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Jobs of teeth: The Four Types of Teeth and Their Functions in Your Mouth


Types of Teeth and their Functions | An Overview of Dental Anatomy | Continuing Education Course

There are 4 types of teeth in the oral cavity:

  • Incisors – The four front teeth in both the upper and lower jaws are called incisors.  Their primary function is to cut food.  The two incisors on either side of the midline are known as central incisors.  The two adjacent teeth to the central incisors are known as the lateral incisors.  Incisors have a single root and a sharp incisal edge.
  • Canines – There are four canines in the oral cavity. Two in the maxillary arch and two in the mandibular area.  They are behind and adjacent to the lateral incisors.  Their main function is to tear food.  They have a single, pointed cusp and a single root.  They have the longest root of any tooth.  They also serve to form the corners of the mouth.
  • Premolars (Bicuspids) – These teeth are located behind and adjacent to the canines and are designed to crush food.  There are eight premolars in the oral cavity.  There are two in each quadrant of the mouth.  The one closest to the midline is the first premolar and the one farthest from the midline is the second premolar.  These teeth can have 3-4 cusps.  The maxillary first premolar has two roots, and the remaining premolars have a single root.  There are no premolars in the primary dentition.
  • Molars – The most posterior teeth in the mouth are the molars.  They have broader and flatter surfaces with 4-5 cusps.  They are designed to grind food.  Mandibular molars typically have 2 roots.  Maxillary molars, which are located behind the second premolars, typically have 3 roots.  There are 12 molars in the permanent dentition with three in each quadrant of the mouth.  They are named starting with closest to the midline as first molars, second molars and third molars.  Although, some people do not fully develop the third molars.   Third molars are often referred to as wisdom teeth.  The primary dentition only contains eight molars.

The 4 Types of Teeth and How They Function

  • According to Shantanu Lal, doctor of dental surgery and associate professor of dental medicine at Columbia University Medical Center in New York City, teeth tend to erupt in a symmetrical manner, meaning that the top molar on your left side should grow in at about the same time as the top molar on the right.
  • “Tooth development begins long before your first tooth becomes visible. For example, a baby’s first tooth appears at around six months, but development of those teeth actually begins during the early second trimester of pregnancy,” says Dr. Lal.
  • The crown of a tooth forms first, while the roots continue to develop even after the tooth has erupted.
  • The 20 primary teeth are in place between ages 2 ½ and 3 and remain until around age 6. Between ages 6 and 12, these primary teeth begin to fall out to make way for the permanent set of teeth.
  • Adult teeth start to grow in between ages 6 and 12. Most adults have 32 permanent teeth.

The Parts of the Tooth

A tooth is divided into two basic parts: the crown, which is the visible, white part of the tooth, and the root, which you can’t see. The root extends below the gum line and helps anchor the tooth into the bone. Your teeth contain four kinds of tissue, and each does a different job. These include:

Enamel This is the visible substance that covers the tooth crown. Harder than bone, enamel protects the vital tissues within the tooth. Enamel is made up of hydroxyapatite, phosphorous, and calcium.

Dentin Underneath the enamel you find dentin, which is calcified and looks similar to bone. Dentin is not quite as hard as enamel, so it’s at greater risk for decay should the enamel wear away.

Cementum This tissue covers the tooth root and helps anchor it into the bone. It’s softer than enamel and dentin; the best way to protect this softer tissue from decay is by taking good care of your gums. Cementum has a light yellow color and is usually covered by the gums and bone. But with inadequate dental care, the gums may become diseased and shrink, exposing the cementum to harmful plaque and bacteria.

Pulp Pulp is found at the center and core of your tooth and contains the blood vessels, nerves, and other soft tissues that deliver nutrients and signals to your teeth.

Types of Teeth and What They Do

Teeth help you chew your food, making it easier to digest. Each type of tooth has a slightly different shape and performs a different job. Types of teeth include:

Incisors Incisors are the eight teeth in the front of your mouth (four on top and four on bottom). These are the teeth that you use to take bites of your food. Incisors are usually the first teeth to erupt — at around 6 months for your baby teeth, and between ages 6 and 8 for your adult set.

Canines Your four canines (fangs) are the next type of teeth to develop. These are your sharpest teeth and are used for ripping and tearing food apart. Primary canines generally appear between 16 and 20 months, with the upper canines coming in just ahead of the lower canines. In permanent teeth, the order is reversed, with lower canines erupting around age 9 and the uppers arriving between ages 11 and 12.

Premolars Premolars, or bicuspids, are used for chewing and grinding food. Adults have four premolars on each side of their mouths — two on the upper and two on the lower jaw. There are no primary premolars; the first premolars appear around age 10, with the second premolars arriving about a year later. These take the places of the first and second primary molars (described below).

Molars Molars are also used for chewing and grinding food. Primary molars, also known as deciduous molars, appear between 12 and 28 months, and are replaced by the first and second premolars (four upper and four lower) described above.

The permanent molars (also four upper and four lower) do not replace any primary teeth, but come in behind all of them, further back in the jaw. The first permanent molars erupt at around age 6 (before the primary molars fall out), while the second molars come in between ages 11 and 13.

Third molars The third molars are commonly known as wisdom teeth. These are the last teeth to develop and don’t typically erupt until age 18 to 20. Some people never develop third molars at all. For those who do, these molars may cause crowding and need to be removed. If they don’t fully erupt they are said to be impacted, and are commonly removed.

Your mouth is important, so don’t take your teeth or oral health for granted. “For good dental health, brush and floss your teeth regularly, don’t smoke, eat a healthy diet, and see your dentist regularly for dental cleanings and checkups,” advises Lal. A healthy mouth makes for a healthy body — and a pretty smile.

Different Types of Teeth | What Does Each Tooth Do?

People have two sets of teeth. They are the primary teeth and then permanent teeth, which develop in stages after you baby teeth fall out. Adults have about 32 permanent teeth, which include wisdom teeth. Although types of teeth are often taken for granted, they are very important. Teeth help us chew our food which allows us to digest all of the nutrients used to nourish our bodies daily. Although very similar, each tooth has a different shape and a different job to do. Our teeth play an important role in our daily lives. Here are all of the different types of teeth and all of the jobs that they perform.


These are the eight teeth at the front of the mouth. They are thin, straight and located at the top and at the bottom of your mouth. They are the first ones that bite into the food you eat. They also help you to pronounce words and support the lips. Lower incisors are usually the first teeth to erupt at about 6 months old. Then other incisors will erupt between the ages of 7 and 8 years old.


You have four canine teeth which are located on each side of the upper and lower incisors. These are your sharpest teeth and they are used to cut and tear into food.


These are located behind the canines. Premolars have a flattened top and are used to chew food and also maintain the height of the face. There are eight premolars in an adult’s mouth. There are four on the top and four on the bottom.


Located next to the premolars are the molars. These are your widest and flattest teeth. There are twelve molars with six in the upper jaw and six in the lower. Molars are used for chewing and grinding food. Molars are the first permanent teeth to erupt, which usually happens at about 6 years old. They are the 4 first permanent molars behind the last primary teeth.

Third molars

Third molars, which are also known as wisdom teeth, are the last teeth to develop. They are the four molars at the back of both the upper and lower jaws. They develop during young adulthood. Some people may never develop their third molars. However, those who do develop them usually have to get them removed because of crowding in the mouth. All molars are used for chewing and grinding food but third molars are not necessary.

Supernumerary Teeth

The normal amount of teeth in an adult’s mouth is 32. Sometimes, more teeth than the usual 32 will appear. These are called supernumerary teeth. Typically, it is an extra incisor, molar or even an extra canine tooth. It is common for these extra teeth to be removed because they can cause crowding in the mouth. They are not necessary to keep as they are just extra teeth that developed.

Maintaining Healthy Teeth

We have several types of teeth and it is essential to take care of all of them. You can make sure you are keeping your teeth healthy by eating healthy, brushing regularly, not smoking and having routine dental checkups. With a full set of heathy teeth, people are able to eat and speak correctly. Oral health is essential to your overall wellbeing. Preserve your confident smile with pearly white teeth.

Whether you’re having trouble finding a suitable dental physician, have more questions about maintaining the best oral hygiene routine, or want to actually perform a dental procedure, outstanding dental advice and care can be offered by Dr. David S. Kao’s office to provide you with the gorgeous, memorable smile you desire. Dr. Kao focuses his treatment on you as an individual, and not just on the dental problem. As part of his approach to dental care, Dr. Kao takes into account each patients’ individual needs and concerns. Dr Kao’s treatments are specifically tailored to provide lasting health benefits.

Contact us today to schedule a consultation and to boost both your smile and your confidence.

Casa Smiles

Happy “Tooth-Day”!

Farah Flossit here, hoping you are all doing a job well done:)

We all have jobs.  If you are a child, your job is to be a student, sibling, or a good teammate on a sports team.  If you are an adult, you have many jobs, a nurse, a mom, a dad, etc.  What we don’t usually consider is that each type of tooth we have, has a specific job.  They don’t all have the same shape & purpose.  So, today I want to shed some light on what each type of tooth does.  This is great information you can share with your kiddos. This will help them understand that if you they don’t have healthy workers in their mouths, their teeth can’t  do a good job!

