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Labs for a fib: Atrial fibrillation – Diagnosis and treatment


Planning to travel with atrial fibrillation?

Planning to travel with atrial fibrillation?

Take extra care when planning trips if you’re living with atrial fibrillation.

By Mayo Clinic Staff

If you have atrial fibrillation, a common heart rhythm disorder, you may have some concerns about traveling with your condition. But after taking a few steps to prepare, you can often go and have an enjoyable and worry-free trip.

Before you travel, discuss your travel plans with your doctor and ask any questions you have about traveling with your condition. Check with your doctor to see if he or she has any concerns about your traveling with atrial fibrillation. Your doctor may offer suggestions about traveling with your condition.

Travel tips with atrial fibrillation

Some helpful tips to remember include:

  • Bring your medications. Bring all of the medications you’ll need for your trip, and keep them in your carry-on luggage.
  • Carry a list of your medications. Having a list of your medications will make it easier to refill the medications if you run out of them or lose them. You may also want to bring copies of your original prescriptions.
  • Take your time. Get to the airport early to give yourself plenty of time before your plane is due to depart.
  • Bring your doctor’s phone number. Keep your doctor’s phone number on hand when you travel.
  • Wear a medical alert bracelet. Your doctor may recommend that you wear a medical alert bracelet with information about your condition printed on it.
  • Take steps to prevent blood clots. During your plane flight, walk around when you can to prevent blood clots in your legs. Your doctor also may recommend that you wear compression stockings.
  • Find medical centers close to your travel destination. Before you leave, look at medical centers close to the destination where you’ll be traveling. Find out what services your health insurance will cover. This can help prepare you in case of an emergency.
  • Check the contact information for embassies. If you’re traveling internationally, bring the address and contact information of the U.S. embassies or consulates in the countries where you’ll be traveling. They can help with medical care in the area and offer general advice.
  • Buy travel health insurance. Buy travel health insurance and medical evacuation insurance before your trip, in case of emergency while traveling overseas.
  • Monitor the effects of blood-thinning medications. If you’re taking warfarin (Coumadin, Jantoven), a type of blood-thinning medication, you’ll need regular blood tests to monitor its effects. Check with your doctor to see if you’ll need to test your blood while you’re away.
  • Ask about high altitudes. If you’re going to be staying at a high-altitude location, such as in the mountains, check with your doctor first. High altitudes may worsen some types of heart rhythm disorders (arrhythmias). Your doctor may suggest that you rest and lower your normal activity level for several days after arriving at a high altitude. Also, watch for any new or unusual signs or symptoms of your condition or of altitude sickness.

With some planning, you can enjoy your travels and live an active life with atrial fibrillation.

Feb. 03, 2021

Show references

  1. Travel and heart disease. American Heart Association. https://www.heart.org/en/health-topics/consumer-healthcare/what-is-cardiovascular-disease/travel-and-heart-disease. Accessed Jan. 21. 2021.
  2. Tuttle T, et al. High altitude, air travel and heart disease. https://www.uptodate.com/contents/search. Accessed Jan. 21, 2021.
  3. Walls RM, et al., eds. High-altitude medicine. In: Rosen’s Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice. 9th ed. Elsevier; 2018. https://www.clinicalkey.com. Accessed Jan. 27, 2021.
  4. Atrial fibrillation. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/health-topics/topics/af/. Accessed Jan. 27, 2021.
  5. Pack smart. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. https://wwwnc.cdc.gov/travel/page/pack-smart. Accessed Jan. 27, 2021.
  6. Travelers with chronic illness. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. https://wwwnc.cdc.gov/travel/page/chronic-illnesses. Accessed Jan. 27, 2021.
  7. Before you travel tips. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. https://wwwnc.cdc.gov/travel/page/before-travel. Accessed Jan. 27, 2021.

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Diagnostic Tests for Atrial Fibrillation

Diagnostic Tests for Atrial Fibrillation

Doctors have several technologies and diagnostic tests to aid them in evaluating your A-Fib. Your doctor will likely make use of several from this list.

 Blood Tests

Blood tests check the level of thyroid hormone, the balance of your body’s electrolytes (i.e. potassium, magnesium, calcium, sodium, etc.), look for signs of infection, measure blood oxygen levels and hormone levels, and other possible indicators of an underlying cause of Atrial Fibrillation.

Blood tests can also reveal whether a patient has anemia or problems with kidney function, which could complicate Atrial Fibrillation.


An Electrocardiogram (ECG or EKG) is a simple, painless test that uses up to twelve sensors attached to your body to create a graphical representation of the electrical activity of your heart. The standard ECG records for only a few seconds.

It can only detect an A-Fib episode if it happens during the test. For a longer period of time, a portable ECG monitor is used. 

VIDEO 1: EKG of heart in A-Fib

VIDEO 1:  EKG of Heart in Atrial Fibrillation

Graphic display of actual heart in Atrial Fibrillation. How it could look to your doctor on an EKG/ECG monitor; (Your EKG may look different, but will be fast and erratic). Includes display of the changing heartbeat rate in the lower left. Go to video->

NOTE: For an in depth explanation of the ECG/EKG waveform signal and how to “read” an ECG tracing, see my report Understanding the EKG Signal.

 Holter and Event Monitors

Those with occasional A-Fib (Paroxysmal) may not experience an A-Fib episode during their ECG. So, doctors have other means of capturing your A-Fib data.

