About all

Knee pain that goes down the leg: The request could not be satisfied


Is There a Connection Between Knee Pain and Sciatica?

This blog post was updated for content on November 16, 2020. Existing comments have not been removed or edited.

What is Sciatica?

Sciatica is one of the most common types of pain, with up to 40% of people having it in their lifetime. Usually, it also becomes more of a problem as you get older.

Sciatica occurs when the nerve in the lower back is compressed or irritated, causing pain that radiates down the hip, outer side of the leg, and the back. In some cases, sciatica can also cause tingling and numbness in the legs and feet. Although sciatica is common and treatable, it can be quite painful, and in severe cases it can be debilitating.

Sciatica is linked to a variety of medical conditions, including:

  • Narrowing of the spinal canal in the lower back, which is also known as lumbar spinal stenosis
  • Degenerative disc disease
  • Pregnancy

How is Sciatica Diagnosed?

The key symptom associated with sciatica is a pain that starts in your lower back and travels down one leg. In some cases, this pain also radiates into your foot.

To diagnose sciatica, your doctor will ask questions about the pain that you are feeling, and where the pain is located. Other common questions when diagnosing sciatica include:

  • Lifestyle Questions: Do you sit for long periods of time? Do you do any heavy lifting or highly physical tasks as part of your job?
  • Exercise Habits: Do you have an active or inactive lifestyle?
  • Frequency and Duration: How often do you have pain and how long does it last? What helps the pain go away, and which activities worsen it?

A physical exam will be done, and your doctor may ask you to do exercises or movements to determine which postures make your pain worse. Some cases require x-rays or other tests.

How Knee Pain and Sciatica May Be Connected

Sciatica describes pain, pins-and-needles, or lack of feeling in the legs that is caused by damage or pressure to the sciatic  nerve. The sciatic nerve extends from your toes all the way up to your lower back. Because this critical nerve travels through the back of your knee and controls muscles in that area, problems with it often lead to knee pain.

If you are experiencing knee pain, you are certainly not alone. Among adult American chronic pain patients, 1 in 5 (19.5 percent) report knee pain, making it the second most common pain condition in the United States. To consider treatment, first it is important to assess your pain’s severity. At-home strategies are often effective for mild to moderate joint pain. However, for moderate to severe cases, care and expertise of a medical professional may be necessary.

Knee Injury Treatments

If your knee has been strained or sprained, the standard recommendation for immediate treatment is RICE (Rest, Ice, Compression, and Elevation). It is important to note that the components of the RICE method work as an integrated strategy. Rest so that you knee has time to heal. Apply ice or a cold compress to bring down the inflammation. Wrapping the joint in a compression bandage will also help to reduce the inflammation that may stimulate nerves and lead to pain. It is important to make sure that the compression is loose enough to maintain a healthy circulation. It is also helpful to elevate the injury so that less blood enters the region, lowering pain and swelling.

How is Sciatica Treated?

Some cases of acute sciatica can be addressed by self-care measures. Examples of these options include:

  • Rest and taking a break from usual daily activities
  • Over-the-counter painkillers such as ibuprofen
  • Exercises including light stretching and walking
  • Hot or cold compresses

In some cases, sciatica-related pain can be severe and may require more long-term treatment measures, such as physical therapy. Physical therapy can also help people with chronic sciatica symptoms. In physical therapy, you will learn exercises and techniques to help relieve the pain on your own. It can also help to improve your pain for longer term relief that can help to avoid sciatica “flare-ups.”

Managing Sciatica at Home

Using proper body mechanics and safe lifting techniques — keeping the back straight while bending the knees to pick up items — can help ti reduce the chance of aggravating sciatica.

These self-care tips can also help:

  • Doing stretching exercises can keep your back muscles healthy and strong
  • Maintaining a healthy body weight can help you reduce back and hip pain
  • Yoga has been shown to help, as yoga increases your flexibility and help strengthen your body if done regularly.

When to Seek Medical Care

If your sciatica pain does not improve after several days, or seems to be getting worse, contact your doctor for an appointment. If you’re experiencing sciatica pain for the first time, getting early care and treatment is important.

If you’re suffering from joint pain, resting and stretching may not be enough to relieve your symptoms. Flexogenix® specialized in non-surgical solutions for treating chronic joint pain, arthritis pain, and joint injuries. Contact us today to schedule a no-cost consultation and let us show you how we can help you find freedom from your joint pain.

Learn More About Your Knee Pain

Knee Pain: Causes, Stretches & Treatment

The knee is the joint where the kneecap (patella), thigh bone (femur), and bones of the lower leg (tibia and fibula) meet. Your knees also consist of skin, muscles, tendons, cartilage, ligaments, nerves, and blood vessels, all of which are subject to injury, infection, and other conditions that can cause knee pain.

Ligaments hold together the bones that make up the knee joint. Cartilage is a protective, slippery tissue that covers the ends of bones and allows the knee joint to move smoothly. Nerves control sensation and movement, and blood vessels ensure continuous blood circulation to and from the knees and legs. Healthy knees ensure stability and flexibility of the leg and enable movement of the lower leg. Knee pain can seriously affect your life and is one of the most common reasons for doctor visits.

Knee pain can be acute, develop suddenly, and disappear quickly, or it may build gradually over a long period of time. Chronic knee pain can last for several weeks to months or longer. Knee pain may feel dull and achy, throbbing, piercing, or tingling. You may also experience knee stiffness or paresthesia—pain-like sensations often described as pins and needles, prickling, or burning. Knee pain may be simply irritating and uncomfortable or so debilitating that you cannot put weight on your leg or walk.

The severity of knee pain may vary, depending on the cause. Causes of knee pain include a very wide variety of conditions including normal growth and aging. Knee pain caused by a minor sprain or contusion may disappear with home treatments, such as rest, ice, elevation of the leg, and medications.

In some cases, knee pain may be caused by a serious or life-threatening condition, such as deep vein thrombosis, knee infection, fracture, or dislocation. Seek immediate medical care (call 911) if you, or someone you are with, have difficulty moving the leg or walking; deformity of the knee, lower leg, or thigh; severe pain; severe swelling; or color changes in the knee or leg.

The Link Between Your Back and Knee Pain

April 03, 2020


Every part of your body has a special and unique function, but each part relies on others for optimal performance.

When your body is functioning well, you feel invincible. When you are falling short due to an injury or illness, it’s hard to function. The same is true with many interacting body parts. One connection, in particular, is when back pain causes knee pain. Even though the back and knee aren’t directly connected, there is a very real link that can help explain why when your back hurts, your knees may hurt, too.

Does Back Pain Cause Knee Pain?

As one of the most complex joints in the body, the knee allows the entire leg to move, flex, and have a good range of motion. Meanwhile, with its vertebrae and shock-absorbing discs, the back has a myriad of responsibilities – it holds you physically together and secures the high-speed conduit for your complex and delicate nervous system.

Together, the knees and the back provide flexibility, motion, and support. However, they also rely on each other to maintain balance and equilibrium. Therefore, when your back hurts, so might your knees.

Sciatic Nerve Links the Back to the Legs

The most common back ailments that cause pain in the knees are related to the sciatic nerve. If you have back pain and feel a shooting sensation originating from your lower back running down your leg and through your knee, your sciatic nerve is to blame.

As the longest and largest nerve that runs through the body, the sciatic nerve – if damaged or compromised – can cause debilitating pain. The condition is called sciatica, and it is often the byproduct of a degenerative nerve condition (such as osteoarthritis or degenerative disc disease) or an injury (such as a herniated or bulging disc).

When any part of the spine puts pressure on the sciatic nerve, the result may be shooting pain or a tingling sensation that travels from the back down to your hips, buttocks, knees, and feet.

Wear and Tear of the Knees

The back and knees are true workhorses of our bodies, but it’s difficult to remain a thoroughbred forever. As time takes its toll, or as we lose core strength, our backs can become achy and sore.

To compensate for a sore back, you may find ways of adjusting your posture or gait to relieve pressure. The problem is, as you take the pressure off your back, you are applying it to the knees and other parts of your body.

An achy back, worn down from years of wear and tear, can throw your gait off-track – forcing your knees to absorb the brunt of the work. If this is the case, you can expect knee pain. An orthopedist or musculoskeletal specialist is the best physician to see to help treat this type of pain.

Treatment for Back and Knee Pain in Kansas City, Missouri

If you are experiencing back or knee pain, the experts at Advanced Bone & Joint can help. We can alleviate your pain and restore good bodily functions through advanced pain management methods and customized rehabilitation techniques. We also offer orthopedic urgent care to patients who suffer injuries that need immediate care.

To make an appointment, call at (636) 229-4222 or fill out our appointment request form.


Anterior Knee Pain – Anterior Knee Pain Causes – Treatment

One of the most common problems in active women is anterior knee pain, or pain that occurs in the front and center of the knee. Women are predisposed to this type of pain because of a combination of anatomy and muscle imbalances. It can come on suddenly and cause discomfort with daily activities and sports, and may even disrupt your sleep.

