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Itchy hives on arms and legs: The Truth about 7 Common Food Additives


Leg Rash – Symptoms, Causes, Treatments

Leg rashes can be caused by a wide variety of diseases and conditions, such as infection, inflammation, allergic reaction, parasite and insect bites, and autoimmune processes. For example, an acute leg rash that appears suddenly may be caused by an allergic reaction or sensitivity to a particular substance, such as poison ivy, hair waxing or shaving, or an insect bite.

A chronic, ongoing leg rash may be caused by atopic dermatitis (eczema) or psoriasis. Psoriasis is characterized by slightly raised patches of itchy skin with red borders and silver scales.

Serious causes of leg rashes include a severe allergic reaction with anaphylaxis (tightening and closing of the airways) and cellulitis (an invasive bacterial or fungal infection of the skin and surrounding tissues).

Infectious causes of a leg rash

A leg rash may be caused by an infection including:

  • Bacterial infection, such as from streptococcal and staphylococcal bacteria

  • Chickenpox (viral infection)

  • Fifth disease (mild viral infection in children that can also cause harm to unborn babies)

  • Folliculitis (infection or inflammation of a hair follicle)

  • Fungal infection of the skin (also called ringworm)

  • Measles (viral infection)

  • Rocky Mountain spotted fever

  • Viral infections such as roseola

Allergic causes of a leg rash

A leg rash may be caused by an allergic reaction including:

Autoimmune and inflammatory causes of a leg rash

A leg rash may be caused by autoimmune and inflammatory disorders including:

Parasite or insect causes of a leg rash

A leg rash may be caused by parasites or insects including:

  • Bedbugs

  • Body lice

  • Fleas or ticks (ticks carry the bacteria that cause Rocky Mountain spotted fever)

  • Mites (parasites that cause scabies)

  • Mosquitoes (mosquitoes also carry parasitic diseases)

Other causes of a leg rash

A leg rash may also accompany the following conditions:

Life-threatening causes of a leg rash

In some cases, a leg rash may accompany a serious or life-threatening condition, including a severe allergic reaction called anaphylaxis.  Life-threatening conditions include:

What are the potential complications of a leg rash?

In some cases, a leg rash can lead to complications, especially if there is severe itching and scratching that leads to breakdown of the skin. Scratching can introduce bacteria or fungus in the layers of skin, resulting in infections. Complications include:

  • Bacterial or fungal infection of the skin

  • Cellulitis (an invasive bacterial or fungal infection of the skin and surrounding tissues)

  • Open sores and lesions

  • Permanent change in skin texture, scarring

  • Permanent skin discoloration

Complications of underlying causes of a leg rash, such as diabetes or peripheral artery disease, can also occur. You can best reduce the risk of complications of a leg rash and its underlying causes by following the treatment plan you and your health care provider develop specifically for you.

Lower Leg Rash | What You Need to Know About a Rash on One Lower Leg

Eczema (atopic dermatitis)

Eczema (atopic dermatitis) is a non-contagious chronic skin condition that produces an itchy rash. It is caused by a genetic condition that affects the skin’s ability to protect itself from bacteria and allergens. The most susceptible are those with a family hi..

Non-specific skin rash

Common causes of rash are contact dermatitis, sun damage, or allergic reaction. However, many rashes are a symptom of disease and should not be ignored.

Nonspecific rashes have widely varied symptoms:

  • May be flat and smooth; slightly raised or with swollen welts; clean and dry; or blistered and oozing.

May spread widely over the body, or be confined to one site.

  • May appear after eating certain foods; or after exposure to certain plants or to insect stings or bites.

Other symptoms may be present, including pain anywhere in the body; nausea; vomiting; fever; headache; or abdominal pain and upset.

Diagnosis is made through patient history and physical examination to determine the exact type, location, and history of the rash, along with any other symptoms that may be present.

Those symptoms will be investigated with blood tests or imaging. Skin swabs may be taken and tested. After the process has ruled out as many causes as possible, a course of treatment can be determined.

Rarity: Common

Top Symptoms: rash

Symptoms that always occur with non-specific skin rash: rash

Urgency: Wait and watch

Seborrheic dermatitis

Seborrheic dermatitis is a common chronic inflammatory skin condition that causes flaky, white to yellowish scales to form on oily areas such as the scalp, face or inside the ear. It can occur with or without reddened skin. The exact cause of this condition is not known, although doctors think that some common skin yeast organisms, called Malassezia, may play a role in some people.

Rarity: Common

Top Symptoms: itchy rash, red or pink, rough patch of skin, rash with well-defined border, scalp skin changes, cheek skin changes

Symptoms that never occur with seborrheic dermatitis: fever

Urgency: Phone call or in-person visit

Pityriasis rosea

Pityriasis rosea is a common skin rash and is thought to be due to a type of herpes virus. It is not contagious and is not sexually transmitted. Most susceptible are teenagers and young adults.

Symptoms include a single large scaly patch somewhere on the body. In the next 7 to 14 days similar oval pink patches on the arms, legs, and trunk appear, sometimes in a pattern of lines.

There may also be itching, fatigue, and body aches along with the rash. Anything that raises body temperature, such as exercising or a hot bath, may worsen the rash.

The condition may last for a few weeks and is normally gone after three to four months. Sometimes flat brown spots are left as the rash fades.

Pityriasis rosea can resemble other conditions, so getting an accurate diagnosis is important. Diagnosis is made through blood tests and skin cultures.

Treatment involves topical medications for itching, as well as antiviral and anti-inflammatory medications by mouth to aid healing. Cool baths and reduced exercise will also help.

Rarity: Rare

Top Symptoms: rash, itchy rash, curved rash, rough patch with red spots around it

Symptoms that always occur with pityriasis rosea: rash

Symptoms that never occur with pityriasis rosea: blue-colored skin changes, black-colored skin changes, brown-colored skin changes

Urgency: Self-treatment

Lower leg weakness

Any leg weakness is a sign of nerve damage, which is very worrisome and requires you to go see a doctor immediately!

Rarity: Uncommon

Top Symptoms: lower leg weakness, foot weakness, arm weakness, loss of vision, severe pelvis pain

Urgency: Hospital emergency room

Chronic hepatitis c

Chronic hepatitis C is a liver inflammation caused by Hepacivirus C.