Holter Monitors

A Holter Monitor is a small, portable recorder that’s clipped to a belt, kept in a pocket, or hung around your neck and worn during your normal daily activities. The leads from the Holter Monitor attach to your body like the sensors of an ECG. The Holter Monitor records your heart’s electrical activity for a full 24–48 hour period in hopes of capturing data during an A-Fib attack.

Patient-Activated and Event Monitors

An Event Monitor is similar to a Holter Monitor, but records data only when activated by the patient. Pressing a button saves several minutes of data preceding and several minutes afterward.

Some event monitors start automatically when they sense abnormal heart rhythms. You might wear an event monitor for a month.

Patch Monitor

There are many varieties of the Patch monitor. Here is a video of the Zio Patch.

VIDEO 2: Zio Patch in use.

VIDEO 2: The Zio® Patch (iRhythm): Single-Use Ambulatory Cardiac Monitor

Updated 2-07-2018: The Zio® Patch cardiac monitor (iRhythm) looks similar to a 2-by-5-inch adhesive bandage and sticks to a patient’s chest. Learn about this single-use ambulatory, continuously cardiac monitor that records for up to 14 days with no need to removal during exercise, sleeping or bathing. (2:04 min.) Go to video->

Telemetry Monitors

There are many different telemetry monitors which can record in real-time and use a cell phone to transmit the data.

Do-It-Yourself Consumer Monitors

One of the most important developments in monitoring that patients can use themselves are the KardiaMobile by AliveCor and the Apple Watch (Series 5). The Kardia uses a small finger pad which has a Bluetooth interface with a smartphone. The Apple Watch records a single-lead EKG. And see https://a-fib.com/guide-to-diy-heart-rate-monitors-handheld-ecg-monitors/.

Implantable Monitors

Medtronic Reveal LINQ ICM

An Implantable Monitor is a type of event monitor without wires that’s inserted under the skin through a small incision. It’s used for patients with infrequent, unexplained fainting or passing-out when other tests have not found the cause. The implantable monitor is used for 2 to 3 years.

For a first-hand account with a Medtronic Reveal LINQ implantable monitor, see Steve’s September 2018 post: Has My A-Fib Returned? I Get an Insertable Wireless Monitor to Find Out

NOTE: For an in depth look at ECG monitors (including DIY/consumer heart rate monitors), see my report A Primer: Ambulatory Heart Rhythm Monitors.

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 Exercise Stress Test

During a stress test, you walk (or jog) on a treadmill while an ECG records your heart’s activity. This is often combined with an echocardiogram before and after the stress test to view and measure heart functions. 

 Tilt-Table Test

When the cause of dizziness, fainting or light-headedness isn’t detected by ECG or the Holter/event monitor, a tilt-table test may be performed. The table tilts the patient upright at a 70–80 degree angle for 30–45 minutes. As you are moved from a horizontal to an upright position, your blood pressure, heart rate and heart rhythm are monitored.

VIDEO 3: The tilt table test.

VIDEO 3: Tilt table test: Patient introduction to the tilt table test. Description of the test as we see a technician take a patient through a tilt table test. (1:15) Video posted on the New York Cardiovascular Associates website. Go to video->

 Electrophysiology Study

An electrophysiology study is a special catheterization test to examine the electrical activity inside your heart. It’s used to determine if and why the rhythm is abnormal. An electrophysiologist (EP) inserts several electrode catheters through the veins in your groin. Real-time images or moving X-rays (fluoroscopy) help guide the catheters into the heart.

Once in place, the EP uses the catheters (and perhaps arrhythmia drugs) to artificially stimulate your arrhythmia. By recording data from strategic locations within the heart, most kinds of cardiac arrhythmias can be fully documented.

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 Imaging Technologies

Echocardiography (Cardiac Ultrasound)

An Echocardiograph uses ultrasound waves to create a moving picture of your heart. As special sound waves are bounced off the structures of your heart, a computer converts them into pictures. These images show the size and shape of your heart and how well your heart chambers and valves are working.

Your cardiologist can locate areas of poor blood flow and previous damage, and areas that are fibrillating or not contracting properly as well as identify and measure deformations of heart chambers and thickening of heart walls.

Transesophageal Echocardiography (TEE)

In this test, a tube with an ultrasound device is passed down through your esophagus. A clear image is captured of the heart muscle and other parts of the heart. As ultrasound waves are directed into the heart, the reflected sound waves are converted into pictures.

The TEE is often administered just before an ablation to look for blood clots in your atria. If blood clots are found, anticoagulants are prescribed to dissolve them.

Computerized Tomography (CT) or Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)

‘Cardiac CT’ uses an X-ray machine and a computer for detailed images of the heart and to make three-dimensional (3D) pictures of your heart and chest.The electrophysiologist uses them to perform catheter ablations inside the heart.

A ‘cardiac MRI’ uses radio waves, magnets and a computer to create snapshots and video of your beating heart and can measure the amount of fibrosis (which can be a factor in A-Fib).

Chest X-Ray

X-ray images help your doctor see the condition of your lungs and heart such as fluid buildup in the lungs, an enlarged heart, and other complications of A-Fib.


There are several tests your doctor may use to evaluate your A-Fib. A basic understanding of these tests helps you ask informed questions and discuss test results.

 Additional Readings

• Sleep Apnea: Home Testing Now Available
• A Primer: Ambulatory Heart Rhythm Monitors
• Consumer (DIY) Heart Rate Monitors
• Understanding the EKG Signal
• The CHADS2 Stroke-Risk Grading System

Last updated: Sunday, February 23, 2020

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ECG and heart rhythm monitoring

Electrocardiogram (ECG)


The most important test for diagnosing atrial fibrillation is the electrocardiogram (ECG). Special stickers (electrodes) are placed on your arms, legs and across the chest (see picture below) and the electrical activity of your heart is recorded from your skin. The whole procedure usually takes just a few minutes and it can be done in your GP practice or in a hospital.

