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Itchy inside elbow: Atopic dermatitis (eczema) – Symptoms and causes


Symptoms, Causes, Treatment & Recovery


Brachioradial pruritus, nerve disorder affecting the forearm

What is brachioradial pruritus?

The brachioradialis is the muscle in the lower part of the arm that helps the arm bend at the elbow. Brachioradial pruritus is a nerve disorder that causes itching, stinging, or tingling sensations in this area of the outer forearm.

Brachioradial pruritus usually affects both arms, but it can occur in only one arm. In rare cases, the urge to scratch spreads to other parts of the body, including the shoulders, neck, and lower legs. This condition is not contagious.

Who is affected by brachioradial pruritus?

Brachioradial pruritus occurs three times more often in women than men. It is most common in women with light skin tones ages 45-65. In some studies, people who play tennis or sail or engage in other outdoor activities are more prone to developing pruritus of this type.

Symptoms and Causes

What causes brachioradial pruritus?

Irritation or injury to nerve roots causes brachioradial pruritus. Doctors have found links between the disorder and two factors:

  • Sun exposure: Brachioradial pruritus occurs more often in people who have frequent exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation from the sun.
  • Spinal problems: Spinal problems that compress (put pressure on) nerves affecting the arms can lead to brachioradial pruritus. Conditions that can cause spinal compression include a herniated disk (damage to the tissue separating the bones of the spine) and osteoarthritis (the wearing down of joint cartilage, the connective tissue in the joint).

What are the symptoms of brachioradial pruritus?

If you have brachioradial pruritus, you may feel an intense urge to scratch your forearms. You may also notice burning, stinging, or tingling sensations in your arms. The symptoms of this disorder are often worse after exposure to the sun.

Diagnosis and Tests

How is brachioradial pruritus diagnosed?

Doctors use a medical history and several tests to confirm a diagnosis of brachioradial pruritus. These tests include:

  • Ice-pack test: A doctor places an ice pack on the affected area to see if symptoms stop when you apply the ice pack and return when you remove it.
  • Imaging tests: Tests such as X-ray or MRI help doctors identify spine abnormalities. Osteoarthritis or a herniated disk in the spine may cause a compressed nerve.
  • Physical exam: During a physical exam, a doctor looks at and feels the skin on the affected area of the arm.

Management and Treatment

What are the treatments for brachioradial pruritus?

Treatment for brachioradial pruritus may include:

  • Ice packs: Many people with brachioradial pruritus find relief from symptoms by applying ice packs to the affected areas.
  • Physical therapy: For some people, exercises to stretch and strengthen the spine ease symptoms of brachioradial pruritus.
  • Surgery: In rare cases, doctors perform surgery to correct a spinal problem causing brachioradial pruritus.


Your care provider might also suggest medications or topical products, many of them over-the-counter, which you apply right to your skin. Topical products might include creams like:

  • Menthol (cooling) cream that may bring relief if ice packs also help.
  • Capsaicin cream to reduce the chemical transmitters in nerve endings, so that you gradually experience less pain.
  • Local anesthetic creams (pain relievers) to reduce pain in the area, including one made from ketamine and amitriptyline.

Your doctor may prescribe medicines including:

  • Antihistamines: These drugs manage chemicals in the body that cause itching.
  • Anesthetics: Specific medications numb nerve impulses in the skin.
  • Anticonvulsants: Drugs such as gabapentin and pregabalin treat seizures and pain.

What are the complications associated with brachioradial pruritus?

Some people with brachioradial pruritus experience skin complications due to excessive scratching. They include:

  • Eczema (inflamed and rough patches of skin).
  • Hypopigmentation (loss of skin color).
  • Nodules (hard lumps).
  • Sores or scarring.
  • Thickening or darkening of the skin.


How can you prevent brachioradial pruritus?

You cannot prevent brachioradial pruritus. You can reduce your risk of the disorder by protecting your skin from exposure to sunlight.

Protect your skin by wearing protective clothing when you go outside. Always use sunscreen with a sun protection factor (SPF) of at least 30.

Who is at risk of developing brachioradial pruritus?

You may have a higher risk for brachioradial pruritus if you:

  • Are a middle-aged woman with light or fair skin.
  • Experience frequent exposure to the sun.
  • Have a back or neck problem that causes compressed nerves such as a herniated disk.

Outlook / Prognosis

What is the prognosis (outlook) for people with brachioradial pruritus?

For many people with brachioradial pruritus, symptoms go away in a few weeks to a few months after taking medication and reducing exposure to sunlight.

For some people, the itching and burning sensations come and go for the rest of their lives. In many cases, doctors can successfully manage these flare-ups.

Many people with brachioradial pruritus find that symptoms improve during winter months.

Living With

When should I see a healthcare provider about brachioradial pruritus?

Contact your healthcare provider if you feel a constant urge to scratch your arms or experience other signs of brachioradial pruritus.

What questions should I ask my healthcare provider about brachoradial pruritus?

If you have brachioradial pruritus, you may want to ask:

  • What is causing my itchy arms?
  • What type of treatment is best for me?
  • What can I do to avoid complications from scratching?

Eczema (for Kids) – Nemours KidsHealth

Your skin is red and sore. It may even look scaly. You itch like crazy. You know you haven’t been near poison ivy and you don’t have chickenpox, so what’s going on? It might be eczema.

What Is Eczema?

Eczema (say: EK-zeh-ma) makes your skin dry, red, and itchy. Sometimes you may even break out in a rash. It’s a chronic (say: KRAH-nik) condition, which means that it comes and goes, but it can be with you for a long time.

If you have eczema, you’re not alone. Lots of kids get it, usually before they’re 5 years old, but you can get it when you’re older too. The good news is that more than half of the kids who have eczema today will be over it by the time they’re teenagers.

Eczema is also called atopic dermatitis (say: ay-TOP-ik der-muh-TIE-tis).

Why Do Kids Get Eczema?

Skin has special cells that react when they come in contact with anything that irritates them. They make the skin inflamed to protect it. If you have eczema, these cells overreact when something triggers them and they start to work overtime. That’s what makes your skin red, sore, and itchy.