If someone is infected with hepatitis C and gets the acute form of the disease, there is about a 50% chance of the disease becoming chronic. This means that the virus remains in the body after the acute, short-term disease is over, and may or may not cause further illness.

Some patients have no symptoms of chronic hepatitis C until years later, when liver damage has developed and the signs of cirrhosis (scarring) begin to appear. Hepatitis C can also lead to liver cancer.

Diagnosis is made through blood tests.

Treatment for chronic hepatitis C involves taking medications prescribed by the physician; avoiding alcohol; and using no supplements or prescription medications without a doctor’s clearance. In some cases, a liver transplant will be needed to save the patient’s life.

The best prevention is to never share needles, toothbrushes, or other personal care items, and to always practice safe sex. There is no vaccine for hepatitis C.

Rarity: Common

Top Symptoms: fatigue, nausea, muscle aches, loss of appetite, joint pain

Symptoms that never occur with chronic hepatitis c: pain in the lower right abdomen, pain in the lower left abdomen, pain in the upper left abdomen, pain around the belly button

Urgency: Primary care doctor

Irritant contact dermatitis

Irritant contact dermatitis means a skin reaction that is caused by directly touching an irritating substance, and not by an infectious agent such as a bacteria or virus.

Common causes are soap, bleach, cleaning agents, chemicals, and even water. Almost any substance can cause it with prolonged exposure. Contact dermatitis is not contagious.

Anyone who works with an irritating substance can contract the condition. Mechanics, beauticians, housekeepers, restaurant workers, and health care providers are all susceptible.

Symptoms include skin that feels swollen, stiff, and dry, and becomes cracked and blistered with painful open sores.

A medical provider can give the best advice on how to heal the skin and avoid further irritation. Self-treatment can make the problem worse if the wrong creams or ointments are used.

Diagnosis is made through patient history, to find out what substances the patient comes into contact with, and through physical examination of the damaged skin.

Treatment involves avoiding the irritating substance if possible. Otherwise, the person can use petroleum jelly on the hands underneath cotton and then rubber gloves.

Rarity: Common

Top Symptoms: rash with well-defined border, itchy rash, red or pink, rough patch of skin, painful rash, red rash

Symptoms that always occur with irritant contact dermatitis: rash with well-defined border

Symptoms that never occur with irritant contact dermatitis: fever, black-colored skin changes, brown-colored skin changes, blue-colored skin changes

Urgency: Self-treatment


Hives, or urticaria, are flat red welts that can appear anywhere on the skin and usually itch. Hives often occur as an allergic reaction to something eaten or something that has contacted the skin. Foods, medicines, and plants are common causes, but sun exposure, stress, infections, and autoimmune diseases have also been..

Allergic contact dermatitis of the lower leg

Allergic contact dermatitis is a condition in which the skin becomes irritated and inflamed following physical contact with an allergen. Common products known to cause allergic dermatitis include plants, metals, soap, fragrance, and cosmetics.

Rarity: Common

Top Symptoms: lower leg redness, lower leg itch, scabbed area of the lower leg

Symptoms that always occur with allergic contact dermatitis of the lower leg: lower leg redness

Urgency: Self-treatment

Lower leg rashes | DermNet NZ

Author: Dr Amanda Oakley MBChB FRACP, Dept of Dermatology Waikato Hospital, Hamilton, New Zealand, 2004. Reviewed and revised, May 2014.


Skin cancer

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Text: Miiskin


Most often, a rash affecting the lower legs is a type of dermatitis. The terms ‘dermatitis’ and ‘eczema’ are often used interchangeably. Acute dermatitis presents as red, swollen and blistered plaques. Chronic dermatitis accompanied by rubbing and scratching results in darkened (hyperpigmented), and thickened (lichenified) plaques.

There are several different types of lower leg dermatitis, which is common at all ages:

Scaly rashes of the lower legs

Scaly conditions affecting the lower legs include:

Infections favouring the lower legs

Redness of the lower legs

Other red or purplish conditions favouring the lower legs include:

Lower leg ulcers

Management of lower leg rashes

Management depends on making a correct diagnosis. General advice should include:

  • Avoid and treat dry skin, using non-soap cleansers and thick simple emollients. Avoid exposing the legs to direct heat or the hot air of the heater in a car.
  • Minimise swelling – avoid standing for prolonged periods, take regular walks, elevate the feet when sitting or overnight and wear special graduated compression stockings long term.
  • Prescription treatments may include oral antibiotics for secondary infection and topical steroids of varying potency – weak products can be used long term if necessary but potent topical steroids should be used once or twice daily for short courses of one to four weeks.

Avoid topical antibiotics, topical antihistamines and multi-ingredient fragranced or herb-containing emollients because of the risk of provoking contact allergy.


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Text: Miiskin

Itchy Legs When You Exercise or Walk

Do you get itchy legs when you walk or exercise? This is a symptom that can drive some people crazy and disrupt their exercise sessions. There are a few different syndromes and issues associated with this annoying problem.

Symptoms of Itchy Legs With Exercise

Some walkers complain that when they walk, their legs become so itchy, they just have to stop. Sometimes walking and jogging were the only exercises that produced this condition; they were fine with gym exercise and many sports.

Symptoms of itchy legs include itching, swelling, or hives on the legs, arms, torso, or neck during or after exercise. Some people even progress to having an anaphylactic reaction, which can include passing out unconscious or the closing off of the airway. When that happens, it is a life-threatening medical emergency.

Exercise Allergy #1: Cholinergic Urticaria (Itching)

It is the rise in body temperature that produces the itching, swelling, and small hives that some people experience. People who have this may also experience the same reaction in hot tubs or saunas. They may note that they are more likely to get the itching and hives on hot days. This rarely leads to anaphylaxis, which is the life-threatening drop in blood pressure that can be fatal in major allergic reactions. But it is wise to discuss it with your doctor to see what she recommends and to see whether any treatment by over-the-counter or prescription medication might help.

Treatment for cholinergic urticaria may include:

  • Using antihistamines
  • Avoiding exercise on warm or humid days
  • Reducing the intensity of your workout
  • Stopping exercise at the first sign of flushing, itchy skin, or hives

Exercise Allergy #2: Exercise-Induced Anaphylaxis

This life-threatening allergic reaction is usually seen when the victim is allergic to certain foods or medications and works out after partaking of the offending item.

Shellfish, wheat, hazelnuts, grapes, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (such as ibuprofen), antibiotics, cold medications, and herbal supplements can be the culprits.

