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Linzess and weight gain: Differences, similarities, and which is better for you


Differences, similarities, and which is better for you

Drug overview & main differences | Conditions treated | Efficacy | Insurance coverage and cost comparison | Side effects | Drug interactions | Warnings | FAQ

Trulance (plecanatide) and Linzess (linaclotide) are two drugs that can be used for the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Both of these drugs promote bowel movement by increasing the amount of fluid in the intestines. On a biochemical level, Trulance and Linzess act as agonists of guanylate cyclase-C receptors in the gut. This, in turn, increases fluid load, softens stool textures, and speeds up the transit of food.

Trulance and Linzess have also been indicated in the treatment of chronic idiopathic constipation (CIC). This is the type of constipation that does not have a known cause.

Both of these constipation-relieving medications require a doctor’s visit and a prescription. Trulance and Linzess are also contraindicated in children under 6 years of age. They are not recommended for anyone younger than 18 years of age.

What are the main differences between Trulance and Linzess?

Although both Trulance and Linzess act on the guanylate cyclase-C receptors, they have different generic names and active ingredients. Trulance is the brand name for plecanatide whereas Linzess is the brand-name for linaclotide.

Trulance is a newer drug than Linzess and can be taken with or without food. Linzess is usually taken on an empty stomach 30 minutes before breakfast. While Trulance is available as a 3 mg oral tablet, Linzess is available as an oral capsule in different strengths.

Main differences between Trulance and Linzess
Drug Class Guanylate cyclase-C agonist Guanylate cyclase-C agonist
Brand/Generic status No generic version available No generic version available
Generic Name Plecanatide Linaclotide
Generic Form Availability Not available Not available
What form(s) does the drug come in? 3 mg oral tablet 72, 145, 290 mcg oral capsules
What is the standard dosage? With or without food, once a day. Should be taken on an empty stomach, once a day.
How long is the typical treatment? Long term depending on your doctor’s prescription Long term depending on your doctor’s prescription
Who typically uses the medication? Adults 18 years and older Adults 18 years and older

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Conditions treated by Trulance and Linzess

Linzess and Trulance have been approved for use in chronic constipation and the constipation-dominant type of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-C). Through their actions on the local intestinal receptors, both of these drugs promote fluid secretion and an increased transit of food through the gut.

These prescription-medications are not laxatives. They do not provide instant relief from constipation. Results are typically observed after a week of treatment with Trulance and Linzess. They are generally safe for long-term use.

Trulance and Linzess may sometimes be used off-label in the treatment of opioid-induced constipation (OIC) caused by drugs like morphine. Other off-label indications include ulcerative colitis.

Irritable bowel syndrome with constipation Yes Yes
Chronic idiopathic constipation Yes Yes
Opioid-induced constipation Off-label Off-label
Ulcerative Colitis Off-label Off-label

Is Trulance or Linzess more effective?

Trulance is a newer drug compared to Linzess. However, the efficacy of both of these medications is more or less equal.

Improvement in the frequency of bowel movements is seen as early as 1 week with a long-term sustained effect. Along with an increased frequency of bowel movements, these medications also improve the quality of the stool including the stool texture and consistency.

The effectiveness of Trulance in one clinical trial was found to be more pronounced in the treatment of chronic idiopathic constipation. Compared to placebo, Trulance was also shown to be effective in treating irritable bowel syndrome.

Currently, there are few comparative studies between Linzess and Trulance in terms of their efficacy but both of them are much more effective than placebo drugs to relieve constipation. One systematic review found that Trulance and Linzess have similar efficacy and safety. There were no significant differences in the occurrence of side effects such as diarrhea.

The decision on the drug of choice can only be determined by a doctor. After a complete evaluation, the doctor will prescribe the best drug tailored to an individual’s overall condition.

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Coverage and cost comparison of Trulance vs. Linzess

Trulance was approved in 2017 as a brand-name only medication. It is currently manufactured by Synergy Pharmaceuticals. There is currently no generic version available. Medicare and most insurance plans may not cover Trulance. The average cash price of Trulance can be over $500. Using a SingleCare discount card may help bring the cost down under $400. While it is still an expensive drug, using a discount card can bring the price down when insurance can’t cover it.

Linzess was approved in 2012 and is only available as a brand-name medication. Like other guanylate cyclase-C agonists, Linzess can be quite expensive with an average retail cost over $500. Fortunately, some Medicare and insurance plans may cover it. Even with insurance, you may be able to save more with a SingleCare discount card which can reduce the cost to around $400.

Typically covered by insurance? No No
Typically covered by Medicare? No No
Standard dosage 3 mg tablets 72, 145, 290 mcg capsules
Typical Medicare copay $70-$474 $19-$482
SingleCare cost $389. + $403.38

Common side effects of Trulance vs. Linzess

The most common side effect associated with using Trulance or Linzess is diarrhea. Due to the nature of their work, these drugs primarily cause gastrointestinal side effects. According to their FDA drug labels, Trulance may have fewer common side effects compared to Linzess. The main side effect of Trulance is diarrhea.

Other than diarrhea, Linzess can cause other common side effects such as bloating, flatulence, and abdominal pain.

In rare cases, Trulance and Linzess can cause severe diarrhea. In these cases, your doctor will recommend the immediate discontinuation of the drug. In children, these medications may cause severe dehydration. Therefore, they are not recommended in children.

Side Effect Applicable? Frequency Applicable? Frequency
Diarrhea Yes 5% Yes 20%
Abdominal pain Yes <2% Yes 7%
Bloating Yes <2% Yes 2%
Flatulence Yes <2% Yes 4%
Headache No Yes 4%

This may not be a complete list of adverse effects that can occur. Please refer to your doctor or healthcare provider to learn more.
Source: DailyMed (Trulance), DailyMed (Linzess)

Drug interactions of Trulance vs. Linzess

There are a few drug interactions with Trulance. It is generally regarded as safe to take with other drugs. However, one medication, in particular, has the potential to interact with Trulance. Idelalisib is indicated in the treatment of certain blood cancers such as chronic leukemia.

Idelalisib, when taken with Trulance, can cause severe, life-threatening diarrhea. It’s important to contact your health care provider immediately if you experience symptoms of this drug interaction.

Apart from idelalisib, there are no other significant drug interactions with Trulance. It does not interfere with the cytochrome P450 enzyme complex nor does it affect other cell transporters.

Linzess, on the other hand, has a longer list of potential drug interactions compared to Trulance. This drug has the potential to interact with a number of medications such as levothyroxine, bisacodyl, psyllium, magnesium hydroxide, and omeprazole.

Idelalisib Phosphoinositide 3-kinase inhibitor Yes Not reported
Levothyroxine Thyroid hormone Not reported Yes
Bisacodyl Stimulant laxative Not reported Yes
Psyllium Fiber laxative Not reported Yes
Magnesium hydroxide Saline laxative Not reported Yes
Omeprazole Proton pump inhibitor Not reported Yes

This is not a complete list of drug interactions. Please consult your doctor before taking these medications.

Warnings of Trulance vs. Linzess

Both Trulance and Linzess have the potential to cause serious side effects, especially diarrhea and dehydration.

In children younger than 6 years of age, these medications have the risk of causing severe dehydration. Their safety and efficacy have not been well-established in children younger than 18 years, which is why both Trulance and Linzess are contraindicated in pediatric patients. Dehydration may occur as a result of increased stimulation of the guanylate cyclase-C receptors that boosts intestinal motility and fluid secretion at a higher-than-normal rate.

Those with gastrointestinal blockage (obstruction) should avoid taking Trulance or Linzess. Talk to a doctor to determine if you have a gastrointestinal blockage before taking either medication.

Diarrhea is another common side effect and risk that can occur with the use of both Trulance and Linzess. Profuse diarrhea can not only cause dehydration but also electrolyte disturbances in the body. This may require further treatment if it is not corrected appropriately.

Trulance and Linzess have not been studied in women who are pregnant or breastfeeding. They should only be used after evaluating the potential risk of birth defects.

Frequently asked questions about Trulance vs. Linzess

What is Trulance?

