton that allow the air to circulate close to your skin. You may find that having a cool bath or applying lotion or moisturiser can help to soothe the itching.

Some women find that products with strong perfumes can irritate their skin, so you could try using plain lotion or soap.

Serious itching: obstetric cholestasis

If you’re worried about your itching, or if you have severe itching, it’s important to see your midwife or doctor.

Obstetric cholestasis (OC), also called intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy, is a serious liver disorder that affects a small number of pregnant women, usually in the last 3 months of pregnancy.

Causes of obstetric cholestasis

The cause of OC is unclear, but it’s thought the rise of pregnancy hormones later in pregnancy may slow the normal flow of bile — the digestive fluid made in the liver that helps your digestive system break down fats. In OC, bile salts build up rather than leaving the liver, eventually entering the bloodstream, which can make you feel itchy.

OC seems to run in families, although it can occur with no family history. It is also more common in women of Indian and Pakistani origin. If you have had OC in a previous pregnancy, you’re more likely to develop it again in a subsequent pregnancy.

Babies of women with OC are more likely to be born prematurely or to be stillborn, or to have lung problems from breathing in meconium. Because of these complications, your doctor may consider inducing labour before you are due.

Symptoms of obstetric cholestasis

The classic symptom of OC is itching without rash, usually on the palms and soles of the feet, but it may be more widespread. The itching can be non-stop or unbearable, and worse at night.

Other symptoms include dark urine, jaundice (yellowing of the skin and whites of the eyes), and pale bowel movements (poo).

The itchiness usually goes away within a few days after giving birth.

Treatment of obstetric cholestasis

OC is diagnosed through taking a medical and family history, and blood tests that check your liver function (liver functions tests — LFTs). Once OC is diagnosed, you will have regular LFTs until your baby is born, so that your doctor can monitor your condition.

Creams, such as calamine lotion, are safe to use in pregnancy and can provide some relief from itching. Your doctor may prescribe a medication to reduce bile salts and ease itching.

OC can affect your absorption of vitamin K, which is important for healthy blood clotting so you may be offered a vitamin K supplement.

If you are diagnosed with OC, your midwife and doctor will discuss your health and your options with you.

How to Make Your Feet Stop Itching at Night

William Voon / EyeEmGetty Images

So you had a whole day without a single peep from your feet. And when you get into bed at night, all of a sudden your feet feel itchy. You scratch the itch and go back to resting. But the itch is still there. So you repeat. Repeat. Get frustrated. Repeat.

Why is it that your feet seem to suddenly itch at night? Not like you’re wearing itchy socks. Not like your sheets are any different than they were last night. So what’s up?

Certain theories tend to get trotted out about itchy feet at night. “There are some common assumptions about it that probably aren’t correct,” says Brian S. Kim, M.D., co-director at the Center for the Study of Itch at Washington University School of Medicine. One classic hypothesis is that people are less distracted at night and all of a sudden tune into the itch. “I don’t think it’s that simple,” says Dr. Kim.

That said, it’s not entirely clear what a more complex answer is yet. A newer hypothesis is that nighttime itching could be a result of end-of-day changing circadian rhythms, Dr. Kim says. At night, the anti-inflammatory chemicals in your body are lower, and they may have to do with regulating the sensitivity of itching. “You may get a cleaner kind of signal from a nighttime itch,” he says.

Evolutionarily, that stronger, cleaner itch signal at night might have served us well. “I’m getting really speculative here, but if you don’t move at all at night, you may be more susceptible to getting infestations with mites, or even getting bitten by mosquitoes,” says Dr. Kim.

What makes feet itchy?

Ask why people’s feet itch and dermatologists take a deep breath, because there can be a huge number of drivers. Some are very simple, others not so much. Causes can include:

Athlete’s foot.

“When a patient comes in and complains of itchy feet, the first thing a dermatologist usually does is look between the toes to see if there’s redness, cracking, flaking, or scaling,” says Shawn Kwatra, M. D., assistant professor of dermatology at Johns Hopkins Medicine. Those often indicate athlete’s foot, and remedies include keeping your feet as dry as possible and using an over-the-counter anti-fungal product.