The anatomy of the knee allows the leg to bend and straighten, and includes the femur (thigh bone), tibia (leg bone), and patella (knee cap) working together with the quad muscles and tendons. Every time you put weight on the leg or flex the quad, it engages this extensor mechanism and the joint between the knee cap and femur gets loaded. The other muscles that play a key role optimizing hip and knee function include the gluteus muscles and hamstrings, as well as the IT band, which is the thick band of tissue and muscles that run on the outside of your leg between the knee and hip.

Causes of Anterior Knee Pain

Because women have wider pelvises and tend to be more knock kneed than men, several things can happen when they load the knee joint (i.e. running, jumping, squatting, climbing stairs, etc.). An abnormal kneecap movement over the front of the knee or overtightened soft-tissues on the front or side of the knee can commonly lead to anterior knee pain over time. In addition, women tend to rely on the quad muscles for all loading activities and may have weaker glute and hamstring muscles. This muscle imbalance can lead to pelvic instability, which can impact leg and knee alignment. Women with flat feet are also more likely to develop anterior knee pain.

Symptoms of Anterior Knee Pain

The symptoms of anterior knee pain include the following:

  • Increased pain in the front of the knee with activities like going up or down stairs, kneeling, squatting, lunging, running, and jumping
  • Difficulty fully straightening the leg
  • Pain with prolonged sitting with the knee flexed, especially if the feet are dangling
  • Pain while sleeping at night
  • Pain in the back of the knee (referred)
  • Vague and achy in nature, but can be burning or sharp with loading
  • Popping/crunching/grinding in the front of the knee when bending/extending

Examination and Treatment of Anterior Knee Pain

Treatment of anterior knee pain does not typically require surgery. When some or all of these symptoms are present, an orthopedic surgeon will examine your glute strength, hamstring and IT band flexibility. He or she will examine your kneecap for tightness or hypermobility and see if there is grinding or popping under the knee cap when the knee bends. In addition, the orthopedic surgeon will check for signs of pain around the IT band and knee cap at rest, as well as with flexion and extension. There are usually no signs of joint swelling, instability, numbness, or tingling with this condition.

“Recovering from anterior knee pain is usually very successful, especially if patients commit to their rehabilitation exercises and strengthen their core, glute, and hamstrings,” said Ekaterina Urch, MD, orthopedic surgeon at The Center Orthopedic & Neurosurgical Care. “Modifying activities is crucial to mitigate the pain. For example, women who primarily run are encouraged to take up cross training like biking, rowing, or swimming. Yoga can also be an excellent addition to any active woman’s exercise regimen.

Lateral (outer) knee pain | Health Information

Conditions associated with outer knee pain

There are several medical conditions linked to outer knee pain. Generally, they are caused by damage from a sports injury, from overusing the knee during exercise or from getting older.

Iliotibial band syndrome is caused by a band of connective tissue rubbing on the outside of the knee. The iliotibial band is a thick band of fibrous tissue that runs from the hip to below the knee on the outside of the leg. Frequent bending and straightening of the leg can cause this tissue to become sore and inflamed where it passes over the bottom of the thigh bone, where it meets the knee. This type of problem is most common in runners and cyclists.

Lateral collateral ligament injury is caused by stretching or tearing of the band of tissue that connects the thigh bone to the shin bone (a ligament is a band of tissue that connects one bone to another). The lateral collateral ligament runs down the outer side of the knee. This injury can be seen in skiers, footballers or basketball players.

Meniscal injury is damage to the meniscal cartilages inside the knee. The meniscus cartilages act like shock absorbers and may tear when you twist your knee with your foot still on the ground. So, this type of injury is common in sports where you have to change direction suddenly, such as football and skiing. It can happen in occupations involving lifting and twisting, such as construction or manual labouring. The meniscus can also tear in older people because of wear and tear and without any particular injury.

Anterior cruciate ligament injury is overstretching or tearing of this ligament, which runs across the knee from the thigh to the shin bone. A tear may be either complete or partial. The injury occurs suddenly, caused by twisting or rotating the knee. It can happen if you suddenly slow down, stop or change direction and is nearly always associated with sports.

Osteoarthritis of the knee is a common cause of knee pain. The smooth, shiny cartilage that lines the knee joint becomes worn and rough. This causes pain and increasing damage to the knee over time. It mostly affects people over 50. The older you are, the more likely you are to get it.

Knee and Kneecap Pain (Patellofemoral Pain) | Symptoms and Treatment

Patellofemoral pain syndrome

Patellofemoral pain is the medical term used when pain occurs at the front of the knee, around the kneecap (patella), without signs of any damage or other problems in the knee joint.

Knee cross-section with patella

The patella is the kneecap bone. It lies within the quadriceps tendon. This large tendon from the powerful thigh muscles (quadriceps) wraps round the patella and is attached to the top of the lower leg bone (tibia). The quadriceps muscles straighten the knee.

The back of the patella is covered with smooth cartilage. This helps the patella to glide smoothly over the lower part of the thighbone (femur) when you straighten your leg.

Patellofemoral pain is a general term used for pain in the front (anterior) of the knee. However, you might also see some terms referring to specific conditions causing anterior knee pain. These include:

Other causes of knee pain can include:

Knee pain can also be caused by hip problems.

What are the symptoms of patellofemoral pain?

  • Pain around the knee. The pain is felt at the front of the knee, around or behind the kneecap (patella). Often, the exact site of the pain cannot be pinpointed; instead the pain is felt vaguely at the front of the knee.
  • The pain comes and goes.
  • Both knees are often affected at the same time but one is usually worse than the other.
  • The pain is typically worse when going up or, in particular, going down stairs.
  • Running, especially downhill, squatting and certain sports can all set it off – anything that leads to the patella being compressed against the lower part of the thighbone.
  • The pain may be brought on by sitting still for long periods. For example, after going to the cinema or for a long drive, when it will be worse when starting to move about again.
  • There may be a grating or grinding feeling or a noise when the knee bends and straightens. This is called crepitus.
  • Sometimes there is puffiness or swelling around the kneecap.

How is patellofemoral pain diagnosed?

The diagnosis is made from your symptoms, the history of the problem, plus an examination of your knee.

Tests, such as X-rays or scans, cannot diagnose patellofemoral pain and are often not helpful. However, sometimes they might need to be done to diagnose maltracking or look for other conditions. This might be the case if your symptoms aren’t the usual ones. Or they might be needed if you have injured your knee. It is very rare to have any other kind of tests for patellofemoral pain.

What causes patellofemoral pain?

It is probably due to a combination of different factors which increase the pressure between the kneecap (patella) and the lower part of the thighbone (femur). This may happen during running, cycling, squatting and going up and down stairs. It is likely that the cause is not the same in everyone affected.

Situations where this can occur include:

  • Overuse of the knee, such as in certain sports – particularly at times of increased training.
  • Cycling when the saddle is too low or too far forward.
  • Some people may have a slight problem in the alignment of the patella where it moves over the lower femur. This may cause the patella to rub on, rather than glide over, the lower femur (this is known as maltracking). It may be due to the way the knee has developed. Or, it may be due to an imbalance in the muscles around the knee and hip – for example, the large quadriceps muscle above the knee and the muscles that stop the hips from tilting when standing on one leg.
  • Weak hip muscles may cause patellofemoral pain by causing the thighbone to be slightly turned inwards, leading to the patella being pulled slightly to one side.
  • Foot problems may also play a part – for example, where the feet do not have strong arches (flat feet). This makes the foot roll inwards (pronate), which means the knee has to compensate for the inward movement. However, it is unclear whether this causes the knee problems or may be caused by the knee problems.
  • Injury to the knee – including repeated small injuries or stresses due to sports, or due to slack ligaments (hypermobile joints).

A combination of an alignment problem (see above) and overuse in sport is thought to be the most common reason for having patellofemoral pain.

What causes pain at the front of the knee?

Dr Sarah Jarvis MBE

What is the treatment for patellofemoral pain?

In the short term

  • Avoid strenuous use of the knee – until the pain eases. Symptoms usually improve in time if the knee is not overused. Aim to keep fit but to reduce the activities which cause the pain.
  • Painkillers – paracetamol and/or anti-inflammatory painkillers such as ibuprofen.
  • Physiotherapy:
    • Improving the strength of the muscles around the knee and hip will ease the stress on the knee.
    • Specific exercises may help to correct problems with alignment and muscle balance around the knee. For example, you may be taught to do exercises which strengthen the muscles of the hip and buttock.
    • The physiotherapist can give advice tailored to your individual situation.
  • Taping of the kneecap (patella) – this is a treatment which may reduce pain, but doesn’t appear to have any long-term benefits. It involves adhesive tape being applied over the patella, to alter the alignment or the way the patella moves. Some people find this helpful. Some physiotherapists can offer patellar taping treatment.

In the longer term

  • Treatment aims to treat some of the underlying causes – for example, by strengthening hip muscles and helping with foot problems:
    • Physiotherapy – a long-term home exercise programme, for at least one year.
    • Suitable footwear – for example, arch supports if you have flat feet; suitable shoes if you are running.

Surgery is no longer recommended as first-line treatment for patellofemoral syndrome as the evidence suggests that most people do just as well – if not better – with non-surgical (conservative) treatment. However, surgery is still occasionally considered for people with anterior knee pain who do not respond to conservative treatment, depending on the diagnosis.