Trulance is a prescription medication that is approved in the treatment of constipation-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-C) and chronic idiopathic constipation (CIC). It is a guanylate cyclase-C receptor agonist that increases intestinal movement. Trulance is safe to use in patients older than 18 years of age. It comes in an oral tablet form with relief typically seen within a week of use.

What is Linzess?

Linzess is an older drug that acts in the same way as Trulance. It is a guanylate cyclase-C receptor agonist that increases transit in the gut and relieves constipation. For this reason, Linzess has been approved for irritable bowel syndrome-C and chronic constipation. It is a prescription drug available in an oral capsule form.

Are Trulance and Linzess the same?

No. Despite belonging to the same drug class, these drugs come in different dosage forms. Trulance is a newer drug that can be taken with or without food. Linzess should be taken on an empty stomach 30 minutes before breakfast.

Which is better–Trulance or Linzess?

Trulance and Linzess have similar efficacy and safety. However, Linzess may be associated with a higher incidence of diarrhea, bloating, and gas. For this reason, Trulance may be preferred over Linzess.

Can I use Trulance or Linzess while pregnant?

It is not yet known whether Trulance or Linzess are safe to take during pregnancy or lactation. You should consult a physician before taking these medications when pregnant or breastfeeding.

Can I use Trulance or Linzess with alcohol?

Drug interactions of Trulance or Linzess with alcohol are not well-established. There is a possibility that drinking alcohol with these medications can increase the risk of adverse events.

Is Amitiza better than Linzess?

Compared to once-daily Linzess, Amitiza (lubiprostone) needs to be taken twice daily. Amitiza may also have more common side effects compared to Linzess. In addition to diarrhea, Amitiza has the potential to cause nausea, indigestion, and dry mouth.

What is the generic version of Linzess?

There is currently no generic version of Linzess available on the market.

Which is better for constipation–Linzess or Trulance?

Both Trulance and Linzess have been shown to be comparable in efficacy and safety. One medication may be preferred over the other depending on price and insurance coverage. Trulance is also a newer drug with fewer reported common side effects.

Will Linzess make you lose weight?

Weight changes may be possible when taking Linzess. Linzess has been reported to cause weight loss or weight gain.

Linzess User Reviews for Irritable Bowel Syndrome at Drugs.com

  1. Drugs A to Z
  2. Linzess
  3. User Reviews

Linzess has an average rating of 6.6 out of 10 from a total of 179 ratings for the treatment of Irritable Bowel Syndrome.
58% of those users who reviewed Linzess reported a positive effect, while 27% reported a negative effect.

Filter by condition
All conditionsConstipation (99)Constipation, Chronic (426)Irritable Bowel Syndrome (198)

Linzess Rating Summary

10 30%
9 14%
8 13%
7 6%
6 3%
5 2%
4 4%
3 3%
2 5%
1 20%

Frequently asked questions

More FAQ

This information is NOT intended to endorse any particular medication. While these reviews might be helpful, they are not a substitute for the expertise, knowledge and judgement of healthcare practitioners.

Learn more about Irritable Bowel Syndrome

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Symptom checker
Symptoms and treatments
Drugs.com Health Center
Mayo Clinic Reference

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How To Use Linzes For Weight Loss

02 Feb How To Use Linzes For Weight Loss

Posted at 08:53h
in Uncategorized
by admin

There have been some reports of weight loss in people taking Linzess. However, there have also been reports of weight gain. You should monitor your weight and report any significant weight gain or loss to your doctor.

Similarly, you may ask, what are the side effects of linzess?

Common side effects of Linzess are:

stomach/abdominal pain or discomfort,
headache, or.
Cold symptoms such as stuffy nose, sneezing, or sinus pain.
Also, what is the best antidepressant for weight loss? According to a new retrospective cohort study recently published in the Journal of Clinical Medicine, bupropion is the only antidepressant associated with modest long-term weight loss, but only in nonsmokers.

The question is also, how long does the lincess work?

thirty minutes

What medications cause weight loss as a side effect?

II. mechanisms

Anticonvulsants (e.g. topiramate)
Appetite suppressants (e.g. Phentermine)
Bupropion (Wellbutrin,)
Metformin (Glucophage).
Opioid analgesics.
Stimulants (e.g., methylphenidate, dextroamphetamine).

Frequently Asked Questions

Does linzerin make you bloated?
But for some people, constipation can be a bigger problem-one that requires more aggressive treatment. That’s where the prescription drug Linzess (linaclotide) comes in. It is used to treat people with a subtype of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) who have constipation along with stomach pain, cramping, and bloating.

Do you lose weight with linzess?
Lincess and weight loss
There have been some reports of weight loss in people taking Linzess. However, there have also been reports of weight gain. You should monitor your weight and report any significant weight gain or loss to your doctor.

Does lincess form a habit?
Chronic laxative use is common in these patients and in severe cases can lead to laxative dependence, poor bowel function and even toxic megacolon. Diarrhea is the most common side effect of Linzess, occurring in up to 20% or patients. Diarrhea often begins within the first 2 weeks of treatment.

What is the difference between linzess and a laxative?
LINZESS is not a laxative. LINZESS is a once-daily capsule for adults with IBS-C or CIC. It was the first approved medicine in a class of treatments that are different from other medicines. LINZESS works locally in the intestines and is thought to work in two ways.

How dangerous is Linzess?
LINZESS can cause serious side effects, including diarrhea, the most common side effect, which can sometimes be severe. Diarrhea often starts within the first 2 weeks of LINZESS treatment. Stop taking LINZESS and call your doctor right away if you get severe diarrhea during treatment with LINZESS.

How does linzess speed up bowel movements?
It works by increasing the fluid in your intestines and speeding up the movement of food through your intestines. Linaclotide may improve stool structure and relieve symptoms such as bloating, abdominal pain/discomfort, straining, and incomplete bowel movements.

Can you take linzess every other day?
I can’t stomach linzess every day, so I take it every three days. I just use Colace stool softner and add the Benefiber to a 10 oz bottle of water. So if you find that your linzess is not working every time you take it, try my method of taking it.

Can linzess cause constipation?
Work. LINZESS is not a laxative. LINZESS helps you proactively manage your symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome with constipation (IBS-C) or chronic idiopathic constipation (CIC). LINZESS is not a laxative.

Will linzess help me poop?
Linzess is taken orally once daily in capsule form. It helps relieve the pain and constipation associated with IBS-C and constipation and hard stools in patients with CIC.

How much water should you drink with linzess?
It is important to drink 6-8 glasses of water per day.

What happens when you take linzess with food?
Taking linaclotide with food may increase gastrointestinal side effects such as diarrhea, abdominal pain, and gas. To reduce the risk of gastrointestinal intolerance, linaclotide should be taken on an empty stomach at least 30 minutes before the first meal of the day.

Can Backed up Poop make you gain weight?
If you are stopped up, the weighed feeling you get could be weight gain. But there’s good news: Your body doesn’t really absorb more calories, Brown says, so it’s not true weight gain as much as it is extra fecal matter, which could add a few pounds to the scale.

Can linzess be used as needed?
Why do I need to take LINZESS every day? LINZESS has been studied and found to be effective when taken once daily. When taken daily as prescribed by your doctor, LINZESS can help you proactively manage your symptoms of IBS-C or CIC.

What is chronic idiopathic constipation?
Chronic idiopathic constipation (CIC) is a health condition in which a person experiences chronic symptoms of constipation, but no visible cause can be identified by standard diagnostic tests. 1? The term idiopathic is used because there is no known cause.

How do you remedy chronic constipation?
Thirteen home remedies for constipation
Drink more water.
Eat more fiber, especially soluble, non-fermentable fiber.
Exercise more.
Drink coffee, especially caffeinated coffee.
Take Senna, an herbal laxative.
Eat probiotic foods or take probiotic supplements.
Take over-the-counter or prescription laxatives.
Try a low-FODMAP diet.

Can I take Dulcolax and Linces together?
This report shows the possible drug interactions for the following 2 medications: Dulcolax (bisacodyl) Linzess (linaclotide).