Dry skin.

“As you get older, you have less of an ability to retain water in the outer layer of skin,” says Dr. Kwatra. On top of that, since you’re walking on your feet all day, they can be thickened and dry, anyway. All of which adds up to extra itch on your feet. Help stop it by applying moisturizing cream—the kind that comes in a jar—on your feet at night. “Cream is more moisturizing than lotion,” Dr. Kwatra points out. “The more gooey it is, the more moisturizing it is.”

Skin conditions including eczema and psoriasis.

These usually make the rest of your body itchy, and the feet aren’t exempt from feeling it.

Other medical problems.

Nerve damage caused by unchecked diabetes can cause itching in the feet, as can liver disease. Sometimes, Dr. Kwatra says, “itch on the body can be a harbinger of underlying illness.” Most of the time, itch that hints at an underlying illness won’t just be in your feet. “Take it in context with the rest of your health,” he says. In other words, not every itchy foot is going to be the sign of a big issue like these, but if itchy feet are a consistent and long-standing problem for you, get yourself checked out, says Dr. Kwatra.

Systems we haven’t even figured out yet.

“Itching may be a result of multiple system failures,” says Dr. Kim. Itch may not just be one symptom, there may be many forms of itch. “Itch is almost a field of medicine onto itself,” he says. And only the surface has been scratched, so to speak.

How to stop itchy feet at night

The toolbox for stopping that annoying itch is pretty straightforward:

  • Use moisturizer. If your feet are extra dry, use heavy-duty creams there. (Check out some of our favorite moisturizers for dry skin. )
  • Consider a product with menthol. The cooling sensation that you get with menthol can help dim the feeling that you need to itch by confusing the nerves that are transmitting the itch signal.
  • Manage your stress. There’s likely an itch/stress cycle when things get really bad—itch can trigger a lot of anxiety and stress, and it’s likely that that triggers more itch. Even on a more casual itch level, stress probably plays a role, too. “Lots of patients ask me, ‘Did my stress cause this?’” says Dr. Kim. “My answer is that I don’t think so, but it does aggravate it.” (Check out 9 ways to relieve stress here.)

    Marty Munson
    Marty Munson, currently the health director of Men’s Health, has been a health editor at properties including Marie Claire, Prevention, Shape and RealAge.

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    Itching during pregnancy | BabyCenter

    Is it normal to have itching during pregnancy?

    Yes, mild itching in pregnancy is normal in most cases. It’s also common – about 20 percent of women have itchy skin during pregnancy.

    You may feel especially itchy around your belly and breasts as your skin stretches to accommodate their growth. (And yes, that includes itchy nipples, which are also common during pregnancy.) Dry skin and hormonal changes may also contribute to the extra itchiness. In the winter, dry heat (especially from radiators) can also exacerbate itching.

    Some itchy skin conditions, such as eczema, can get worse during pregnancy, though some women find that their eczema improves. With psoriasis, however, many women report less severe symptoms during pregnancy, while few find that their psoriasis gets worse.

    If you have a new itchy rash during pregnancy or you’re experiencing severe itching on your palms or the soles of your feet, reach out to your healthcare provider – these are sometimes symptoms of more serious conditions that require medical care.

    Ways to prevent itching during pregnancy

    You may not be able to prevent itchy skin entirely, but these tips might minimize itching in pregnancy:

    • Take lukewarm showers and baths. Hot water can dry out your skin and make the itching worse. (It’s best to avoid super-hot baths when you’re pregnant anyway.) Use mild, fragrance-free soap, and rinse it off well. Towel yourself dry gently.
    • Stay as cool as possible. Try to avoid being outside for extended periods in the heat of the day because heat (and overheating) can make itching worse.
    • Wear comfy clothing. Loose cotton clothing keeps your skin from getting irritated.
    • Moisturize. Slather on fragrance-free lotion or cream after you take a shower or bath. Keep lotion in the fridge so that moisturizing your skin also feels cooling. 
    • Lower your stress. Take steps to reduce stress and anxiety while you’re pregnant, which, even though it may not seem connected, can actually make itching worse.