The symptoms of the attack are fatigue, warmth, itching, redness of the skin, then large hives, collapse, and unconsciousness. The victim may have swelling of the throat, difficulty breathing, choking, nausea, and vomiting. Often, this attack is a medical emergency. But even if you have a milder episode, you should see your doctor as soon as possible for further examination and recommendations.

Treatment for exercise-induced anaphylaxis may include:

  • Working with your doctor to develop a comprehensive anaphylaxis action plan
  • Carrying and knowing how to use a self-injectable epinephrine pen
  • Avoiding the triggering food or medication on the day before and day of your exercise
  • Wearing a medic-alert bracelet describing your condition and what you are sensitive to
  • Walking with someone who knows about your condition and is prepared to call for emergency assistance

Allergy #3: Itchy Pants Syndrome

Do certain pairs of pants make your legs feel itchy, stinging, and irritated, especially in the thighs? This is more frequently seen when the pants are made of fabrics other than cotton.

The cause is thought to be the fabric finishes or formaldehyde that remains in the cloth, but laboratory tests don’t bear this out. Still, some people have itchy legs wearing anything other than 100 percent plain cotton denim. See your doctor to rule out other causes of itching.

Solutions for itchy pants syndrome may include:

  • Wearing pre-washed, cotton only, non-designer blue jeans
  • Switching to wearing skirts
  • Using over-the-counter topical anti-itch medications

Shoe and Sock Allergies

If your legs are fine but you have an itching sensation on your ankles and feet, you may be allergic to your shoes and socks.

A sock allergy is probably similar to itchy pants, and you may be reacting to the sock fabric. But shoe allergies can come from many different glues, dyes, and leather tanning agents.

Mastocytosis: Symptoms and Signs | Cancer.Net

ON THIS PAGE: You will find out more about body changes and other things that can signal a problem that may need medical care. Use the menu to see other pages.

People with mastocytosis may experience the following symptoms or signs. Sometimes, people with mastocytosis do not have any of these changes. Or, the cause of a symptom may be a different medical condition that is not mastocytosis.

General symptoms of mastocytosis

  • Hives

  • Red, itchy rash

  • Diarrhea

  • Abdominal pain

  • Fainting

  • Facial flushing or reddening of the face

  • Shortness of breath

  • Wheezing or trouble breathing

  • Psychological changes, such as irritability or difficulty concentrating

Symptoms of urticaria pigmentosa

Symptoms of solitary mastocytoma

Symptoms of diffuse erythrodermic mastocytosis

  • Thickening of the skin

  • Blisters

Symptom of telangiectasia macularis eruptiva perstans

  • Small lesions that do not itch

Symptoms of systemic mastocytosis

  • Skin lesions

  • Urticaria pigmentosa

  • Flushed face

  • Itching

  • Nausea

  • Vomiting

  • Diarrhea

  • Abdominal pain

  • Ulcers in the stomach and duodenum (small intestine)

  • Headache

  • Lightheadedness

  • Heart palpitations, an irregular or unusually rapid beating of the heart

  • Bone pain

  • Anemia, a low red blood cell count, which can cause fatigue

  • Psychological changes

The symptoms of systemic mastocytosis can sometimes occur as “attacks,” where more than 1 symptom appears at the same time. Following an attack, the person may feel tired and lethargic.

If you are concerned about any changes you experience, please talk with your doctor or a dermatologist, a doctor who specializes in skin conditions. Your doctor will ask how long and how often you’ve been experiencing the symptom(s), in addition to other questions. This is to help figure out the cause of the problem, called a diagnosis.

If mastocytosis is diagnosed, relieving symptoms is an important part of your care and treatment. This may also be called symptom management, palliative care, or supportive care. Be sure to talk with your health care team about the symptoms you experience, including any new symptoms or a change in symptoms.

The next section in this guide is Diagnosis. It explains what tests may be needed to learn more about the cause of the symptoms. You may use the menu to choose a different section to read in this guide.

COLD URTICARIA | Sports Medicine Today


Cold urticaria is an uncommon skin reaction to cold exposure, which can be environmental, from aquatic activities, handling cold objects, or even eating cold foods. It causes a rash or hives and is often associated with severe itching. Other symptoms may include a burning sensation, redness, and localized swelling. Rarely, in the most serious form, it causes difficulty breathing and an anaphylactic reaction.

It often occurs in athletes who are exposed to cold weather, but it may also happen on a relatively warm day if the sweat on the skin causes the skin temperature to drop. The cold causes the skin cells to release a chemical called histamine, which causes the itchy hives to form on the skin.


Some genetic causes of this disorder have been identified. Rarely, these symptoms may be caused by another medical condition, such as an auto-immune disease, hepatitis, or cancer. If your doctor is concerned about this, he or she will order more tests. Most of the time, it is unclear why this reaction happens.

Sports Medicine Evaluation & Treatment

A sports medicine physician will ask questions about the timing and conditions associated with your symptoms. He or she will ask about other medical conditions you have, medications you take, and any medical problems members of your family may have. A physical exam will be done, and the doctor may also order blood tests. Typically, symptoms resolve in a few hours and may not be present at the time you see the doctor. If you have a picture of the rash, it may help in diagnosis.

A “Cold Stimulation Test,” also called the ice cube test, may be done as a test to confirm the diagnosis in a safe environment. This may be done with an ice cube or an ice pack that is placed on your skin and then removed, followed by a period of observation to determine if urticaria develop. If the diagnosis is in question, your physician may encourage you to keep a diary around the occurrence of these episodes to determine other possible urticarial triggers.

Usually, the symptoms of cold urticaria can be safely managed. One should wear clothes to protect body surface exposure and consider taking medication before cold exposure that can block the action of histamine. Examples of these medications would include cetirizine, loratidine, or fexofenadine. Rarely, if the reaction is serious enough, you may experience symptoms of low blood pressure, racing heart, or difficulty breathing (anaphylaxis). Immediate attention by a physician would be needed. It may be necessary to carry an emergency medication (Epi-pen) if this has happened in the past or if testing indicates that it could happen again.

Injury Prevention

An anti-histamine medication like those listed above can be obtained over-the-counter or prescribed by a sports medicine doctor. This can be taken prior to activities where the athlete may be exposed to cold temperatures. This is usually only necessary once an athlete has had this reaction to the cold. Other educational information can also be provided by a sports medicine physician.