Drug Interaction Classification.
Major Very clinically significant. Avoid combinations; risk of interaction outweighs benefit.
Unknown No interaction information available.

Can I take two Linzes?
LINZESS to be taken once daily on an empty stomach at least 30 minutes before the first meal of the day [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION]. If a dose is missed, skip the missed dose and take the next dose regularly. Do not take 2 doses at the same time.

9 Digestive Problems That Cause Weight Gain

When everything is flowing smoothly, life is good. And we’re not just talking good hair days or a flawless presentation at work. Your digestive tract counts too. But when it’s out of whack, it could affect — you guessed it — the scale.

“Gastrointestinal and digestive issues can definitely have a large effect on the way we eat and how our bodies absorb and digest foods, causing us to gain or lose weight,” says Kenneth Brown, M.D., a board-certified gastroenterologist. “Most digestive problems tend to cause weight loss from poor absorption of food, but there are a few situations in which our intestinal health can contribute to weight gain.”

If the number on the scale is changing and you really aren’t sure why, one of these common digestive issues could be the culprit.

1. Acid Reflux Disease

TharakornGetty Images

Also known as gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), this causes a painful burning sensation, or heartburn, in the lower chest when stomach acid rises back up into your esophagus. And for people who suffer from it, the term “comfort food” takes on a whole new meaning because the act of eating can actually help reduce pain. “Eating provides temporary relief because both the food you’re eating, and the saliva from actually chewing that food, neutralizes acid,” explains Brown. The only problem? Once the food’s been digested, all the symptoms — bloating, nausea, and hiccups that won’t disappear — tend to come back, and they’re usually more aggressive because of rebound acid production. But because people want help, Brown says it’s easy to get sucked into a dangerous cycle of overeating that leads to weight gain.

The fix: While plenty of online sources say home remedies like apple cider vinegar or aloe vera can help, Brown says there’s no scientific evidence to support those notions. Instead, he recommends taking an over-the-counter medication, such as Prilosec or Zantac (your doctor can help you choose which is best for you), which don’t have weight gain as a common side effect. And if you still find yourself overeating, try these fixes to help break the cycle.

2. Ulcers

ericsphotographyGetty Images

These uncomfortable sores — also known as duodenal ulcers — usually develop in the lining of the stomach or small intestine, and it’s usually because of too much acid production. And just like with GERD, eating food can improve the painful symptoms — including bloat and constant nausea — because it temporarily coats the ulcer with a protective lining and neutralizes the stomach acid, explains Su Sachar, M.D., a board-certified gastroenterologist who specializes in bariatrics, wellness, and optimal health. And, to re-state the obvious, if you’re eating more frequently, those excess calories can lead to weight gain.

The fix: To banish ulcers, see your doctor about the best remedy for you, which might involve an acid-blocking medication — aka an anti-acid — like Prilosec or Zantec, says Sachar. And stop taking nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or NSAID pain relievers like ibuprofen or aspirin, as they could cause internal bleeding and be life-threatening to those with ulcers. Instead, opt for acetaminophen, or Tylenol, when you need help with pain management.

3. Constipation

Kittisak Jirasittichai / EyeEmGetty Images

When you’re stopped up, that weighed-down feeling you get could be weight gain. But there’s good news: your body isn’t actually absorbing more calories, says Brown, so it’s not true weight gain so much as it is extra fecal matter, which is what could be adding a few pounds to the scale. Not to mention that constipation itself doesn’t exactly give us the motivation to hit the gym and crush a workout. Rather, it’s way more likely that you’re feeling sluggish and heavy… and the couch is calling your name.

The fix: To stay, err, regular, Brown suggests sticking to a balanced diet of whole foods that have at least 25 to 30 grams of fiber per day, staying well-hydrated (try to drink one to two liters of water per day), and exercise regularly. If something doesn’t seem quite right, look at these signs for what it could mean, and consider talking with your physician.

4. Bacteria Overgrowth

lyosha_nazarenkoGetty Images

Bear with us — this one isn’t quite as gross as it sounds. Basically, your bowel contains both good and bad bacteria, and research shows that the good kind plays a crucial role in your overall health by reducing inflammation and keeping your weight in check. The problem occurs when the amount of bacteria increases, or when the type of bacteria gets thrown off-balance. (For optimal health, it’s best to think of it like a seesaw — best when the good and bad is totally balanced. ) When that happens, what’s known as small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) can occur, and it can cause weight gain in two ways, says Brown.

First, the bacteria could produce methane gas, which “slows down the overall function of the small intestine, allowing the intestinal villi — small, finger-like projections in the lining of your intestine — to absorb more calories per bite,” he explains. In other words, the exact opposite of what you want to happen. Second, SIBO can slow down metabolism and affect your insulin and leptin resistance, both of which help regulate hunger and satiety. As a result, you’re likely to crave carbs and probably won’t feel full after eating, even if it’s a fully satisfying meal, says Sachar.

The fix: To avoid SIBO, Brown suggests avoiding antibiotics unless absolutely needed (as the name suggests, these medications kill off bacteria, which you only really want if you’re sick to get the seesaw back in balance). If bacteria overgrowth is already happening, though, your doctor may suggest a digestive herbal supplement like Atrantil to help you get back on track.

5. Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS)

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The term IBS gets tossed around a lot these days, as “it’s the most commonly diagnosed GI condition, and it often overlaps with other digestive problems like food sensitivities, a leaky gut, and an imbalance of good and bad bacteria,” says Sachar. And like constipation (a symptom of IBS), it can cause bloat and chronic inflammation, which, once again, could lead to weight gain.

The fix: For people who are diagnosed with IBS, it’s about getting to the root of the problem. Your doctor can work with you to build up the good bacteria you need with probiotics, and add digestive enzymes to help break down food so it’s not just sitting around in your gut causing inflammation, explains Sachar. Brown says it could be helpful to try a gluten-free or low gas-producing diet, like FODMAP, as it can help reduce bloating and help get any unnecessary weight gain under control.

6. Crohn’s Disease

Brian EvansGetty Images

While a smaller appetite and excessive weight loss are common symptoms of Crohn’s disease — an incurable chronic inflammatory conditions — the exact opposite can happen as soon as someone gets put on a treatment that involves steroids, which is usually the first step in trying to find a medication that works for you, says Sachar.

“Steroids tend to increase your cravings for carbs and cause you to hold on to more water and feel bloated,” says Sachar.

Fortunately, it’s usually not too tough to lose the weight once you’re off steroids. That usually happens as soon as a flare-up — or the reappearance of symptoms like diarrhea, constipation, rectal bleeding, and fever — subside and symptoms are better under control.

The fix: First of all, your overall health is more important than a few pounds on the scale, so following your doctor’s orders is imperative. But some doctors do shy away from steroid use, like Brown, as he knows the side effects can be less than desirable. Every patient responds differently to medication, though, so talk with your own physician to see what works best for you.

7. Gastroparesis

NerthuzGetty Images

Often associated with those who have type 1 or type 2 diabetes, gastroparesis — also known as delayed gastric emptying — is a disorder that “slows or stops the movement of food from the stomach to the small intestine,” according to the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. Because normal digestion isn’t able to occur, it’s common to feel like you’re gaining weight due to fullness and bloating in the stomach area, but the disorder most commonly leads to weight loss in the end.

The fix: According to the American College of Gastroenterology, diet is one of the most important factors in treating gastroparesis. Because fatty and fiber-filled foods take longer to digest, it’s recommended that anyone with the disorder limits or avoids those foods altogether. But since this is a serious condition, it’s best to speak with your doctor to see what the best treatment options are for you.

8. Food Intolerance

spukkatoGetty Images

If you’ve noticed your body is easily irritated by certain foods, there’s a good chance you have a food intolerance. Different from a food allergy, which is an immune system response, food intolerance affects the digestive system, making it hard to digest and break down certain foods (the most common being dairy), says the Cleveland Clinic. Those with a food intolerance often experience gas, cramps, and bloating, making it feel like they’re gaining weight. Depending on how severe the food intolerance is, they might also experience diarrhea.