    How to relieve itchy skin during pregnancy

    Do your best not to scratch because it can irritate your skin further and increase the risk of skin infections. If you’re itching because of dry, stretched skin, these simple measures can give you some relief:

    • Apply cold. Put an ice pack or a cool, wet compress on itchy areas for five to ten minutes, or until the itch fades.
    • Moisturize. Lotions and creams that are free of fragrances are best. Pure aloe vera gel applied directly to itchy areas may also provide some temporary relief.
    • Take an occasional warm oatmeal bath. You can buy commercially prepared oatmeal baths in drugstores or online.
    • Apply medicines before moisturizing. Talk to your healthcare provider about topical, anti-itch medications that are available over-the-counter, including calamine lotion. While most of these medicines are safe during pregnancy, it’s best to review them with your ob or midwife first. If your provider prescribes you a topical medication for itching during pregnancy, apply it as instructed and then moisturize your whole body, even the areas of skin you’ve just treated with medication.

    When to call your healthcare provider about itching during pregnancy

    Call your provider if you:

    • Develop a new rash during pregnancy
    • Have a skin condition that’s getting worse
    • Feel very itchy, especially on your hands and feet, but don’t have a rash

    Your provider will want to do a physical exam and potentially order some blood tests so they can diagnose any potential problems, recommend appropriate treatment, and refer you to a dermatologist if necessary.

    While most itching in pregnancy is normal, some conditions that cause itchy skin can affect your baby’s well-being and require special monitoring or treatment. For example, severe itching without a rash can be a symptom of cholestasis of pregnancy, a liver condition that happens when bile starts building up in the liver.

    And although an itchy rash during pregnancy is usually one of several uncomfortable-but-harmless conditions, it can be a symptom of a rare-but-serious condition called pemphigoid gestationis, so let your healthcare provider know about any new rashes.

    If you develop small and itchy raised spots that look like pimples around your belly – especially in the third trimester – they may be pruritic urticarial papules and plaques of pregnancy (commonly known as a PUPPP rash), a rare pregnancy skin condition that doesn’t lead to complications but can cause severe itching.

    Read more:

    Pregnancy symptoms you should never ignore

    Staying comfortable in the third trimester: Tips from moms 

    Skin darkening during pregnancy  

    Your Quick Guide to Itching and Pancreatic Cancer — Pancreatic Cancer Action Network

    Itchy skin is often caused by everyday culprits like dry skin, allergies and bug bites. But it can also be a sign of certain medical conditions.

    It’s important to know that itchy skin, along with other symptoms, can be a sign of pancreatic cancer. And, it’s a potential treatment side effect. Here’s what you need to know about pancreatic cancer-related itching and ways to relieve it.

    Itching (with Jaundice) as a Symptom

    Itching can be caused by jaundice, a condition that may affect people with pancreatic cancer.

    Jaundice causes the skin and eyes to appear yellow due to a buildup of a bilirubin (a component of bile) in the body. Bile is made in the liver and released into the small intestine through a bile duct. Bilirubin builds up when there’s something, like a pancreatic tumor, blocking the liver from releasing the bile. This is called obstructive jaundice.

    Other jaundice symptoms include dark urine and light or clay-colored stools. Jaundice can cause itching, but not always. And, not all pancreatic cancer patients will experience jaundice.

    Pancreatic cancer may cause only vague unexplained symptoms. Pain (usually in the abdomen or back), weight loss, jaundice (yellowing of the skin and/or eyes) with or without itching, loss of appetite, nausea, change in stool, pancreatitis and recent-onset diabetes are symptoms that may indicate pancreatic cancer. If you are experiencing one or more of these symptoms, the Pancreatic Cancer Action Network (PanCAN) urges you to speak to your doctor immediately and reference pancreatic cancer.