Return to Play

The symptoms typically only last a few hours, and if the athlete wants to return to play, he or she may do so once cleared by a physician. After the addition of a medication prior to exercise where cold conditions may be present or changes to training regimens and environments, the athlete typically has no difficulty returning to his or her sport.

AMSSM Member Authors
Justin McCoy, DO; Brian Larkin, DO

Mayo Clinic Website. Cold urticaria. Available at: http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/cold-urticaria/basics/definition/con-20034524. Accessibility verified January 21, 2017.

American Academy of Dermatology Website. Hives. Available at: https://www.aad.org/public/diseases/itchy-skin/hives#overview. Accessibility verified January 21, 2017.

Mahmoudi M. Cold-induced urticaria. J Am Osteopath Assoc. 2001 May;101(5 Suppl):S1-4.

Goodheart HP. Goodhearts Photoguide of Common Skin Disorders. 2nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2003.

Maurer M. Cold urticaria. In: Saini S, Callen J, Feldweg AM, eds. UpToDate.

The 5 Most Common Causes of Hives

If you’re experiencing or have ever experienced hives, chances are you’ve got a good idea of what caused them. Hives are most commonly a result of an allergic reaction, but there are a number of other exposures and factors that can cause them.

Understanding Hives

Hives go by many names including welts, wheals and their scientific name: urticaria. Hives are often itchy and can crop up anywhere. They appear as red, blotchy welts and can range in size from small spots the size of freckles, to large areas the size of a dinner plate. Hives can appear in a spreading network of welts in varying sizes, or in very small areas and never grow. Hives can appear almost instantly after contact with an irritant or up to around two hours after exposure. This can make the cause of hives difficult to determine since we generally come into contact with many things in the span of two hours. Because of this, we can say that around half of all hives cases are never figured out. Thankfully, hives are usually little more than harmless irritation that lasts around 24 hours. However, if you experience extreme swelling or difficulty breathing or swallowing, you should seek emergency attention.

Regardless of their cause, treatment generally entails a course of antihistamines or antibiotics depending on severity. Your dermatologist can perform different screenings such as blood work, allergy tests, or a skin biopsy to determine the cause of your hives and rule out an illness or infection if the cause is not evident.

The 5 Most Common Sources of Hives

An allergic reaction is the single most common cause for an outbreak of hives. It can happen to anyone at any time. Some children with allergies seemingly outgrow them, and adults can develop them almost out of nowhere. Food allergies (most commonly an allergy to citrus fruits) will cause hives. Other foods that can cause hives include milk, eggs, shellfish and peanuts (and tree nuts). An allergy to medications will also result in hives, so your doctor will ask if you have started taking any new drugs or assess whether your hives may be the result of an ongoing medicinal treatment.

Bites and stings by insects like bees, mosquitoes, or wasps can cause hives. This reaction is called papular urticaria and can result from the bites and stings of almost any insect, including fleas and bedbugs. These hives may last longer than other types of hives. Contact with animals, most commonly domestic ones like cats or dogs, can cause an allergic reaction and hives. However, the exposure to the dander, saliva, or urine of many animals can trigger a reaction.

Pollen is another common allergy, and unsurprisingly a reaction to a pollen allergy can manifest as hives. Physical exposure to or touching allergens like latex can cause hives as well. Even allergy shots (treatments designed to reduce allergy symptoms) can cause hives, since these shots expose you to allergens in order to strengthen your immunity.

As with any allergic reaction, if hives are accompanied by difficulty breathing or swallowing, this can be a sign of a much more severe and serious anaphylactic reaction. This requires immediate emergency medical attention to treat. If the allergy is known, an administration of a personal automatic epinephrine injector will be required.

Second to allergies, stress is a big creator or enabler of hives. Stress won’t have physical symptoms in small bouts, but prolonged emotional stress can cause chemical and hormonal changes that can lead to hives. Stress also leaves us more susceptible to illness and exposure to hives.

Illnesses ranging from the common cold to lupus can cause hives. Fungal and bacterial infections can give you hives too. Since medicines used to treat infections or illnesses can also cause hives, determining the source can be complicated.

Sweat from exercise can cause hives in some individuals, and in others exercise itself can cause hives. We don’t know much about why hives are caused by exercise. Sweat, which can also result from heat or nervousness, can cause hives if you’re allergic to a particular antibody produced in the sweat glands.

Sunlight can be harmful to your skin for a number of reasons, and hives can result from sun exposure. This is called solar urticaria and while it is rare, there are steps to avoid it. Use sunscreen with a high SPF, wear clothing with at least 40 UP and limit exposure during the most intense bouts of sun (from mid-morning to mid-afternoon). Hives from contact with water, or aquagenic urticaria, are more likely in women, especially during and after puberty. Exposure to heat, cold, or water can cause hives as well.

While any of these exposures can cause hives, they are incredibly rare and little is known about why hives result from them. These differ from true allergies, however, as they don’t trigger the same immunoglobulin antibodies.

Dealing with Hives

Topical treatments prescribed by your doctor can alleviate hives. While hives itch, scratching them too much can lead to skin infections. Exercise caution when dealing with itchy skin.

If you are dealing with hives or often suffer from them, contact your dermatologist today.

Urticaria or Urticaria – iValueHealth.NET

Urticaria or Urticaria

Skin | Dermatology | Urticaria or Urticaria (Symptom)


Urticaria, commonly called hives, is a kind of skin rash with remarkably pale red, raised, itchy bumps.


Rashes are often the result of allergic reactions. However, there are many non-allergic reasons. In most cases, hives lasting less than six weeks (acute urticaria) are the result of an allergic trigger.Chronic urticaria (urticaria that lasts longer than six weeks) is rarely due to allergies.

Most patients with chronic urticaria have an unknown (idiopathic) cause. Perhaps as many as 30-40% of patients with chronic idiopathic urticaria have, in fact, an autoimmune cause. Acute viral infection is another common cause of acute urticaria (viral exanthem). Less common causes include a rash of friction, pressure, temperature changes, exercise, and sunlight.Blisters (raised areas surrounded by a red base) from hives can appear anywhere on the surface of the skin.

Whether the trigger is allergic or non-allergic, there is a complex release of inflammatory mediators, including histamine from mast cells, by the cutaneous, resulting in fluid leakage from superficial blood vessels. Blisters can be exactly sized, or several inches in diameter.