The fix: While you might feel super bloated and uncomfortable throughout the day because of your diet, you might not actually be gaining weight. The Cleveland Clinic recommends avoiding or reducing the foods you think are giving you issues, and if you do end up eating something that bothers your stomach, take an antacid.

9. Ulcerative Colitis

Monica SchroederGetty Images

Although Crohn’s disease can pop up anywhere between the mouth and the anus, UCLA Health says ulcerative colitis stays in the colon, resulting in a constantly inflamed digestive tract that can initially lead to weight loss. Like Crohn’s, though, the treatment for the inflammatory bowel disease — steroids — could make your body gain weight.

“An oral steroid like Prednisone can also cause your body fat to redistribute itself, so instead of it being in your stomach or glutes, it could move to the face or neck,” says Sachar.

Even though you may notice a difference in your weight during treatment, everything should go back down to normal as soon as you’re able to get off the steroids.

The fix: After speaking to your doctor, find a treatment plan that’s right for you and the severity of your ulcerative colitis — one that may or may not involve steroids. While more moderate to severe forms might be treated with steroids, 5-aminosalicylates and immunosuppressant drugs are also options. Whatever you end up using, know your wellbeing is top priority. If that involves gaining a few pounds to better your health, it’s worth it.

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Lizness Cause Weight Loss – tracecrai7 2020

So. linzess weight loss is not known with certainty. If you take this medication. control your weight. Is experiencing a significant increase or weight loss. Notify your doctor. Linzess Side Effects. Some of the common side effects of linzess include seizures. gas. headache. abdominal pain and swelling or satiety and pressure on the abdomen.

Linzess cause this? ? ? Sorry this was so long. JM. jmiguel 19 Jan 2016. I recently started taking the low dosage of Linzess and am giving up. The first week it was great as it completely emptied my system within 2 hours of taking it on an empty stomach. Unfortunately 6 weeks later. that effect has only occurred 2-3 more times. I. too. have gained weight and look like I am 7 months pregnant and . . .

Linzess and Weight Loss. There have been some reports of weight loss in people taking Linzess. However. there are also reports of weight gain. You should monitor your weight. and report any . . .

Hello everybody. I’ve been suffering from irritable bowel syndrome for 4 years now. and ever since I was diagnosed all I ever used for treatment was Metamucil and even with cutting off milk and dairy completely out of my diet and watching out after ever

Yes. Linzess (linaclotide) may cause weight loss. It has been seen in pregnant mice as a result of the toxic effect of Linzess. It is a gastrointestinal agent that belongs to the subclass of guanylate cyclase-c agonists and is used to treat chronic constipation or chronic irritable bowel syndrome.

This page includes the following topics and synonyms: Medications Associated with Unintentional Weight Loss. Unintentional Weight Loss due to Medications. Drug Induced Unintentional Weight Loss.

Linzess received an overall rating of 6 out of 10 stars from 179 reviews. See what others have said about Linzess. including the effectiveness. ease of use and side effects.

Linaclotide (Linzess) is a guanylate cyclase-C agnoist drug prescribed for the relief of symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome with constipation and for the treatment of chronic constipation of unknown cause. Side effects. drug interactions. dosage. and pregnancy safety information should be reviewed prior to taking this medication.

Since the weight loss seems to be caused by dehydration. the number 1 most important thing you need to do is begin to REHYDRATE immediately! You need atleast about half your body weight each day in ounces of water. but don’t over do this either unless you are active and sweat. too much water can deplete electrolytes even further and that is not something to play around with. The most important . . .

Linzess – weight loss or weight gain? Hey everyone! So I have struggled with IBS and chronic constipation for as long as I can remember. I have tried several over-the-counter laxatives and other “remedies” to no avail. I finally was able to see a Gastro doctor a couple of months ago and she prescribed me Amitiza. It worked for literally three days and then nothing. I was so upset! I finally . . .

Muscle Loss. When you lose weight by changing what you eat. “two thirds of the weight you lose is fat. and about one third is muscle. ” says William Samuel Yancy. M. D. . director of the Duke Diet . . .

Here Are Some Of The “Findings” From An April 26. 2016 Document Which Seems To Have Disappeared Only Two Days Later (Posted by Tom Lamb at DrugInjuryWatch. com) UPDATE: “Synergy Petitions FDA to Update Linzess Labeling” (FDA News. 3/2/18) In a citizen’s petition to the FDA. Synergy Pharmaceuticals urged the FDA to require a revision of the approved package insert of Ironwood …

Common cancers that cause weight loss include those affecting the pancreas. the oesophagus. the stomach and the lung. Type 2 diabetes. Type 2 diabetes occurs mainly in people aged over 40. although it can occur at younger ages. The four common symptoms are being thirsty a lot of the time. passing large amounts of urine. tiredness and weight loss. Some people pass off the first three symptoms . . .

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Identifying the exact cause and extent of liver damage is important to make effective treatment plan. Physical examination. Your doctor is likely to start the diagnosis with your medical history and physical examination. Weight loss linked to liver disease usually occurs with other symptoms of the disease. Depending on the kind of liver problem . . .

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Medical Reasons for Weight Gain. Several conditions can cause weight gain or hinder weight loss. says Rebecca Kurth. MD. director of PrimeCare at Columbia-Presbyterian Eastside and associate . . .

Weight loss: Intermittent fasting is generally very successful for weight loss. It has been shown to cause weight loss of 3–8% over a period of 3–24 weeks. which is a lot compared to most . . .

Supplements and energy drinks that contain L-carnitine claim to be metabolism boosters that can help you shed weight and increase your athletic performance. Learn the facts about L-carnitine.

Celiac disease. which is an intestinal reaction to gluten. can cause gas. diarrhea. bloating. and weight loss. Eating disorder. People with eating disorders have extreme and dangerous eating habits. Restless legs syndrome . Restless leg syndrome causes intense discomfort in your legs and an overpowering urge to move them. Anemia. chronic disease. Anemia of chronic disease (ACD) can cause . . .

If your weight loss wasn’t due to one of the causes mentioned. and you didn’t lose weight through dieting or exercising. see your GP. as you may have an illness that needs treating. The following information may give you a better idea of the cause of your weight loss. but don’t use it to diagnose yourself. Always see a GP for a proper diagnosis.

Buoy Health: Check Symptoms & Find the Right Care

Antidepressants that cause weight loss have to be taken under proper guidance to minimize side effects. Warning! Use of antidepressants has been linked to diminished libido in both men and women. So long term usage of these medications has to be avoided. Antidepressants are primarily used to treat depression but can also be effective for other mental illnesses such as anxiety and panic attacks . . .

Unexplained weight loss is a decrease in body weight. when you did not try to lose the weight on your own. Many people gain and lose weight. Unintentional weight loss is loss of 10 pounds (4. 5 kilograms) OR 5% of your normal body weight over 6 to 12 months or less without knowing the reason.

Before opting for a weight loss injection. it is important to know the kinds of injections available and how they work. You can get the information at any clinic but it is best to do your home work lest you end up taking the wrong kind of injection! Since it is an injection. the wrong one can have harmful effects. You may also be allergic to the ingredients. so you need to be careful when it . . .

Losing lots of weight could cause changes in your mind and body. . . . When weight loss does happen quickly and there is a lot of loose sagging skin. some people opt for surgery to remove it. It’s worth noting that the process will result in visible scars and will take a few weeks for recovery. according to the American Board of Cosmetic Surgery. 2. You could stop getting your period. Hormonal . . .

How long you will need to take weight-loss medication depends on whether the drug helps you lose and maintain weight and whether you have any side effects. If you have lost enough weight to improve your health and are not having serious side effects. your doctor may advise that you stay on the medication indefinitely. If you do not lose at least 5 percent of your starting weight after 12 weeks . . .

A stressed out liver can also cause fat to build up. especially around the belly. Added together. this can mean that no matter how much you restrict calories. weight loss is near impossible-unless you detox your liver. RELATED: Learn the secret to flatten your belly and drop weight-for good-with The Bikini Body Diet. Before you jump to start a crazy cleanse. check if you have other symptoms of . . .