A standard resting ECG only records the heartbeat for a few seconds, so if atrial fibrillation is not present during this time prolonged monitoring may be required.


Heart monitoring

If your atrial fibrillation lasts just for a short period of time, it may be necessary to have a heart monitoring for 24 hours or longer (sometimes for 7 days or longer). This test, often called “Holter monitoring”, involves a small recording device attached by wires to 4 special stickers (electrodes) placed on your chest (see above). The device is easy to carry under clothes during your usual daily activities. A diary of your activities and any symptoms you experience while wearing the device can be useful. This test will provide your doctor with detailed information on your heart rhythm and correlation with your symptoms.

An alternative test is event monitoring. This monitor doesn’t continuously record, but will automatically record your ECG at certain times or when you manually trigger a recording, e.g. when you feel symptoms. These wearable event monitors can usually be used for up to 2 weeks.

If atrial fibrillation is still not detected but suspected an implantable cardiac monitor can be used for continuous heart rhythm monitoring. These monitors are positioned under the chest skin and can record changes in heart rhythm, usually for up to three years.

New technologies embedded in smartphones and smartwatches allow patients to have their own monitors (often called wearable devices) and record their heart rhythm on an ECG tracing. The reliability of these devices is being tested in clinical trials. In order to diagnose atrial fibrillation, these recordings should be evaluated by a physician.


Cardiac ultrasound


If you are diagnosed with atrial fibrillation, your doctor may want to examine your heart with an echocardiogram, often called an “echo” or an “ultrasound heart scan”. During this test a doctor or a cardiac technician will scan your chest using a handheld probe with some gel on it, in order to check the size and function of the four major chambers of the heart, the heart muscle and the valves.
An echocardiogram does not help your doctor detect atrial fibrillation, but it provides important information about the effect of atrial fibrillation on your heart and your prognosis.

Transoesophageal echocardiography

Sometimes your doctor will choose to investigate your heart with a transoesophageal echocardiogram, or ”TOE”. During this test a flexible tube is introduced through your mouth and positioned in your oesophagus (the passage leading from your mouth to your stomach). As the heart is positioned just in front of the oesophagus, TOE can give very detailed images of the most important parts of the heart. TOE is also the gold standard test to detect blood clots that may be forming inside the left atrium because of atrial fibrillation.
A TOE is often used before a cardioversion, if it is unclear when atrial fibrillation started and your doctor wants to be sure that no blood clots have already developed in your heart.

Other tests


Blood tests

Once atrial fibrillation is diagnosed you may also be asked to take some blood tests. Although the blood tests are not needed to make the diagnosis, they may help to explain why you have developed atrial fibrillation, for example due to thyroid gland problems or an imbalance of your body’s electrolytes. The blood tests will also help your doctor to choose the best treatment(s) for you.

Additional imaging of the heart

In some cases your doctor may want to perform a stress test in order to investigate what happens to your heart when it beats faster. Cardiac computer tomography or cardiac magnetic resonance imaging can also be used for detailed analysis of the structure and function of the heart. Whether further investigations are necessary depends on your condition and you should discuss it with your doctor.

The content for this website for patients has been reviewed by Dr. Heather Edwards (nominated by the British Heart Rhythm Society (BHRS)).

Related Pages

What To Know About Blood Clotting Tests With Afib

The most important part of your treatment for atrial fibrillation (afib) likely focuses on preventing a blood clot. Blood clots can form because fibrillation keeps blood from moving out of the upper chambers of your heart in an efficient way. Blood that pools and sits around too long tends to form clots. A clot that forms in your heart can break free and move through your bloodstream. If the clot travels to your brain, it can cause a stroke.

Having afib makes you five times more likely to have a stroke than someone who doesn’t have afib. To reduce your risk of stroke, your doctor may treat you with a drug that thins your blood. A blood-thinning drug is called an anticoagulant , commonly called blood thinners. Blood thinners help keep your blood from clotting. It can lower your risk of stroke by nearly 70%. While these are life-saving drugs, you’ll need regular blood clotting tests.

Why You Need Blood Clotting Tests

Your doctor will decide if you need to take a blood thinner for afib based on several risk factors for stroke. Your risk of stroke increases the more risk factors you have. You have a higher risk of stroke if you have afib and any of these additional risk factors:

One of the most commonly used blood thinners is warfarin (Coumadin). Warfarin has been around for more than 50 years. It works well, but if you’re on it, you’ll need blood clotting tests to check that the dosage is just right. Too much warfarin can increase your risk of bleeding, such as having nosebleeds, bruising easily, and more serious bleeding like bleeding from the stomach. Too little can increase your risk of stroke.

Your doctor will use two blood clotting tests to keep your warfarin dose in the right range. One is prothrombin time (PT) and the other is international normalized ratio (the INR test). The dose at which warfarin will work best for you falls in a narrow range, and this dose can sometimes be tricky to pinpoint. Doctors call this a “narrow therapeutic window.” Your doctor will use these tests to make sure you are in the proper window.

PT is a test that measures how long it takes a sample of your blood to clot. For a person not on a blood thinner, the normal result is 11 to 13.5 seconds. When you are on warfarin, it should take longer.

INR uses the results of your PT test to create a standardized number that your doctor will use to adjust your warfarin dose. Your target INR range will be between 2 and 3. That means your blood should be between 2 to 3 times thinner than normal.