No one is really sure why people get eczema. It’s not contagious — no one can catch it from you and you can’t catch it from anyone else. Kids who get eczema often have family members with hay fever (it makes them sneeze and have a runny nose), asthma (trouble breathing), or other things known as “atopic” conditions.

More than half of the kids who get eczema will also someday develop hay fever or asthma themselves. Eczema is not an allergy itself, but allergies can be a trigger for eczema. That means that if you have allergies to things like dust or animal dander, your eczema may flare up sometimes.

Aside from allergies, some things that can set off eczema include:

  • soaps, detergents, or perfumes
  • hot and sweaty skin
  • dry winter air with little moisture
  • other things that can irritate your skin, like scratchy fabrics (like wool)

How Do I Know If I Have Eczema?

If you have eczema, the rash may go away at first. But then it comes back again and again.

Not all rashes itch. But eczema is itchy, itchy, itchy! It often starts in the folds inside your elbows and on the back of your knees. It can also be on your face and other parts of your body. Many things besides eczema can cause a rash. That’s why your doctor is the best person to see to figure out what’s causing your rash.

How Can I Deal With Eczema?

You may need a moisturizer (ointment or cream) to control the dryness and itchiness. Some people need stronger medicines called corticosteroids. Steroid ointment or cream rubbed on skin can help calm the inflammation (when skin is red and swollen).

Your doctor might suggest you try an antihistamine, a medicine that’s either a pill to swallow or a liquid. It can help control the itching and help you sleep at night. If all that scratching leads to an infection, you may need an antibiotic. None of these eczema medicines will cure you forever, but they can help make your skin more comfortable and less red.

Here are some other important steps to take:

  • Don’t scratch the itch! This might seem impossible, but do your best not to. When you scratch, it makes your skin sore and sometimes more itchy. The skin can even break open, bleed, and get infected with bacteria. If you have a super-itchy spot, wet a washcloth with cool water and apply it to the skin.
  • Keep your fingernails cut short. You’re less likely to break your skin open if you scratch an itch.
  • Take short baths or showers with warm water. Hot water can make you itch more. Have your mom or dad ask your doctor if it’s OK for you to use oatmeal soaking products in your bath to help control the itching. Avoid scented soaps and use ones that have moisturizer in them.
  • Use a soft towel to dry your skin. Gently pat it dry to get the water off. Then put on some moisturizing ointment or cream to keep your skin from getting too dry. You can use the moisturizer several times a day.
  • Drink water, which adds moisture to your skin.
  • Wear loose clothing to help your skin feel better. Wear cotton or other soft, natural fibers. Wool and some synthetic cloth can make you feel itchy all over.
  • Talk to your doctor about what seems to be causing your flare-ups and try to avoid your triggers.
  • Chill out! You may find that your eczema gets worse when you’re stressed. Find ways to deal with things that bother you, such as talking things out with your parents, a teacher, or a good friend.

Eczema vs Atopic Dermatitis – Types and Causes

You may never know what causes your eczema or atopic dermatitis. Without knowing, you can’t avoid them. They can’t be cured, but they can be managed. You can also learn to avoid the things that trigger them.

Limit your contact with things that can irritate your skin.

Some things that may irritate your skin include:

  • household cleansers
  • detergents
  • aftershave lotions
  • soap
  • gasoline
  • turpentine and other solvents

Try to avoid contact with things that make you break out with eczema. Soaps and wetness can cause skin irritation. Wash your hands only when necessary. Use a mild unscented soap such as Dove, Basis, or Olay, especially if you have eczema on your hands. Dry your hands completely after you wash them.

Wear gloves to protect the skin on your hands.

Wear vinyl or plastic gloves for work that requires you to have your hands in water. Also, wear gloves when your hands are exposed to anything that can irritate your skin. Wear cotton gloves under plastic gloves to soak up sweat from your hands. Take occasional breaks and remove your gloves. This will prevent a buildup of sweat inside your gloves.

Wear gloves when you go outside during the winter. Cold air and low humidity can dry your skin. Dryness can make your eczema worse. Wear clothes made of cotton or a cotton blend. Wool and some synthetic fabrics can irritate your skin.

Care for your skin in the bath or shower.

Bathe only with a mild unscented soap, such as Dove, Basis, or Olay. Use a small amount of soap. Keep the water temperature cool or warm, not hot. Soaking in the tub for a short time can be good for your skin. Doing so allows your skin’s outer layer to absorb water and become less dry. Soak for 15 to 20 minutes. Then use a soft towel to pat your skin dry without rubbing. Immediately after drying, apply a moisturizer to your skin. This helps seal in the moisture.

Use a moisturizer on your skin every day.

Moisturizers help keep your skin soft and flexible. They prevent skin cracks. A plain moisturizer is best. Avoid moisturizers with fragrances (perfume) and a lot of extra ingredients. A good, cheap moisturizer is plain petroleum jelly (such as Vaseline). Use moisturizers that are more greasy than creamy because creams usually have more preservatives in them.

Regular use of a moisturizer can help prevent the dry skin that is common in winter.

Avoid getting too hot and sweaty.

Too much heat and sweat can make your skin more irritated and itchy. Try to avoid activities that make you hot and sweaty.

Differential diagnosis of very itchy skin

Author: A/Prof Amanda Oakley, Dermatologist, Hamilton, New Zealand, February 2016. 


Itch is defined by a desire to scratch.

An acute or chronic itchy rash is most often due to dermatitis/eczema. Dermatitis can be primary, or secondary to scratching.

Stages include:

  • Acute dermatitis: red, oozy, swollen skin
  • Subacute dermatitis: red, dry skin
  • Chronic dermatitis: skin coloured or dark, dry, thickened skin with prominent lines (lichenification)
  • Infected dermatitis: painful, swollen, pustules, crusting.

Stages of dermatitis

  • Dermatoscopic examination of hair shaft if scalp affected, possible burrows if hands affected
  • Swab for bacterial and viral culture if pustules, crusting
  • Skin biopsy for histopathology, and if available, direct immunofluorescence
  • If the itch is generalised and no primary skin rash observed, check blood count, iron studies, renal, liver and thyroid function, chest X-ray.

General treatments for itchy skin conditions may include:

Differential diagnosis of very itchy skin

  • Is the itch localised or generalised?
  • What is its distribution?
  • Is there a primary rash or not?
  • Erosions, crusting, bruising and infection can be due to excoriation and are of no help diagnostically.