Ephedra. an ingredient banned from dietary supplements. Ephedra (also called má huáng) is a plant containing substances that can stimulate your nervous system. increase the amount of energy you burn. increase weight loss. and suppress your appetite. In the 1990s. ephedra was a popular ingredient in dietary supplements sold for weight loss and to enhance athletic performance.

SIDE EFFECTS Clinical Trials Experience. Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions. adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared with rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice.

LINZESS can cause severe diarrhea and your child could get severe dehydration (loss of a large amount of body water and salt). You should not give LINZESS to children 6 …

Articles About Weight Loss. There are many ways to lose weight but not all methods are effective. The best way to lose weight is to follow weight loss tactics and advice based on scientific evidence. Successful weight loss is not just about counting calories but it is based on proven by research techniques that can generate long-lasting results.

Obesity is not a cause of migraines. but it is a risk factor. and it is one that can be controlled with weight loss. Researchers still aren’t clear on the link between weight and migraines. but . . .

There are medicines for serious medical conditions such as cancer. HIV and dementia. which suppress the appetite and can cause extreme weight loss and anorexia. writes DietDoc.

Rapid weight loss often leaves loose skin on the abdomen. arms and legs. This happens because the skin has lost some elasticity and did not have time to shrink with the rest of the body. While this may not have long-term health consequences. it can cause mental distress. as well as uncomfortable chafing. The Columbia University Health Center advises that if the skin has not contoured naturally . . .

Many people think that feeling stressed can cause a reduced appetite and lead to weight loss. In reality. the opposite is also possible. When your body is under stress. it starts producing more cortisol. the hormone that increases your appetite. This is because our body senses that we are stressed and may be in danger and believes that we need to save our energy in order to protect ourselves . . .

Why would Linzess cause weight gain? Emily Murphy. 20 September 2017 . Follow Following. Share Flag Flagged. Share the link to this question . I want to flag this question because: Spam . Promotion without disclosing the affiliation of the author . Rude. Offensive or Harassing . Inappropriate content . Poorly written . Poor grammar. spelling. formatting or lacking clarity . Duplicate . . .

Weight-Loss Shortcut Even though the human body was designed for movement and whole food consumption. our fast-paced. technologically advanced society has unintentionally spawned generations of inactive. poorly nourished people. Whether sitting in front of a computer screen all day or wolfing down high-sugar convenience foods are at fault. people are always searching for a quick fix to help . . .

Lisinopril can cause unexplained weight loss. This means that you may not have noticeable side effects that help pinpoint the reason you are losing weight. If your dietary and exercise habits have not changed and you have experienced mild weight loss there may be nothing to worry about. However. if you are experiencing drastic. unexplained weight loss. consult your doctor immediately. so he . . .

Eating an imbalanced diet high in dairy products. eggs and meats (all give zero dietary fiber) can easily cause constipation. To treat and prevent constipation. the most effective weapon is a regular diet high in fiber. Aim for at least 50 grams of dietary fiber per day. Foods high in fiber include – sweet potatoes. carrots. cabbage. Brussel sprouts. garlic. onion. potatoes. corn. oat bran . . .

Weight Loss. Diets and Training . Lipozene 286. Review #639472 . Lipozene does not help you lose weight. It helps you gain weight. Ad Some advertisers may pay us for this ad to appear on our website or provide us with a referral fee. Our content is free because we may earn a commission if you purchase products after clicking ads on our website. May 21. 2015 4K views . Featured. 17 comments . 2 . . .

Its weight loss function is the same and will give you good results as well. . . . Omega-3 fatty acids. although beneficial. can cause hemorrhages in some people because of the anticoagulant effects. This same property can set off the presence of blood sugar because of the function it has to reduce sugar cravings. We suggest only using the recommended dosage and not overeating during the day . . .

Enzymes are important for weight loss and maintenance due to their starring role in digestion. The enzymes in food. and the ones produced naturally in your body. assist many chemical processes that keep you alive and healthy. Enzyme production stays steady throughout our 20s and 30s. but may be reduced by up to 25% by

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Many antidepressants are weight-positive (cause weight gain). some are weight-neutral. and at least one is weight-negative (cause weight loss). When starting an antidepressant. it is a good idea to speak with a healthcare provider about the different options and find a medication that will not cause weight gain. Antidepressants are broken down into categories: selective serotonin reuptake . . .

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Posted: March 24, 2021

Janice Carol Welty, 70, of rural Frankfort, died March 23, 2021 at I. U. Methodist Hospital, Indianapolis, Ind. She was born July 17, 1950 in Indianapolis, Ind. to Ovell W. & Lillie R. (Key) Calvert. She married Victor Kent Welty on October 18, 1969 and he survives. Janice was a 1968 graduate of Rossville High School…

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Posted: March 23, 2021

Mrs. Karen Sue Casey, 62, of Lebanon, passed away Thurs., March 18, 2021, at Witham Memorial Hospital in Lebanon. She was born Oct. 14, 1958, in Frankfort, a daughter of the late Maurice K. and Donnabelle (Kingery) Chamberlain. She married James Casey on Dec. 31, 1990. He survives. Karen worked as a parts manager for…

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Posted: March 22, 2021

Minnie Jean Brummett, 69, of Frankfort, died March 20, 2021 at I.U. North Hospital, Carmel, Ind. She was born April 1, 1951 in Indianapolis, Ind. to William & Rose (Tow) Baldwin. She married Edward M. Brummett in 1968 and he preceded her in death on July 7, 2003. Minnie attended school in Indianapolis. She worked…

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Posted: March 22, 2021

Randall W. Biggs, 64 of rural Frankfort, died at 6:40 p.m. March 21, 2021 at his home. He was born June 8, 1956 in Evansville, Ind. to Robert C. & Vivian M. (Padgett) Biggs. Randall served in the U.S. Marine Corps. He was owner-operator of Randy’s Tobacco Shop in Indianapolis and later worked as a marketing…

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Posted: March 22, 2021

Othel F. ‘Skip’ Ward, 79, of Monticello, died March 21, 2021 at his home. He was born March 2, 1942 in Evansville, Ind. to Othel D. Ward & Mary Sue (Britt) Hulak. He married Beverly A. Duckworth on January 30, 1975 in Indianapolis and she survives. Skip was a graduate of Evansville Bosse High School. He…

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Linzess Weight Gain Or Loss

But reading this reviews i need to ask. Weight increased is found among people who take linzess especially for people who are female 60 old have been taking the drug for 1 6 months also take medication synthroid and have pain.

How Linzess Works Linzess Com

linzess weight gain or loss

linzess weight gain or loss is a summary of the best information with HD images sourced from all the most popular websites in the world. You can access all contents by clicking the download button. If want a higher resolution you can find it on Google Images.

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I took linzess for about 3 months and immediately began to gain weight.

Linzess weight gain or loss. There have been some reports of weight loss in people taking linzess. Metallic smelling stool and frequent diarrhea diarrhea and quit smoking. Linzess is a linaclotide drug brand whose utility to treat intestinal problems such as irritable bowel syndrome chronic constipation in adults.

I noticed the weight gain and thought that it had to be my diet. Find user ratings and reviews for linzess oral on webmd including side effects and drug interactions medication effectiveness ease of use and satisfaction. I heard about this new one linzess and i was hoping this might be the answer.

Contrary to irwds claims linzesss side effects are not limited to the gastrointestinal gi tract we present evidence that linzess is causing previously unknown unreported and unlabeled severe systemic adverse events including documented cases of rapid weight gain renal failure seizures and strokes. Linzess why gain weight if its give you diahrrea. My suspicion is that men would take less notice of the weight gain since they are less inclined to check their weight daily or care as much if their waist size changes.

I agree that it is water weight hence the rapid gain with linzess and rapid loss after discontinuing it. Linzess why gain weight if. But after reading all of these reports i really cant take more weight gain.

I been use it for 2 days and it was great. This study is created by ehealthme based on reports of 11389 people who have side effects when taking linzess from food and drug administration fda and is updated regularly. I hope the doctors figure it out soon.