What is the outlook?

The outlook (prognosis) was thought to be good and that most people got better after 4-6 months with simple treatments such as physiotherapy.. However, recent studies suggest that over 50% of people were still reporting pain and difficulties with their knee 5-8 years after physiotherapy treatment. Ongoing research is looking into how this picture can be improved. 

Quadriceps Tendonitis | Orthopedics | Mercy Health

Causes of quadriceps tendonitis

A majority of quadriceps tendonitis injuries are due to overuse from playing sports such as volleyball, running or soccer. Quick turns, starts, stops, jumping and running contribute to quadriceps tendonitis.

Other factors that contribute to quadriceps tendonitis:

  • Excessive frequency, intensity or duration of training
  • Inappropriate footwear
  • Poor flexibility
  • Misalignment of the foot, ankle or leg
  • Obesity

Risk factors for quadriceps tendonitis

Risk factors for quadriceps tendonitis include:

  • Athletes — people who play volleyball, run or play soccer
  • Obesity
  • Diabetes
  • Lupus
  • Rheumatoid arthritis
  • Leukemia
  • Gout
  • Chronic renal failure

Symptoms of quadriceps tendonitis

The most common symptom of quadriceps tendonitis is pain at the bottom of the thigh, above the patella (kneecap). The pain will intensify as you move your knee.

Other symptoms of quadricep tendonitis include:

  • Swelling around the quad tendon
  • Sensitivity to touch
  • Warmth or burning pain in the affected area
  • Stiffness in the knee in the early morning

Diagnosis of quadriceps tendonitis

Your provider will diagnose quadriceps tendonitis during a full physical examination.

In the physical exam, you will be assessed for range of motion, joint stability and flexibility. Your physician will also look for torn or ruptured tendons in the quadriceps and discuss training that led to the injury.

In some cases, your doctor will order an x-ray or MRI to determine if there are more severe tears or fractures that are causing the pain.

Treatment for quadriceps tendonitis

Early treatment for quadriceps tendonitis include rest and anti-inflammatory medication.

Nonsurgical treatment for quadricep tendonitis

Physical therapy in the early stages of quadricep tendonitis is aimed at decreasing pain and reducing inflammation. The physical therapies may use massage, ultrasound or electrical stimulation to speed the healing process and minimize further damage. The physical therapist will also prescribe exercises to stretch and strengthen the injured area and correct muscle imbalances.

Bracing or taping the patella can help you continue to do day-to-day activities without pain.

Orthotics can improve knee alignment and function of the patella.

Surgical treatment for quadriceps tendonitis

Surgery is a last resort after nonsurgical options have been exhausted. Surgery stimulates healing through restoring the blood supply to the injured quadriceps. The damaged tissue is removed and the tendon is repaired. Most patients who require surgery will have arthroscopic surgery, which is less invasive, and patients can go home that day.

Recovery from quadriceps tendonitis

If you treated quadricep tendonitis with nonsurgical therapies, the injury can heal with four to six weeks of physical therapy. The goal of the physical therapy is to reduce the pain and inflammation as well as improve function of the quadricep.

Physical therapy after surgery is rigorous and involves the full team of specialists, including your orthopedic surgeon. Your team will work together to develop a treatment plan especially for your case.

As you recover, the exercises will intensify to ensure you are fully healed before resuming your normal activity level.

90,000 myths debunked by a traumatologist -Individual insoles

Andrey Sergeevich, some interesting facts about the knee joint.

The knee joint is one of the most complex in humans. Do you know, for example, that in fact, it is not one, but three joints? Three in one! And each of these three can disturb, and often 2 or all 3 at once. Two of these three are the joints between the condyles of the thigh and lower leg (from the inner and outer sides), the third is at the place where the patella (patella) slides along the front surface of the femur.Moreover, it is in this third joint that age-related changes can begin earlier than anything else, causing pain and discomfort in the anterior regions, around the patella. The contacting surfaces of the bones are covered with cartilage – “dusting” a few millimeters thick, externally smoothly polished for the smooth sliding of one bone over another. The elasticity of the cartilage provides its function as a shock absorber – when walking, all shocks are damped due to the elastic deformations of the cartilage. Have you ever driven a car with a defective shock absorber? Each small bump, fossa, feels like a big bump.So the human body – if the cartilage is worn out, “does not work” – all the jolts (and how many steps do we take in a day?) Are transmitted to the bone, to other joints, and even to the brain.

Let’s talk more about knee pain. A common cause of knee pain, according to the patients themselves, is “salt deposition.” What can you say about this?

We have come to one of the main causes of knee pain – osteoarthritis. For the knee, this is called gonarthrosis. This condition is popularly referred to as “salt deposition”.But salt has absolutely nothing to do with it, since the basis of the disease is cartilage wear. With age, everything in the human body wears out, including cartilage. Imagine how many sliding cycles our cartilage can withstand if there are practically no signs of arthrosis during the first 30-40 years of life. But over time, nature takes its toll. And if a person had injuries, the cartilage was damaged due to improper use of the knee joint? Excess weight is a direct destructive factor for the joint. That is why physical therapy for arthrosis was invented in such a way as to perform exercises mostly on weight, without stress on the leg.We must not forget that movement is life. This fully applies to the knee joint – during movement, the cartilage is nourished. Scientists have proven that with osteoarthritis, in addition to mechanical wear and tear, inflammation is present in the joint, therefore the second name for this condition is osteoarthritis, and the main drugs are drugs that reduce pain and inflammation. This inflammation is not so “malignant”, therefore, pain in gonarthrosis is usually mechanical, i.e. associated with movements – walking, descending and climbing stairs, squats.These pains most often do not interfere with sleeping. In order to diagnose osteoarthritis of the knee joints, ordinary X-rays are enough, which can be done for you in any clinic. Do not start diagnostics with “fashionable” MRI and ultrasound.

But today you can restore the destroyed cartilage with drugs?

The fact that drugs restore cartilage is the second myth. It would seem that in order to defeat osteoarthritis, you need to restore the damaged cartilage – that’s all.But how to do that? On TV, on the Internet, there are many advertisements for drugs that restore cartilage. A lot of supplements are also produced, on which, by the way, it is directly written: “It is not a drug.” If the patient tolerates these drugs well, we often turn a blind eye to their insufficiently proven effect. And, unfortunately, there are side effects too. The essence of all these drugs and supplements is that they contain cartilage components, most often chondroitin and glucosamine. However, if we imagine that every day the cartilage in the joint loses at least some molecules, then it turns out that the drugs must be taken every day for life.Will they be assimilated? How much of that dose will get to the sore knee? The current recommendations for the treatment of osteoarthritis, published by the American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons, emphasize that the effect of these drugs has remained unproven. Taking into account the long courses of their admission and the considerable cost, it is worth considering, is it worth taking them at all? Apparently, you need to strongly believe in them.

What about hyaluronic acid? Is it also not proven to be beneficial?

Hyaluronic acid is popular today not only among cosmetologists, as it is an important component of cartilage.Hyaluronate is a matrix for the formation of cartilage, protects its surface layer, and in some cases reduces inflammation in the joint. Today the market is rich in drugs for injection directly into the joint. Because of their gel-like consistency, they are often called “lubricants”, and their introduction into the joint is compared to changing the oil in the motor. The price of hyaluronic acid injections is high, but side effects are rare. These injections only work inside the joint without getting into the bloodstream, so they can be injected into several joints at the same time.These drugs are most often used to alleviate the suffering of patients, but more research was wanted on their effectiveness. Keep in mind that these are not pain relievers, they will not give a quick result, but they will help keep the joint for a while. It is important to understand that with an extreme degree of wear and tear of the joint, no “lubrication” will help even in triple doses, because this is not a panacea. Well, do not forget that any intervention in the joint can lead to complications, most often it is the ingress of microbes into the joint, albeit with a minimal probability.

Can stem cells be used to repair damaged cartilage?

The belief that stem cells can cure any disease is also a myth. Scientists around the world and in our country are conducting research on the use of stem cells for cartilage restoration. These works are very promising and will eventually become “on stream”. But it is important to understand what is allowed and what is not. No stem cells will reverse the development of osteoarthritis. To date, this is only one of the methods for eliminating focal, i. e.That is, small enough damage to the cartilage, which usually occurs after trauma. But when the cartilage is worn out in all parts of the joint, then, alas, there is no need to wait for a miracle. By the way, the recruitment of blood cells to restore cartilage has been used for a long time. True, these methods help to grow fibrous, scar-like cartilage instead of real articular cartilage (hyaline). It doesn’t quite look like hyaline, but it still slows down the destruction of the joint. Stem cells are capable of forming precisely hyaline cartilage.Are there still miracles – I hope we will find out in the near future.

“Osteoarthritis is the lot of the elderly” – is it a myth or a reality?