Very itchy skin with localised rash

Contact dermatitis

Contact dermatitis

Head lice

  • Egg cases close to the scalp
  • Blood spots behind ears

Insect bites / papular urticaria

  • Crops of urticated papules
  • Central punctum or vesicle
  • Favour exposed sites, depending on the cause

Insect bites

Lichen planus

  • May be localised to any site
  • Grouped firm polygonal violaceous plaques
  • Biopsy confirmatory

Lichen planus

Lichen sclerosus

  • Vulva > penis > elsewhere
  • White dry skin
  • Sometimes, purpura, blisters, resorption, scarring
  • Biopsy confirmatory

Lichen sclerosus

Lichen simplex

  • Localised lichenification
  • Common sites: wrist, ankle, neck, scrotum or vulva
  • Sometimes bilateral

Lichen simplex

Pompholyx (dyshidrotic eczema)

  • Crops of vesicles along fingers, toes, palms, soles


Venous eczema

  • Affects one ankle initially then may spread to other leg and can generalise (autoeczematisation)
  • Signs of venous disease: hardened, narrowed ankle (lipodermatosclerosis), orange-brown discolouration (haemosiderin)
  • +/- Varicose veins

Venous eczema

Mildly itchy skin with localised rash

Asteatotic eczema

  • Crazy paving, red cracked patches
  • Mainly lower legs

Venous eczema


  • Itch is sometimes severe
  • Localised variant affects the scalp, elbows, knees; or palms and soles


Seborrhoeic dermatitis

  • In and around hair-bearing scalp, eyebrows, hairy chest
  • Skin folds behind ears, nasolabial fold, axilla
  • Salmon pink, flaky

Seborrhoeic dermatitis

Very itchy skin with generalised rash



Bullous pemphigoid

  • Elderly, especially with a brain injury
  • May start like eczema or urticaria
  • Large blisters
  • Biopsy confirmatory

Bullous pemphigoid

Dermatitis herpetiformis

  • Crops of tiny blisters quickly scratched
  • Biopsy confirmatory

Dermatitis herpetiformis

Atopic dermatitis (eczema)

  • Mainly flexural, symmetrical
  • May have dry skin

Atopic dermatitis (eczema)

Discoid eczema

  • Bilateral, not symmetrical
  • Roundish plaques

Discoid eczema



Lichen planus

  • Skin +/- mucosal surfaces
  • Grouped firm polygonal violaceous plaques on wrists, shins, lower back
  • Lacy white pattern in buccal mucosa
  • Painful erosions on tongue, vulva, vagina, penis
  • Biopsy confirmatory

Lichen planus

Mycosis fungoides (cutaneous T-cell lymphoma)

  • Slowly evolving slightly scaly annular and roundish patches, plaques and sometimes nodules
  • Various morphologies
  • Itch is variable and can be absent, especially in the early stages
  • Buttocks, breasts common initial sites
  • Biopsy confirmatory [see Mycosis fungoides pathology]

Mycosis fungoides


  • Multiple lichenified plaques


Nodular prurigo

Nodular prurigo


  • Burrows between fingers, wrist creases
  • May be secondarily infected
  • Papules in axillae, groin, penis
  • Polymorphous rash on trunk
  • Scale-crust between fingers, elbows, scalp in elderly or immune suppressed


Transient acantholytic dermatosis / Grover disease

  • Older male
  • Red crusted papules and vesicles central trunk
  • May be precipitated by sweating, fever, heat, sunlight, hospitalisation, and medications

Transient acantholytic dermatosis


  • Acute < 6 weeks
  • Chronic > 6 weeks
  • Spontaneous or inducible weals
  • No blisters or dryness or scale
  • Scratch skin to elicit linear weal in dermographism


Mildly itchy skin with generalised rash


  • Itch is sometimes severe
  • Symmetrical well-circumscribed plaques with silvery scale
  • Generalised large or small plaques


Xerotic eczema

Xerosis (dry skin)

Localised itchy skin without rash

May have secondary lesions due to scratching: erosions, purpura, lichen simplex and secondary infection. Localised itch is often neuropathic/neurogenic. If scalp itchy, look carefully for head lice and their egg cases.

Localised neuropathic itch

Generalised itchy skin without rash

Examine carefully for scabietic burrows.

Pruritus/prurigo of pregnancy

Systemic disease

Systemic associations with generalised pruritus

Dry and Itchy Skin, or Is It Eczema?

No one likes having dry, scaly, or itchy skin. And though it may seem like a problem that comes and goes, perhaps with cold or dry weather, or simply a sign for the need to moisturize, it may also be a sign of a medical condition called atopic dermatitis.

Atopic dermatitis is the most common type of eczema. More than 30 million Americans have some form of eczema, which can cause skin to become dry, red, and itchy. Eczema is a broad term that healthcare providers use to describe a general group of conditions that may cause red, inflamed, and itchy skin. Atopic dermatitis—considered a severe form of eczema—is a chronic (long-lasting), non-contagious inflammatory skin disease marked by periodic flares. It is characterized by significant itching that can be worse at night and disrupt sleep.

Atopic dermatitis causes patches of rash commonly located on the face, inside the elbows and behind the knees, and on the hands and feet, but it can appear anywhere on the body. And while there is no cure for the condition, atopic dermatitis can be managed with treatment and lifestyle changes.

Who gets it?

Atopic dermatitis most often occurs in babies and children. Childhood atopic dermatitis may go away or improve with age, but in some cases the condition persists into adulthood. It’s rare for an adult to get atopic dermatitis. In fact, 90% of people get it before the age of 5.

Though its cause is not fully understood, the condition may run in families. It also may be seen in those who suffer from asthma or hay fever or in those who have family members who have these conditions.

General symptoms

The signs of atopic dermatitis may look different in infants, children and adults, and may affect various parts of your body from time to time. It is common to see a rash or patches of skin that look red, raised, or open and oozing with crusting sores on the skin.

Infants up to 6 months old tend to initially get patches on the face, cheeks, chin, forehead, and scalp. In babies 6 to 12 months old, patches frequently appear on the elbows and knees. You may notice them rubbing against bedding or carpeting to scratch the itch.