Fist it’s important to identify the 4 different types of teeth  1.  INCISORS  2.  CANINES  3.  PREMOLARS  4.  MOLARS


Now we can talk about the function or job each type of tooth has.  Teeth help you chew on your food, making it easier to digest. Each type of tooth has a slightly different shape & performs a different job.

  • INCISORS.  Incisors are the eight teeth in the front & center of your mouth (4 on the top & 4 on the bottom).  These are the teeth that you use to take bites of your food.  Incisors are usually the first teeth to erupt, at around 6 months of age for your first set of teeth, & between 6 & 8 years of age for your adult set.
  • CANINES.  Your four canines are the next type of teeth to develop.  These are the sharpest teeth and are used for ripping & tearing food apart.  Primary canines generally appear between 16 & 20 months of age with the upper canines coming in just ahead of the lower canines.  In permanent teeth, the order is reversed.  Lower canines erupt around age 9 with the upper arriving between 11 & 12 years of age.
  • PREMOLARS.  Premolars, or also known as bicuspids, are used for chewing & grinding food.  You have 4 premolars on each side of your mouth, 2 not the upper & 2 on the lower jaw.  The first premolars appear around age 10 and the second premolars arrive a year later.
  • MOLARS.  Primary molars are also used for chewing & grinding food.  These appear between 12 & 15 months of age.  These molars, also known as deciduous molars. are replaced by the first & second permanent premolars (4 upper & 4 lower).  The permanent molars do not replace, but come in behind the primary teeth.  The first molars erupt around 6 years of age (before the primary molars fall out) while the second molars come in between 11 & 13 years of age.
  • THIRD MOLARS.  Third molars are commonly known as wisdom teeth.  These are the last  teeth to develop & do not typically erupt until age 18-20, and some people never develop third molars at all.  For those who do, these molars may cause crowding & need to be removed.

Much like if you are out sick from school or you are not able to go to your place of work, you can do your job.  Therefore, the same way you need to take care of your bodies & stay healthy by taking vitamins, exercising & eating right, it is just as important to keep your teeth healthy so that they can do their job!  It’s your job to brush your teeth, floss, eat healthy foods, & visit the dentist every 6 months for your checkups & cleanings!   Just remember that a healthy mouth makes for a healthy body and a pretty smile!

To continue to support & bring awareness to Autism for “Autism Awareness Month”, check out some tips for helping your “Ausome” friend, family, or patient visit the dentist!


  1.  Many children like counting.  This is a great way to getting the job done.  Have the child count with you as they get one side of their mouth cleaned or as the dentist counts how many teeth they have.
  2. Bring a stress ball, silly putty, or play dough.  The use of this helps with anxiety & stimming.
  3. Bring a weighted vest or blanket for a sense of security or to help with sensory overload.
  4. Use head phones to block out some of the distracting noises that one can hear at the dentist.  At Casa Smiles, we have headphones where children can pick from a wide selection of their favorite movies & shows.

Thank you for tuning in on today’s Happy “Tooth-Day’s” report!

I look forward to chatting with you all next week!

In the meantime, you can follow us on Facebook https://www.facebook.com/casasmilespediatricdentistryandorthodontics?pnref=lhc. Instagram http://instagram.com/casasmiles/, Twitter https://twitter.com/casa_smiles, Yelp http://www.yelp.com/biz/casa-smiles-pediatric-dentistry-and-orthodontics-coral-gables & Pinterest https://www.pinterest.com/casasmiles/ to hear all about our daily news! You can always call or email us with any questions, concerns, to make an appointment, or for a complimentary Ortho Consultation http://www.casasmiles.com/contact-us/.

Your Friend,

Farah Flossit (Special Agent Flossit)


Teeth names: Diagram, types, and functions

Teeth help a person use their mouth to eat, speak, smile, and give shape to their face. Each type of tooth has a name and a specific function.

Teeth are made up of different layers — enamel, dentin, pulp, and cementum. Enamel, which is the hardest substance in the body, is on the outside of the tooth. The second layer is dentin, which is softer than enamel, and the deepest layer inside the tooth is pulp, which consists of nerves and blood vessels. Cementum is on the root of the tooth and is beneath the gums.

The number and types of teeth a person has changes as they age. Typically, people have two sets of teeth during their life — primary, or baby teeth, and permanent, or adult teeth. In this article, we look at the teeth that children and adults have, as well as their functions.

Humans have the following types of teeth:


Incisors are the sharp teeth at the front of the mouth that bite into food and cut it into smaller pieces. They are flat with a thin edge. They are also called anterior teeth.

Both children and adults have eight incisors — four central incisors at the front of the mouth, two on each row, with one lateral incisor positioned on either side of them.


Canines are the sharp, pointed teeth that sit next to the incisors and look like fangs. Dentists also call them cuspids or eyeteeth. Canines are the longest of all the teeth, and people use them to tear food.

Both children and adults have four canines. Children usually get their first permanent canines between the ages of 9 and 12. The lower canines tend to come through slightly before those in the upper jaw.


Premolars, or bicuspids, are bigger than the incisors and canines. They have many ridges and help chew and grind up food. Adults have eight premolars. The first and second premolars are the molars that sit next to the canines.

Young children do not have premolar teeth. These first appear as permanent teeth when children are 10–12 years old.


Molars are the biggest of all the teeth. They have a large, flat surface with ridges that allow them to chew food and grind it up. Adults have 12 permanent molars — six on the bottom and top jaw, and children have eight primary molars.

The last molars to erupt are wisdom teeth, or third molars, which usually come through between the ages of 17–21. These sit at the end of the row of teeth, in the far corners of the jaw. Some people do not have all four wisdom teeth, or the teeth may stay unerupted in the bone and never appear in the mouth.

Sometimes wisdom teeth can become impacted, which means they can become trapped under the gum and are unable to come through properly.

Wisdom teeth that only come through halfway or are in the wrong position can increase the risk for infection or damage in surrounding areas. It is essential to see a dentist if people have any issues with their wisdom teeth.

People may experience mild discomfort when their wisdom teeth start pushing through the gums, but anyone feeling a lot of pain or has swelling should see a dentist.

A dentist may need to remove wisdom teeth if a person has tooth decay, pain, or an infection. People do not need these teeth for chewing, and they are difficult to keep clean because of their position far back in the mouth.

Children have 20 primary, or baby, teeth. Primary teeth first start to appear when babies are around 6 months old. Children usually get all their primary teeth by the age of 3.

These teeth gradually fall out, and 28 permanent teeth replace them. Sometimes, permanent teeth push the baby teeth out, but typically, permanent teeth come through the gums at the back of the mouth behind the last baby tooth in the jaw.

The first permanent teeth to erupt through the gums are four first, or ‘6-year’ molars, so-called because they usually come through when a child is about 6 years old.

The first baby teeth to fall out are the lower central incisors. The adult central incisors tend to erupt around the same time as the first permanent molars around age 6-7.

Usually, people have lost all of their baby teeth by around the age of 14.

The following table shows the different types of primary teeth and the usual ages that children gain and lose them, according to the American Dental Association:

Type of teeth Age teeth come through Age teeth are lost
Upper jaw Upper jaw Upper jaw
Central incisor 8–12 months 6– 7 years
Lateral incisor 9–13 months 7–8 years
Canine 16–22 months 10–12 years
First molar 13–19 months 9–11 years
Second molar 25–33 months 10–12 years
Lower jaw Lower jaw Lower jaw
Second molar 23–31 months 10–12 years
First molar 14–18 months 9–11 years
Canine 17–23 months 9–12 years
Lateral incisor 10–16 months 7–8 years
Central incisor 6–10 months 6–7 years

In their late teens to early twenties, most people will also get four wisdom teeth, giving adults a total of 32 teeth, usually by 21 years old.

The following table shows the different types of permanent teeth and the usual ages that they come through, according to the American Dental Association:

Type of teeth Age teeth erupt
Upper jaw Upper jaw
Central incisor 7–8 years
Lateral incisor 8–9 years
Canine 11–12 years
First premolar 10–11 years
Second premolar 10–12 years
First molar 6–7 years
Second molar 12–13 years
Third molar or wisdom teeth 17–21 years
Lower jaw Lower jaw
Third molar or wisdom teeth 17–21 years
Second molar 11–13 years
First molar 6–7 years
Second premolar 11–12 years
First premolar 10–12 years
Canine 9–10 years
Lateral incisor 7–8 years
Central incisor 6–7 years

The age that teeth erupt or appear varies from child to child, so parents or caregivers need not be concerned if their child’s teeth do not exactly follow the patterns above. Check with the child’s dentist if they experience a delay of longer than 1 year. Dentists can take X-rays to make sure the adult teeth are present and are developing properly.

Human teeth include incisors, canines, premolars, and molars. Children will usually get all of their 20 primary teeth by around the age of 3. By around the age of 21, most people will get their wisdom teeth and have all their 32 permanent teeth.

Teeth are essential for chewing food properly and helping people to speak. Taking good care of all the teeth and maintaining good oral hygiene throughout a person’s life can help to keep teeth strong and healthy.