Facts About Taking Anticoagulants

  • Many factors can affect blood clotting and change your INR. These include your diet, your age, how much alcohol you drink, and any other medications you’re taking.
  • You will need to get your INR checked regularly—about twice a month.
  • The right dose of warfarin can range from 1 to 10 milligrams. Your doctor may raise or lower your dose each time you have an INR check. The goal is to keep your INR number between 2 and 3.
  • You should try to go to the same lab each time you have your blood tests. INR can vary some from lab to lab.
  • When you’re on a blood thinner, you have a slightly increased risk of bleeding or bruising after your blood test.

Always keep your blood test appointments. It’s important to have these tests done on a regular basis. Also, talk to your doctor before you start any new medication, including over-the-counter drugs, vitamins, and herbal supplements. This will avoid drug interactions and keep you safe.

Better, Faster Treatment for Your AFib

A $4 million, 3,800-square-foot electrophysiology (EP) lab that offers the latest technology for treating heart arrhythmias is the newest addition to the Harold and Virginia Lash Heart and Vascular Center at Charlton Memorial Hospital.

Opened in February, the lab addresses a critical need in cardiac care for this region. Atrial fibrillation (AFib), the most common form of heart arrhythmia, involves irregular beating of the upper chamber and afflicts as many as 6 million Americans, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. In 2012, Southcoast’s hospitals discharged more than 700 AFib cases, the second highest number of all the Commonwealth’s health systems, and a number that is expected to rise as the population ages.

Advanced technology

The new lab is dedicated to treating AFib, as well as ventricular tachycardia and atrial tachycardia, conditions characterized by abnormally rapid heart rate. The EP lab is equipped to perform complex procedures that use catheters to destroy the tissue that beats irregularly and restore a regular heart rhythm.

In the lab, physicians use a new mapping system that helps them locate the abnormal electrical signals 10 times faster. The lab is also equipped with more cameras, giving physicians better views of catheters. The result is shorter procedure times and improved accuracy and success.

“With this state-of-the-art lab — that has advanced technology not found in most hospitals — we will be able to continue to provide outstanding outcomes for our patients but with less radiation and greater precision,” says Ramin Davoudi, MD, director of electrophysiology for Southcoast. “Better equipment will not be found anywhere else in this country or, for that matter, the world.”

With two EP labs now at Charlton, patients will experience shorter waits for the cutting-edge treatments available at Southcoast.

More treatment options

In 2015, Southcoast was one of only three hospitals in New England to introduce the Watchman device, which offers an alternative to blood thinners for some AFib patients. The device protects the heart from blood clots and thus the stroke risk associated with arrhythmia.

The previous year, Southcoast was one of the first hospitals in the region to start implanting a defibrillator just under the skin. The Boston Scientific S-ICD System treats patients who are at high risk for sudden cardiac arrest without using leads to the heart, as other implantable defibrillators do.

“There is nothing in the field of cardiac electrophysiology that can be done anywhere in the country that cannot be done here [at Southcoast],” says electrophysiologist Nitesh Sood, MD.

Treating the whole patient

Even with the latest equipment and techniques, AFib can reoccur if underlying causes — such as weight, stress and sleep apnea — are not addressed. Dr. Sood directs the Atrial Fibrillation Wellness Program, where nurse practitioners assess all AFib patients for their quality of life. Patients then can learn to manage sleep apnea, improve their diet and exercise appropriately.

“It has been proven beyond a doubt that mental health and physical health improve patient outcomes,” Dr. Sood says. “It’s more than just performing a surgery and procedure. It’s taking care of the patient as a whole. That’s what makes us different.”

Learn more about the Atrial Fibrillation Wellness Program.

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AFib Test | Atrial Fibrillation

About Atrial Fibrillation

About 2.7 million people in the United States are living with atrial fibrillation, and some may not be aware that their heart is beating irregularly. Early on, as a person starts to develop Afib, the fibrillation may come and go. But over time, the irregular heartbeat is likely to become more frequent. 30% of people with Afib experience no symptoms at all, but some people report feeling heart palpitations, dizziness, fatigue, shortness of breath, and chest discomfort.

Electrical activity in the heart enables the upper chambers of the heart (the atria) to beat in sync with the lower chambers (the ventricles), and blood flows consistently and regularly through the heart and out to the body. When arrhythmia (irregular heartbeat) develops, the electrical impulses are chaotic, and blood does not always pump effectively from the atria to the ventricles. If blood starts to pool in the atria, it can clot, and clots can travel to the brain, causing strokes.

An Afib test can detect the presence of Afib, but it is not always possible to determine the cause. There are a few conditions known to cause Afib. Structural damage to the heart can cause atrial fibrillation. Other possible causes include heart attacks or heart disease, high blood pressure, metabolic imbalances, stimulants such as caffeine, congenital heart defects, and sleep apnea. If you have any of these risk factors, you should consider getting an Afib test.

It is important for people with atrial fibrillation to discuss management of their condition with their doctors on a regular basis. He or she will more than likely discuss with you the importance of following a heart healthy lifestyle, which includes a diet low in sodium and fat and high in leafy vegetables and lean meat. You may also be instructed to get moderate exercise, maintain a healthy weight and manage your stress level. If you smoke, it is very important to quit as soon as possible. Your doctor can help you with tools that are now available to help people stop smoking, including medications and even apps that can be downloaded to a smartphone. Additionally, keeping your blood pressure in check and your cholesterol level as low as possible will be important to successfully managing your Afib. If you have diabetes, follow your doctor’s instructions carefully, especially your medication regimen.