Quincke’s edema is a related condition (also from allergic and non-allergic causes), although fluid leaks from deeper blood vessels.Individual hives that are painful for more than 24 hours, or bruise as they heal, are more likely to have a more serious condition called urticaria vasculitis. Skin stroking hives (often linear in appearance) are due to a benign condition called dermographism. Hives (medically known as urticaria) redness, itching, raised patches of skin that appear in various shapes and sizes. They range in size from a few millimeters to several inches in diameter.The rash may be round, or it may form rings or large patches. Blisters (welts), red lesions with a red flash at the borders, are another manifestation of hives. The rash can occur anywhere on the body, such as the torso, arms, and legs.

Treatment of huts effectively – WellOnward Russia

Q1. My daughter has had hives covering her body for several months.The doctor said that hives usually last a couple of weeks to several months. My daughter has never been allergic to food or anything else. What could have caused this, and what is the most effective treatment for hives?

– Laurie, Florida


(known in the medical community as


) are very itchy patches, pink to reds that appear on the skin, feel lifted off the surrounding skin, and then disappear without a trace (unless the person scratches and breaks the skin).A custom hive can range from pencil eraser size to dinner size. Hives are not uncommon, and most people experience brief combat at least once in their lives. They usually last for a few days or a week and then go away as suddenly as they come. This can happen after someone has a mild infection, including everyday viruses, or in association with taking antibiotics. Hives can also be part of a more serious

allergic reaction

such as a reaction to food, medicine, or

Driving insects

Withdrawal Anyone who develops hives plus other symptoms – such as shortness of breath, dizziness or light headedness, tight throat, nausea or vomiting, or passing to a healthcare provider immediately.

Sometimes hive outbreaks last for weeks or months, as you describe in your daughter’s case. This condition is called

Chronic hives

, or

Chronic nettle

And it is characterized by having hives on most days of the week for six weeks or more. Less common than short-lived hives, this disorder affects one in 100 people. It is very upsetting for the person who has it because it is uncomfortable, unpredictable and interferes with sleep, school and work.However, it is almost never associated with a more serious medical problem or allergy.

Researchers don’t know with certainty what causes chronic crtaria, but there are a couple of leading theories. One is that chronic hives are caused by changes in white blood cells called basophils. Another is that some people start making antibodies (proteins that usually fight infection) that cause cells (mast cells) to release natural chemicals.These mast cells are found in the skin, and the chemicals cause swelling in the skin around the cells, creating hives. According to this theory, it is not clear that the process begins, but the good news is that the problem will eventually fix itself in most people after a period of time – a few months to a year is typical. However, a small number of unfortunate people have had chronic hives for years.


people with dead

Note that the symptoms are diet related in some way, but testing for food allergies usually shows that the person with the hives is not allergic to any food.This is because while some foods contain natural chemicals that aggravate hives, there are so many foods that do so that avoiding them to make a real difference in symptoms would be difficult and impractical.

Hive people almost always demand


control symptoms. Antihistamines are considered the safest and most effective initial treatments. Certain antihistamines such as








), and




) cause less drowsiness and dry mouth than others such as




) and chlorpheniramine. Doctors often need to combine different

Types of antihistamines

or double the dose of one medicine. To find out the right drug or drug combination for your daughter, you will need to talk with a doctor about her age and how well she responds to the various medications.If the hives are still not controlled on full doses of two or more antihistamines, many doctors will add a medicine called




) for a month or so, and some patients improve. Every patient is different, although it can take weeks to find a set of drugs that work. The process can be frustrating, so be patient.

Q2. I have had chronic hives in the past six months.The only thing that temporarily controls them is prednisone. Once I lose it, they come back with vengeance in 24 hours or less. Is there anything else that might help? I already take Zyrtec and Zantac. I am desperate and grateful for any suggestions.

– Gale, Massachusetts

The hives are raised, intensely itchy spots or patches that appear in crops for several hours and then resolve without leaving any residual marks on the skin.They can range in size from as large as a pencil eraser to dinner size. Hiji can appear anywhere on the body, although the legs, arms, abdomen, armpits, and neck are the areas where they are most common. Most people develop hives at least once in a lifetime, and the trigger is often not obvious.

“Chronic hives” are hives that occur in episodes, daily or nearly every day, for more than six weeks. For a benign condition, hives will certainly cause a lot of suffering for those who have them.As your doctor probably mentioned, there is no identifiable allergy or underlying medical condition to explain chronic hives in roughly 85 percent of those who suffer from them.

If you visit the message boards on this site, you will find a lot of people writing under the thread called Crazy Itch. Just read what others have posted, you may get a sense of how annoying this problem is. Plus, you can see that different treatments work for different people, and what appears to be a miracle cure for one person has minimal impact on another.

The bottom line is this: there is no magic cure for hives. Most of the time, people try different medications until they find some combination that works for them.





) and Zyrtec (cetirizine) has helped many people, although you may need to double your regular dose of Zyrtec to 10 mg twice daily for decent relief. The Zantac you are taking must be at least 150 mg twice daily.

In addition to this, some people benefit from 10 to 20 mg


before bedtime. Doxipin A.N.


when taken in higher doses, but at lower doses acts as a potent


Disclaimer It is very graying, however, some people feel terrible in the morning. Another antihistamine that may be helpful


taken in a dosage of 25 mg every six to eight hours if needed, although it will also calm down.


It will be easy on the hives in most cases, but it can have severe side effects if taken continuously over months or years. Dramatic and sudden changes in medication often cause the hives to flare up again, so sometimes I have success reducing the prednisone dose very, very slowly. For example, once you’re on 10 mg, try dropping one milligram every four days or so: in other words, 9 mg a day for four days; 8 mg daily for the next four days, etc. E. Once you reach 4 or 5 mg, try changing to give prednisone every other day for a week and then stop. When lowering and stopping prednisone, you must also keep the antihistamines running at full strength, and if you’re lucky, they will offer enough relief on their own.

Make sure you don’t accidentally do anything that can worsen the hives. Things that seem to make hives and itching worse in most of all include:

  • Dramatic temperature changes (hot showers, post-workout cooling)
  • Alcohol
  • Like a medicine


    and other excessive pain medications.(



    or general – usually ok.)
  • Stress
  • Poor sleep
  • Dramatic dietary changes (rich restaurant meals, very spicy foods)
  • Night. Hida and itchiness are often worse at night because this is when the body’s natural anti-heel chemicals are at their lowest.