People can keep their teeth and mouth clean with the following daily practices:

  • brushing the teeth twice a day
  • using a fluoride toothpaste
  • flossing at least once a day
  • eating a balanced diet
  • avoiding excess sugar in food and drinks

Visiting the dentist regularly for cleaning and a checkup can ensure teeth remain in good health and allow prompt treatment for any problems.

Five Types of Human Teeth & Their Function

While many of us may not put too much thought into our teeth every day, their importance and function in our daily lives cannot be underestimated. From chewing our food to helping us smile and speak, teeth perform such a vital role in the way we live. However, aside from those studying to become a dental assistant, there are probably few who really critically think about the different types of teeth and the role they play in our lives.

Rather than delve into the benefits of oral hygiene, today we wanted to take a closer look into the different types of teeth we have and their use. While different numbers abound, it’s generally accepted that we have three different types of teeth: Incisors, canines, and molars. Yet, many will happily distinguish between the three different types of molars, including premolars and third molars. That leaves us with five different types of teeth. Below, we explore each type of tooth and its function in the mouth.


Incisors are often the first adult teeth that grow in after our primary teeth, or baby teeth, and make up most of our smile. There are eight incisors in the mouth; four in the top-center of our mouth and four in the bottom-center. These teeth are characteristically thin, flat-bottom teeth that help us to make the initial bite on our food. We bite into food with our incisors, tugging and pulling into our mouths. Incisors have a narrow-edge, and are adapted for cutting. The incisors are situated between the cuspids, or canines, and are often referred to as anterior teeth or front teeth because of their prevalence in smiling and talking.

Cuspids / Canines

Cuspids, also known as canines, are the closest link between the human mouth and that of a carnivorous predator, like a tiger or wolf. However, canine teeth in humans are not to be confused with those in man’s best friend. Mirroring the pointed teeth we associate with predatory animals and vampires, these are sharp, pointed teeth on either side of our incisors that are used to do exactly what they look like they are meant to do–tear into food and rip it apart. These pointed teeth usually come in permanently around the ten year mark, with the bottom cuspids arriving just before the upper cuspids. One feature of cuspids and canine teeth is the fact that they are our longest teeth, with a pointed end, and surprisingly, only one implanted root. Canines rip food, but their position on either side of the mouth help guide the mouth and other teeth into the best biting position.


Molars are our main masticators–that is, molars are the teeth we most commonly associate with chewing. While many may only recognize three types of teeth rather than five, the discrepancy comes in distinguishing between different types of molars.

Molars are simply large teeth with a flatter surface that are used to chew food into small, easily consumable pieces. Let’s look at the different types of molars below.

Premolars / Bicuspids

Premolars, or first molars, are our first molar teeth that tend to come in around twelve or thirteen years of age. Premolars sit next to the cuspids in the mouth and are the foremost molars in the mouth.

Wisdom Teeth / Third Molars

Wisdom teeth, or third molars, are often referred to as third molars because they are the last teeth to come into the mouth. Many often get their wisdom teeth removed; these teeth sit so far back in the jaw that they can often cause issues if not removed.

For more information on dentistry, teeth, or how to start your new career as a dental assistant, contact ACI today. ACI Medical & Dental School in Eatontown, NJ, offers training programs for in demand healthcare careers with NHA Certification, including Medical Assistant Certification, Dental Assistant Training, and Medical & Dental Administrative Assistant Training, which includes Medical Billing and Coding Training. ACI also offers VA training programs and exciting opportunities for high school graduates.


Information on Canine Teeth

Information on Molars

Information on Oral Health

Information on Incisors

Types Of Teeth And Their Functions

Types of Teeth and
Their Function

A lot of
essential functions are affected by the teeth. It is therefore essential to
understand the teeth and keep it in the optimal condition. The teeth are
responsible for chewing food, and as a result, it aids digestion. Also, the
teeth affect our ability to speak. As a result, we can become healthy or
otherwise based on how we treat the teeth.

Part of the
process of taking care of the teeth is having adequate knowledge of its

The Components of the Tooth

A tooth has
two different parts and four different tissues. A tooth has the crown and the
root. The crown is the tangible and visible part of the tooth that you see when
you open the mouth. On the other hand, the root is the unseen, invisible part of
the teeth that makes the crown “rooted” to the bone.

Every tooth
also has four tissues. Each tissue is unique in its features and functions.


The enamel
is the component of the tooth that serves as its covering. The enamel contains
phosphorous and calcium. As a result, it is tough and therefore, serves as a
protection for the other tissues in the tooth.


The Dentin
is the next tissue after the enamel. It also serves as a covering for the
crown. The dentin is inferior to the enamel in term of strength. Therefore the
enamel serves as the protection for the dentin.


While the
enamel and the dentin serve as covering for the crown, the cementum serves as
the covering for the root. The cementum is soft and flexible and not as strong
as the dentin. The gum covers the cementum. Therefore, it is the first tissue
to be at risk when you don’t maintain the gum adequately. It can be easily
attacked by bacteria and plaque when the gum is not well taken care of.


The pulp is
the nutritional tissue of the bone. It is the part of the bone that houses all
the nutritional elements contained in the bone like the blood vessels and the
nerves. It is at the very center of the tooth.

How the teeth develop

As a part of
understanding the teeth, we must come to grasp with the way the teeth develop.
The development of the teeth takes place in distinct stages. It begins with the
development of the baby or milk teeth and then the permanent teeth.

research has told us that the teeth begin
to develop even before a tooth appears in the baby’s mouth. Teeth development
starts in the early second trimester.
Consequently, the development of the teeth is before
the appearance of the teeth.

Secondly, it has been noted that it is the crown of the teeth
that develop first and then the root
develops. Unlike the development of the crown though, the root continues to
develop even when it is formed.

Thirdly, all
the milk/primary teeth develop by the child’s birthday. The milk teeth remain
for the next three years. When the child is Six, the milk/primary teeth begin
to fall off and give way for the permanent teeth for the next six years.

scientific research has also shown that the top molar on the right and that on
the left develop simultaneously. This
means that the teeth develop symmetrically.

Types of Teeth and their function

The teeth
have many combinations of the tooth that
are similar in shape and function. You can divide the human teeth into four
different parts. We have the incisors, the canines, the premolars, and the
molars. These four teeth type make up the human teeth.


The incisors
are the most visible of all the teeth. Also, they are also the fastest to
develop. The permanent teeth contain four incisors on the upper jaw and four
incisors on the lower jaw. The eight incisors have the primary function of
biting food as a result of their sharpness.


The canines
are the next to develop after the canines. They are sharper than the canine and
meant for ripping and tearing food. There are two canines on the upper jaw and
two canines in the lower jaw. For the milk teeth, the upper canines appear
before the lower canines (a four months difference) while for the permanent
teeth, the lower canines appear two years before the upper canines.


premolars like the canines are also four in number. There are two premolars on
the upper jaw and also two premolars on the lower jaw on either side of the
mouth. Together, the premolars are responsible for the chewing and the grinding
of food. The premolars are absent in the milk teeth. They only start to develop
within that 6-12 age bracket when the milk teeth begin to give way to the permanent


develop in a child as part of the milk teeth between a year and 1.5 years.
Later on, as the child develops, the milk teeth molars are replaced by the
premolars. The permanent molars develop two on the upper jaw and two on the
lower jaw before the premolars replace the primary ones while two others
develop after the premolars have replaced the primary molars. In a fully formed
adult, there are four molars on either side of the mouth.

The molars
are also responsible for chewing and grinding like the premolars.

Third molars

The third
molars develop the later. They don’t develop in many adults at all. On the
average, they grow (when they do) between the ages seventeen to twenty. In many
cases, the existence of the third molars (also known as wisdom teeth) can cause
harm to the overall teeth health and may need to be removed by the dentist.

There, a basic introduction to the teeth. It is
essential to take time to take care of the teeth for optimal health of the
mouth and the whole body. You don’t want to have a toothache or an unhealthy
gum. As a result, always take care of your teeth like you do other parts of the
body. Brush regularly, eat well, avoid smoking and other substances that
destroy the teeth and make it a duty to visit your dentist regularly.

Appointment of teeth: types of teeth, functions, care | Dentist’s advice

There are 32 teeth in the oral cavity of a healthy person. They are placed on the upper and lower jaw, 16 pieces each. According to their purpose and shape, all teeth are divided into four groups.

1. Cutters.
2. Fangs.
3. Premolars.
4. Molars.

There are incisors in the front of the mouth. Two pairs on the lower and upper jaw. Incisors are needed to bite off food without significant pressure.The functioning of the incisors is very similar to that of the ticks. Such teeth have several distinctive features, namely:

– single root;
– flattened crown;
– with a thin edge, which is the main “cutting” element.

Canine teeth are placed on the lateral sides of the incisors. There are 4 of them in total, one for each side. That is, two canines are on the lower jaw and two on the upper. These teeth are designed to tear off pieces of food using great force.The canines have a long root and a stronger crown than the incisors. The root of the canines is the longest of all teeth. Therefore, these teeth are the most stable. The work of the fangs can be compared to the work of a chisel.