I began cutting back watching what i ate and nothing was worked. After taking myself off of the medication i immediately noticed the weight loss. This intestinal drug is included in the drug that is in the guanylate class of cyclase c agonists.

Ive tried so many drugs. You should monitor your weight and report any significant weight gains or. As to it affecting only women i would doubt that.

Linzess and weight loss linzess is awful constant pain and dry mouth taking linaclotide linzess and diagnosed with gastroparesis abdominal pain diarrhea loss of appetite but no diagnosis constant nausea with diarrhea marijuana and diarrhea. Its interesting that so many people with ibs is having the same problem with weight gain. Linzess weight loss and side effect.

Asked 22 aug 2015 by cmarzan updated 26 august 2015 topics weight linzess. However there are also reports of weight gain.

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Amitiza (lubiprostone) is a brand name prescription drug. It is used to treat three types of constipation in adults: chronic idiopathic constipation (CID) irritable bowel syndrome


What is Amitiza?

Amitiza (lubiprostone) is a brand name prescription drug.It is used to treat three types of constipation in adults:

  • chronic idiopathic constipation (CCI)
  • Irritable bowel syndrome with constipation (IBS-C) in women
  • Opioid-induced constipation (OIC) in people taking opioid medications for long-term pain not related to cancer.

Amitiza is a drug called a chloride channel activator. It is not a stool softener, fiber, or traditional laxative.However, it produces the same effects as other treatments. It increases the amount of fluid in the intestines, which facilitates the passage of stools.

Amitiza is available as an oral capsule that you take with food and water. It is usually taken twice a day. You should take as much as your doctor recommends.


Clinical studies have shown that Amitiza is effective in the treatment of all three types of constipation for which it is prescribed:

  • Chronic Idiopathic Constipation (CIC): According to clinical studies, 57 to 63 percent of people taking Amitiza defecate within the first day after taking the medication.
  • Irritable Bowel Syndrome with Constipation (IBS-C): In two different clinical studies, women with IBS-C who took Amitiza improved symptoms, including a reduction in abdominal pain and discomfort. 12 to 14 percent of women taking Amitiza responded to treatment. This means that their symptoms improved significantly and they did not need to take laxatives or other medications to treat constipation.
  • Opioid-induced constipation (OIC): Clinical studies of people with OIC showed that those who took Amitiza had improved bowel movements.Between 13 and 27 percent of people taking Amitiza responded to treatment. This means that they had at least three bowel movements per week and one more bowel movement than before taking the drug.

Amitiza Generic

Amitiza is only available as a branded drug. It contains the drug lubiprostone, which is not currently available in generic form.

Side effects of Amitiza

Amitiza may cause mild to serious side effects.The following list lists some of the key side effects that can occur while taking Amitiza. This list does not include all possible side effects.

For more information on the possible side effects of Amitiza, or tips on how to deal with an alarming side effect, talk to your doctor or pharmacist.

More common side effects

More common side effects of Amitiza may include:

  • Headache
  • Abdominal pain
  • Diarrhea
  • Gas and bloating
  • Nausea
  • Dizziness
  • Difficulty breathing (usually takes a few hours)

Most of these side effects can disappear within a few days or a couple of weeks.If they are more serious or persist, talk to your doctor or pharmacist.

Serious side effects

Serious side effects from Amitiza are uncommon but may occur. Call your doctor at once if you have a serious side effect. Call 911 if symptoms appear to be life-threatening or if you think you need urgent medical attention.

Serious side effects and their symptoms may include the following:

  • Allergic reaction.Symptoms may include:
    • itching or hives
    • swelling on the face or hands
    • swelling or tingling in the mouth or throat
    • chest tightness
    • shortness of breath
  • Severe gastrointestinal upset. Symptoms may include:
    • diarrhea
    • abdominal pain or swelling
    • nausea or vomiting
  • Low blood pressure. Symptoms may include:
    • dizziness
    • fainting
    • concentration problems

Weight loss / weight gain

It is unlikely that you will experience weight changes while using Amitiza.Weight gain has indeed occurred in studies using Amitiza, but this has been rare.

In clinical studies, weight loss was not a side effect that people experienced when taking Amitiza. However, a small number of people did gain weight. Less than 1 percent of people with irritable bowel syndrome who take Amitiza for constipation have gained weight.

Studies in people with chronic idiopathic constipation (CIC) or opioid-induced constipation (OIC) have not found weight gain as a side effect.

Loss of appetite

Loss of appetite is also unlikely when you are taking Amityza.

In clinical studies of people receiving Amitiza twice daily, less than 1 percent had a decrease in appetite.


Nausea is a common side effect of Amitiza. In clinical studies, 8 to 29 percent of people taking the drug experienced nausea. The rates depended on the type of constipation and the dosage of the drug. The incidence of nausea was lower in both men and older adults.

If you feel nauseous while taking Amitiza, try eating or eating while taking the medication. Food can help relieve nausea. If you experience severe nausea while taking Amitiza, talk to your doctor.


Diarrhea is a common side effect of Amitisa.

In clinical studies, 7 to 12 percent of people taking Amitiza experienced diarrhea. And 2 percent of people taking the drug experienced severe diarrhea.


Changes in electrolyte levels (minerals involved in basic body functions) are not a side effect associated with taking amitiza.

In clinical studies, people taking Amitiza did not report any symptoms of electrolyte imbalance. Also, blood tests showed no change in their electrolyte levels.


The use of amitiza is associated with headaches.

In clinical studies, 11 percent of people taking Amitiza for chronic idiopathic constipation (CIC) experienced headaches.But only 2 percent of people taking Amitiza for opioid-induced constipation reported headaches. No headaches have been reported in people taking Amitiza for irritable bowel syndrome with constipation (IBS-C).


Depression is not usually associated with the use of Amitiza.

In clinical trials, depression was observed in less than 1 percent of people with irritable bowel syndrome with constipation. And symptoms of depression have not been reported in clinical trials of people taking Amitiza for chronic idiopathic constipation (CIC) or opioid-induced constipation (OIC).

Amitisa may make you dizzy or dizzy. If you have these symptoms, take your time when standing or sitting down. Feeling dizzy or dizzy is more likely when you first start using Amitiza or if you become dehydrated while taking it.

Amitiza dosage

Amitiza dosage prescribed by your doctor will depend on several factors. This includes:

  • The type and severity of the condition you are using Amitiza for
  • Other medical conditions you may have
  • Your age

Typically, your doctor will start with a low dose and adjust it over time to achieve the dosage you need.Ultimately, they will prescribe the lowest dosage that produces the desired effect.

The following information describes commonly used or recommended dosages. However, be sure to take the dose that your doctor has prescribed for you. Your doctor will determine the best dosage for your needs.

Drug Forms and Strengths

Amitiza is available as a capsule that you take by mouth. It is available in two doses: 8 mcg and 24 mcg. The maximum recommended dosage is 48 mcg per day.

Dosage for Chronic Idiopathic Constipation (CIC) and Opioid-Induced Constipation (OIC)

Typical recommended dosage for adults is 24 mcg twice daily. Do not take more than your doctor prescribed.

If you have liver damage, your doctor may prescribe a reduced dose of 16 mcg twice a day or 8 mcg twice a day.

Dosage for irritable bowel syndrome with constipation (IBS-C)

The recommended adult dose is 8 mcg twice a day.

If you have severe liver damage, your doctor may prescribe 8 mcg once a day.

What if I miss a dose?

If you miss an appointment, take it as soon as you remember.

But if it’s almost time to take your next dose, skip the missed dose and go back to your usual time. Do not take additional medications to make up for a missed dose.

Cost of Amitiza

As with all medicines, the cost of Amitiza can vary.To find out the current prices for Amitiza in your area, visit GoodRx.com:

The cost you find on GoodRx.com is what you can pay without insurance. The actual price you pay will depend on your coverage, your location, and the pharmacy you use.

Financial Assistance

If you need financial support to pay for Amitiza, help is available.