Atrial fibrillation can have several serious complications, the most common being stroke. Afib causes a heart to not empty completely of blood, and blood can pool and clot. These clots can travel to the brain and slow or stop blood flow to the brain, causing a stroke. As stated above, people who have Afib are 5 times more likely to have stroke.1 Additional complications include heart failure and heart attack. Some studies have indicated that Afib can also cause cognitive decline because of decreased blood flow to the brain.

Atrial Fibrillation (AF or A-Fib)

Atrial fibrillation (AF or A-fib) is the most common heart rhythm disorder (arrhythmia) in which the heart beats at an irregular and often rapid pace. During atrial fibrillation, multiple electrical impulses travel through the hearts two upper chambers, causing it to “quiver” rather than contract. This causes the upper chambers, known as the atria, to beat at a much faster pace than the two lower chambers, known as the ventricles. This irregular heart beat results in poor blood flow to the body. Complications of atrial fibrillation can be life-threatening, including stroke and heart failure.

Patients with atrial fibrillation prognosis have five times the risk of stroke than those without the arrhythmia. In addition, A-fib patients who have suffered a stroke have two times the risk of being bedridden than patients who suffered a stroke without the disorder.

What are the symptoms of a-fib?

Atrial fibrillation affects more than 2 million people in America each year. Be aware of symptoms, which include:

  • Heart palpitations
  • Weakness
  • Lightheadedness
  • Confusion
  • Shortness of breath
  • Chest pain

What are the risks of a-fib?

Atrial fibrillation can be triggered by many factors, ranging from medical conditions to lifestyle choices, including:

  • High blood pressure
  • Heart problems, including coronary artery disease, abnormal heart valves, heart failure, heart attacks, congenital (born with) heart defects and prior heart surgery

The surest way to detect atrial fibrillation is with an electrocardiogram (EKG). In some cases, a Holter Monitor or Event Recorder may also be used for diagnosis. If you have atrial fibrillation, you may have to go for additional cardiac testing, including an echocardiogram, a stress test or blood tests.

Artrial Fibrillation Treatment Guidelines and Procedures

As a patient of The Heart Institute, you’ll have access to the most cutting-edge treatments for atrial fibrillation. Your cardiologist will ultimately determine which procedure is best for you. Possible A-fib treatments include:


LARIAT (left atrial appendage occlusion) surgery is an innovative catheter-based percutaneous procedure that uses sutures to tie off the left atrial appendage (LAA). This process helps to prevent blood clots that can lead to stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation, or “AFib” (an abnormal heart rhythm). This procedure is the only minimally invasive treatment option for patients who have AFib but cannot take blood thinners due to an underlying medical condition.


The WATCHMAN Device is a permanent implant designed to close the left atrial appendage in the heart in an
effort to reduce the risk of stroke.


This treatment can be conducted two ways, by sending an electric current to the heart or by using anti-arrhythmia medication. Some patients may need to take blood-thinning medication before and after cardioversion.


In some cases, when heart rate cannot be converted, a combination of medications may be prescribed to slow the heart rate down.

Maze Procedure

The maze procedure utilizes a scalpel to make several precise incisions that create a pattern of scar tissue, blocking the abnormal electrical impulses that cause atrial fibrillation. Radiofrequency and cryotherapy can also be used to create the scars, as these are variations of the surgical maze technique. Generally, this procedure is reserved for those who don’t respond to other therapies or when it can be done during other heart surgery. Some people may require a pacemaker insertion.

Cryoballoon ablation

Cryoballoon ablation is a balloon-based technology that blocks the conduction of the arrhythmia in cardiac tissue through the use of a coolant rather than heat, by way of a catheter. This freezing technology allows the catheter to adhere to the tissue during ablation, allowing for greater catheter stability.

AV node ablation

AV node ablation applies radiofrequency energy to the pathway connecting the upper and lower chambers. When applied, the atria are prevented from sending electrical impulses to the ventricles. The atria will continue fibrillating and will require anticoagulation medication. A pacemaker will also be inserted to establish normal rhythm and to regulate the heart rate. This type of ablation is typically reserved for people with serious symptoms or when other treatments have failed.

Radiofrequency catheter ablation directs radiofrequency energy through a catheter to the areas of heart tissue that cause erratic electrical signals. Scarring the tissue will correct the arrhythmia. In other cases, catheters that freeze the heart tissue, known as cryotherapy, can be used to get the same result.

PVAI (pulmonary vein antrum isolation)

Pulmonary vein ablation, also called pulmonary vein antrum isolation, is another procedure in which energy is delivered through the tip of the catheter to tissue that is targeted for ablation. The energy is applied around the connection of the pulmonary veins to the left atrium. Small circular scars are formed within two to three months blocking any impulses firing from within the pulmonary veins and isolating them from the heart. If successful, PVAI eliminates the need for medications.

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Sports analysis: how doping was taken and fought

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“News” about Rodchenkov’s hospitalization was released on the evening of June 19 in connection with the victory of the Russian national team in the match against Egypt, all the details were invented literally on the go, including the city of Washington, six packs of sedatives, a neurological clinic, etc.e. There are indeed suspiciously many coincidences with our text in Ionov’s statement. I think that, most likely, he took it as a basis, embellished it a little, and Russia Today did not check the information properly, ”Boris Gontermakher, editor-in-chief of the Panorama news agency, told RBC.

Alexander Ionov told RBC that he received information about the suicide attempt of WADA informant Grigory Rodchenkov from his “colleagues”, while admitting that the information he said could be “information stuffing.”