The next teeth after canines are premolars or small root teeth. There are only 8 premolars. Four are located on the lower jaw and four on the upper. The main purpose of these teeth is the capture and subsequent grinding of food. The structure of the premolars is almost identical to the canines.Root teeth differ only in their prismatic shape, as well as in an extended surface. In their work, premolars can be compared to the chop hammer that every housewife has in the kitchen.

Behind the premolars at the edge of the dental arches are molars, also called large root teeth. There are 12 of them in total. 6 on the upper and 6 on the lower jaw, 3 on each side. Therefore, they are numbered “1”, “2” and “3”. Molar # 3 may be missing. Its popular name is the wisdom tooth. Large root teeth are needed to crush and grind food using force.These teeth have a large crown with a large chewing surface, on which there are 5 tubercles (three in the front and two in the back). Their presence makes it possible to grind large pieces of food. Quite often, food debris accumulates between the tubercles. As a result, various deposits are formed – dental plaque, which can lead to the formation of caries, etc. This leads to damage to the molars. To restore them, you have to carry out a filling. The material for the filling must be selected taking into account the forthcoming loads.The dentist tries to make the filling identical to the shape of the tubercles. Otherwise, the tooth will not be able to fulfill its function in full. The upper molars have three roots and the lower ones have two. Large root teeth work like powerful hammers.

Dental prosthetics – Before and after photos – Results

Choose a doctor

Kotkova E.A. – prosthetics with bridges and clasp prostheses

Elena Aleksandrovna Kotkova

The patient came to us with complaints about the absence and destruction of a large number of teeth.Dr. Elena Aleksandrovna Kotkova carried out a full-fledged rehabilitation with the help of metal-ceramic crowns on the bridge prosthesis and the clasp prosthesis on the upper and lower jaws. Therapeutic training was performed by Yulia Vladimirovna Petushkova, surgical training – Anastasia Dmitrievna Malysheva.

M.V. Repyeva – prosthetics with metal-free ceramics

Repyeva Marina Vladimirovna

The patient complained of an aesthetic defect of the central incisors.Prosthetics were performed with metal-free ceramic crowns IPS e.max Press.

Kotkova E.A. – complex orthopedic rehabilitation

Elena Aleksandrovna Kotkova, Anastasia Dmitrievna Malysheva

The patient came to the clinic with a complaint about the unsatisfactory condition of a large number of teeth. Doctor Malysheva Anastasia Andreevna performed the extraction of teeth that could not be restored.Further, endodontic preparation, restoration with fiberglass pins and solid inlays of decayed teeth. Dr. Elena Aleksandrovna Kotkova performed a comprehensive restoration of chewing efficiency and aesthetics using 17 metal-ceramic crowns and a clasp on the lower jaw. A beautiful smile and lost function of a large number of teeth returned to the patient!

Tikhonova T.N.- total rehabilitation with veneers

Tikhonova Tatyana Nikolaevna

A patient came to the clinic with a complaint about the unsatisfactory look of his smile. Our doctor-orthopedist Tikhonova Tatyana Nikolaevna underwent a complete step-by-step rehabilitation of the patient’s entire oral cavity. The work included the following stages:

Preparatory stage (3-4 visits)
1.Sanation of the oral cavity
2. Tooth extraction 1.4 and 2.3
3. Dental pulp according to indications
4. Treatment of carious cavities

Prosthetics (5-6 visits)
1. Restoration of the crown part of the tooth 1.1 on the post, covering with a temporary plastic crown
2. Stage-by-stage preparation of 23 teeth and production of temporary plastic crowns and veneers
3. Fitting
4. Fixation of crowns and veneers in the oral cavity

The patient was very pleased with his new smile, thanks to which he gained a new look and a lot of self-confidence!

Kotkova E.A. – all-ceramic crowns for central incisors

Elena Aleksandrovna Kotkova

The patient came to the clinic “Aesthetics” with a desire to remake two temporary plastic crowns on the incisors of the upper jaw, which he wore for two years due to an operation on the apex of the tooth root. Two all-ceramic crowns were made.

Tikhonova T.N. – Prosthetics with removable dentures TermoSence

Tikhonova Tatyana Nikolaevna

The patient came to us with complaints of difficulty in chewing food due to the absence of teeth on the upper and lower jaws.Partial removable hypoallergenic nylon prostheses were made from TermoSence material. With their help, the aesthetic appearance of the smile and the chewing function were restored. Please note that with this type of prosthetics, you do not need to grind your teeth, because the prosthesis is firmly held by unmilled healthy teeth!

Tikhonova T.

N. – prosthetics with crown E-max

Tikhonova Tatyana Nikolaevna

The girl came to the clinic with a complaint of an aesthetic defect and discoloration of the anterior incisor.In the course of treatment, it turned out that the tooth had been previously treated and depulpated, which is why it changed its color. Our doctor made a metal-free crown, which completely compensated for the aesthetic defect and gave the patient the opportunity to smile again without embarrassment.

Tikhonova T.N. – Prosthetics with complete removable and bridge prostheses

Tikhonova Tatyana Nikolaevna

The patient came to the clinic “Aesthetics” with a complaint of a strong aesthetic defect and difficulty in chewing food.In the shortest possible time, two prostheses were made – a full removable one for the upper jaw and a metal-ceramic bridge for the lower one. The patient was very pleased with his new smile!

Tikhonova T.N. – prosthetics with crown E-max

Tikhonova Tatiana Nikolaevna

The patient came to the clinic “Aesthetics” with a complaint about the aesthetic defect of the lateral incisor.At the same time, she categorically refused orthodontic treatment. We decided to reshape the tooth with the E-max all-ceramic crown.

Sviridov S.B. – metal-ceramic prosthetics

Sviridov Sergey Borisovich

Initial situation: teeth on the left of the upper and lower jaws were partially missing.Treatment plan: production of metal-ceramic prostheses. Temporary crowns were installed at the time of manufacturing the dentures. The photo shows the initial situation (the teeth are prepared for prosthetics) and the view with temporary crowns.

The result is that porcelain fused to metal crowns are fixed in the oral cavity.

Combined dental prosthetics, including prosthetics on implants

Sviridov Sergey Borisovich

The patient complained of pain under the dentures in the area of ​​three teeth on the right and three teeth on the left (34, 35, 37, 43, 45, 47).

The CT scan showed that the roots of two teeth (45 and 47) were destroyed, the teeth had to be removed. Teeth 34 and 37 were also severely damaged – these teeth were restored. One – with a tab, the other (37) with a seal.

A single metal-ceramic crown is installed on 43 teeth. Further, 3 implants were installed on this side (in the area of ​​the 45th tooth – simultaneously with the extraction of the tooth). The Swedish Astra-Tech system was chosen. Further, metal-ceramic prostheses were installed on them.

On the other side of the lower jaw, a three-unit metal-ceramic prosthesis was installed in the area of ​​34, 35, 36 and 37 teeth with support on 34, 35 and 37 teeth.

Before and after photos:

More details of the treatment result:

L.V. Umanskaya – ceramic crown on zirconium oxide

Umanskaya Lyudmila Valerievna

The central upper incisor has a zirconium oxide ceramic crown.

That is, first, a zirconium oxide cap is made from the impression from the processed (ground) tooth. Then a ceramic mass is applied to it, repeating the color and shape of the native tooth.

One of the main advantages of this type of prosthetics is excellent aesthetic qualities and natural appearance. A metal frame will not show through such a crown. Gums will not darken due to oxidative reactions.

Zirconium oxide crowns are hypoallergenic. The occurrence of galvanic reactions and the appearance of third-party tastes in the mouth are excluded. Due to the low thermal conductivity, neither under the porcelain nor under the zirconium crown there is discomfort when eating hot and cold food. With the correct setting, zirconium oxide crowns last up to 15-20 years.

1 photo – a tooth processed under a crown

2 photos – a tooth with a zirconium oxide cap

3 photos – a finished ceramic crown on zirconium oxide installed in the oral cavity

Umanskaya L.B. – metal-ceramic bridge

Umanskaya Lyudmila Valerievna

The patient presented with a defect (missing tooth) in the anterior region of the lower jaw. The doctor installed a metal-ceramic bridge supported by 2 teeth.

Tikhonova T.N. – prosthetics with metal-ceramic crown

Tikhonova Tatiana Nikolaevna

The patient came to the clinic after a complete fracture of the coronal part of the central incisor.First, the tooth was pulped, after which a cast stump pin metal insert and a metal-ceramic crown were made.

Tikhonova T.N. – prosthetics with complete removable dentures

Tikhonova Tatiana Nikolaevna

Prosthetics with complete removable dentures (with complete absence of teeth), before and after photos:

Tikhonova T.H, – prosthetics with metal-ceramic prostheses, restoration of chewing function using a clasp prosthesis

Tikhonova Tatiana Nikolaevna

The patient came to the clinic with complaints of an aesthetic defect, difficulty in chewing food.

After the sanitation of the oral cavity, we proceeded to the prosthetics. It was decided to install metal-ceramic bridges and a clasp prosthesis on the upper jaw.For the period of prosthetics, temporary plastic crowns were installed. Detailed job description

Before and after photos:

View with temporary crowns:

Bottom line: the patient is satisfied with the result and happily returns to our clinic for a periodic dental examination, despite the distance to the clinic over 100 km!