Unfortunately, a myth. The frantic pace of life in the 21st century, the fascination of young people with active recreation, the popularization of sports, motorization – all this leads to an increase in injuries that do not spare the knee joints. The development of medicine at the present stage makes it possible to discern osteoarthritis in the early stages, and, if necessary, to look into the joint with “little blood”. Most likely, you have heard the word “meniscus”, someone in the trauma center was diagnosed with a “ligament injury” or at least a “bruise”. All this, one way or another, leads to increased wear of the cartilage. A common problem for athletes playing football, handball, alpine skiing, and martial arts is damage to the anterior (less often posterior) cruciate ligament. There is instability, instability in the joint, muscular-articular feeling is lost (a beautiful word is proprioception). Subluxations constantly occur in the joint, sharply increasing the wear of the cartilage.Most often, it is not possible to restore the full function of the joint without surgery. Unfortunately, the diagnosis is often not made on time, despite the obvious symptoms. Cruciate ligament reconstruction operations require long-term rehabilitation, hard work of a surgeon, and then a rehabilitologist, otherwise the effect will be incomplete. In our country, such operations have been worked out, and the results are not worse than in leading foreign clinics. Another reason for the development of osteoarthritis in young people is a disease of unknown nature, which is called osteochondritis dissecans (in the form of Koenig’s disease).Behind these words is the dying off of a piece of bone with cartilage covering it, due to which this fragment eventually “falls off” and begins to move freely around the joint (this piece is also called “articular mouse”), pushing through the cartilage and leading to joint jamming. In this case, an operation is indispensable. More often, the joint can jam when the menisci are damaged, when it is not difficult to bend the knee, but it is not possible to straighten it to the end. The meniscus is a cartilage that is located in the form of an additional lining between the articular ends of the thigh and lower leg in the knee joint and, if damaged, can cause a “blockage” of the joint.If you try to forcibly remove such a blockade (for example, under anesthesia), then this is fraught with the aggravation of the rupture of the meniscus or damage to the cartilage around it, so surgery is usually necessary. Nowadays, such interventions are performed through two small incisions, and the picture from the knee is displayed on a large monitor screen, which makes it possible to look into all corners of the joint. In any case, not a single knee injury (and an operation is also a kind of injury) does not pass without a trace for the joint. This must not be forgotten.

When the cartilage is completely worn out, you can put an artificial joint, will this completely cure osteoarthritis?

Unfortunately, osteoarthritis itself is incurable. All ways to escape from it – pain relievers, physiotherapy, ointments, compresses, therapeutic exercises, reducing loads and body weight, chondroprotectors – have their limits. After all, the strength of the cartilage is also genetically inherent: someone walks without a wand at 80 years old, and someone already limps at 60. So sooner or later a situation may arise when nothing helps anymore, pain medications have to be taken every day, pain interferes with sleep at night, and one can only feel nostalgic about an active lifestyle. The leg in the joint does not bend well and does not fully unbend, it wrinkles, the muscles atrophied, it is impossible to walk without a cane … It sounds pessimistic. But it is in such cases that the knee joint has been replaced with an artificial one for many years all over the world. Such an operation allows you to cope with the above complaints, even if it imposes certain restrictions on the patient. Sounds optimistic now. Of course, any operation is a risk to the body. By implanting an artificial joint, we do not treat arthrosis, but in fact we simply change “our” joint to a “foreign” one.People often ask – how long does a prosthesis last? Nobody will give you an answer, because there is always a possibility of complications. Sometimes knee pain can persist even after the prosthesis is installed. It is clear that it is best to maximize the life of your “native” joint, without bringing the matter to endoprosthetics. But we tend to delay to the last and go to the doctor. And then, during the first visit, it suddenly turns out that the knee joint is already so destroyed that there is simply nowhere to go from the operation. In our country, a lot of such operations are performed, and passport age is not a hindrance, if a person monitored his health throughout his life, then at 70 and at 80 he will be able to undergo such an operation.

Is a click in a joint an alarm?

Let’s make a reservation right away that there are two types of clicks in the joint. The first is with pain, the second is without pain. For some reason, patients are more likely to worry about painless clicks and crunching than painful ones. Pain-free clicks are usually physiological, that is, “normal”.You’ve probably heard that there is fluid, lubricant in the joint. It reduces friction, facilitates movement in the joint. There is never enough of it, although some people think that their joint is “dry”, which is why it crunches. Normally, there is negative pressure inside the joint, and with some movements, the layers of lubricant covering the articular surfaces stick together and break apart, which gives a characteristic click. But this is not the only reason for painless clicks. By the way, in a number of meteosensitive people, the weather begins to “twist the joints”, which is associated with a drop in atmospheric pressure and a relative increase in intra-articular pressure, which temporarily becomes positive.Likewise, with an inflammation called synovitis, there is a lot of fluid, the joint swells, it is difficult for them to move, especially bend. In this case, there is a visible increase in the joint upward from the patella. Often, synovitis is very, very difficult to treat. Let’s go back to crunching. And it can be loud! Most often, especially in young people, it occurs due to the friction of the kneecap against the hip during sliding (remember “three joints in one”?) And can be a harbinger of initial, emerging changes in the so-called patellofemoral joint.However, in itself, such a painless crunch only requires you to pay increased attention to your knee joints. When clicking with pain, the causes that cause them are dangerous. For example, when the meniscus ruptures, the flaps wear away the cartilage. In a small number of people, the external meniscus has congenital shape features, which can lead to its damage even without much trauma (“discoid” meniscus). Painful clicks accompany osteoarthritis. It happens that clicks occur due to the presence of bridges, septa, folds inside the joint, usually congenital, which may require surgery.So, let’s go to the doctor less often about trifles and be sure to go for more than trifles.

If it hurts under the knee, is it a cyst?

On informative Internet pages where our patients like to look, it is written that if it hurts behind the knee, then it is Baker’s cyst (named after the doctor who described it at one time). What it is? Behind the knee are muscle tendons that slide back and forth in their cases. It also has its own lubricant, like the one in the joint itself, but only a thin layer of it.For certain or indeterminate reasons, a canal is formed between the joint and these sheaths. Fluid flows from the knee into the tendon sheath, inflating it, and a cyst is formed – a bag of viscous fluid. The size of the cyst may not always be constant: sometimes more, sometimes less. For those who consider a cyst to be a manifestation of arthrosis, I will tell you that it occurs in children of school and even preschool age, where arthrosis is not generally discussed. The cyst is usually small and does not cause discomfort. If it is large enough and visible to the eye, its removal can be recommended.Large tense cysts can sometimes squeeze nerves and blood vessels, and with a sharp movement – burst, leading to a chemical burn of the tissues of the lower leg. Cyst cysts are different. For example, parameniscal cysts (“near the meniscus”) can be located around the knee – when the meniscus ruptures, the joint membrane is damaged and fluid flows out of it, forming a tense “hernia” of various sizes. Such cysts do not go away without surgery. And yet, with pain under the knee, cysts are often not found. Usually the pain is caused by a spasm of muscle fibers in this area against the background of gonarthrosis or osteochondrosis of the spine, when pain is given along the nerve roots and trunks from the lower back.In younger patients, pain in the posterior parts of the joint is accompanied by damage to the posterior parts of the menisci or damage to the anterior cruciate ligament, when the popliteal muscles partially take over its function and overwork.

Andrey Sergeevich, if your knee hurts, then you need to treat it?

For many patients who come with complaints of knee pain, it comes as a surprise that a deep examination of the knee joint is not so bad.It seems that one should be happy, but it hurts! And there seems to be no arthrosis, and the cartilage is in order, and the menisci with ligaments are intact, and there is no inflammation either. But there may be other causes of pain. Orthopedic rule: “The knee joint hurts – check the hip joint.” Yes, with coxarthrosis (the so-called osteoarthritis of the hip joint) or inflammation of the hip joint, pain can radiate (radiate) to the knee, and often. If, at the same time, the hip joint itself does not bother so much, this can lead to diagnostic errors and force you to look for a problem in the knee, that is, where it does not exist.Although it was enough just to take a step to the side. Another common cause is back problems, such as a herniated disc between the lumbar vertebrae, which leads to compression of the nerve. But we know that it is the nerves that are responsible for the transmission of pain. In rare cases, such pains may be present in patients due to gynecological problems with inflammation of the pelvic organs, because the sciatic nerve passes very close. Finally, a surprisingly common cause of knee pain is compression of the sensory nerve between the muscles of the thigh.This occurs very often, but for some reason is rarely diagnosed. When a patient complains of pains in the inner half of the knee, which bother day and night, have a burning character (“the knee was doused with boiling water”), react poorly to painkillers, sometimes give it under the knee or in the lower leg – this is most likely just such a condition , which, unfortunately, is very difficult to treat. But if the pain can be stopped, then there is no limit to the patient’s happiness! This is exactly the case when the disease can be eliminated, and the patient can be cured.Do not forget about the so-called systemic diseases – gout, rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, ankylosing spondylitis. In these cases, an inflammatory process occurs in the knee joints, they hurt both during movement and at rest, during the day and especially at night. In these cases, the pain is not associated with injury or wear and tear of the joint, but the inflammation itself leads to the rapid destruction of the cartilage. Infections of the genitourinary tract, about which patients are usually modestly silent, cause reactive arthritis with the same manifestations and often consequences.So there is no need to hide your accompanying diseases from the doctor.

Andrey Sergeevich, what should be remembered for people with pain in the knee joint and for those who do not complain of this pain?