Takeda Pharmaceuticals U.S.A., Inc., the manufacturer of Amitiza, offers the Amitiza Savings Card.This card offers savings for those eligible for commercial insurance. For more information and to see if you are eligible for the card, visit the program website.

Takeda also offers a financial assistance program called Help at Hand. For information, visit the program website or call 800-830-9159.

Amitiza uses

The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approves drugs like Amitiza for specific purposes.

Approved Use for Amitiza

Amitiza is approved for the treatment of three types of constipation.

Amitisa for chronic idiopathic constipation

Amitisa is approved for the treatment of chronic idiopathic constipation (CIC) in adults. “Idiopathic” means that the exact cause of constipation is unknown.

In clinical studies, Amitiza was found to provide rapid relief from CIC.

Between 57 and 63 percent of people taking Amitiza had a bowel movement within the first 24 hours after taking the medication.Among those who took a placebo (no medication), 32 to 37 percent had a bowel movement. In addition, the time to the first bowel movement was shorter for people taking Amitiza.

Amitiza for IBS-C

Amitiza is also approved for the treatment of Irritable Bowel Syndrome with Constipation (IBS-C). This condition is a form of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), in which abdominal pain is associated with constipation.

In two different clinical studies, Amitiza reduced common IBS-C symptoms such as abdominal pain and discomfort.

About 14 percent of people in one study responded to amitiza, while only 8 percent responded to a placebo (no medication). This means that their symptoms improved significantly and they did not need to take laxatives or other medications to treat constipation. In another study, 12 percent of people taking amitiza responded, compared with 6 percent in the placebo group.

Amitiza for OIC

Amitiza is also approved for the treatment of opioid-induced constipation (OIC).This type of constipation occurs when people take opioids, medications that are prescribed to relieve pain. Amitiza is approved only for people who take opioids for long-term pain, not related to cancer.

Three 12-week clinical studies investigated the use of Amitisa in people with OIC. Of these people, 13 to 27 percent of bowel movements increased when taking Amitiza. About 13 to 19 percent of people who took a placebo (no medication) had the same result.

Uses that are not approved for Amitiza

You may wonder if Amitiza can be used to treat other conditions.Constipation is the only medical condition that can be treated.

Amitisa for gastroparesis

Amitisa is not approved for the treatment of gastric paresis. In this state, your stomach cannot move food to the small intestine.

Like constipation, gastroparesis slows down or stops normal digestion. And constipation can be a sign of gastroparesis. However, Amitisa has not been studied in people with gastroparesis. This means that we do not know if a drug can relieve gastroparesis.

If you have gastroparesis, talk with your doctor about treatment options that may help.

Amitiza for children

Amitiza is not approved for use in children. This is because it has not been found to be safe or effective for treating constipation in children.

In a clinical study of children aged 6 to 17 years, amitisa was found to be ineffective in treating constipation.

If your child develops signs of constipation, talk with your doctor about medications or other treatments that can help relieve it.

Amityza laxative?

Amitiza is not classified as a fiber or traditional laxative. However, it produces the same effects as other treatments. It increases the level of fluid in the intestines, which facilitates the passage of stools.

Amitiza is a drug called a chloride channel activator. Chloride channels are found in most of the cells in your body. These are proteins that carry certain molecules across cell membranes.

In the gastrointestinal tract, these channels play an important role in the transport of fluid.Amitisa activates these channels, which increases the amount of fluid in the intestines. The increased amount of fluid helps your body to excrete stools.

Alternatives to Amitiza

There are other medicines that can treat different types of constipation. Some may suit you better than others. If you are looking for an alternative to amitiz, talk to your doctor to find out more about other medications that may help you.

Note: Some of the drugs listed here are used to treat constipation off-label.

Alternatives to opioid-induced constipation (OIC)

Other drugs that can be used to treat OIC fall into five main groups.

Stool softeners

These preparations allow water and fat to enter the stool, making it easier to pass. Examples of stool softeners include:

  • docuzate (Colace, Col-Rite, Doc-Q-Lace, Docusoft-S, Phillips Liqui-Gels, Silace, Surfak, others)

Stimulant laxatives

These drugs help stimulate contraction (narrowing) and relaxation of the intestinal muscles.This action promotes the movement of the stool through the intestines.

Examples of stimulant laxatives include:

  • Bisacodyl (Ducodyl, Dulcolax, Fleet Bisacodyl, GoodSense Bisacodyl EC)
  • Senna (Ex-Lax, Geri-kot, GoodSense Laxative Pills, Senekot, SennaCon, Senna Lax 9000)
  • Osmotic laxatives

    These drugs work by drawing more water into the intestines. This helps to soften the stool and make it easier to pass.

    Examples of osmotic laxatives include:

    • polyethylene glycol (GlycoLax, MiraLAX)
    • lactulose (Constulose, Enulose, Generlac, Kristalose)
    • sorbitol
    • magnesium sulfate
    • magnesium citrate
    • 19 glycerin


      These medicines work by keeping water in the intestines and stool. This makes the stool softer and easier to pass through.

      Examples of lubricants include:

      • Mineral oil (Fleet Oil, GoodSense Mineral Oil)

      Peripherally acting mu opioid receptor agonists (PAMORA)

      Opioids slow down the gastrointestinal tract and reduce intestinal fluid.These effects can cause constipation. PAMORA works by blocking the action of opioids in certain parts of the body, including the gastrointestinal tract. It reduces constipation caused by opioid use without affecting pain relief.

      Examples of PAMOR:

      • methylnaltrexone (Relistor)
      • naloxegol (Movantik)
      • naldemidine (symproic)

      Alternatives to Chronic Idiopathic Constipation (CIC)

      Other drugs that can be used to treat CEC are related to the four groups.

      Selective serotonin-4 (5-HT4) receptor agonists

      Normally, your intestines move food through them, narrowing (constricting) and relaxing the muscles in the intestinal walls. When this activity slows down, constipation can occur.

      Selective agonists of serotonin-4 (5-HT4) receptors act by stimulating this action in the intestine. An example of this drug is:

      • prucaloprid (Motegrity)

      Guanylate cyclase-C agonists

      These drugs work by increasing the amount of water in the intestines.This will soften the stool and help it move through the intestines. These drugs work similarly to amitise, but work on a different type of protein.

      Examples of guanylate cyclase-C agonists include:

      • plecanatide (Trulance)
      • linaclotide (Linzess)

      Osmotic laxatives

      These drugs work by drawing more water into the intestines. This helps to soften the stool and make it easier to pass.

      Examples of osmotic agents include:

      • polyethylene glycol (GlycoLax, MiraLAX)
      • lactulose (Constulose, Enulose, Generlac, Kristalose)

      Stimulant laxatives

      Similar to selective serotonin 4 receptor 4 receptors cm.Above), stimulant laxatives act by stimulating the intestinal muscles. Laxatives cause the muscles to contract and relax, causing the stool to move through the intestines.

      Examples of stimulant laxatives include:

      • Bisacodyl (Ducodyl, Dulcolax, Fleet Bisacodyl, GoodSense Bisacodyl EC)
      • Sodium Picosulfate
      • Senna (Ex-Lax, Geri-kot, GoodSense Laxative Pills, Senekotna, Senna )

      Alternatives for Irritable Bowel Syndrome with Constipation (IBS-C)

      Other drugs that can be used to treat IBS-C are divided into five main groups.


      These drugs work by absorbing water in the intestine and then swelling it. This increases the amount of stool, which stimulates the bowel movement. Examples of fillers include:

      • psyllium (Metamucil, Laxmar, Genfiber, Fiberall)
      • methylcellulose (Citrucel, GoodSense Fiber)
      • calcium polycarbophil (FiberCon)

      Stool softeners

      stool, which makes it easier to pass.Examples of surfactants include:

      • docusate (Colace, Col-Rite, Doc-Q-Lace, Docusoft-S, Phillips Liqui-Gels, Silace)

      Osmotic laxatives

      These drugs work by increasing the amount of water in the intestine. This helps to soften the stool and make it easier to pass. Examples of osmotic agents include:

      • milk of magnesia (Pedia-Lax, Phillips)
      • magnesium citrate
      • magnesium sulfate
      • sodium picosulfate / magnesium citrate (PicoPrep)
      • lactulose / lactitol
      • sorbitol


      Stimulant laxatives act by stimulating the muscles in the intestines.Laxatives cause the muscles to contract and relax, causing the stool to move through the intestines.