Tikhonova T.N. – prosthetics with a bridge prosthesis

Tikhonova Tatiana Nikolaevna

The patient came to the clinic with complaints of an aesthetic defect due to the absence of a tooth. The abutment teeth were pulped, and a bridge was installed in place of the missing one.

Tikhonova T.N. – prosthetics with single metal-ceramic crowns.

Tikhonova Tatiana Nikolaevna

Korsakov M.S. – all-ceramic crowns e-max

Korsakov Maxim Sergeevich

The patient complained of an aesthetic defect in the 4 anterior teeth of the upper jaw. On examination, it was found that the old fillings were in poor condition and needed to be replaced.

It was decided to supply e-max all-ceramic crowns.

Preparations for prosthetics began, and old fillings were also replaced. The teeth remained “alive”, the nerves were not removed. Temporary crowns made. At the fourth visit, the prosthetics was completed, the crowns were fixed.

Initial situation:

Comparison of e-max all-ceramic crowns and porcelain-fused-to-metal crowns.Crown thickness.

Crowns on the model:

Before and after photos:

Photos of the result from a different angle:

Korsakov M.

S. – metal-free ceramic crown made of press ceramics (e-max)

Korsakov Maxim Sergeevich

Patient R.was directed to prosthetics by a dentist-therapist after endodontic tooth treatment.

The tooth was pulped, and such teeth always become more fragile, less reliable, and large fillings often crumble and fall out. As a result, this can lead to a fracture of the walls and complete destruction of the tooth. Therefore, it was recommended to cover the tooth with a crown.

An all-ceramic restoration was selected with the patient.

This option has many advantages compared to metal-ceramic crowns:

low invasiveness.Metal-free construction is much thinner than metal-ceramic analogs, teeth grinding and irritation of the gums by the edges of the crown are minimized;

biocompatibility (no metal). Due to the low thermal conductivity under the ceramic crown, there is no discomfort when eating hot and cold food.

excellent aesthetic qualities and natural appearance. The metal framework does not shine through the dental crown, and the gums do not darken under the influence of oxidative reactions.

The teeth look perfect and are practically indistinguishable from natural teeth.


1: After endodontic treatment, the tooth is prepared for the crown.

2: Temporary crown.

3-4: Permanent crown on the model and on the tooth.

We got an excellent result: reliability, biocompatibility, aesthetics.

It took two visits in total.Manufacturing took 1 week.

The patient is only at the beginning of aesthetic rehabilitation. So this work is just the beginning of the journey! Micro-abrasion and whitening are planned ahead. One more photo before and after prosthetics:

Korsakov M.S. – Prosthetics of the upper jaw of metal-ceramic bridges and removable clasp prosthesis

Korsakov Maxim Sergeevich

Patient B. went to the clinic with complaints of missing teeth, tooth mobility, bleeding gums, dark plaque on the teeth, difficulty in chewing food.

An examination was carried out, X-ray studies were additionally done, a detailed history was collected. This made it possible to diagnose and draw up a plan for the patient’s rehabilitation.
Complex treatment included three stages:

1. Therapeutic stage (Treatment of caries – placement of fillings and periodontal treatment – treatment of gums).

2. Surgical stage (tooth extraction).

3. Orthopedic stage – prosthetics.

At the first stage, all teeth were cleaned from soft plaque and supra- and subgingival dental deposits (calculi), hygiene training. Then the treatment of dental caries was carried out. Periodontal pockets were cleaned with the Vector apparatus. The splinting of the anterior teeth on the lower jaw completed the therapeutic and periodontal treatment.

In order not to leave the patient “completely without teeth”, it was decided to combine tooth extraction and prosthetics.How? This is how: under anesthesia, 4 teeth were grinded on the upper jaw, and two were removed, a temporary bridge was made. It took about two hours. The teeth we grinded several years ago in another clinic were depulped and high-quality filled, no retreatment was required.

In the photo: initial situation – teeth were grinded, removed – a temporary bridge

With the first temporary bridge (made from an impression from his teeth), the patient passed 4 weeks.This time is the minimum required after tooth extraction to recover before prosthetics.

On the next visit, the remaining teeth were slightly refined, impressions were taken, and a new temporary bridge was made (similar in shape and color to the final metal-ceramic bridge).

After one and a half to two weeks, the metal-ceramic prosthesis was tried on and its delivery was fixed with permanent cement. On the same visit, impressions were taken for the manufacture of a removable clasp prosthesis with clasps.

After a week and a half, the prosthesis was tried on. And a week later, the prosthesis was completely made. The prosthesis was fixed in the oral cavity, the patient was trained in hygiene and the rules for caring for the prosthesis, and a memo was issued.

Now the patient has to learn how to use “new teeth”; the period of adaptation to removable dentures takes from 2 weeks to 6 months. In this case, a quick addiction was predicted, which happened.

Photo: finished work in the oral cavity.

Now the patient can eat, smile (clasp or popularly “hooks” are practically invisible here and the patient is not embarrassed).

But our cooperation does not end there: constant preventive examinations are required, professional teeth cleaning and gum treatment 2-4 times a year. This is the only way to guarantee a long period of operation of prostheses and to delay the extraction of teeth as much as possible due to periodontitis (inflammation of the gums, tooth mobility).

Again before and after photos:

Complex treatment of the oral cavity with metal-ceramic prosthetics

Korsakov Maxim Sergeevich

The patient came to the clinic with such a situation with complaints about the loss of a seal with a pin, poor condition of the front teeth in the upper jaw (displacement, destruction, abrasion), bleeding of the gums, carious cavities, the presence of dental deposits.

We have carried out a comprehensive treatment of the oral cavity, which includes the following stages:

1. Sanitation of the oral cavity (treatment of carious lesions and removal of dental deposits, training in oral hygiene) – dentist Ermakova Anna Alekseevna.

2. Removal of the unrecoverable root of the left upper lateral incisor – dentist Sviridov Sergey Borisovich

3. Depulpation of the upper right incisors and retreatment of the root canal of the upper left central incisor;


A. Making cast stump inlays on the remaining incisors of the upper jaw;

B. Making a temporary plastic bridge for a period of 1-2 months;

C. Manufacturing of a metal-ceramic bridge.

Before and after photos:

Bottom line: a comprehensive treatment of the patient was carried out, despite this, constant observation by a dentist is required 2-4 times a year (hygiene control 2-4 times a year, removal of dental plaque 1-2 times a year), which will minimize the occurrence of caries and gum disease.

Korsakov M.S. – all-ceramic inlay made of press-ceramic

Korsakov Maxim Sergeevich

The patient complained of periodic chipping of the restoration on the chewing tooth of the lower jaw on the left.

In another clinic, she was recommended to make and install a cast stump tab and cover the tooth with a metal-ceramic crown.We have proposed an alternative option. Manufacturing of all-ceramic inlays from press ceramics.

Read more about this work here.

Before and after photos:

Korsakov M.S. – production of all-ceramic crowns for anterior teeth

Korsakov Maxim Sergeevich

A patient came to us who was trying to make ceramic veneers in another clinic.Unfortunately, the result was unsatisfactory. Temporary plastic veneers were left on the teeth. They looked unaesthetic (photo):

After a detailed examination, it was decided to make two all-ceramic crowns, since the previous “turning” of the teeth left no chances for high-quality production of ceramic veneers. The teeth were again prepared for prosthetics. Temporary plastic crowns were made on the newly “ground” teeth:

All-ceramic crowns were fixed on the next visit:

Other angles:


Bottom line: the patient was very pleased!

Korsakov M.S. – complete removable dentures made of plastic

Korsakov Maxim Sergeevich

Patient P. complained of complete absence of teeth in the upper and lower jaw. The last remaining teeth were removed about a month ago. Previously, P. had already received prosthetics in our clinic and was satisfied, so he turned to us again.

In this case, there are only two options for prosthetics:

1. Fixed with the use of implantation.

2. Complete dentures:

a) removable dentures with fixation on implants;

b) either “simple” removable dentures.

The last option was chosen. This construction requires 4-5 visits, and after 2-3 weeks, full removable dentures were fabricated.

Korsakov M.S. – all-ceramic crowns for anterior teeth

Korsakov Maxim Sergeevich

The patient complained about the aesthetic appearance of the anterior teeth in the upper jaw.The old metal-ceramic crowns had a bad appearance, there was a gap between the front teeth.

The following plan for aesthetic rehabilitation of the patient was proposed:

1. Removal of old metal crowns

2. Making temporary plastic crowns for 6 anterior teeth of the upper jaw

3. Manufacturing of 6 all-ceramic crowns.

The prosthetics were performed according to the plan.This was the initial situation:

Color matching. Central lower incisors – all-ceramic crowns made about a year ago in our clinic:

View with temporary crowns.

All-ceramic crowns are made. Model view:

Crowns are installed in the oral cavity:

Smile appearance:

Korsakov M.S. – prosthetics with ceramic (metal-free) crowns E-max.

Korsakov Maxim Sergeevich

Ceramic (metal-free) E-Max crowns (6 upper teeth), photo before and after and photo on the model.