The knee joint is complex, and there are a great many reasons for pain in it. Within the framework of our conversation, it is very difficult to cover all diseases of the knee joint. Take care of your joints, avoid injuries, excess weight, and visit a doctor from time to time. Do not self-medicate, consult a professional.Remember that medications and surgeries do not always help. Be healthy!


Osteoarthritis is a degenerative disease of the knee joint (it can affect any joint), which is associated with general aging of the body and is usually observed in people after 50 years. When the cartilage of the joint wears out, they no longer protect the bones of the joint from direct bone contact.

Direct bone contact causes pain and inflammation.

One of the first signs of osteoarthritis is the loss of the ability to rotate the knee joint.Symptoms include pain on movement, joint stiffness, and lameness. The intensity of symptoms can vary, sometimes there is a feeling of complete recovery, and at times – very pronounced disorders.

Osteoarthritis does not go away, but it is possible to limit the development of this disease and maximize the quality of life.

To do this, you need to take care of your weight, under the supervision of a physiotherapist, study and regularly do a set of exercises to strengthen the ligaments and muscles of the thigh, protect the knee joint from heavy load, and also take anti-inflammatory and analgesic drugs after consulting a doctor.In some cases, knee arthroplasty is necessary.

Meniscus tears. Each knee has two menisci – cartilaginous structures in the shape of a crescent. Both menisci together form a kind of ring between the heads of the bones of the lower leg and thigh. In the front and back of the knee, the menisci are connected to each other by ligaments that provide them with a small range of motion. Compared to the heads of the two massive bones of the leg – the tibia and the femur, which form the knee joint, the meniscus is soft and fragile. Although the menisci anatomically follow and support knee movements, they sometimes deviate from a safe trajectory and can be severely pinched or torn between the ends of the knee bones in motion, causing the meniscus to rupture.

The sensations caused by damage to the meniscus are characterized by the fact that it hurts, aches and pulls exactly where the meniscus is anatomically located – along the perimeter around the knee joint. After serious meniscus injuries, when a fragment comes off, inflammation often occurs in the knee, which can cause more severe pain and swelling in the knee joint.Edema can be indicated not only by visually noticeable edema, but also by a pressing unpleasant sensation in the knee.

If the meniscus tear is smooth and located in the body of the meniscus, it most likely will not cause significant discomfort and can be reconciled with it. However, if a fragment of the meniscus comes off and floats freely in the fluid in the knee joint, such an injury is likely to cause such a strong feeling of discomfort or even limitation of knee movement that you will have to seek help from an orthopedic traumatologist.

Torn fragments are usually indicative of meniscus surgery.

Knee Ligament Injuries The knee joint is stabilized by several ligaments. Injury or rupture of the ligaments usually causes immediate pain that gets worse with knee movements, jumping, or walking.

Types of damage and rupture of ligaments:

  • Cruciate ligament injury is the most common knee ligament injury. It causes a feeling of instability in the knee joint and rapidly progressive edema.Cruciate ligament injuries are often treated with surgery.
  • Injury to the internal lateral ligaments of the knee is caused by an injury caused by inward movement of the knee. It can be caused, for example, by mechanical shock to the outside of the knee joint. Such damage is usually treated without surgery.
  • Injury to the posterior cruciate ligament of the knee is very rare. It can be caused, for example, by a strong blow to the front of the knee joint, directed towards the posterior ligaments. Damage can also occur if a person trips over. As with injury to the internal ligaments, injury to the posterior cruciate ligaments results in rapidly progressive edema and a feeling of instability in the knee joint. Injury to the posterior cruciate ligament of the knee usually occurs concurrently with other injuries of the knee, such as damage to the anterior cruciate ligaments. If only the posterior cruciate ligaments of the knee are damaged, surgery is usually not required.However, if more than one part of the knee is damaged, the doctor may recommend surgery.
  • Injury to the lateral lateral ligament of the knee is usually the result of a serious injury such as a car accident. This damage is treated with surgery.

Damage to the knee cartilage Chialine cartilage is a very smooth and strong structure that sits between the surfaces of the bones of any joint and protects them from friction and damage.Damage to the cartilage of the knee joint occurs as a consequence of trauma, degenerative wear of the joint surface (for example, as a result of osteoarthritis), as well as as a result of other joint diseases. There are no nerves or blood vessels in the cartilage, so the cartilage cannot repair itself. The damage can go unnoticed until the moment when the cartilage is significantly worn out and can no longer protect the bones of the joint from direct contact with each other. This causes pain and inflammation. Joint bones are sensitive, and the sharp pain that occurs in such situations is caused by irritation of the nerve endings of the bones.

Torn pieces of damaged cartilage that move freely in the capsule of the knee joint can also cause pain, swelling, a feeling of “hold” and sharp, sharp pain.

In the treatment of damage to the cartilage of the knee joint, both non-surgical and surgical methods of treatment are used, depending on the severity of the damage and the disorders caused.

Knee tendinitis (inflammation of the muscle tendon) . Often the cause of inflammation is degenerative processes in the tendon itself, which loses its natural elasticity as a result of aging. Inflammation can also be caused by trauma or repeated trauma. In the case of certain diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, gout, psoriatic arthritis or diabetes, inflammation in the tendons of the knee joint can occur without previous injury.

Tendon inflammation is usually felt as a burning pain in a specific area of ​​the knee joint. The pain increases with movement. Symptoms can usually be effectively treated by reducing stress on the knee and using physical therapy.Protein injection – the injection of platelet-rich plasma into the injured joint – is recognized worldwide as an effective treatment for knee tendon inflammation. In rare cases, the inflamed tissue is surgically removed from the knee.

Dislocation of the knee joint is a rare but serious injury to the knee joint that can occur after a car accident, fall from a height, or a sports injury. At the moment of dislocation, the ends of the bones of the knee joint momentarily touch and are incorrectly positioned relative to each other. Knee ligaments are overly tense. Depending on the force with which the movement occurs, some of the ligaments (usually the anterior and posterior cruciate ligaments) are torn. In everyday life, this injury is called dislocation. In medicine, it is called knee ligament injury.

A dislocated knee can damage the meniscus and cartilage. Large nerves and blood vessels may also be affected. If the damage is significant, it is treated surgically by reconstructing the damaged tissue. Dislocations of the knee joint can be confused with a dislocation of the patella, therefore, when diagnosing and treating such rare injuries of the knee joint, it is important to entrust your health to the experienced traumatologists-orthopedists, whom ORTO clinic has assembled.

Dislocation of the patella (patella) is a much more common and less traumatic injury to the knee joint than a dislocated knee.

When the knee bends, the patella slides up and down along the end of the femur or groove. In some people, the movement of this cartilage is not stably fixed, so the kneecap in movement can slip out anatomically incorrectly. This may not be harmful, but it can cause the patella to dislocate when it slips completely out of the groove of the femur.Usually, after such a dislocation, the patella itself returns to its place, however, after such an injury, it is important to undergo a course of physiotherapy to strengthen the ligaments of the joint and muscles, protecting the knee from repeated dislocation of the patella. In some cases, surgical intervention is required.

Bursitis of the knee joint is an inflammation that occurs in the bag of the knee joint (mucous bag). Signs of inflammation include pain, swelling, limited knee movement, and pain when moving.Symptoms are worse when squatting or going up or down stairs. Inflammation can occur after a bruised knee, when overloading while running, jumping, or after standing for a long time. Bursitis can be caused by poor posture.
Often, after an injury in the knee joint, simultaneously with the inflammation process, fluid accumulates intensively, which doctors remove with a syringe.

For the treatment of knee inflammation, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, pain relievers, and injections of corticosteroids and growth factor in the knee joint are used.Corticosteroid injections quickly reduce pain and swelling, which is why they are often given when NSAIDs fail or the person has an intolerance to these drugs. Growth factor injections in the case of knee inflammation help reduce inflammation and restore tissue.

After consulting an orthopedic traumatologist, it is recommended to attend physical therapy to strengthen the ligaments and muscles of the knee joint and reduce the likelihood of re-inflammation.

Sprain Treatment | CMC Hospital

Sprained ligament treatment is one of the most common types of orthopedic treatment. Unlike many other conditions, sprains do not have a peak season. With injuries of the musculoskeletal system, people go to doctors throughout the year. This is also the spring-summer season, when people begin to engage in physical labor and sports: they go out into nature, run, and also go to summer cottages. This is also the autumn-winter season, when classes begin in schools and sports clubs, adults and children go snowboarding, skiing, skating.And among the elderly, sprains generally occur in the most everyday situations: at home, in the garden or in the yard.

The resulting minor injuries and the accompanying sprains cause a lot of inconvenience to patients: pain, discomfort both when moving and when the body is at rest. Many patients are deceived by the illusion of improvement that often occurs with sprains. But as soon as the patient begins to walk, the trauma again makes itself felt. This time, with increased pain.