This list is just nice to keep in mind if you have an itch problem, even if you can’t control many of the things on it.Try to keep your food patterns and sleep as regular as possible.

Q3. I get hives after training. Is this some kind of allergic reaction? If so, what can I do to treat or prevent it?

There are many people who get hives and other allergic symptoms after exercise, a condition known as exercise-induced exercise. If you see hives developing, it is best to stop working for five to 10 minutes and see if they disappear.

However, this does not mean that you should stop exercising altogether. Talk to your doctor about the condition and he or she may recommend a fast-acting, non-fatty antihistamine that you can take pre-workout. It can also be beneficial to work out. with a friend, in case the symptoms become more extensive than the hives

troubled breathing

dizziness) . Some patients with this condition carry a car service


In case of a life-threatening allergic reaction.

Learn more about everyday health

Allergic center


90,000 5 Ways to Measure Hive Health with Analytics and Streaming Data

When the queen shows signs of aging, illness, or a decrease in the number of eggs, worker bees replace her. First, they take several freshly laid eggs from the former queen and begin to feed them with a high-protein substance – royal jelly. After about 14 days, little queens appear and start making sounds to let the rival queens know that they are ready to fight.In the bee world, queens are not born, but become after a serious struggle.

With audio sensors in the hives collecting this data, beekeepers now know when a new queen is due, which they would not have previously been able to detect.

Computer vision measures bee flight data

The innovation did not stop at sounds, scales and temperatures. We also wanted to track the flight activity of the bees as an indicator of the health and strength of the colony. Observing the bees in flight was not easy because they are tiny and fly fast.They also don’t smile at the camera.

We have found a solution – computer vision and RPCA for accurate counting of our bees and their activity. In this case, RPCA removes unnecessary background images from the data, including animals, people, trees, and other objects.

Flight activity from the hive can tell us about foraging activity, as bees that leave the hive and return to it usually collect nectar, pollen, tar and water. A lot of flying activity means the hive is healthy.

By observing bees in flight, we may also notice a swarm. It is an important indicator of the health of bees, because the hive sometimes hides when the bees are sick.

Hive data inspires action

I am happy to continue discussing these projects with my colleagues Anya McGuirk, Brad Klenz, Zohre Asgarzade, Yuwei Liao and others. You can read the article “Non-invasive monitoring of the hive with acoustic data” to learn more about the acoustics project.

We also speak with beekeepers around the world to share what we have learned. We understand that not every hive in the world can or should be connected to the Internet. But the results we saw were really inspiring. And we hope that what we have learned will serve as a model for measuring hive health where it is needed most.

Contact with bees, or beekeeping as an object of agritourism / ieml.ru

This time I was not lucky, I was not at all lucky.Not only did I never see how the swarm came out, how it was harvested (this is the most difficult and dangerous job), but I also learned the “price of honey”, I was bitten by bees four times. This was facilitated by nature – the high temperature, stuffiness, and the very period of the bee’s development, it works little.

Swarming of bee colonies.

This time I was not lucky, I was not at all lucky. Not only did I never see how the swarm came out, how it was harvested (this is the most difficult and dangerous job), but I also learned the “price of honey”, I was bitten by bees four times. This was facilitated by nature – the high temperature, stuffiness, and the very period of the bee’s development, it works little. And as Sergei (the owner of the apiary) called “this” – they are playing cards, lounging around, waiting for a new queen – a mother of bees, a queen bee.

The picture shows a trap and a queen bee.Sometimes they are disconnected from the family so that a young and productive uterus appears there.

What I now know for sure – I am not allergic to bees, I am still interested in doing this and I will wait for MY honey.

Swarming is a natural process of reproduction of hives, yes, yes, hives. What do you think there are new hives? Of course you can buy bees. But the easiest and most natural way is to catch the swarm.

It will be lucky, of course, if the swarm enters a pre-prepared trap – such a birdhouse for bees.It remains to quietly close it, remove it from the tree and put it in the cold for a while so that the bees calm down. But more often the swarm settles down in a quiet place a couple of kilometers from the apiary, while the worker bees find suitable housing. And here beekeepers have a lot of tricks and methods for stopping, luring the swarm, collecting it in a trap. Then in the evening, almost at dusk, it remains to dump, shake out the swarm into the prepared hive. Woo-a-la new family in the house.

This is the stage I had to carry out in practice.What was my surprise – what a huge number of bees in the hive! In past practice, when I served the hives, this happened during the day. And there were few bees, there were mostly bees who worked in the hive. Bees have a strict hierarchy, everyone is busy with their own business. As Sergei says, there are even crooks of his own who steal meth from other hives or from the honeycomb storage, carrying the remains of the honey left there from last year. These are just the “wrong bees” about which Winnie the Pooh spoke and they make the wrong honey. And it would be more correct to say they are parasites without visiting flowers and collecting nectar.Directly some kind of analogy with human society. These are the bees, deprived of free honey and then attack everyone indiscriminately.

The period of swarming ends with the installation of “shops” – additional parts of the hive, inside which small frames of honeycombs are placed, in which the bees will collect honey in the near future. In fact, the beekeeper deceives the bee by substituting a lot of empty honeycombs at the beginning of honey collection. The bee, by its very nature, strives to prepare food for the winter and works tirelessly with its wings.And the beekeeper replaces the filled combs with empty ones. A bee does not know how to count, she would be in IEMP, but nature cannot be fooled, she does not tolerate emptiness. And the honeycomb will continue to fill up until the fall.

Conclusion – the work of a beekeeper is very diverse and can be an object of agritourism. There is no hard or tedious work in it. Controlled risk and accompanying adrenaline, followed by rewards in the form of self-harvested honey, create an appeal to visit an apiary. Someone is a feat – to put his hands in the hive, cleaning it, and for someone to stand by the fence and listen to stories about the experiences that have occurred.

Now we are waiting for the most “delicious” part of our research – honey collection.

Interesting rest for everyone!

P.S. I found a refuge from the summer heat – the cellar where the winter hives are there +12 all year round.
V.M. Mizinov

instructions for use, dosage, composition, analogs, side effects / Pillintrip

An indication is a term used to list a condition or symptom or disease for which a medicine is prescribed or used by a patient.For example, acetaminophen or paracetamol is used by a patient for a fever, or a doctor prescribes it for a headache or body aches. At present, fever, headache and body aches are the hallmarks of paracetamol. The patient should be aware of the indications of medications used for general conditions, because they can be taken without a prescription in the sense of a pharmacy without a doctor’s prescription.