Korsakov M.S. – pressed ceramic crown (e-max)

Korsakov Maxim Sergeevich

The patient complained of an aesthetic deficiency of the central incisor in the upper jaw after endodontic tooth treatment.It was not possible to restore with filling material.

The tooth is prepared for prosthetics – restored under a crown with a fiber post – photo 1.

Temporary crown – photo 2

A permanent pressed ceramic crown (e-max) was made and fixed on the 2nd visit. Photo immediately after fixation – photo 3.

Crown before installation:

General view with a smile 🙂

Korsakov M.S. – clasp prosthesis of the upper jaw with fixation on attachments

Korsakov Maxim Sergeevich

A patient came to us in connection with a fracture of old metal bridges. They were removed. It turned out that some of the teeth were destroyed and highly mobile. The teeth that could not be preserved were removed. Others were cured (endodontic treatment, fillings).

After that, a temporary removable plastic prosthesis was made for the upper jaw.Two one-piece crowns and two cast stump inlays (with “uni” attachments made by bredent) were made.

A clasp prosthesis of the upper jaw was made with fixation on attachments (locks).
Photos of crowns and inlays in the oral cavity – 1.
Photo of the prosthesis – 2 and 3.
Photo of the prosthesis in the oral cavity – 4.

Korsakov M.S. – all-ceramic crowns on the anterior lower teeth

Korsakov Maxim Sergeevich

A patient complaining of an aesthetic defect and frequent chipping of fillings on 2 central incisors of the lower jaw.

Therapeutic training was carried out (retreatment of root canals and restoration with fiber-optic posts).
After that, all-ceramic crowns were made.
Result photo:

Korsakov M.S. – front teeth prosthetics

Korsakov Maxim Sergeevich

Four single metal-ceramic crowns for the anterior teeth of the upper jaw. Photos on models and in the oral cavity

Korsakov M.S. – prosthetics of anterior teeth

Korsakov Maxim Sergeevich

Two metal-ceramic crowns installed on 2 incisors of the upper jaw (left).

Korsakov M.S. – prosthetics of anterior tooth

Korsakov Maxim Sergeevich

The patient came to the clinic with complaints of an aesthetic defect due to the absence of the crown part of the tooth in the upper jaw (photo 1). Therapeutic preparation was carried out (filling of the root canal of the tooth, the cutting edge of the adjacent tooth was restored with filling material.

Prosthetics included:

1. Making a cast stump pin inlay.

2. Making a temporary plastic crown.

3. Manufacturing of a metal-ceramic crown.

Korsakov M.

S. – prosthetics of anterior teeth

Korsakov Maxim Sergeevich

Several years ago, due to trauma, the patient lost several upper teeth.As a solution to the problem, a metal-ceramic bridge was made. The photographs show a view before and after prosthetics.

Korsakov M.S. – production of metal-ceramic crowns

Korsakov Maxim Sergeevich

The patient came to the clinic complaining of the unsatisfactory condition of the old fillings, the lack of contact between the teeth, and the constant chipping of the fillings.He was sent by a dentist-therapist to make m / c crowns for the teeth of the upper jaw. The photos show the finished construction.

Korsakov M.S.- complete removable denture with attachments

Korsakov Maxim Sergeevich

Complete removable denture with attachments (denture with a stronger fixation system, improved aesthetics and functionality)

Repyeva M.V., Korsakov M.S. – teeth whitening followed by aesthetic restoration and prosthetics

Repyeva Marina Vladimirovna, Korsakov Maxim Sergeevich

A girl came to the dental clinic “Aesthetics” with a complaint of aesthetic defects and unsatisfactory appearance of the smile line teeth. The problem was aggravated by some mistrust of doctors and doubts about the possibilities of treatment. Our doctors drew up a treatment plan, which we managed to start already on the first visit.

1. The first stage was professional oral hygiene with the removal of dental plaque, which returned the teeth to their original color. Also, problem teeth were cured and impressions were taken for the manufacture of individual aligners.

2. Further, remineralizing therapy was carried out using individual aligners. This procedure helps to normalize the mineral composition of the hard tissues of the teeth, strengthen them and reduce the risk of further caries.

3. The third stage was decided to start bleaching the teeth of the upper and lower jaws. The patient was very pleased with the result of the procedure.

As a gift from “Aesthetics” she received a course of home bleaching NiteWhite, as well as ReliefGel for carrying out remineralizing therapy at home using individual aligners. Two weeks after the whitening procedure carried out in the clinic, the patient consolidated and intensified the result with the help of the home whitening system.

4. The final stage was the aesthetic restoration of the anterior teeth and the production of all-ceramic crowns, taking into account the new shade.

Thus, in just a few weeks, the patient acquired not only a new excellent smile, but also faith in herself and dentists, and for us this is beyond praise!

(The review of our patient, who performed this work, was taken from the site https: // prodoctorov.ru)

Sharakhutdinova O.S. – prosthetics of the chewing group of teeth


The patient turned to the clinic “Aesthetics” with a desire to replace the stamped prostheses with titanium nitride sputtering installed more than 10 years ago with modern metal-ceramic structures.

Initial situation in the oral cavity.

Our doctor made stump inlays first on teeth 23, 26, 36, and then on teeth 15 and 16. All inlays were covered with temporary plastic crowns.

Temporary crowns on teeth 23, 26, 36.

Temporary crowns on teeth 15, 16.

The models of the jaws, meanwhile, were sent to the dental laboratory of our clinic for the subsequent manufacture of metal-ceramic prostheses.

Ready-made restorations from Duceram Kiss ceramic mass, made in Germany.

After that, the new structures were fixed in the oral cavity, and the patient was very pleased with the result.

Finished oral work.

Sharakhutdinova O.S. – metal-ceramic prosthesis


The patient complained about the destruction of 17, 16 teeth, food stuck between them, a change in the color of the 14th tooth. On examination, it turned out that the 15th tooth was also missing. The teeth are so damaged that it is necessary to cover them with crowns. And the missing tooth needs to be restored, since the prolonged absence of a tooth leads to adverse consequences.

It was decided to make a metal-ceramic bridge for 17, 16 and 14 teeth.After retreatment of root canals of 17 and 16 teeth, 17 were restored with a stump inlay, 16 and 14 – with fillings with fiberglass pins. Temporary crowns were installed at the time of manufacturing the dentures.

Intermediate stage – temporary prosthesis:

The result is a view from a different angle:

Sharakhutdinova O.S. – cantilever prosthesis made of metal-ceramic on the stump plate


A patient came to us with a defect in the area of ​​the lateral upper teeth on the right. On examination, it turned out that the 14th tooth was missing, and the adjacent 15th strong one was destroyed (by 2/3 of the crown) and changed in color. It was decided to make a cantilever metal-ceramic prosthesis for 15 and 14 teeth (with support for 15 teeth). A cantilever prosthesis is a type of bridge prosthesis when not 2 adjacent to the missing teeth are used for support, but only one (or two) adjacent ones.In this case, it was a good alternative in order not to “touch” the healthy 13th tooth.

The canals in the destroyed 15 tooth were repaired. The tooth was restored with a stump tab. A temporary plastic crown was made. Then a metal-ceramic prosthesis was made and installed.

Situation before the intervention

Stump tab

Temporary plastic crown

Completed ceramic restoration

Before and after

Sharakhutdinova O.C. – crown made of zirconium dioxide


Prettau zirconia single crown.

Sharakhutdinova O.S. – production of a metal-ceramic crown with a stump inlay


The patient came to the clinic with a complaint of unsatisfactory aesthetics due to tooth decay.It was decided to restore the aesthetics with a metal-ceramic crown.

In order to strengthen the structure, a cast stump inlay was made and installed for the patient. Then – a metal-ceramic crown.

At the time of manufacturing the necessary structures, a temporary crown was made and installed for the patient. The whole process took 10 days.

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The need to restore the dentition raises several important questions for the patient.If you prefer prosthetics with crowns or “bridges”, you need to choose the right metal for the prostheses. One of the most popular options is cermets: teeth are restored using a structure that has a metal base with a ceramic coating.

It is a hypoallergenic material that is durable and resistant to chewing stress. With its help, you can restore any teeth – both the frontal group and the chewing teeth. However, preference is still given to him in the second case.

This is due to the peculiarities of the enamel of the anterior teeth: it is more transparent, and therefore the metal frame can be seen through the ceramic layer. However, the installation of cermets on the front teeth is possible without aesthetic “losses”: prostheses on a zirconium frame are virtually devoid of this drawback. The restoration of chewing teeth is possible and even recommended in many cases: the optimal strength indicators of such structures allow them to withstand heavy loads. They perfectly imitate the structure of the tooth, and the ceramics look natural, like their own enamel.

Types of metal-ceramic prostheses

According to the material of the base or frame, metal-ceramic dentures are divided into those made of:

  • Non-precious;
  • Semiprecious;
  • Precious metals.

According to the method of applying a ceramic layer, they are classified into structures on which hypoallergenic ceramics are sprayed or poured. And if earlier composites were used for this purpose, then modern dental material made it possible to avoid typical imperfections and guarantee accurate reproduction of the color, degree of transparency, and the structure of the tooth’s own hard tissue.