“I had confirmation from three sources. Colleagues from the United States threw this information to me, I asked them to call the clinics and clarify. Now we ourselves are strengthening this confirmation, ”he said.

When asked about the reasons for the similarity of RT information about Rodchenkov with the material of the parody news agency “Panorama”, Ionov replied that “he does not know that such a resource exists.” “Now it is premature to talk about this story, maybe it’s an informational stuff,” he stressed.

Ionov also heads the anti-globalization movement of Russia public organization.

RT later admitted that it had published unconfirmed information. An appeal to readers appeared on the RT telegram channel, in which it was noted that Ionov’s statements about Rodchenkov’s suicide attempt “were apparently not confirmed.”

“Mr. Ionov has not yet presented us with any other evidence, apart from documents from his sources. At the same time, the human rights activist had previously repeatedly shared important and truthful information with RT, but the cost of an error is too high. We are sorry, but we will not trust Mr. Ionov anymore, ”the appeal noted.RT added a similar note to the original news about Rodchenkov’s suicide attempt.

RBC sent a request to the RT channel and the editorial board of R-Sport (a division of RIA Novosti, on whose website news about Rodchenkov was published).

90,000 Emily’s Wonderful Lab | Netflix Official Website

Neon Party

12 min.

Emily and friends learn a lot about UV and then make their own fluorescent paint. Home experiment: lava lamp.

Walk along the “ooblek”

14 min.

Children learn about the nature of non-Newtonian fluids and then try to walk – and dance – through a pool filled with goo. Home experiment: oobled.

Rainbow horse toothpaste

13 min.

Emily takes her little scientists outside, where they tackle colorful explosions and chemical reactions.Home experiment: rainbow bubbles.

Tornado Hunters

13 min.

Children learn a lot about tornadoes and then Emily shows you how to do it right in the room! Home experiment: a tornado in a bottle.

Eggs! Eggs! Eggs!

14 minutes

How to test the durability of ordinary chicken eggs? Spread them out on the floor and walk barefoot! Home experiment: an egg in a bottle.


12 min.

A pool filled with glue helps children learn everything about reticulated polymers (hint: slimes are made of them!) Home experiment: meteor slime.

Air cannons

13 min.

Beware! Children create powerful air cannons from shower curtains, elastic cables and trash cans. Home experiment: a cloud in a bottle.

What balls

can do 13 min.

Inspired by Newton’s third law of mechanics, children build machines that run on balloons and then race. Home experiment: air cushion.

Creepy experiments

14 min.

Little scientists imitate ghosts and witchcraft potions using rising heat and acid-base reactions.Home experiment: pumpkin that is sick.

Cooking with the Sun

12 min.

Aluminum foil, plastic wrap and pizza box: ideal components for a solar oven. Home experiment: static electricity.

90,000 A third of Russians do not believe in the coronavirus epidemic and consider it a “fiction of interested parties” from a study conducted by the Directorate for Expert and Analytical Work of the Higher School of Economics (NRU HSE), which is quoted by RBC on May 28.

23.2% of the survey participants believe that there is no epidemic, and this is the invention of stakeholders, another 9.6% believe that the danger is exaggerated. As of the end of May, there are more respondents who believe that the peak of the epidemic is still ahead (25.6%) than those who are sure that the peak has been passed and it will decline (16.3%).

Researchers note that the behavior of a group of Russians who do not believe in the epidemic or consider it an invention of interested persons (32.8%) is fundamentally different from the behavior of those who admit the fact of the epidemic.Of those who do not believe in the epidemic, 43% visit their relatives and more than half (54%) go for a walk. Three quarters (74.22%) of the skeptical respondents are convinced that there was no need to introduce a self-isolation regime.

Only 18% of those who admit the epidemic visit their relatives and less than 12% meet with friends. Only 10% of those who recognize the epidemic agree with the statement that there was no need to introduce a self-isolation regime.

With the spread of coronavirus in Russia, the proportion of Russians who have sick people among friends, relatives or acquaintances has also increased.Over the month, from April 20 to May 26, this figure increased from 4.9% to 16.6%.

According to the study, the Southern Federal District is in the lead in the survey in terms of the percentage of those who consider the epidemic to be fiction – 41.1%. More than 60% of the district’s respondents believe that there should be fewer restrictions during an epidemic and that restrictions should have been lifted earlier (42.7%). At the same time, the region is in second place in terms of the number of respondents who either completely lost their income, or it dropped significantly – 52.1%.Most of the respondents who have faced a significant decrease in income, or have completely lost it in the North Caucasian Federal District – 53.8%.

9-20 July JetBrains Corporate Master’s Program Summer Lecture

JetBrains Corporate Master’s Summer Lecture

From July 9 to 20, graduates, teachers and friends of the JetBrains corporate master’s program “Software Development” will hold a summer lecture hall.

Speakers will read four lectures in the areas of master’s studies:

  • programming language theory,
  • machine learning,
  • Bioinformatics and Systems Biology,
  • industrial programming technology.

We invite novice researchers, developers and applicants of the program. The lectures will be held at the JetBrains office in the Times Business Center with a live broadcast on Zoom. You can participate both remotely and in person in compliance with all safety standards.

Lecture Schedule:

9 July 17:00

Lecture: Property-based testing in Haskell

Property-based testing is an approach to testing programs, assuming that the programmer does not describe test scenarios, as is usually done, but the properties that functions must satisfy. We’ll look at examples of tests written in a property-based style, look at libraries for the Haskell language, and also speculate on why the functional programming ecosystem was the first to discover this approach.