    The most common way obstructive jaundice is relieved is by placing a stent. This in turn can help to relieve the itching. Stents are hollow flexible tubes that hold open a passageway, such as a duct, to allow fluids to flow through.

    Itching as a Side Effect

    Some cancer treatments, like chemotherapies, are known to cause itching as a side effect. Itching may also be a sign of an allergic reaction. If you’re receiving treatment and experiencing itching, talk to your healthcare team as soon as possible. According to ChemoCare, treating itching early will lessen its severity and lead to a faster recovery.

    Controlling Itching

    Seeing healthcare professionals who focus on symptom management and supportive (palliative) care improves outcomes and is critical for quality of life. PanCAN strongly recommends that symptom management and supportive (palliative) care be provided early in patients’ diagnosis as well as during and after treatment.

    If you’re experiencing itching, avoid scratching and seek medical attention. Your doctor may prescribe over-the-counter medicines, like creams (hydrocortisone cream, calamine lotion, etc.), antihistamines (Benadryl, etc.) or corticosteroids.

    Other things you can do to relieve itching include:

    • Applying cool compresses to the affected areas
    • Taking warm showers
    • Moisturizing your skin
    • Using hypoallergenic laundry detergent
    • Wearing cotton clothing, which is gentle on the skin

    About Polyclinic No.

    2 named after Semashko

    Itchy skin is a common symptom of many conditions. When it appears, it is necessary to consult a dermatologist and conduct a thorough examination. Often, itching occurs against the background of exacerbation of chronic dermatoses, liver pathologies and even helminthization. Itching, causes and treatment are within the competence of a competent specialist. Self-medication without identifying predisposing factors will not give any result. Only a doctor, having received diagnostic data and making an accurate diagnosis, can choose effective remedies for itchy skin.

    Skin itching: causes of violation

    Common causes of itchy skin include:

    • mechanical irritation of the skin by items of clothing;

    • insect bites;

    • helminthic invasions;

    • fungal infection of the skin, the development of seborrhea;

    • exacerbation of allergic diseases;

    • the use of substandard hygiene products;

    • relapse of some chronic pathologies: itching often occurs in diabetes, hormonal disorders during pregnancy, hepatitis, mental abnormalities;

    • inadequate personal hygiene;

    • exacerbation of dermatoses: psoriasis, seborrhea, eczema, atopic dermatitis.

    Diagnosis of skin itching

    To find out the causes of pruritus and prescribe treatment, it is necessary to determine the underlying disease. The examination is prescribed by such specialists as a dermatologist, allergist, immunologist, psychiatrist.

    To determine the cause of itching, special provocative tests and laboratory tests are performed. In some cases, complex diagnostics are required to assess the state of internal organs and select a comprehensive therapy.

    How to get rid of itchy skin?

    Itchy skin should not be joked, especially if it occurs against the background of signs of an immediate allergic reaction (anaphylactic shock, urticaria). In this case, it is urgent to take an antihistamine and call a doctor.

    For itchy dermatoses, local remedies are used: corticosteroids and other hormonal ointments, anti-inflammatory and antipruritic drugs. Treatment should be comprehensive, aimed at the cause of the main disease, since it is impossible to get rid of itching without this.

    Severe itching occurs with diabetes mellitus, insufficient function of the sebaceous glands and hormonal changes. These disorders are the main causes of pruritus in the elderly. They begin to scratch the body strongly, which leads to scratching and secondary infection. Rising glucose levels always lead to increased signs of itching, so keep a close eye on your blood sugar and get diagnosed regularly.

    If the itching is caused by insect bites or unfavorable external influences and is not accompanied by the appearance of a rash, tissue swelling, you can do with soda baths.Soda perfectly relieves discomfort.

    Severe itching is characteristic of the fungus (mycosis) of the foot and nails. Mycotic skin lesions require the use of special antifungal drugs – antimycotics. They are often applied topically to relieve itching. With severe fungal infection, you have to use antimycotics inside.