In toddlers 2 to 5 years old, patches may appear in the creases of the elbows and knees, or on the wrists, ankles, and hands. They can also appear on the skin around the mouth and eyelids.

Children 5 years and older may have patches in the folds of the knees or elbows. There may also be red, itchy patches behind the ears or on the feet. In some children, patches appear only on the hands. In some children, atopic dermatitis may seem to go away for a period of time, only to come back later in life when hormones, stress, or the use of irritating skin care products or cosmetics may cause the disease to flare again.

In adults, atopic dermatitis may look different from childhood atopic dermatitis. Rashes are often seen in the elbow and knee creases as well as the neck. The skin may be very dry, scaly, thick, and dark, and constantly itchy.

How it can impact life

One of the most bothersome symptoms of atopic dermatitis is the itch. It can be mild, moderate, or in some cases more severe. Sometimes the itch may be so bad that a person may scratch his or her skin until it bleeds. This can make the rash even worse, even leading to an increased risk of infection. This continuous circle of inflammation and itching is known as the “itch-scratch cycle.”

Itching may affect sleep for both the person with atopic dermatitis and their family members. In adults, having atopic dermatitis may lead to feelings of anger and embarrassment, disrupt their work and home lives, and limit what they can eat and drink. Children with the condition may face bullying and isolation. In addition, their symptoms can interfere with their sleep, leading to problems with their mood and overall well-being.

One of the great challenges in people who have any skin disease is that it’s often clearly visible or difficult to conceal. It’s not like high blood pressure or heart disease, which are not readily visible on the skin or apparent to others. People with atopic dermatitis or other skin disorders also have to deal with the self-consciousness, embarrassment, or stigmatism related to the appearance of their skin.

Mark Levenberg, DO, FAAD

How it’s diagnosed

In order to make a diagnosis of atopic dermatitis, your healthcare provider will look at your skin (or your child’s skin) and ask questions about your personal and family history. If you or a family member has atopic dermatitis, talk with a healthcare professional about a possible treatment plan. A variety of management approaches may be needed over time.

“It’s far more than just dry and itchy skin. This condition can have lasting impacts both physically and psychologically as well. It’s a complicated disease that may require a long-term approach to management and significant patient education. When patients are fully educated on their disease itself and treatment options, only then can they make the most informed treatment decisions for their benefit. Having an ongoing, partnership with a physician is very important in this regard.”

Mark Levenberg, DO, FAAD

What else you can do about it

Getting the right diagnosis and discussing a management plan with a healthcare provider is key to managing atopic dermatitis. Good skin care is also important to help manage atopic dermatitis. Here are some things you can do to take care of your skin to help manage the condition:

  • Wear soft, breathable clothing and avoid itchy fabrics like wool.
  • To help reduce dryness, apply a moisturizer to damp skin immediately after bathing; short, cooler baths are better than long, hot ones.
  • Keep your fingernails short and cover your hands during sleep to avoid scratching your rash and skin. This may help decrease the chance of infections caused by scratching.
  • Avoid detergents with fragrances, as well as chemicals and solvents; use non-soap liquid cleansers instead of regular soap.
  • Watch for signs of infection.

It’s also important to talk with your healthcare provider to help identify triggers for atopic dermatitis that may affect you. It can also be helpful to get support from others who are living with atopic dermatitis.

Dr. Mark Levenberg is a Board-certified Dermatologist and Medical Director in US Medical Affairs at Pfizer Inc.

Dermatitis herpetiformis | NHS inform

Dermatitis herpetiformis (DH) is an autoimmune skin condition linked to coeliac disease.

How many people have dermatitis herpetiformis?

DH affects fewer people than coeliac disease, at around 1 in 10,000 people.

DH can appear at any age, but is most commonly diagnosed in those between the ages of 15 and 40.

It’s more common in men than women and is rare in children.

Symptoms of dermatitis herpetiformis (DH)

People with DH can have:

  • red, raised patches often with blisters that burst with scratching
  • severe itching and often stinging

The rash can affect any area of the skin but is most commonly seen on the:

The rash usually occurs on both sides of the body, for example on both elbows.

Gut symptoms

Most people with DH will have the same kind of gut damage seen with coeliac disease, but may not complain of gut symptoms like:

Just over half (60%) of people with DH don’t have gut symptoms.

Causes of dermatitis herpetiformis (DH)

DH is caused by the body’s immune system reacting to a protein called gluten in foods containing wheat, barley and rye. This reaction causes a skin rash to develop.

Diagnosing dermatitis herpetiformis (DH)

A diagnosis of DH is confirmed by a skin test called a skin biopsy. A skin biopsy is a procedure where a sample of skin is removed to be tested.

What is involved in a skin biopsy?

During this test, a specialist skin doctor called a dermatologist will take a small sample of skin from an area without the rash. Samples of skin taken from the area with the rash don’t always give an accurate result.

The skin sample is then tested. If you test positive for DH you’ll be referred to a specialist gut doctor called a gastroenterologist to be tested for coeliac disease.

Diet before and during diagnosis

To ensure an accurate skin test is taken first time, it’s important to keep eating gluten-containing foods before and during diagnosis.

If you’ve already removed gluten from your diet, you must reintroduce it in more than one meal every day for at least 6 weeks before having the tests.

Treating dermatitis herpetiformis (DH)

The treatment for DH is a lifelong gluten-free diet.

Gluten-free diet

A gluten-free diet is when all gluten-containing foods are removed from your diet

Gluten is found in wheat, barley and rye and sometimes people are sensitive to oats too.

A gluten-free diet should only start once a confirmed diagnosis of DH is given.

Find out how to live with a gluten-free diet

How long does treatment take to work?

The length of time it takes for the skin to heal varies from person to person but it can take up to 2 years or more.

Medication during treatment

Some patients will be given medication to help them over this period of recovery.

Medication will only be given to control the skin itching and blisters and doesn’t treat any other symptoms.

The drug most likely to be used is called Dapsone.


Dapsone is taken in tablet form and must be swallowed.

It helps ease the itching and controls the development of blisters. It should work within a few days.

If you stop taking Dapsone before the gluten-free diet has taken effect, the rash will return.

Side effects of Dapsone

The most common side effect of Dapsone is anaemia.