Lecturer: Dmitry Khalansky, developer at Kotlin Libraries JetBrains. Graduate of the 2019 program, teacher of mathematical logic, theory of formal languages ​​and functional programming.

13 July 17:00

Lecture: Why all this algebra to the programmer or something about mathematics in the movies

Classical computer 3D vision is an interesting discipline at the intersection of complex algorithms, datascience and complex mathematics.We will see what tasks are being solved in this area, how they are formulated, what are the approaches to their solution, and most importantly – to whom and why all this is needed.

Lecturer: Roman Belov, developer at Kotlin for Data Science JetBrains, CEO at KeenTools.

July 16 17:00

Lecture: Love, death and bioinformatics: how machines collect genomes, invent drugs and fight aging

Over the past decades, biology has changed a lot: now a large number of experiments are carried out not only in laboratories, but also on computers.Many science fiction creations, like genome editing, have become reality. The lecture will be devoted to an overview of the tasks that bioinformatics deals with. Let’s talk in more detail about those of them that are solved by machine learning methods.

Lecturer: Elena Kartysheva, researcher at the Machine Learning Applications and Deep Learning JetBrains Research laboratory. Graduate of the 2021 program, graduate and lecturer at the Institute of Bioinformatics.

20 July 17:00

Lecture: How to make collaborative software development tools smarter with data analysis (Lecture will be held online only).

Imagine a programmer at work. What’s open on his screen?
Most people at this point imagine an editor with code. However, on average, developers devote less than half of their time to writing and debugging code. Comparable time is spent on interaction with colleagues.

The lion’s share of communication with colleagues occurs with the help of special tools: bug trackers, instant messengers and code review systems. Compared to smart IDEs, these tools are relatively simple, but they have a huge potential for development, also due to the fact that they store the entire history of teamwork.

In this lecture, we’ll talk about how researchers are teaching collaborative tools to extract useful information from historical data and help people work together more effectively.

Lecturer: Vladimir Kovalenko, Head of Intelligent Collaboration Tools Lab JetBrains Research.

Additional information can be found on the Lecture website.

To participate, you must register.

Questions about the Lecture Hall, as well as about the Software Engineering program, can be asked in the Telegram chat and on VKontakte.

Participants ITMO University graduate students and senior undergraduate students are invited.


Master’s program Software Engineering from ITMO University and JetBrains.

Dates: from 9 to 20 July


  • offline: Business Center Times (2 Kantemirovskaya st., Office 204)
  • online: zoom

Working language: Russian

90,000 Response of the spokesman of the Embassy to a media question about the activities of the British secret chemical laboratory of the British Department of Defense in Porton Down


Response of the press secretary of the Embassy to a media question about the activities of the British secret chemical laboratory of the British Ministry of Defense in Porton Down

Question: The Embassy reported back in April that it had asked the British side for assistance in organizing a meeting with the head of the chemical laboratory in Porton Down. .Eitkenhead or his colleagues. Was it possible to find out whether this laboratory produced toxic substances of the A-234 type according to the British classification, with which S.and Yuri Skripaley?

Answer: Unfortunately, the Foreign Office ignored our request, from which we concluded that the British authorities do not want us to communicate with experts who may have facts that are inconvenient for the government. G. Eytkenhead himself, in an interview with Sky News in April, did not begin to either confirm or deny the fact that the laboratory headed by him produced and stored stocks of shipping substances, including the so-called “novice”. Then he also said that the laboratory adheres to the strictest security measures, not allowing “anything to seep outside the four walls of the facility.”

The fact that there is something to “seep” is well known. The laboratory has existed since the First World War and is engaged in military development in the field of chemical weapons. It is located near Salisbury and Amesbury, where incidents of alleged use of a nerve agent are known to have occurred. The speed with which the experts identified the type of this substance, as well as their role in providing medical assistance to victims, suggests that the British side has been developing and has samples of it.As we remember, in an interview with Deutsche Welle in March, the then Foreign Minister B. Johnson hinted at this.

In conditions when the laboratory has this substance at its disposal, and two incidents occurred no further than 10 kilometers from this object, the statements of official London and the British media about the “Russian trace” in the Skripal poisoning as the only plausible version of what happened are simply absurd.

We intend to demand from the British authorities disclosure of the existing program for the synthesis of chemical warfare agents in the UK, including those belonging to the array of new neuroparalytic agents being studied in the West under the general name “newcomer”.The release of the relevant data will be in the interest of all who seek to establish the truth in the Salisbury case.

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July 16, 2021 – Article by the Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation S.V. Lavrov on the 20th anniversary of the signing of the Russian-Chinese Treaty on Good Neighborliness, Friendship and Cooperation, July 16, 2021

Article by the Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation S.V.V. Lavrov on the 20th anniversary of the signing of the Russian-Chinese Treaty on Good Neighborliness, Friendship and Cooperation, published by Rossiyskaya Gazeta and the Chinese newspaper People’s Daily, July 16, 2021.

07/09/2021 – On the human rights situation in the UK. Russian Foreign Ministry report, 8 July 2021

The UK is positioning itself as a benchmark in the promotion and protection of human rights, while completely disregarding the principles of sovereign equality of states and non-interference in their internal affairs.By telling others how to behave and reproducing hackneyed, long-standing clichés, London is trying to mask its own problems, among which are the comfortable existence of organizations professing neo-Nazi ideology, the growth of racism, discriminatory attitudes towards ethnic minorities in many spheres of public life, abuse of power and the use of torture by law enforcement officials.