    Regardless of your guesswork, itchy skin needs a thorough examination. Do not ignore the recommendations of your doctor and do not self-medicate.Before using this or that method, consult your doctor.

    Which doctor should I contact:

    Dermatologist Tokareva O.V.

    USDG of the liver vessels

    In 90% of cases, residual changes in the lungs are revealed in those who have had covid. Fibrosis is most common when scar tissue appears in the lungs and oxygen saturation of the blood is impaired. With covid infection, the kidneys, liver, gastrointestinal tract, and heart can also be affected.

    Common consequences

    Lung damage:

    • dyspnea on exertion
    • cough
    • increased body temperature within 37.0 ° – 37.5 ° long time

    Increased thrombus formation:

    life-threatening condition, as a result of the formation of blood clots, stroke, myocardial infarction or thromboembolism can develop.

    Heart disease:

    rhythm disturbances, inflammation of the myocardium, manifested by heaviness in the region of the heart, interruptions in the work of the heart.

    Kidney disease:

    impairment of excretory function, development of renal failure.

    Disorder of the nervous system:

    headache, blurred vision, distraction, memory loss, decreased concentration, sleep disturbance, fear, depression.

    Disorder of the gastrointestinal tract:

    abdominal pain, heaviness in the right hypochondrium, nausea, indigestion.

    Weakness and pain in muscles

    Male infertility

    Consultation with a pulmonologist

    • Examination of the function of external respiration (FVD)
    • Laboratory diagnostics
    • Pulse Oximetry

    Post-Covid-19 rehabilitation program

    The program can be adjusted and supplemented by the attending physician, taking into account the patient’s condition and the characteristics of the transferred disease.

    Individual selection of medicines

    Respiratory gymnastics

    Allows to improve lung ventilation and blood oxygen saturation. Exercise regularly increases lung capacity.

    ILBI (intravenous laser blood irradiation)

    Improvement of the body through the action of light energy on the blood directly in the vessels themselves. The procedure is carried out using the apparatus – ALT “Matrix-ILBI”.The session lasts 15-20 minutes. It helps to improve the properties of blood, increase immunity, reduce swelling, supply organs with oxygen, and restore metabolism.


    Treatment based on inhalation of vapors of necessary drugs through a nebulizer into the respiratory tract. The local effect of using the inhaler occurs instantly.

    Therapeutic massage

    Normalizes the respiratory system. Massaging movements increase the intensity of blood supply and bronchial patency.


    Therapeutic method of influencing certain acupuncture points of the body using special needles. It activates and restores the internal natural forces of the human body.

    Comprehensive rehabilitation will allow you to fully recover

    • Reduce inflammation as soon as possible;
    • Improve lung ventilation;
    • Normalize oxygen supply to the body;
    • Eliminate bronchial obstruction;
    • Prevent the formation of fibrous tissue as the main cause of respiratory failure after pneumonia.

    Rehabilitation is necessary for absolutely all patients who have had coronavirus infection, pneumonia and acute respiratory viral infections in order to restore and maintain the quality of life!

    The program is maintained by

    CT scan of the liver – to make a computed tomography of the liver with contrast in Moscow: addresses, prices | Dikul center

    CT scan of the liver and biliary tract provides detailed information about the morphological structure of the liver, gallbladder and other structures of this area, much more than X-ray of the abdomen. CT of the liver (including with contrast) allows you to detect various pathological conditions of the liver, gallbladder and biliary tract.


    CT scan of the liver and biliary tract is used to diagnose diseases of the liver, gallbladder, such as:

    • Tumors or other masses
    • Injured liver
    • Bleeding
    • Infection
    • Abscesses
    • Unexplained abdominal pain
    • Thrombosis
    • Other pathological conditions
    • Computed tomography of the liver may be performed in cases where other methods of examination, such as X-ray, ultrasound and physical examination, do not allow verification of the diagnosis.
    • The

    • CT scan of the liver can also be used to accurately insert the needle during liver biopsy. A liver biopsy is a small amount of tissue taken and analyzed in a laboratory.
    • CT scan of the liver can also serve as a visual control to remove fluid from the fluid area, as well as to clarify the genesis of jaundice, which may be associated with liver pathology.
    • Computed tomography of the liver may be prescribed by a doctor to diagnose other conditions.