Symptoms of sprain

Very often, patients do not seek treatment for sprains in time, as they mistake their injuries for a simple bruise. They continue to move and lead their usual way of life, which only worsen their condition. A stretched ligament that is not treated will not only cause additional discomfort and pain to the person, but it can also completely rupture and immobilize the patient. Sprains have the following symptoms:

  • Pain when moving in the joint, significantly worse when trying to turn the joint in the direction in which it was stretched during injury 90 100
  • when pressing on the area of ​​stretched ligaments and the place of their attachment to the bones 90 100
  • When the ligaments of the leg are sprained – pain when stepping on the leg, sometimes (rarely) until it is completely impossible to step on it 90 100
  • The onset and gradual increase of joint edema, sometimes reaching large sizes 90 100
  • In some cases – hematoma (bruise), redness and increased skin temperature in the area of ​​injury; often a hematoma appears on the second day, and just below the site of injury;
  • Over time, the swelling will only get worse. with a moderate injury, there is a significant limitation of joint mobility; with a complete rupture of the ligament, on the contrary, the joint becomes excessively mobile and unstable, which becomes especially noticeable after the edema subsides.
  • With moderate to severe trauma, you can sometimes hear a clap – a sign of a torn fiber in the bundle 90 100

First aid for sprains

While waiting for the doctor who will treat the sprain, the patient can carry out a few simple manipulations.

  • Light bandaging of the injury site. The bandage should firmly fix the joint in its normal position, but not interfere with normal blood circulation.
  • Immobilize the damaged area of ​​the body. In the first hours and days of injury, it is important to maintain rest for the injured limb. If the shoulder / arm is injured, try not to lift anything or move it at all. If you have a knee / foot injury, do not walk or load the injured leg under any circumstances.
  • Place the injured limb on a raised platform. Basically, this applies to the legs. A small pillow or cushion under the foot will provide the desired position for the foot. This will help prevent extensive bruising and relieve leg pain.
  • Apply ice wrapped in a cloth to the stretch site for 15-20 minutes. Repeat every 3-4 hours. These cold applications will help prevent bruising and relieve pain.

These simple manipulations are an essential first aid for sprains.

Types of ligament sprains

Most often, patients seek treatment for the following types of sprains:

  • Sprain of the ligaments of the foot. Often caused by twisting of the leg. It is characterized by pain, swelling and inability to step on the foot.
  • Sprained knee ligaments. This type of sprain is usually the result of a bad fall. The patient experiences acute pain, the knee swells significantly.
  • Sprained back ligaments.It occurs as a result of significant physical exertion when playing sports or lifting weights. It is characterized by sharp and throbbing pain. It is difficult for the patient to stand and sit. Relief comes only when lying down.
  • Sprains of the ligaments of the hand. This type of sprain is the result of increased stress on the wrist or an unsuccessful fall / landing.
  • Sprained elbow ligaments. Many athletes and weightlifters are susceptible to this type of injury. It occurs both as a result of lifting weights and as a result of sudden movements of the arm and elbow.
  • Sprains of the shoulder ligaments can occur with a load or a sharp swing of the arm. Ligament damage can worsen if there was something heavy in the hand: a load or a sports equipment.

Treatment of sprains in the Caucasus Medical Center

One of the leaders in the treatment of orthopedic patients in the Caucasus is the Caucasian Medical Center. The center treats sprains and offers the following services:

  • Diagnostics of orthopedic injuries of varying complexity, using the most modern diagnostic equipment. In case of any suspicion of a sprain and rupture of the ligaments, our doctors will conduct the most thorough examination in order to exclude the development of complications, and will prescribe the appropriate treatment.
  • Inpatient treatment. The optimal type of treatment will be selected for each patient in our medical center. In hospital treatment, patients recover much faster as they are surrounded by constant and professional medical care.
  • Outpatient treatment. For those patients whose treatment can be carried out on an outpatient basis, our doctors will draw up a treatment plan and prescribe the appropriate medication.In outpatient treatment, orthopedic patients will be prescribed an appropriate exercise regimen. A dedicated podiatrist will monitor the results of the treatment.
  • Orthopedic traumatologists of the CMC are highly qualified specialists and possess the latest techniques in the diagnosis and treatment of moderate and high severity injuries.

Kinesiological taping

Kinesiological taping is a technique for treating sprains, in which a special adhesive tourniquet is applied to the affected ligament – kinesiological tape.High-quality tape is made of special elastic medical fabric and can only be stretched in one direction. When applied to the affected area, the tape lifts the skin and subcutaneous fat at the site of injury. What happens at this time with the injured tissues under the tape? And the following happens:

  • The glued tape, tightening the skin, weakens the muscles associated with the site of injury.
  • The pain at the injury site subsides and the patient experiences significant relief.
  • The glued-on kinesiological tape improves blood circulation, which in turn prevents the development of edema and hematomas.
  • All healing processes in this position will be much faster.
  • The patient, having received significant pain relief, will be able to return to partial physical activity.

Only an orthopedic surgeon can correctly apply the kinesiology tape after an appropriate examination! The tape adheres tightly to the skin and lasts from 2 to 3 days. The patient can take a shower with tape.

Medical massage

Medical massage for sprains is another component of the treatment of such injuries.As a rule, a professional orthopedic doctor will prescribe a massage for the patient no earlier than 48 hours after receiving the herb. Massage before this period is strictly prohibited, as early massage will increase the risk of bruising and increase swelling. It should also be remembered that the need for massage is determined only by a doctor. The standard procedure for medical massage for ligament injuries is as follows:

  • First, the patient is warmed up the injured area of ​​the body.For this, warming compresses are used. It is very important to remember that warming up is carried out only on the recommendation of a doctor. It is strictly forbidden to heat the injury in the first few days on your own.
  • Next, a preliminary massage is carried out, during which the massage therapist carefully develops the areas located above the injury site. This will promote good lymph drainage.
  • Only after that, the massage of the most injured area will begin. A professional massage therapist will perform a massage in such a way that it will deliver a minimum of painful sensations to the patient.Based on the recommendations of the doctor, the intensity and duration of the massage sessions will increase each time.

Physiotherapy in the treatment of sprains

Physiotherapy is actively used today in the treatment of various injuries of the musculoskeletal system, including sprains.

A highly qualified physiotherapist is able to lift a patient with sprained ligaments to their feet in a matter of days, who, moreover, had severe pain syndrome before the start of physiotherapy. As a rule, physiotherapy is prescribed only a few days after a ligament injury. There are a large number of physiotherapy methods, but the attending physician will select the right type of physiotherapy treatment for each patient. Physiotherapy is indicated for the following types of sprains:

  • Ankle sprain,
  • Sprain of the knee ligaments,
  • Sprain of back ligaments,
  • Sprain of the ligaments of the hands,
  • Elbow sprain,
  • Sprain of the ligaments of the shoulder joint.

That is, as we can see, physiotherapy is indicated in the treatment of all types of sprains. During physiotherapy, patients note the following positive effects:

  • Edema decreases noticeably at the site of stretching, 90 100
  • Improves blood circulation and lymph flow of the damaged area of ​​the body,
  • The recovery of sprained ligaments after the start of physiotherapy is much faster.


The most popular type of physical therapy is magnetotherapy. Its popularity is due to the simplicity and effectiveness of this method in the treatment of sprains. During treatment with magnetotherapy, the affected area is exposed to an alternating magnetic field. The strength and intervals of field exposure are adjusted by a physiotherapist. Typically, treatment starts at low intensity and gradually increases over the course of treatment. Despite the fact that magnetotherapy is a rather old method in the treatment of many diseases of the human motor system, many patients notice a significant improvement in their condition after the first sessions.What are the advantages of magnetotherapy?

  • Providing anti-inflammatory effect on the injured area of ​​the body,
  • Relief of muscle tension,
  • Pain reduction,
  • Improvement of lymphatic and blood exchange processes,
  • Acceleration of the processes of regeneration of damaged tissues,
  • Strengthening the patient’s immune system.

Magnetotherapy is prescribed not only as the main method in the treatment of sprains, but also as an additional type of treatment in the preoperative period, for patients with ligament ruptures. With this treatment, the recovery of patients after surgery is much faster.


As the name suggests, cryotherapy is a cold treatment. When the ligaments are sprained, one of the types of first aid that needs to be given to the patient is the imposition of cold. But it turns out that the cold can be not only a temporary help in alleviating the patient’s condition, but also serve as a separate type of treatment for sprains. Unlike several of the other treatments above for sprains, cryotherapy is often prescribed very early in treatment.This is due to the beneficial effect of cold on damaged tissues in the first days of treatment. With cryotherapy, there is a point effect of cold on the injured area. Thanks to this, bleeding stops, edema subsides, and temporary anesthesia of the damaged ligament occurs. With regular exposure to cryotherapy, the desired healing effect is achieved. Cryotherapy is rarely given alone. As a rule, it is combined with magnetotherapy. There are no contraindications for cryotherapy, provided that it is prescribed to the patient by his attending physician.For detailed information on this and other types of treatment for sprains, contact the Caucasus Medical Center. Trust your health to the best specialists in the region.

Rehabilitation after arthroscopic removal of the meniscus

What is arthroscopy?
The advantage of arthroscopy over traditional open surgery is that the joint does not open completely. For access to the knee joint, only two small incisions are made – one for inserting the arthroscope, the other for surgical instruments, with which the meniscus can be removed or sutured.This technique increases the efficiency of the operation and significantly shortens the postoperative recovery process, since the degree of tissue damage is much lower than in the case of open surgery. Also, with arthroscopy, the scars remain less noticeable due to the small size of the incisions.