There are three types of prostheses:

  • Crowns – dental prosthetics with metal ceramics in this case is relevant for the restoration of one or more teeth that are not located near, destroyed by more than 2/3;
  • Bridges are used to restore several missing teeth in a row. The main condition for the installation of a metal-ceramic bridge is the presence of abutment teeth, on which the crowns of the orthopedic structure will be fixed;
  • Clasp dentures are a type of removable denture, consisting of an arch and frames of attached metal-ceramic crowns.

Advantages and disadvantages

Metal-ceramic dentures are distinguished by non-toxicity, high strength, reliability, long service life. Today they are widely used to restore chewing teeth. The frame made of zirconium dioxide or aluminum makes it possible to practically save the structure from such a disadvantage as the transillumination of a metal strip with a decrease or decrease in the gingival margin line.

Modern dentistry offers another way to get rid of the aesthetic deficiency: a crown with a shoulder mass can be used.This is a layer of ceramic that is applied to the lower base of the framework along the line of contact between the structure and the gingiva. This approach requires preliminary turning to form a rounded shoulder. In this case, the frame thickness is less, and the ceramic layer is thicker. This not only improves the aesthetic parameters (the framework does not shine through under the ceramic layer and does not become noticeable when the gums are lowered), but also the adaptation of the tissues to the new design.

What are the disadvantages of cermets? Oddly enough, strength.It acts as an advantage and a disadvantage at the same time, since the design affects the surface of the teeth in contact with it when the jaws are closed. This can cause increased abrasion of the enamel.

Other disadvantages include rare but possible allergic reactions to metal. For example, nickel from the chromium-nickel alloy of the frame can provoke allergies. Such a reaction can manifest itself in the form of a burning sensation in the mouth, a metallic taste, swelling of soft tissues, and soreness. In such cases, the prosthesis must be replaced with another type, for example, an all-ceramic crown.Also, base metals are susceptible to oxidation by saliva. In this case, precious metals benefit significantly. But the price of teeth made of metal-ceramic in this case will be significantly higher.

The disadvantage that applies to all types of metal-ceramic prostheses is the need to turn your own abutment teeth. In some cases, the removal of pulp from a healthy tooth is required.

How long does a metal-ceramic prosthesis serve

The service life of cermets depends on what metal the base is made of.On average, it is 10-12 years old. The platinum-gold frame provides a 15-year lifespan.

In order to extend the service life of the prosthesis, it is important to contact an experienced qualified dentist in a reliable clinic: the structure must be made strictly according to individual parameters and impressions, the installation must be carried out in compliance with technology and standards in order to avoid such complications as secondary caries and, in fact, the need to replace the artificial structure.

The time of wearing the prosthesis also depends on the patient.With proper care and adherence to the recommendations, it significantly exceeds the warranty period. It is important to visit the dentist in a timely manner for prophylaxis, as well as to carry out replacement at the end of the service life.

Stages and Features of Installation

Installation of cermet is carried out in several stages:

  1. Consultation, diagnostics.
  2. Preparation of a tooth before fixing a crown or turning abutment teeth for the installation of a bridge. In most cases, during preparation, tooth pulping is also carried out.
  3. Taking casts, sending them to the dental laboratory.
  4. Installation of a temporary crown for the period of manufacture of a permanent structure.
  5. “Fitting”, fixation of a permanent prosthesis (crown, bridge).

If we are talking about a metal-ceramic clasp prosthesis, turning is not performed.

For other cases, before installing metal-ceramic dentures, they must be prepared or ground in one of two ways:

Turning with a shoulder.When preparing hard tooth tissues, the doctor forms a circular ledge along the lower edge. This makes it possible to avoid metal contact with the gum tissue, minimizing the risk of painful reactions. It also allows the use of a cermet with a shoulder mass, which removes the aesthetic imperfections of the design and prolongs the service life.

Turning without shoulder. This approach is used relatively less frequently. The absence of a ledge can lead to changes in the contour of the gums, lead to the accumulation of soft plaque under the structure, and the exposure of the metal frame.

Care rules

No special care for metal-ceramic prostheses is required. It is important to follow normal hygiene practices, brush your teeth twice a day, and floss and rinse. The use of an irrigator is encouraged.

It is better to limit the consumption of solid foods to avoid chipping. But even if this happens, the process of restoring the prosthesis can be simple and quick. One of the advantages of this material is the possibility of repair without removing the structure: if the metal base is not exposed, but a small chip of the ceramic layer has occurred, it is restored with composites in the oral cavity.

Price of cermets

Prices for metal-ceramic prosthetics include the manufacture of a prosthesis according to the individual parameters of impressions in the laboratory, the procedure for turning and installation. The cost is added up taking into account the specific type of structure used to make the frame materials. You can clarify the amount by contacting STOMA Group of Companies: we will answer all your questions and make an appointment with an orthopedic dentist at a convenient time.

Orthopedic consultation

Removal and cementation of the crown (per unit)

Stump inlay

Partial plate prosthesis (up to 4 teeth)

Full plate prosthesis

Clasp prosthesis made of precious metal alloy on attachments

Nylon partial denture (4 to 13 teeth)

Cermet (Co-Cr)

Cermet (gold-containing alloy)

Temporary crown on the implant

Metal-ceramic screw-retained crown supported on an implant or in a bridge (Co-Cr)

Repair of a removable denture, which does not require taking impressions

Repair of nylon removable denture

Crown or veneer E-max

Making a surgical template for implant placement

Prosthetics according to the All-on-4 system

Installation of four implants according to the “Nobel Parallel” system

Installation of temporary conditionally removable orthopedic construction

Installation of permanent orthopedic construction

Everything is included in the indicated price: anesthesia, sighting pictures, materials, work of a doctor and an assistant.

Gnathology | The network of dental clinics “Dental-Service”

What kind of gnathology is this?

Gnathology is a branch of medicine that studies the mutual work of the temporomandibular joints, facial muscles and teeth. All of them are involved in the process of chewing food. If the teeth do not close properly, the chewing load is unevenly distributed. It disrupts muscles and joints, leading to discomfort and pain. The task of the gnathologist is to achieve symmetrical work of the masticatory muscles and the correct position of the joints, and then stabilize it.Here are just some of the complications caused by imbalance in the dentition:

  • restriction in opening the mouth, the jaw may jam in certain positions,
  • discomfort, fatigue when chewing food,
  • clicks and crunches in the jaw, displacement of the jaw to the side when opening the mouth,
  • persistent or episodic headaches,
  • ear and neck pain,
  • pain in the mandibular joints,
  • constant clenching of teeth, grinding of teeth,
  • increased tooth wear,
  • gum loss around the tooth.

Where to go with similar symptoms? Take, for example, headaches that sometimes radiate to the ear. If their cause is a spasm of the facial muscles, then neither the ENT nor the neurologist will help or even diagnose. In our practice, there have been many cases when patients who have suffered from headaches for years have come to us. Our specialists performed diagnostics, prescribed treatment, and in a matter of days the patient felt relief.

image / svg + xml Gnathological rehabilitation We relax the chewing muscles, remove the load from the mandibular joint, then restore the height of the dentition and bite

How gnathological problems arise

Disorders in the joints-muscles-teeth system accumulate gradually.For example, when a baby tooth is removed from a child and a space retainer is not installed in the vacant space, this leads to displacement of the remaining teeth and distortion in the closing of the jaws. The body adapts to the asymmetry of the bite, but its adaptive properties are not endless. With age, the skew in the closure increases. The age at which gnathological failures most often begin is 30-40 years. Here are the factors that contribute to the imbalance in the dentition:

Focus in the bite

We do not just fill the void in the dentition.We restore the function. Orthopedic dentistry in Dental-Service.

  • fillings that are made without regard to tooth anatomy,
  • crowns, veneers, bridges that are installed without taking into account the anatomy of the oral cavity,
  • prolonged absence of teeth in the dentition,
  • malocclusion,
  • stress (it causes spasm of the facial muscles),
  • injuries (eg, spine).

We diagnose gnathological problems

The first thing a gnathologist starts with is diagnostics.The doctor determines the exact parameters of your dentition. Note that muscle and joint pain is not always caused by its imbalance. Their reason may be associated with the anatomy of the joint, with cysts and arthrosis. In this case, the gnathologist will refer the patient to an arthrologist who will prescribe conservative or surgical treatment. A complete gnathological diagnosis consists of several procedures and takes about two hours.

  • Inspection and consultation. The doctor examines the oral cavity, assesses the closure of the teeth, the integrity of the dentition, collects a detailed anamnesis.Assesses the tone of the masticatory muscles, the presence of pain points, the range of motion of the upper and lower jaw and the width of the mouth opening.
  • 3D Axiography. The doctor conducts a computer analysis of the movement of the jaws. Are there any obstacles to the movement of the lower jaw? Do the articular heads move out of the joint evenly when opening and closing the mouth? Does the closure he observes in the patient’s mouth match the closure that would be comfortable for the muscles and joints?