Less common side effects are headaches and depression, while nerve damage is rare.

Because of these side effects, you’ll always be prescribed the lowest effective dose. DH should be monitored once the drug dose has been reduced.

More information about this medicine is available in the Dapsone patient information leaflet.

Alternatives to Dapsone

Some people can’t tolerate Dapsone. If you’re one of these people, the following drugs can also be taken to clear the rash:

  • Sulphapyridine
  • Sulphamethoxypyridazine

Complications of dermatitis herpetiformis (DH)

The same associated conditions and complications can occur in people with DH as in people with coeliac disease.

Some potential complications of DH include:

As with coeliac disease, the risk of developing these is reduced by following a gluten-free diet.

More about dermatitis herpetiformis (DH)

The British Association of Dermatologists (BAD) have produced a patient leaflet – Dermatitis Herpetiformis (gluten sensitivity) – which gives more information about this condition.

Eczema Symptoms & Causes | National Eczema Association

Eczema (eg-zuh-MUH) is the name for a group of conditions that cause the skin to become itchy, inflamed, or have a rash-like appearance. There are seven types of eczema: atopic dermatitis, contact dermatitis, dyshidrotic eczema, nummular eczema, seborrheic dermatitis, and stasis dermatitis.

Eczema is very common. In fact, over 31 million Americans have some form of eczema. Eczema can begin during childhood, adolescence, or adulthood and it can range from mild to severe.

Eczema is not contagious. You can’t “catch it” from someone else. While the exact cause of eczema is unknown, researchers do know that people who develop eczema do so because of a combination of genes and environmental triggers.

When an irritant or an allergen from outside or inside the body “switches on” the immune system, it produces inflammation. It is this inflammation that causes the symptoms common to most types of eczema.

What are the symptoms of eczema?

The most important thing to remember is that eczema and its symptoms are different for everyone. Your eczema may not look the same on you as it does on another adult or on your child. Different types of eczema may even appear in different areas of the body at different times.

Eczema is usually itchy. For many people, the itch can range from mild to moderate. But in some cases, it can become much worse and you might develop extremely inflamed skin. Sometimes the itch gets so bad that people scratch it until it bleeds, which can make your eczema worse. This is called the “itch-scratch cycle.”

What to look for:

  • Itch
  • Dry, sensitive skin
  • Inflamed, discolored skin
  • Rough, leathery or scaly patches of skin
  • Oozing or crusting
  • Areas of swelling

You might have all of these symptoms of eczema or only just a few. You might have some flare-ups or your symptoms could go away entirely. The best way to find out if you have eczema is to consult with a medical professional who can look at your skin and ask about your symptoms.

Is there a cure for eczema? 

There is no cure for eczema but there are treatments. Depending on age and eczema severity, these treatments include over-the-counter (OTC) remedies, prescription topical medications, phototherapy, immunosuppressants and biologic drugs. Many people with eczema also find success with specific natural and alternative treatments.

For most types of eczema, managing flares comes down to these basics:

  • Know your triggers so that you can avoid exposure
  • Implement a daily bathing and moisturizing routine
  • Use OTC and prescription medication consistently and as prescribed

on the body and symptoms may be different from one child to the next. More often than not, eczema goes away as a child grows older, though some children will continue to experience eczema into adulthood.

Adults can develop eczema, too, even if they never had it as a child.

What diseases can rough elbows talk about


What diseases can rough elbows talk about

What diseases can rough elbows talk about – RIA Novosti, 07/26/2021

What diseases can rough elbows talk about

Itching, cracks, redness of the skin on the elbows can indicate serious illnesses, the doctor of medical sciences said in an interview with Sputnik radio … RIA Novosti, 26.07.2021

2021-07-26T02: 11

2021-07-26T02: 11

2021-07-26T10: 26



Svetlana Zhaboeva

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MOSCOW, July 26 – RIA Novosti. Itching, cracks, redness of the skin on the elbows may indicate serious illnesses, Svetlana Zhaboeva, doctor of medical sciences, professor, dermatologist-cosmetologist, chief physician of the SL clinic, head of the anti-aging medicine clinic of the Elena Malysheva Medical Center, Svetlana Zhaboeva, said in an interview with Sputnik radio.The skin on the elbows can say a lot about the state of internal organs, the doctor noted. “Redness, plaques, itching, cracks on the elbow – run to a specialist. As this may be the first signal that something is wrong with your internal organs. Do not try to correct the situation at home, “warned Svetlana Zhaboeva. According to her, most often excessive dryness and peeling of the skin on the elbows are signs of a dermatological disease. In particular, we can talk about psoriasis.If the dryness is very strong, redness has appeared, and itching has been added to them, then these symptoms may be signs of ichthyosis. “In this case, the skin is peeling, uneven, covered with cracks, scales like fish. In this situation, a dermatologist consultation is required. The main treatment is in the regular use of special moisturizing agents, these can be so-called emollients “, – explained the specialist. Patients suffering from ichthyosis require mandatory morning and evening application of such agents, clarified Svetlana Zhaboeva.Another cause of dry elbows and even discoloration of the skin can be short-term or long-term loss of insulin sensitivity of cells. Is this really so, only an endocrinologist can determine, the doctor explained. “It is also worth contacting an endocrinologist if dryness and wrinkling of the elbows appeared during weight loss against the background of metabolic disorders,” the specialist added in an interview with Sputnik radio. moisturizers and protective products are needed even if nothing bothers you.Elderly people should pay special attention to this, concluded Professor Zhaboeva.



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Society, Russia, Svetlana Zhaboeva

02:11 26.07.2021 (updated: 10:26 26.07.2021)

What diseases can rough elbows talk about

MOSCOW, July 26 – RIA Novosti. Itching, cracks, redness of the skin on the elbows may indicate serious illnesses, Svetlana Zhaboeva, doctor of medical sciences, professor, dermatologist-cosmetologist, chief physician of the SL clinic, head of the anti-aging medicine clinic of the Elena Malysheva Medical Center, Svetlana Zhaboeva, told radio Sputnik.

The skin on the elbows can say a lot about the state of the internal organs, the doctor said.

“Redness, plaques, itching, cracks on the elbow – run to a specialist. As this may be the first signal that something is wrong with your internal organs.Do not try to correct the situation at home, “Svetlana Zhaboeva warned.