Peripheral arteriography

Adult: Use 300 mg iodine / ml (Isovue wound 61%).Femoral or subclavian artery: 5-40 ml. Distal aorta: 25-50 ml. Up to 250 ml have been used.


Selective visceral arteriography or aortography

Adult: Use 370 mg iodine / ml (Isovue wound 76%). Large ships, for example. aorta or celiac disease: up to 50 ml. Renal artery: up to 10 ml. Lower doses are often sufficient. In total, several doses were used up to 225 ml.


Cerebral arteriography

Adult: Use 300 mg iodine / ml (Isovue wound 61%).Carotid puncture or transfemoral catheterization: 8-12 ml. Just a few doses for a procedure up to 90 ml.


Coronary arteriography and gastrointestinal tract

Adult: Use 370 mg iodine / ml (Isovue wound 76%). Selective coronary artery: 2-10 ml. Ventriculography or non-selective opacification of several coronary arteries after aortic root injury: 25-50 ml. The total dose for combined procedures up to 200 ml was used.ECG monitoring is essential.



Child: Use 370 mg iodine / ml (Isovue wound 76%). For a single dose: <2 years: 10-15 ml; 2-9 years old: 15-30 ml; 10-18 years old: 20-50 ml. Administer by injury to a large peripheral vein or direct cardiac catheterization. For cumulative harm: <2 years: 40 ml; 2-4 years: 50 ml; 5-9 years old: 100 ml; 10-18 years old: 125 ml.


Computed tomography

Adult: Head: 250 mg iodine / ml (Isovue inj 51%): 130-240 ml; 300 mg iodine / ml (Isovue inj 61%): 100-200 ml. Administer by intravenous infusion. Body: 250 mg iodine / ml (Isovue inj 51%): 130-240 ml; 300 mg iodine / ml (Isovue inj 61%): 100-200 ml. Administer by rapid IV infusion or bolus injury. The total dose for the procedure should not exceed 60 g of iodine.

Child: 250 mg iodine / ml (Isovue inj 51%): 1.2-3.6 ml / kg; 300 mg iodine / ml (Isovue inj 61%): 1-3 ml / kg. The total dose should not exceed 30 g of iodine.


Excretory urography

Adult: 250 mg iodine / ml (Isovue inj 51%): 50-100 ml; 300 mg iodine / ml (Isovue inj 61%): 50 ml; 370 mg iodine / ml (Isovue inj 76%): 40 ml.Administer by rapid IV wound.

Child: Children: 250 mg iodine / ml (51%): 1.2-3.6 ml / kg; 300 mg iodine / ml (61%): 1-3 ml / kg. Maximum dose for the procedure: 30 g of iodine.


Peripheral venography

Adult: Use 200 mg iodine / ml (Isovue wound 41%). 25-150 ml per lower limb. The total dose for several injections should not exceed 350 ml.

Isovue belongs to a group of drugs called RAY dee oh payk contrast agents.Isovue contains iodine, a substance that absorbs X-rays. Radiopaque contrast agents are used to make blood vessels, organs, and other non-bone tissues more clearly visible on computed tomography or other x-rays.

Isovue is used to diagnose certain disorders of the heart, brain, blood vessels and nervous system.

Isovue may also be used for purposes not listed in this Medication Guide.


A rash is a reaction in which the skin develops abnormal texture and other signs such as pain, itching and fluid discharge. It can occur in response to an allergy, toxin, infection, or more grains


A rash is a reaction in which the skin develops abnormal texture and other signs such as pain, itching, and fluid secretion. It can occur in response to an allergy, toxin, infection, or larger systemic diseases.

The appearance can range from almost occasional tissue edema to an outbreak of painful eruptions. Sometimes the rash can be difficult to distinguish, even for the trained eye.

Some rashes will go away quickly on their own, but others can be cause for concern. If you are concerned about a rash, seek the advice of a dermatologist. Broadly speaking, rashes can be classified as infectious and non-infectious, and there are literally hundreds of different types and thousands of possible causes.

Here are nine of the most common rashes and how they can be identified.

Hives (urticaria)

There are times when an allergy or infection causes the immune system to release a substance called histamine into the bloodstream. When this happens, tiny blood vessels in the skin dilate and allow fluid to flow into the topmost layer called the epidermis. The accumulation of fluid will cause swelling, which we recognize as hives (hives).

Depending on the amount of liquid released, the hives may:

  • Looks spongy
  • Appears as raised areas of inflammation without a clear border
  • Whiten (blanch) when pressed
  • Affects large areas of the skin
  • 9014 Be very itchy

Non-itchy hives are more likely due to angioedema, a closely related condition in which swelling occurs in deeper layers of tissue.

Hives can also develop in response to hot or cold temperatures, excessive sweating and stress. Although hives usually go away on their own, antihistamines can be used to relieve itching and inflammation.

Hive overview


Impetigo is a common skin infection caused by either streptococcal or staphylococcal bacteria. The most common form of impetigo, known as herpetic impetigo, occurs mainly on the face or limbs and is characterized by:

  • Eruption of tiny blisters
  • Honey crust formation

Bacteria usually enter the body through damaged or abraded skin, such as a cut , scratch, burn or insect bite.Children often develop impetigo after a cold, when the skin on their nose is damp, allowing bacteria to enter easily.

A less common type called bullous impetigo results in large blisters known as bullae. This form of impetigo is more common in newborns.

While a honey-colored crust is usually a clear sign of impetigo, a bacterial culture may be required to distinguish it from other types of rash. Although impetigo can cause mild itching, it is usually not painful (unlike shingles, scabies, or other types of rashes).

As a bacterial infection, impetigo is usually treated with antibiotics.

Overview Impetigo


Shingles is a painful rash caused by the reactivation of the herpes zoster virus, the same virus that causes chickenpox. The lifetime risk of developing shingles can be 10 to 20 percent in some high-risk groups, including those with weakened immune systems.

Shingles usually occurs later in life.Signs and symptoms develop as the disease progresses:

  • This often starts with dull, localized pain and increased sensitivity to touch.
  • Shortly thereafter, a characteristic cluster of small vesicles forms, often rapidly, many of which rupture and form inflamed, crusty ulcers.