June 24, 2021 – Speech by the Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation S.V. Lavrov at the IX Moscow Conference on International Security, Moscow, June 24, 2021

Speech by the Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation Sergey Lavrov at the IX Moscow Conference on International Security.

06/22/2021 – Article of the Ambassador of Russia A.V. Kelin in the newspaper “England” on the 80th anniversary of the beginning of the Great Patriotic War

Article of the Ambassador of Russia A.V. Kelin, published in the newspaper “England” and dated to the 80th anniversary of the beginning of the Great Patriotic War.

06/18/2021 – On the resumption of the work of the Visa Center in Manchester

Due to the large number of requests from foreign citizens on visa issues, the work of the Visa Center in Manchester resumed on 23 June.

06/18/2021 – On the telephone conversation between the Minister of Foreign Affairs of Russia Sergey V. Lavrov and the Minister for Foreign Affairs, Commonwealth and Development of Great Britain, D. Raab, June 17, 2021

On the telephone conversation between the Minister of Foreign Affairs of Russia S.V.V. Lavrov with the Minister of Foreign Affairs, Commonwealth and Development of Great Britain D. Raab.

06/17/2021 – Press conference of Russian President Vladimir Putin following Russian-American talks, Geneva, 06/16/2021

After the talks with President of the United States of America Joseph Biden, Vladimir Putin answered journalists’ questions.

06/09/2021 – Interview of the Russian Ambassador to Great Britain A.V. Kelin to the TASS news agency on the eve of the G7 summit

Statements by the foreign ministers of the G7 countries regarding Russia, which should form the basis of the final communique of the upcoming summit ” sevens “in England are of a confrontational nature.This opinion was expressed on Wednesday by Russian Ambassador to Great Britain Andrei Kelin in an interview with TASS, commenting on the meeting of the association, scheduled for June 11-13.

09.06.2021 – Appeal of the Federation Council of the Federal Assembly of the Russian Federation to international parliamentary organizations, parliaments and the public of foreign states in connection with the increased incidence of violations of the right to use their native language

On the eve of the Day of the Russian language, which is celebrated annually in the Russian Federation 6 June and is timed to the birthday of A.S. Pushkin, the Federation Council of the Federal Assembly of the Russian Federation, noting the importance of the Russian language for the development of international relations and intercultural dialogue, appeals to international parliamentary organizations, parliaments and the public of foreign states with an appeal to respect and encourage the right of any person to use their native language, including number to learn on it.

06/01/2021 – Opening remarks by Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation Sergey Lavrov at a meeting of the BRICS Council of Ministers of Foreign Affairs, Moscow, June 1, 2021

Unfortunately, the coronavirus infection does not allow us to hold a face-to-face meeting.I would like to once again express my solidarity with India and its people. We are ready to continue to provide assistance in the fight against the pandemic, to establish cooperation in this area. Only through collective efforts will it be possible to overcome the current crisis for the benefit of the peoples of all countries.

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New developments of geneticists of the Bioengineering Laboratory of Altai State University – Events – News

April 3, 2014
Public Relations Department

On April 1, the Altai State University’s public relations department posted an informational message on the cloning of a new type of banana by scientists from the bioengineering laboratory on the official website of the university.”Novost” caused a resonance in the media community. An interview with the head of the laboratory, Maxim Gennadievich Kutsev, went on the air of the Altai State Television and Radio Broadcasting Company, the message itself was borrowed by several Russian and even one foreign Internet media. Not everyone understood and appreciated the April Fool’s joke. Some people took their word for it. But, as the saying goes, there is some truth in every joke.

But the truth is that the team of the laboratory, by the way, created jointly with the Institute of Chemical Biology and Fundamental Medicine of the SB RAS, is carrying out truly unique research in the field of genetic engineering, in comparison with which the production of a genetically modified banana looks, though difficult, but quite solvable task.True, it has no industrial or agricultural significance. And it is precisely such large-scale problems that can have a serious impact on the agro-industrial sector of the region that the laboratory of bioengineering of Altai State University is dealing with.

In particular, now, together with the Kemerovo Institute of Human Ecology, Altai State University scientists are working on a project to create a plant that cleans the environment from the toxic chemical compound benzopyrene.To this end, they implant a mouse antibody gene into certain types of aquatic cultures. Plants acquire the ability to absorb benzopyrene dissolved in an aqueous medium, which is extremely important for water purification in flooded coal mines of Kuzbass.

Also, bioengineers of Altai State University are currently developing a drug that helps restore erythrocytes in human blood in a certain kind of disease. In particular, renal failure. For this purpose, scientists of the Bioengineering Laboratory of Altai State University intend to obtain from living organisms – wild sorrel and wild rose – the human erythropoietin gene.In the future, the introduction of this technology into medicine will help patients avoid side effects when they undergo hemodialysis.

Together with their Japanese colleagues, scientists from Altai State University have already created a specific gene design, which they plan to implant into plants in order to protect them from insect pests. Plants will secrete substances that are absolutely harmless to humans, but destructive to insects. So, in the course of one of the experiments, it was possible to insert a bacterial gene into the genome of a sunflower.This crop now has a much better chance of resisting insect pests without the need for pesticides.

In short, the geneticists of the Bioengineering Laboratory of Altai State University are at the forefront of modern science. And our banana joke can be taken as an excerpt from a science fiction story. After all, much of what science fiction writers wrote about became, over time, a part of everyday life. And the reality itself, as we can see, is much more interesting than the April Fools’ fiction!