Postoperative stage.
Purpose of the operation: to bring you back to active life. Therefore, it is so important that all exercises begin on time and help you restore joint function.
The first few days after the operation, you are in the hospital, where the attending physician monitors your condition. Already on the next day after the operation, it is recommended to perform isometric exercises, i.e. exercises that engage the muscles without flexing the knee. In other words, tension exercises without movement:

Exercise # 1 Patient position: lying or sitting in bed. Contract your quadriceps hip muscle so that your kneecap is pulled up and your toes are pointing up.Hold this position for 10 seconds. Then – 10 seconds of rest, and again 10 seconds of tension. Repeat this exercise 10 times.
Exercise # 2 In the same position: lying or sitting on the bed, tighten the back of the thigh, as if you want to bend the lower leg. Also, hold the tension for 10 seconds. Then 10 seconds rest. Repeat this exercise 10 times.
Exercise # 3 Sitting or lying on the bed, move your leg to the side by 20-30 cm, lifting the heel.Then return the limb to its original position. Repeat 10 times.
Exercise # 4 Sitting (better) or lying down, lift your straightened leg up 10-20 cm, holding this position for up to 10 seconds. If you feel pain during this exercise, lower your leg lift slightly or shorten the leg hold time. Repeat this exercise 10 times.

On the second postoperative day, your doctor will recommend that you begin to bend your leg at the knee joint.

New exercises are added to the above exercises:

Exercise # 5 Patient position: lying or sitting in bed. Pull the heel of the operated leg towards you. Maintain this position for 5 seconds. Then – return the leg to its original straightened position. Repeat this exercise 30 times.
If the exercise does not cause difficulties – lift the heel above the bed by 3-5 cm and bend your knee in this position.
Exercise # 6 In the same position: lying or sitting on the bed, place a ball or roller (folded blanket) under your knee. Raise your lower leg, straightening your leg as much as possible. Maintain this position for 5-10 seconds. Repeat the exercise 30 times.
Exercise # 7 First, flexion in the knee joint is developed using the weight of the lower leg: sit on the edge of the bed, hang the lower leg and gradually, relaxing the anterior muscles of trouble, bend the leg at the knee.The flexion should be done slowly, resisting the gravity of the thigh muscles and insuring the movement with your good leg.
Raise the leg with the healthy leg: put the good leg under the injured leg and straighten the injured leg, helping with the healthy leg. You need to try to maximize the amplitude of extension.
Exercise # 8 While standing, lean on the back of a chair or walker. Bend the operated leg at the knee and hip.The hip, knee and foot should be pointing forward. Without changing posture, slowly return your leg to its original position.
Repeat 10 times.
Exercise # 9 While standing, lean on the back of a chair or walker. Extend the operated leg at the knee and hip joint, as if you want to reach the buttocks with your heel. The hip, knee and foot should be pointing forward. Without changing posture, slowly return your leg to its original position. Repeat this exercise 10 times.
Be careful: Excessive leg extension can cause calf cramps. If this happens, pinch yourself on the calf muscle and do the subsequent extensions less intensely.

Here is a checklist of simple yet effective exercises to help you strengthen your muscles and restore movement in your knee joint. These exercises are recommended to be performed 5-8 times a day.

WARNING: During or after exercise, you may feel mild, tolerable pain.It is the injured muscles that hurt. If the pain becomes acute, sharp or difficult to tolerate, consult your doctor!

Frequently Asked Questions:

– What should I do if my knee or my entire leg swells? Swelling of the operated area is a common and not dangerous condition. The edema will subside when blood circulation and lymph drainage are restored. This will take some time. It is possible to safely accelerate the restoration of blood and lymph circulation with the help of a special lymphatic drainage massage and the above exercises.To reduce swelling, place a pillow or roller under your leg so that the operated leg is raised 30 ° -35 °. Cold also helps reduce swelling. Place an ice pack or thick plastic bag over your knee for 2-3 hours.

If the swelling is significant or appears suddenly, consult your doctor.

– How to monitor a wound before stitching at home? If the dressing is dry and there are no bleeding spots, the dressing may not be changed.Usually, dressing with a change of dressing is performed once every 3 days.

– What should I do if I feel knee pain? Postoperative pain is most commonly associated with swelling of the joint or the soft tissue around it. Try to relieve pain by elevating the limb and / or using an ice pack. These measures will reduce swelling and help relieve pain.

If you continue to feel pain, consult your doctor. He will prescribe anti-inflammatory therapy or recommend an appointment.

– Is it possible to warm up the operated joint? No, this is absolutely forbidden.

– If the knee hurts a little and there is moderate swelling, can you exercise? Tolerable pain and moderate swelling may persist for some time after surgery. The exercises given here are just conducive to the early recovery and reduction of these postoperative consequences.

– When can I walk without crutches and when can I increase the load? For arthroscopic meniscus removal, it is allowed to walk on crutches the day after surgery.As a rule, the ability to walk without crutches appears 3-4 days after the operation. Further restoration of the function of the joint and limb as a whole largely depends on full-fledged rehabilitation, i.e. performing special exercises aimed at strengthening muscles, restoring proprioceptive sensitivity, coordinated muscle movements when walking, going up and down stairs, etc. under the supervision of a specialist – a rehabilitation physician.

Completing a full-fledged rehabilitation course significantly speeds up the recovery period.

– Do I need special orthoses after the operation? In some cases, at the discretion of the operating physician, special orthoses may be required to safely transition the weakened muscles to full load.

Remember that the exercises and recommendations provided here do not replace or supersede the recommendations of your doctor.

In our Kinesio Orthopedic Rehabilitation and Prevention Center, you can undergo a full rehabilitation course after knee surgery, as well as get answers to your questions regarding further recovery !, as well as get answers to your questions regarding further rehabilitation!

Reception of an orthopedic surgeon: A.I.

So that your knees do not hurt – Velosite.ru

Does it hurt or doesn’t it hurt?

You have been cycling for a long time, but suddenly you begin to notice that your knees hurt. You know, such an aching pain that can last long after skiing, or can subside in a matter of minutes? Most likely, these are not anatomical features or injuries, but incorrect bike settings. So, so that it does not become chronic, carefully read our advice.

Adjust saddle height

Most often, knee pain occurs when the saddle height is incorrectly set.If you think that, sitting in the saddle, you should firmly rest your feet on the ground, you are deeply mistaken. As you ride, your knees will bend at an acute angle, which can lead to pain or even injury. Our advice is to sit in the saddle and place your heel on the pedal in the lowest position. The leg in this position should be absolutely straight. If you transfer it to the toe, it will be slightly bent. When standing by your bike, the saddle should be at hip level. Take the time to check your saddle height right now.

Check seat longitudinal position

If everything is clear with the height, everything is adjusted, but the knees continue to bother you? Then check if the longitudinal position of the saddle is correct. If, when setting the pedals at the same level, parallel to the ground, your knee is above the pedal axis, then everything is fine, you can not worry.

Adjust seat tilt

Ideally, it should be zero, that is, the saddle is in a clearly horizontal position.This is also one of the most important settings to configure, so take the time to double check everything.

Pedal correctly

Even if you are not the first year in the saddle, do not neglect our advice! Pay attention to how your foot is positioned on the pedal. The thumb bone should be directly above the pedal axis, the movement is clear up and down, no sideways deviations or swaying. Take care of the lateral ligaments of the knee, they are very easy to injure if you pedal incorrectly.Another interesting pattern is that the faster you pedal, the less stress is put on your knees. The ideal speed is considered to be from 80 to 100 revolutions per minute, while beginners do not more than 60 revolutions.

Choose contact pedals

A new trendy and healthy hit that really saves your knees. They fix the foot in the correct position and turn them into one mechanism with the bike. These pedals allow you not only to push the pedals away from you, but also to drag them up, and this is the most correct way to ride.

Use Gear Shift

Your bike is equipped with gear shifting for a reason – adjust them for any changes in the angle of the track, do not overload your knees on difficult climbs.

Make your knees healthy

The most important thing is the warm-up. Yes, this is not only suitable for the gym, but for the bike too. You stayed too long in the office, then abruptly sat behind the wheel of a bike and twisted 10 km home. And you forgot to stretch your knees.Be sure to massage with your hands, but only very carefully! Warm up your knees, making circular movements above the kneecap and slightly to the side. Then get up and bend your knees slightly – rotate them in a circle very slowly. Right to left and back.

Drink more water to keep the cartilage hydrated. You can drink supplements that contain chondroitin – a special substance that is useful for the restoration of cartilage tissue. And, of course, eat right.

If pains follow you regularly, then it is better not to self-medicate, but simply consult a doctor.