Some notable signs of shingles include:

  • A rash that appears on only one side of the body, along a nerve cord known as a dermatome.
  • Pain ranging in severity from prickly, persistent discomfort to deep excruciating pain

If left untreated, shingles can cause prolonged and sometimes persistent nerve pain known as postherpetic neuralgia.

It is important to see a doctor as soon as you recognize the characteristic fluid-filled blisters. Early treatment with antiviral drugs such as zovirax (acyclovir) can shorten the duration of an outbreak and prevent the rash from spreading to vulnerable parts of the body, including the eyes.

In October 2017, the FDA approved a highly effective herpes vaccine known as Shingrix. It is intended to replace Zostavax, an earlier generation vaccine, and is recommended for all adults age 50 and over.

Shingles: a complication of chickenpox at the end of life

Athlete’s foot (Tinea Pedis)

Athlete’s foot (tinea pedis) is a common fungal infection.Typical symptoms include:

  • Red rash, mainly between the toes or on the soles of the feet
  • Discomfort from mild itching and scaling to painful blisters with cracks (skin tears)

The athlete’s foot is divided into three categories:

  • Athlete’s Chronic Interdigital Foot (between the toes)
  • Athlete’s Chronic Scaly Foot (mainly on the soles)
  • Acute Athlete’s Vesicular Foot (causing blistering infection)

Athlete’s foot does not spread easily in a wet and humid environment in the locker room, and is usually treated with topical antifungal agents.

Because it is so common, an athlete’s feet can usually be recognized by their appearance. However, other conditions, such as plaque psoriasis and pityriasis, can cause similar symptoms and may need investigation if the rash does not respond to antifungal treatment.

Athlete’s foot types and treatments

Ringworm (Tinea Corporis)

Ringworm (tinea corporis) is a common fungal infection that, despite its name, has nothing to do with worms.

Possible ringworm characteristics include:

  • A round rash with a raised red edge (typical)
  • Appears anywhere on the body, but most commonly on the arms and legs
  • May cause flaking and peeling
  • Not painful in nature

A related fungal disease known as shingles includes the scalp, scalp, and face (especially around hair follicles).

Ringworm is highly contagious and spreads easily through skin contact with the lesion.It can also be passed through dirty surfaces or household items such as combs, towels, doorknobs, and bedding. Pets can easily tolerate fungus.

Ringworm is usually diagnosed on the basis of its appearance and confirmed by microscopic examination of skin scrapings.

It is important to note that other lesions may also have annular (annular) lesions, including pythiasis pink and granuloma annulare, or those associated with sarcoidosis and lupus.Laboratory diagnosis is often vital in making the distinction.

Once diagnosed, ringworm can be effectively treated with oral or topical antifungals.

Overview Ringworm


Psoriasis is an autoimmune skin disease that can be caused by stress, medication, infection, skin damage, and environmental influences such as the sun.

For unknown reasons, the immune system sometimes attacks its own skin cells, causing inflammation and causing cell overproduction.A rash forms when new skin cells are produced faster than old ones.

Chronic plaque psoriasis is the most common form of psoriasis, affecting about 5 percent of the population. It can sometimes mimic ringworm and is characterized by:

  • A thick rash, most often on the front of the elbows and knees, and on the head
  • Silvery plaques on the inflamed skin
  • Scales that can become very loose and bleed when scratched
  • Usually clear boundaries

Other types include, but are not limited to, pustular psoriasis (characterized by pus-filled lesions) and guttate psoriasis found in children.

Psoriasis is most often diagnosed by appearance and sometimes by skin biopsy. Because there are no blood tests that can accurately diagnose the disease, a differential diagnosis may be required to distinguish it from similar skin rashes such as seborrheic dermatitis, lichen planus, pityriasis, or squamous cell carcinoma of the skin.

Treatment depends on the severity of the outbreak and may include topical creams, immunosuppressants, and ultraviolet therapy.Psoriasis often goes away spontaneously without treatment and recurs just as suddenly.

Why psoriasis occurs and how to treat it

Pityriasis rosea

Pityriasis rosea is a common benign rash that:

  • Often starts as one large patch (“messenger”) on the chest, abdomen or back, soon followed by other smaller lesions
  • It is annular, annular, sometimes mimicking ringworm in the early stages
  • Usually red, scaly and itchy

It is also usually seen on the upper arm and upper leg, but rarely on the face (except children).Unlike ringworm, pityriasis can progress over days or weeks into a few spots.

Other, less common forms of pityriasis include pityriasis alba (which has white, scaly scales and most commonly affects children) and pityriasis rubra pilaris (a chronic subtype with orange-red lesions and severe scaling).

Pityriasis rosea is poorly understood, but it is believed to be caused by a virus. Because of this, there are no tests to diagnose the condition other than a physical examination. If symptoms are severe, tests may be done to rule out other causes, including gallbladder psoriasis, lichen planus, and shingles.

While pityriasis rosea is generally not indicated, a topical steroid or antihistamine may be used, especially for itchy skin.


Scabies (sarcoptic mange) is a contagious skin disease caused by a tiny mite that hides under the skin.Like lice, it can spread quickly in schools and nursing homes and is easily transmitted to family members.

Characteristics of the rash include:

  • Most often develops on the wrists, elbows, buttocks, waist, armpits, penis and between the toes
  • Severe itching and often worse at night
  • Accompanied by “marks” or lines that may appear as hives or bites

Scabies mimics other skin conditions such as whirlpool folliculitis, seborrheic dermatitis, and pink pityiasis.To make a definitive diagnosis, your doctor will need to scratch the affected skin and examine it under a microscope for signs of infection.

Treatment involves the use of a 5% permethrin cream or lotion, often in combination with oral histamines or topical steroids to treat the rash.

Overview of scabies

Herpes simplex

Herpes simplex is a viral infection caused by either herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1), a type associated with herpes, or HSV-2, which causes genital herpes.

Herpes is characterized by:

  • Formation of painful, open sores
  • Outbreak that is initially accompanied by tingling and redness
  • Possible formation of blistering lesions that coalesce into open, crying sores
  • Pain (sometimes severe), which may be accompanied by fever swollen lymph nodes

Herpes can be spread by contact with sick people or body fluids from an infected person.Transfer can take place even if there is no visible damage.

After infection, you may experience a relapse of symptoms at any time (although the first outbreak tends to be the worst).