According to her, most often excessive dryness and peeling of the skin on the elbows are signs of a dermatological disease. In particular, we can talk about psoriasis. If the dryness is very severe , redness appeared, and itching was added to them, then these symptoms may be signs of ichthyosis.

“In this case, the skin is peeling, uneven, covered with cracks, scales, similar to fish.In this situation, a dermatologist’s consultation is required. The main treatment consists in the regular use of special moisturizing agents, these can be the so-called emollients, “the specialist explained.

Patients suffering from ichthyosis require mandatory morning and evening application of such agents, Svetlana Zhaboeva specified. What skin problems COVID-19 provokes?

Another reason for dry elbows and even skin discoloration can be a short-term or long-term decrease in the sensitivity of cells to insulin.Is this really so, only an endocrinologist can determine, the doctor explained.

“It is also worth contacting an endocrinologist if dryness and wrinkling of the elbows appeared during weight loss against the background of metabolic disorders,” the specialist added in an interview with Sputnik radio.

It is necessary to take care of the skin of the elbows, using moisturizers and protective agents, even if nothing bothers you. Elderly people should pay special attention to this, concluded Professor Zhaboeva.

Redness on the bend of the elbow inside – Question to the dermatologist

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Elbow bursitis – treatment, symptoms, causes, diagnosis

Olecranon bursitis is a condition characterized by tissue damage and inflammation of the bursa (bursa) of the olecranon (a small fluid-filled sac located at the back of the elbow) that can be a source of pain in the back of the elbow.

The elbow is formed by the union of the humerus and the ulna of the forearm.The ulna is a bony protrusion located at the back of the elbow known as the olecranon. This bony prominence is where several muscles attach, including the triceps, and forms the outermost point of the back of the elbow. Between the olecranon and the overlying skin is a bursa (bursa) of the olecranon. Bursa is a small bag filled with a liquid – a lubricant and its function is to reduce friction between adjacent layers of soft tissues.

The triceps muscles are mainly responsible for straightening the elbow and are especially active during pushing activities.During triceps contraction, friction is directed at the ulnar bursa. Pressure on the olecranon bursa can also arise from a direct impact. When this pressure on the bursa is excessive due to too frequent movements or the application of force, conditions arise for inflammation of the olecranon bursa.


  • Moderate but repetitive trauma is the most common cause. For example, people who lean on their elbows cause friction and slight trauma to the tissues over the olecranon.For example, there are terms such as “student’s elbow” plumber’s elbow or miner’s elbow and these terms are based on long-term support on the elbows.
  • A single injury, such as a blow to the back of the elbow, may cause inflammation.
  • Arthritis. One or more bursae may become inflamed as a result of polyarthritis (but most olecranon bursitis is not associated with arthritis).
  • Bursa infection. This can happen if there is an incision in the skin above the bag that bacteria can enter.
  • Idiopathic. In many cases, bursitis occurs for no apparent reason. However, it is possible that in some bursitis is associated with a minor trauma that has been forgotten.


Normally, a person cannot feel or see a bursa. If inflammation of the olecranon bursa occurs, then there is thickening of the skin and swelling on the back of the elbow. The bursa can also be filled with fluid and then it looks like a small soft ball – a bit like a cyst.In most cases (with uninfected bursitis and not associated with arthritis), ulnar bursitis is painless or slightly painful. Movement in the elbow joint is not impaired.

If the bursa is infected (“septic” bursitis of the olecranon), pain, redness and tenderness in the elbow usually develop.

Bursitis associated with arthritis may itself be painless, but there may be joint pain associated with arthritis. Patients with olecranon bursitis usually experience pain and swelling in the back of the elbow.The pain is usually worse when leaning on the elbow or when bending or straightening the elbow. In less severe cases, patients may only experience elbow pain and stiffness at rest after activities such as carrying a bag. In addition, activities such as using a hammer or straightening the elbow against resistance can also cause pain in the early stages.

As patients progress, they may experience symptoms that increase with sports or physical activity.Patients may notice swelling and a large ridge above the elbow ridge. Most patients with ulnar bursitis experience pain when touching the olecranon. Sometimes small lumps can be felt in the olecranon region. Patients may also experience weakness in the elbow, especially when trying to straighten the elbow against resistance.


Generally, a physical examination by a physician is sufficient to make a diagnosis. But in order to exclude the possible presence of an infection or arthritis, it is also necessary to conduct laboratory tests and x-rays.In some cases, to exclude the tumor genesis of the formation, it is possible to prescribe CT or MRI.


In most cases, ulnar bursitis can be healed on its own by reducing the stress on the elbow. But in some cases, medical intervention is required, up to surgical.

Conservative treatment of ulnar bursitis includes:

  • Peace and change of activity. Patients with ulnar bursitis should avoid activities involving pressure on the elbow.Wearing elbow pads can also help protect the bag from pressure or additional irritation.
  • Cold. Applying a cold compress to your swollen elbow for 20 minutes two or three times a day can help relieve symptoms and reduce swelling.
  • Compression. Using an elastic bandage wrapped around the affected joint can help reduce swelling.
  • Elevation. Raising your elbow to or higher than your heart reduces blood flow and thus reduces inflammation.

Drug treatment. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as aspirin, ibuprofen (such as Advil), naproxen (such as Aleve), and COX-2 inhibitors (such as Celebrex) can reduce swelling and inflammation and relieve pain associated with ulnar bursitis.

Aspiration. Aspiration of the swollen bursa with a needle and syringe allows the pressure to be relieved immediately. Aspiration is also done to test the fluid for germs. (A positive test would mean septic bursitis).

Corticosteroid injections. The symptoms of bursitis can be significantly reduced with corticosteroid injections. Corticosteroids are powerful anti-inflammatory drugs, and injecting them directly into the inflamed bursa tends to significantly reduce pain and swelling. However, corticosteroid injections have potential side effects such as infections and skin degeneration on the elbow. Thus, these injections are usually prescribed for persistent bursitis and other treatment is ineffective.

Antibiotics. Olecranon septic bursitis requires antibiotics. The choice of antibiotic depends on the microorganism that is causing the infection (most often Staphylococcus aureus). For most people with septic bursitis, antibiotic treatment is effective, with some requiring hospitalization and intravenous antibiotics.