Diagnostics on the verge of fantasy


axiograph analyzes the movements of the jaws,
which the patient performs under the guidance of a doctor. The data is stored in the computer in the form of 3D models and motion graphs.

face bow
with motion sensors

data visualization.
The doctor analyzes
motion graphics
and 3D models


receives information from sensors and simulates the trajectory of the jaws

zion fork
of the lower jaw
with motion sensors

  • Computed tomogram. Shows the structure of the joints, the position of the articular heads at the base of the skull.
  • Myography. The gnathologist assesses the condition of the facial muscles: compression force, work symmetry, tone.
  • Analysis of the movement of the jaws on the articulator. The doctor takes an impression and makes a plaster model of the jaw, which is analyzed on an articulator. An articulator is a device that reproduces the movements of the jaws. Most modern articulators are programmed for average parameters. We use a new generation articulator that works with individual parameters. The doctor enters the data that he received on a 3D axiograph and observes on a plaster model exactly how your dentition works. He receives the parameters required for gnathological treatment with the highest precision.

image / svg + xml New generation articulator reproduces jaw movements We adjust the device according to individual parameters obtained on the axiograph and analyze the movements of the plaster model

Correct gnathological disorders

Stage 1.Relax muscles

Relaxing tense facial muscles, bringing them to a natural, symmetrical state is not an easy task, especially if the jaws do not close properly for years. Wearing mouthguard helps to get the muscles out of their usual, spasmodic state. Its other name is muscle relaxant splint . The mouthguard “reprograms” the muscles, removes muscle memory. In most cases, the patient will quickly experience symptom relief. Pains caused by spasm go away. The mode of wearing the mouthguard is determined by the doctor.At first, the mouthguard is worn around the clock. Then the regime softens, it becomes predominantly night. How long it will take for stable muscle relaxation is difficult to say, everything is individual. The average term is 3–12 months.

image / svg + xmlTherapeutic mouthguard “reprograms” muscles, erases muscle memory. Manufactured individually from transparent plastic

Step 2. Fixing the correct position

Once the muscles have relaxed and returned to their natural position, it is important to stabilize it.To do this, you need to restore the correct anatomy of the oral cavity. This can be done with orthodontic treatment or prosthetics. A difficult path, but it doesn’t work out otherwise. If you just stop wearing a mouth guard, the muscles quickly return to a spasmodic position, because the cause of the tension has not been eliminated. You want your teeth to hold the muscles in the correct position – instead of a mouthguard. Correct closing of teeth is a guarantee that there will be no relapses.

We prepare correctly for orthopedics and orthodontics

Any global intervention that changes the anatomy of the teeth or the structure of the dentition – the installation of crowns, veneers, braces – we start with gnathological diagnostics. If a patient has a gnathological imbalance, it must be identified before any treatment can begin. This imbalance is not always visible to the naked eye, it is not necessarily worrisome. But it can be seriously enhanced by adding volumetric work in the oral cavity. Dentures, which are made taking into account the data of gnathology, are ideally comfortable and require a minimum of time to get used to.

image / svg + xmlLOMAKINAndrey SergeevichOrthopedist-gnathologistHow to help a patient with facial pain? First of all, figure out what exactly hurts. Muscles? Teeth? Joints? We quickly and accurately diagnose and help in situations that seem hopeless. We also properly prepare for prosthetics and treatment with braces. We have unique diagnostic equipment (axiographs!), An excellent dental laboratory and a team of expert gnathologists.

Dental clinic in Kaliningrad – Alfa-Dent

Kind cozy dentists in Kaliningrad

Hello, I am the General Director of Alfa-Dent LLC and Alfa-Dent Plus LLC Oborenko Andrey Vladimirovich.

I am very pleased that you have decided to visit our site. Let me introduce you to our kind and cozy dentistry.

Here you will receive a full range of dental services from a professional team of the best doctors. At the same time, we will take into account all your individual characteristics and provide an attentive and sincere approach from the staff.

If you chose to use the services of the Alfa-Dent clinics, then, obviously, your choice was not accidental. For my part, I assure you that we will try to do everything that depends on us at the highest level of skill and technology available to us.

Quality of treatment

Hello, I am the chief physician of the Alfa-Dent and Alfa-Dent Plus clinics, Natalya Kuzmina.

My colleagues and I are well aware that the quality of dental treatment worries you first of all. Therefore, we monitor the main factors that ensure the quality of treatment:

  • Dentists are equipped with modern equipment, technologies, materials, diagnostic tools, as well as means of ensuring the safety and painlessness of treatment.
  • Personnel have been carefully selected and pre-trained.
  • Doctors and assistants constantly, as it should be, improve their qualifications on refresher courses, as evidenced by the diplomas and certificates that you can see on the walls of the hall.
  • Doctors, assistants and administrators undergo re-certification at the clinic in due time, according to the results of which they confirm or increase their category.
  • In difficult cases, a consultation is held with the participation of various specialists – therapist, periodontist, surgeon, orthopedist.
  • The clinic also has a system of informational and psychological support. After complex types of treatment, patients are always invited to a follow-up examination.

We bring people high-quality medicine to ensure health, beauty and full longevity. Our mission is to create the best dental clinic in Kaliningrad.

Dental implantation in the complete absence of teeth and dental prosthetics

This section presents some of our works on dental implantation.

Classical implantation of chewing teeth


Absence of 4 chewing teeth on the lower jaw.


, the ROOTFORM implants were installed according to the classical protocol, 4 months after implantation, permanent metal-ceramic roots were installed.

Number of visits

3.5 months implant engraftment, after 2 weeks prosthetics (including the healing cap).


MIS implant (Israel), zirconia crown with abutment (Germany).

One-step implantation and removable prosthetics


partial absence of teeth, as a result of periodontitis, the remaining teeth are destroyed, bone tissue is atrophied.


tooth extraction, one-stage implantation with instant loading, on day 3 a metal-plastic bridge was installed

Number of visits

1 visit for a tooth, on day 3 a metal-plastic bridge was installed


MIS implant (Israel), zirconia crown with abutment (Germany).

Classical implantation of chewing teeth


Absence of 4 chewing teeth on the lower jaw.


, the ROOTFORM implants were installed according to the classical protocol, 4 months after implantation, permanent metal-ceramic roots were installed.

Number of visits

3.5 months implant engraftment, after 2 weeks prosthetics (including the healing cap).


MIS implant (Israel), zirconia crown with abutment (Germany).

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Reviews from our customers

Telyakina N. V.


I would like to leave my own review: to thank Dr. Shirinbekov D.Sh., He is not only a surgeon, but also a psychologist, moreover, competent and attentive, caring to the smallest detail, you believe and trust him completely. Let the management appreciate such specialists and encourage them financially. With gratitude to the whole team, Telyakina!

Chetverikov B


Many thanks to Shirinbekov Javanshir Shirinbekovich – an amazing specialist, an excellent doctor! Everyone should strive for this level. Many thanks to Dr. P. Serdyukov and the whole team of “Implant City”

Shmelev E.A.


Once again I admire the skill, attention and patience of the orthopedist Pavel Serdyukov

Read all reviews

Dentistry Lazur – prosthetics, implantation and dental treatment in Volgograd

What technology has come to!

“the other day, having turned to my dentist, I received a referral for an X-ray … but for some reason, to the Lazur dentistry … he said that they would take me such a picture as they do not do anywhere and it would be much easier for him to treat me …

X-rays in Lazuri I must admit that I was not only amazed, but also impressed – I have not seen such a device yet . .. and the result in general is space! On a computer, the doctor twisted a three-dimensional image of my jaw on my computer from all sides and showed a bad tooth in several projections! and then he wrote it all down on a disk and handed it to me, for my dentist … to be honest – there are no words, only a phrase like in a cartoon – and what the technique has come to! to be more precise – Azure reached it, having such an X-ray machine … “

# removal of pain # teeth # dentistry #dental #happy #lazur

Removal without pain

“Many thanks to your surgeon Mikhail Arkadievich Slutsky, an excellent specialist.For a long time I had planned to remove a tooth, but I was very afraid of pain and it was a pity to lose the tooth – it would not grow again. Friends advised me to contact Lazur, the removal was painless, healed easily, after three months I got an implant and everything went smoothly too. I am happy that a full-fledged tooth has grown. ”

# removal of pain # teeth # dentistry #dental #happy #lazur

It’s just some kind of holiday!

“On Saturday I was in Lazuri, apparently I overdid it with sweets for the holidays and my teeth ached a little.and again the staff of the clinic pleasantly impressed me … went with the attending physician to take pictures of my teeth, go up to the floor, and there is a Christmas tree, a sweet table, music and the kids around the Christmas tree are having fun … I thought there was some the event is being held, and my doctor explained that this is a holiday on the eve of the old new year for the patients of the children’s department of Lazuri … well done, the clinic’s management – not only they treat well (I know from myself!), but they also raise their spirits and give the children holidays! super! keep it up!”

# removal of pain # teeth # dentistry #dental #happy #lazur

Smiling Bride

“I want to express my HUGE THANKS to the doctors of the Lazur polyclinic (dentist-orthopedist – Paley Vasily Igorevich, dental technician – Vasin Igor Aleksandrovich, dentist-therapist – Vitekhnovskaya Elena Nikolaevna) and special thanks to the director – Zasyadkina Elena Val

These people work miracles !!! They put on press ceramics, changed the shape of the front teeth, corrected the bite and saved me from a long-term complex in a matter of days.