    The patient can ask the radiologist about the amount of radiation that he will receive during the CT scan.

    It is imperative to inform the doctor about the fact of pregnancy. Intrauterine radiation exposure of the fetus can lead to the development of birth defects.

    If contrast is planned for CT scan of the liver, the patient should report allergy to the contrast drug or iodine.

    It is also necessary to inform the doctor about the presence of renal pathology, especially if there is renal failure, since the contrast can significantly impair renal function in certain cases.Patients with kidney disease are at greater risk of kidney damage from contrast exposure to kidney disease.

    A patient with diabetes should inform the doctor about taking metformin.

    Certain circumstances may reduce the usefulness of CT of the liver.

    These include:

    • Metallic objects in the abdomen (e.g. surgical clips)
    • Presence of barium in the gastrointestinal tract after a recent study
    • History of recent intravenous contrast or oral contrast study

    Preparation for procedure

    • The treating physician should explain the procedure and allow the patient to ask any questions.
    • If contrast is used in CT, the patient will be asked to sign an informed consent, which will authorize the use of contrast in the procedure.
    • The patient should inform the radiologist if he has a history of contrast or iodine allergy
    • As a rule, before the procedure, you must refrain from eating for several hours before the procedure. When using contrast, special training may be required, the essence of which will be explained by the attending physician.
    • Tell your doctor if you are taking any medication or supplements
    • It is necessary to inform the doctor about the presence of kidney problems
    • Inform about pregnancy
    • Inform the X-ray technician about the presence of a piercing on the abdomen or chest

    Liver CT procedure

    The patient can perform CT on an outpatient basis or in a hospital.

    Typically, a CT scan of the liver and biliary tract consists of the following steps:

    • The patient will be asked to remove clothing, jewelry, or objects that interfere with the procedure.
    • The patient will be provided with a gown after taking off his clothes.
    • If the patient needs a CT scan with contrast, a catheter will be inserted into the vein through which the contrast agent will be injected. For oral contrast, the drug is given to the patient in a liquid state for drinking.
    • The patient will lie on a narrow scanner table that fits into the large circular opening of the tomograph. Special pillows and straps can be used to prevent the patient from moving during the procedure.
    • During the procedure, the laboratory assistant is in another room, where the control panel of the tomograph is located. But the patient can see the technician through the window and communicate with him using audio communication.
    • During the scanning process, the tube rotates around the examination area and X-rays pass through the human body for a short period of time. Patient may hear buzzing or clicking noise during scanning
    • X-rays absorbed by the tissues are detected by the scanner and transmitted to the computer.The computer converts the received information into visual information and it is interpreted by the radiologist.
    • It is very important that the patient remains motionless during the procedure. The patient may be asked to hold their breath for a few seconds.
    • If contrast is used, the patient may experience sensations such as warmth, a metallic taste in the mouth, an episode of headache, or nausea. These effects usually last no more than a few minutes.
    • Inform the laboratory technician if you experience sweating, numbness, respiratory distress or palpitations.
    • After the scan is complete, the patient gets off the scanner.
    • If contrast was injected, the catheter is removed after the procedure.
    • The patient may be asked to wait while the radiologist assesses the quality of the images.

    Although CT is not painful, standing still in the scanner can cause discomfort and pain, especially if there is a history of surgery.

    After procedure

    If contrast was used during the scan, watch for side effects such as swelling, itching, rash, breathing and circulation problems.If the patient notices any of these symptoms, they should inform the radiologist or your doctor.

    In the presence of pain, redness in the area of ​​contrast injection, it is necessary to inform the doctor, as this may be a sign of infection.

    If there are no side effects, then the patient can return to their normal lifestyle immediately after the scan.