Surgical treatment

Surgery is sometimes required for chronic bursitis or septic bursitis.In a traditional bursectomy, an incision is made in the elbow and the inflamed bursa is removed. Since the bag is located under the skin, the elbow joint is not affected during the operation.

Complications of surgical removal of the bursa can be problems with healing of the skin at the site of the incision and soreness. A few months after the operation, as a rule, a new bursa grows at the site of the removed bursa.

After the operation, patients are recommended to fix the elbow with a special bandage for some time, holding the arm at an angle of 90 degrees.

exercise therapy. After the symptoms of bursitis have subsided, the appointment of exercise therapy is quite effective to strengthen muscle tone.


Most patients with this disease recover and return to normal life within a few weeks. Sometimes, rehabilitation can take much longer (up to several months) in cases where the bursitis has lasted for a long time. Therefore, early treatment and rehabilitation is essential to restore the normal quality of life.

90,000 Disease Symptoms – Eleos Clinic

In a static position, any limb begins to grow numb, since this disrupts normal blood circulation as a result of squeezing of blood vessels.

As a rule, numbness after an unusual or uncomfortable posture is observed in most completely healthy people, and in this case there is no cause for concern. Such numbness lasts for 3-4 minutes, and after assuming a normal position, it completely disappears.Although there are times when you cannot do without the help of a doctor. If you cannot connect the hands, stretch them forward as much as possible with the elbows apart and the closed back sides of the wrists at a right angle, and pain occurs, this is a sure sign that an urgent visit to a neurologist is necessary.

The hand may become numb in the area below the elbow, or only the fingers may become numb, accompanied by a slight and more intense tingling sensation. If such phenomena are of a regular nature, you should immediately contact a specialist, since such a symptom may be the result of such deviations as circulatory disorders, up to the following diseases:

  • osteochondrosis of the cervical spine;
  • neuralgia of the brachial plexus;
  • diabetes mellitus;
  • vitamin deficiency and micronutrient deficiency in the body;
  • scalene syndrome;
  • ulnar nerve syndrome;
  • herniated disc.

In addition, numbness in the arm below the elbow can be caused by injury. Only a qualified technician can determine the cause of numbness. The doctors at the Eleos clinic will conduct a visual examination and a complete examination of the numb limb and the general condition of the patient. If trembling in the hand, its swelling and itching are added to the numbness, then there is a likelihood of such a neurotic disease as tunnel syndrome, which is accompanied by prolonged pain and numbness of the hand.

Depending on the causes of this symptom, our specialists will prescribe an effective treatment, as a result of which the discomfort in the hand will not return.

Atopic dermatitis: Causes and symptoms

Atopic dermatitis: Causes

The causes of atopic dermatitis are not known and are the subject of active research. Studies have shown that this disease occurs as a result of interactions between the external environment, the immune system and genetics (heredity).People in these conditions have a more sensitive immune system, which is prone to reacting to many irritants and allergens.

Most people with atopic dermatitis also have family members with allergies, such as hay fever (allergic rhinitis). Experts believe the rash is a type of allergic reaction. Studies have shown that in people with atopic dermatitis, even unaffected skin areas do not retain moisture as well as they should.

Itching and rash can occur due to many factors:

  • Contact with allergens such as pollen, animal hair or mold.Household mites can also be allergens, but experts do not know if they can cause atopic dermatitis.

  • Contact with irritants such as harsh soaps and detergents, scratching of the skin and woolen clothing.

  • Contact with irritants in the workplace such as perfumes and chemicals.

  • Climatic changes, especially winter weather and low air humidity. Cold air does not contain enough moisture, which can cause dry skin and itching.

  • Temperature changes. Itching may intensify due to sudden temperature fluctuations. The sudden rise in temperature increases sweating, which in turn causes itching. Using a blanket, moving to a warm room, or moving from a warm shower to cold air can cause itching.

  • Emotional stress. Emotions such as sadness and anxiety can make itching worse.

  • Intake of certain foods, especially eggs, peanuts, milk, soy or wheat products.Up to 40% of children with both mild and severe atopic dermatitis suffer from food allergies. But experts are not sure if food can cause atopic dermatitis.

  • Excessive washing. Frequent washing dries out the top layers of the skin, which causes dryness and itching, especially during the winter months when humidity is low.

Atopic dermatitis: Symptoms

The main symptom of atopic dermatitis is itching. Itching can be severe and prolonged, especially at night.Scratching the affected area of ​​the skin causes a rash. The rash is red, patchy, and may persist for a long time (chronic) or disappear and appear (recurrent).

  • Rash may be fluid or crusty. This happens if an infection gets into the scratched skin. Experts call this an acute (temporary) rash.

  • The rash may be scaly and dry, red and itchy. Experts call this a subacute (prolonged) rash.

  • The rash may be hardened by constant scratching (lichenification).

The severity of symptoms depends on how large the skin area is covered by the rash. They also depend on how much you scratch the rash and whether the infection gets there. Mild atopic dermatitis covers a small area of ​​the skin, mild itching occurs, and symptoms resolve quickly with sufficient moisture. During the acute form of atopic dermatitis, a large area of ​​the skin becomes inflamed, severe itching appears, and the symptoms persist with moisture.

The location of the rash usually depends on the age group.

Children (from two months to two years)

  1. Rash sites – face, scalp, neck, arms and legs (especially knees and elbows), and trunk. The rash usually does not appear under the diaper. It appears in children during the winter months as dry, red, rough spots on the cheeks.

  2. The rash is often crusty or fluid.

  3. Brushing may lead to infection.

Children (from two to eleven years old)

  • Symptoms may appear during this period for the first time or be observed earlier.

  • The rash appears primarily on the inside of the arms and legs, the neck, and bends such as the inside of the knee or elbow.

  • The rash is usually dry. It can also range from an acute blistering rash to a subacute red, dry rash that turns into a chronic rash that causes the skin to dry out and become rough (lichenification).Lichenification is often seen when the rash has already subsided.

  • Brushing can cause infection.

Adolescents and adults

  • Atopic dermatitis takes on a milder form as they grow older.

  • Atopic dermatitis usually affects small folds such as the neck, inner knees, and elbows. The rash can also appear on the face, wrist, and forearm.In the groin area, a rash appears in rare cases.