The buttock hurts and radiates to the leg

The causes of pain in the buttock radiating to the leg can be divided into several main groups according to etiology, but combined conditions are often found when the causes are combined and are treated for a long time. Below is a list of causes of gluteal pain in order of prevalence:
1) Myofascial trigger points. Trigger points give 90% of all pain in the human body. These are painful pathological seals in the muscles and more complete information about trigger points, the reasons for their appearance and treatment can be found in a separate article on trigger points.With pain in the buttock and reflected pain in the leg, as a rule, it is the trigger points that bring the most symptoms and complaints.
As a rule, triggers are activated in the gluteus muscle group – gluteus maximus, gluteus medius, gluteus maximus and piriformis. Often, the initial pain emanates from the muscles of the lower back (quadratus lumbar muscles and polydisplasia muscles), and the pain is reflected in the gluteal region, where satellite triggers form over time, which can reflect pain along the back and outer thighs (legs).Usually doctors attribute the reflected pain from trigger points to a herniated disc of the spine, but this happens much less frequently than isolated uncomplicated triggers. Triggers in the gluteal muscle group can be activated by awkward movements, for example, trying to prevent a fall and maintain balance when a person slips on a tile or ice. This happens especially often when the gluteal muscles are in an elongated state and experience a sharp overload.
However, one should not blame only the trigger points for pain in the buttocks with a reflection in the leg.
2) True radiculopathy of the lumbar spine. Radiculopathy (although experts are glad to call this term outdated) is a series of painful and non-painful symptoms caused by trauma (rupture of the intervertebral disc). Pain symptoms include pain from primary physical trauma (although a person may not realize that he was injured, we recommend reading an article about a hernia of the lumbar spine), which can be accompanied by neurological manifestations – true neurogenic pain and neurological deficits: true muscle weakness, impaired sensitivity or “tingling and burning (from the word oven)”.The trigger points of the paravertebral muscles are also the root cause of the development of dystrophy of the spinal discs.
3) Dysfunction of the sacroiliac joint. The pain can also come from the joint itself, due to its joint disorder. However, as in the case of true radiculopathy, joint disorders are usually excessive pressure on the joint from the muscles affected by the trigger point. That is, the root cause is again in the muscles, if there was no really acute injury and displacement of the articular surfaces of the SIJ.
4) Specific, rarely common causes of pain in the buttock and rebound in the leg. This category includes bursitis (a true infectious or traumatic inflammation of the ligaments), pain from the affected joints of the lumbar spine. 90,000 Calf pain: causes and consequences

Shin pain

a rather difficult problem for a person, because they can be a symptom of a disease such as thrombosis, which is life-threatening. And thrombosis is not the only disease signaled by pain in the lower leg.It happens that such pain in the lower leg is associated with diseases that are still in the initial stage of development – then they can be quickly cured. How do you distinguish a dangerous situation from one that can be dealt with quickly?

Causes of pain in the lower leg

  • The concentration of a certain type of salt is reduced in the blood, for example, magnesium, calcium, potassium, magnesia. Diuretics can be the reason for the decrease in salt concentration.
  • A person uncontrollably takes medications: statins (they can cause destruction or deformation of muscle tissue, thereby lowering the level of cholesterol in the blood).
  • Muscle spasms, primarily as a result of prolonged exertion, physical strain.
  • Tear or tear of ligaments or tendons due to muscle injuries 90 100
  • Fracture of the shin bones, ankle joint 90 100
  • Deformation or trauma of the meniscus 90 100
  • Vein thrombosis (deep or superficial), blockage of blood vessels 90 100
  • Inflammation of the tendons 90 100
  • Damage to the meniscus.
  • Atherosclerosis arising in the vessels of the legs 90 100
  • Infectious lesions of the shin tissues 90 100
  • Deformation, rupture, stretching, trauma, damage to nerve fibers (in risk groups – smokers, people who abuse alcohol, as well as diabetics).
  • The so-called trap syndrome, when the lower leg is pinched or compressed as a result of injury or muscle strain 90 100
  • Fractures due to overvoltage 90 100
  • Muscle contraction – the so-called clogging due to overstrain, heavy loads 90 100
  • Inflammation of the periosteum of the tibia 90 100
  • Tears – large and small – in the muscles of the calf 90 100
  • Dilated veins, tearing of the ligaments located under the knee 90 100
  • Inflammation of the tuberous surface of the tibia 90 100
  • Inflammation of the apex of the kneecap – the so-called jumper’s knee 90 100
  • Tumor or osteoma of the leg or hip 90 100
  • Abuse of medicines such as corticosterol 90 100
  • Malignant tumors of the leg bone 90 100
  • A disease called Paget’s disease (breast nipple cancer) 90 100
  • Raynaud’s syndrome 90 100
  • Compression Syndrome 90 100
  • Compression of the nerve roots located in the lower leg 90 100

Smoker’s pain

This pain is localized in the shins of people who smoke heavily and often.If you stop smoking, the pain may go away. If, after rest, a person ceases to feel pain, then there are no serious health problems. But if, even in a calm state, a person is still tormented by pain, then there is a serious reason to consult a doctor for diagnosis. The heart and blood vessels of a smoker are subject to special stress and can provoke pain in the lower leg. Therefore, special attention should be paid to the cardiovascular system.

Pain due to thrombosis

Deep vein thrombosis can be dangerous only in case of complications that can be life-threatening.These complications can occur if a person’s blood clot has come off. If the risk of developing a blood clot is high and it can get into the lungs or the brain, then the person needs surgery to remove the clot, otherwise it can be fatal. If a person has blood clots in the veins, his ankle may hurt.

Pain due to compression of the tissues of the ankle

Compression of tissues can be the result of a strong impact on the lower leg, squeezing it with a heavy object, or injury to the lower leg.Because of this, hemorrhage can occur in the soft tissues of the lower leg, which causes swelling and pain. Blood vessels with such an injury can also be squeezed, which is why a red or blue hematoma appears on the skin.

It happens that when squeezed, a hemorrhage occurs in the muscles, at the same time the vessels and nerve fibers are squeezed. Because of this, swelling of the leg occurs, which becomes very hot, changes color and pain appears in the lower leg area.

If at the same time the muscle tissue and nerve fibers are damaged, this process can be irreversible, the pain can be very severe.In this case, the muscles atrophy, the foot cannot perform its functions, doctors call this condition a drooping foot. A person cannot bend it, which means that he cannot walk, ride a motorcycle or bicycle, even swim.

Pain in the lower leg after open fractures

This pain can occur with osteomyelitis, especially osteomyelitis of the lower leg, in which the immune system is very weakened, and then surgery may be required.

Damage to the meniscus

In this case, a person may also be bothered by pain in the lower leg.It is more typical for people who go in for sports and run a lot: football players, runners, basketball players. Meniscus damage is most often treated with surgery.

Pain in the lower leg due to muscle spasm

This pain can provoke pain in the lower leg. The treatment is very simple – massages, pain relievers, ointments with analgesics. And everything will be all right – the pain in the lower leg will cease to bother.

Is there a danger due to pain in the lower leg

It depends on the disease that the pain is signaling.If we are talking about thrombosis – and there are more than 50% of such patients among those who complain of pain in the lower leg – this is dangerous. A blood clot can break off and block a vein or travel through the bloodstream to other organs, such as the lungs. When the lungs are blocked by a blood clot, a person dies instantly. Moreover, the size of venous blood clots does not matter for a person’s life – both small and large blood clots can be dangerous.

It is very important for pain in the lower leg to correctly diagnose. If you determine the presence of blood clots, the doctor will continue the research methods.To know exactly how to fight for a person’s life. If there are no blood clots in the veins, then the treatment will be easier and more effective. The main thing is to start it on time. That is, as early as possible.

Mechanism of pain in the lower leg

The shin tissues are penetrated by many nerve endings. They are found in muscles, and in tendons, and in ligaments, and in vessels, and in the tissues that surround them. Any part of the lower leg can become inflamed, and so can the nerve endings. Then the pain is transmitted through the nerve receptors.For example, with deep vein thrombosis, the walls of their vessels or tissues around it can become inflamed. So there is irritation of the nerve endings and pain in the lower leg.

The most common causes of lower leg pain are constant stress on the legs. It can be either a long sitting or standing in one place, or, conversely, a lot of walking, running, jumping, and various kinds of movements. Shin pain can occur when a person first does a lot of physical activity, and then suddenly stops exercising and takes a break.Muscles, ligaments and tendons, which used to be in good shape, now become immobilized, so they can hurt from changes in load.

The cause of pain can also be trauma – sprains, sprains, cracks – any damage to the lower leg. Then you need immediate medical advice.

The structure of the lower leg. Where does shin pain come from

The lower leg is the part of the leg that runs from the knee to the heel. It contains the tibia and fibula. A cup is attached to them above the knee.Below, in the area of ​​the heel, the tibia and tibia pass into the ankle – inner and outer – these are the processes of the tibia bones. These bones are connected along their entire length by membranes.

Doctors conventionally divide the lower leg into two parts – front and back. The border of these parts is located along the inner edge of the tibia, the other border runs from the back of the outer edge of the ankle to the back of the head of the other bone – the fibula.

The calf muscles are located on the front of the lower leg bones, as well as on the back of it.Physiologists divide the leg muscles into 3 large groups. These are the front muscles that help to extend the toes and the foot itself, the external muscles that make it possible to bend and rotate the foot, and also move the foot outward. And the back muscles, which help the foot and toes to flex, are called the calf muscles. Most often, pain in the lower leg does not require a long time to heal, unless the cause is serious illness. But why does the pain in the lower leg arise?

The nature of the pain in the lower leg

The pain in the lower leg appears first below the knee on the outside of the legs (this is the area of ​​the tibia).