There are other conditions that can be confused with those of atopic dermatitis, such as dry skin (xerosis), ringworm and various forms of contact dermatitis.

Atopic Dermatitis: What Happens

Atopic dermatitis causes severe itching and rash. In most cases, it occurs in children. Studies have shown that the disease goes away as they get older, but recent scientific reports show that many people suffer from dermatitis, although not as severely as children and adolescents.Also, atopic dermatitis can occur in adults.

Children (from two months to eleven years)

  • Approximately 50% of children with atopic dermatitis first experienced symptoms in the first year of life and 30% between the ages of 1 and 5 years.

  • Approximately 80% of children with atopic dermatitis develop asthma or allergic rhinitis over time.

  • Children with food allergies and atopic dermatitis are at high risk of developing asthma.

Atopic dermatitis can affect children. A child may feel marginalized compared to other children due to a rash or dietary restrictions. The child may feel unattractive.

Adolescents and adults

Adolescents and adults with atopic dermatitis during childhood may continue to experience symptoms.

  • If atopic dermatitis first appears in adulthood, it is more severe.

  • Some adults did not have skin problems as children and some experienced persistent bouts of dermatitis.

  • Atopic dermatitis in adults is directly related to environmental changes, for example, the transition from a humid room to a dry one, increased contact with allergens such as household ticks or animal hair.


Some people with atopic dermatitis develop lighter colored areas of skin, especially on the face, upper arms, or shoulders.Continuous scratching of the skin can also affect its color. If the manifestations of atopic dermatitis are controlled, the skin color will return to normal after about nine months. The darker the skin tone, the longer this process can take.

Infections caused by bacteria run the same way. The infected skin turns red and fever may also appear. Skin infections are treated with antibiotics.

Atopic dermatitis can also affect the skin and tissues around the eyes, but these are rare.

If atopic dermatitis is infected with the herpes simplex virus, eczema herpetiformis may develop, this virus also causes herpes. In this case, blisters appear, which may crust or bleed, and the temperature may also rise. This is a serious infection that requires a doctor’s consultation to treat it.

Atopic dermatitis and smallpox vaccination

People with a skin condition such as atopic dermatitis are at high risk of developing vaccine eczema when vaccinated against smallpox or coming into contact with another person’s vaccination site before all the crusts have cleared.In most cases, vaccine eczema is tolerated safely, but the disease can be severe and even fatal. The risk also exists for those people who previously had eczema, although it did not appear during vaccination.

Atopic Dermatitis: Increasing the Risk

The main factor that increases the risk of developing atopic dermatitis is heredity. It can also develop in people whose family members have asthma, allergic rhinitis, or other allergies.

A child with a parent or sibling with atopic dermatitis, asthma, or allergic rhinitis has a 60% to 80% chance of developing atopic dermatitis.

Atopic Dermatitis: When to Call a Doctor

You must call a doctor if your child has atopic dermatitis and:

  • Itching irritates the child.

  • Itching interferes with activity or sleep.

  • There are rough or wet wounds, scratches, rashes, discoloration of the skin, or a fever.

  • Painful cracks appeared on the hands or fingers.

  • Rash on hands interferes with activities at school or at home.

  • There are signs of a bacterial infection. These include:

    • Severe pain, swelling, redness, tenderness, or fever.

    • Red stripes around the affected area.

    • Purulent discharge.

    • Unreasonable temperature rise above 38C.


This is the period of time that the physician observes symptoms without the use of medication.

  • This method is necessary in the case of a minor rash. If symptoms resolve with home treatment, report it to your doctor.

  • If rash persists, see a doctor. He will suggest new treatments and stronger medications.

Which specialist to contact

For the diagnosis and treatment of atopic dermatitis, you can consult:

If food or other allergies are possible causes of atopic dermatitis, consultation with an allergist (immunologist) may be required to assess the condition.

90,000 Chronic pruritus – the first manifestation of oncology / Full contact / Vesti FM radio station Live / Listen online

Generalized pruritus as a symptom of general diseases. Guest – Doctor Alexander Myasnikov .

Leading “Vesti”
FM “- Vladimir Soloviev , Anna Shafran .

Myasnikov : We will leave aside the itching associated with the skin – with atopic dermatitis, dry skin, psoriasis, scabies, and so on, I don’t even want to talk about it, this is, in fact, understandable. But itching as a symptom of other internal diseases, this is an interesting topic, because, firstly, it is very often a manifesto, the first manifestations of oncology.Oncology such as lymphoma and what we call lymphogranulomatosis, some tumors of the stomach. For example, lymphogranulomatosis, or Hodgkin’s lymphoma – in 30% of cases, several years, 4-5 years before its clinical manifestations, itching begins, chronic itching begins. This is not something that scratched like everyone else, but itching for more than 6 months, which haunts you, is not clearly localized. And this is a symptom … And I saw an interesting work: the Danes shoveled more than 30 thousand electronic case histories and found that if a person had generalized itching, at that moment they were looking for oncology and did not find it, then years passed, and in fact, in people who had this itching, they still get oncology much more often than those patients who did not have itching.

Soloviev : And where and what itch?

Myasnikov : Itching all over the body, here is a generalized itching. It’s not like certain areas itch.

It happens, by the way, sometimes certain parts of the body, for example, neurological itching. When? Here you, probably, have many itchy edge of the scapula, either on the right or on the left. And the person begins to approach the jamb and scratch this edge of the scapula.

Soloviev : That’s it, that’s what the joint was created for, yes.

Myasnikov : Yes. Starts scratching. Sometimes so that it is even visible on the skin, because there the skin darkens, because he constantly scratches. In fact, it is at the level of the thoracic vertebra that a branch of one of the nerves that comes out of our spine is captured, well, when it squeezes, when there is pain, when we say “hernia”. So she can pinch the twig, and there it will just itch, itch. And now he will itch from month to month.

Or, for example, there is this kind of itching when only the upper half of the neck, shoulders, and arms itch.This is due to the fact that … But there, however, there is no longer a clamping of the nerve, but there are degenerative changes at the level of C34 of the cervical nerve. This nerve is pinched, the hand, hands, maybe shoulders begin to itch continuously.