      Examples of stimulant laxatives include:

      • Bisacodyl (Ducodyl, Dulcolax, Fleet Bisacodyl, GoodSense Bisacodyl EC)
      • Sodium Picosulfate
      • Senna (Ex-Lax, Geri-kot, GoodSense Laxative Pills, Senekotna, Senna )

      Guanylate cyclase-C agonists

      These drugs work by increasing the amount of water in the intestine.This will soften the stool and help it move through the intestines. These drugs work in the same way as amitiza, but work on a different type of protein.

      Examples of guanylate cyclase-C agonists include:

      • plecanatide (Trulance)
      • linaclotide (Linsess)

      Amitiza versus other drugs

      You may wonder how Amitiza differs from other drugs prescribed for similar purposes … Below are comparisons of Amitiza and several medications.

      Amitiza vs. Linzess

      Amitiza contains lyubiprostone, a chloride channel activator. Chloride channels are proteins that carry specific molecules across cell membranes. By activating the chloride channels in the intestines, Amitisa increases the amount of fluid entering the intestines. This will make it easier to have bowel movements.

      Linsess contains linaclotide, which is a guanylate cyclase-C (GC-C) agonist. Although it is a different type of drug that works differently from amitisa, Linzess also increases the amount of water in the intestines.This softens the stool and makes it easier to pass.


      Both Amitiza and Linzess are approved for the treatment of chronic idiopathic constipation (CIC). Both drugs are approved for the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome with constipation (IBS-C), but amitisa is approved for use only in women 18 years of age or older. Amitisa is also approved for the treatment of opioid-induced constipation in adults.

      Forms of drugs and method of administration

      Amitiza and Linzess are available in the form of oral capsules.Linzess is taken once a day, and Amitiz is taken twice a day.

      Side effects and risks

      Amitisa and Linzess may cause similar common and serious side effects.

      More common side effects

      These lists provide examples of the most common side effects that can occur with Amityza, Linzess, or both (taken individually).

      • May occur with Amitiza:
        • Headache
        • nausea
        • dizziness
      • May occur with Linzess:
        • no unique common side effects
      • Can occur with both Amitiza and and with Linzess:
        • diarrhea
        • gas
        • pain or pressure in the abdomen

      Serious side effects

      These lists contain examples of serious side effects that can occur when taking Amityza, Linzess or both drugs (if taken individually).

      • Can happen to Amitiza:
        • low blood pressure
        • fainting
      • Can happen to Linzess:
        • blood in stool (stool looks like tar)
        • severe abdominal pain
        • severe dehydration in children under 6 *
      • Can happen to both Amitiza and Linzess:
        • severe diarrhea
        • serious allergic reaction

      * Linzess has a boxed FDA warning.A boxed warning is the strongest warning that the FDA requires. The warning states that Linzess should not be used in children under 6 years of age due to the risk of severe dehydration. You should also avoid using Linzess in children aged 6 to 18 years, as the safety and efficacy of the drug in these children has not been studied.


      Amitisa and Linzess have not been directly compared in clinical trials. However, they have been studied separately.

      Studies have shown that both Amitiza and Linzess are effective in treating both IBS-C and CEC.


      Amitisa and Linzess are branded drugs. There are currently no generic forms available for both drugs. Brand name drugs usually cost more than generics.

      According to GoodRx.com estimates, Amitiza usually costs less than Linzess. The actual price you are willing to pay for both drugs depends on your plan, your location, and the pharmacy you use.

      Amitiza versus Movantik

      Amitiza contains the drug Lubiprostone, and Movantik contains the drug naloxegol. These drugs are used for similar reasons, but work differently in the body.


      Both Amitiza and Movantik are approved for the treatment of opioid-induced constipation in adults with chronic non-cancer pain. Amitiza is also approved for the treatment of adults with constipated irritable bowel syndrome and adults with chronic idiopathic constipation.

      Forms of drugs and method of administration

      Amitiz is available in the form of oral capsules. It is usually taken twice a day. Movantik is available in the form of tablets for oral administration. It is taken orally once a day.

      Side effects and risks

      Amitiza and Movantik may cause similar common and serious side effects.

      More common side effects

      These lists provide examples of the most common side effects that can occur with Amitiza, Movantik, or both (taken individually).

      • Can happen to Amitiza:
        • dizziness
      • Movantik can happen:
        • increased sweating
      • Can happen to both Amitiza and Movantik:
        • pain stomach
        • diarrhea
        • nausea
        • gas
        • vomiting
        • Headache

      Serious side effects

      upon individual admission).

      • May occur with Amitiza:
        • low blood pressure
        • fainting
      • Movantik can cause:
        • severe abdominal pain
      • Can occur with both Amitiza and Movantik :
        • severe diarrhea
        • serious allergic reaction


      Amitiza and Movantik have different FDA approved uses, but both are used to treat opioid-induced constipation (OIC) in adults.

      The effectiveness of these drugs has not been directly compared in clinical trials. However, separate studies by Amitiza and Movantik have shown that both drugs are effective in treating AEC.


      Amitiza and Movantik are branded drugs. There are currently no generic forms available for both drugs. Brand name drugs usually cost more than generics.

      GoodRx.com estimates that Amitiza typically costs less than Movantik. The actual price you are willing to pay for both drugs depends on your plan, your location, and the pharmacy you use.

      Amitiza Instructions

      You must take Amitiza as directed by your doctor or healthcare provider.

      How to take

      Swallow the Amitiza capsule whole. Do not chew or crush the capsule.

      When to take

      Amitiza is usually taken once in the morning and once in the evening or once a day. Your doctor will tell you how often and when you should take it.

      Take Amitiza with food

      Take Amitiza with a meal with a full glass of water.Taking amitiza with a small meal can help reduce the risk of nausea, which can be a common side effect.

      Can you crush Amitiza?

      Amitiza capsules must not be crushed, broken or chewed. Be sure to swallow the capsule whole.

      Amitiza and alcohol

      There are no known interactions between alcohol and Amitiza. However, taking Amitiza may make you dizzy or lightheaded. Drinking alcohol can also cause these effects, so drinking them together can exacerbate these effects.

      If you get dizzy while taking Amitiza, it is best to avoid alcohol. If you find it difficult to stop drinking alcohol and it makes you feel dizzy or dizzy, talk to your doctor.

      Amitiza interactions

      Most medicines can interact with other medicines. Different interactions can have different effects. For example, some of them can interfere with the effectiveness of the drug, while others can cause increased side effects.

      Amitiza and other medicines

      Before taking Amitiza, be sure to tell your doctor and pharmacist about all prescription, over-the-counter and other medicines you take. Also tell them about any vitamins, herbs, and supplements you use. Sharing this information can help you avoid potential interactions.

      If you have questions about drug interactions that may affect you, ask your doctor or pharmacist.

      The following are examples of medicines that can interact with Amitiza. This list does not include all drugs that can interact with Amitiza.

      Amitiza and medicines for high blood pressure

      Taking Amitiza with medicines to treat high blood pressure may increase the risk of fainting or low blood pressure. If you are taking medications that help lower your blood pressure, tell your doctor before you start taking Amitiza.

      Amitiza and antidiarrheal drugs

      Taking Amitiza with medicines used to treat diarrhea may reduce the effectiveness of Amitiza. If you experience diarrhea while taking Amityza, do not try to treat the diarrhea yourself. Instead, talk to your doctor. They may decide that you need a lower dose of Amitiza or that you should stop taking the drug.

      Examples of antidiarrheal drugs include:

      • alosetron (Lotronex)
      • loperamide (imodium)
      • bismuth subsalicylate (peptobismol)

      Amitiza and Miralax

      take it with MiraLAX.No data on interactions between Amitiza and MiraLAX. It is generally safe to take them together.

      This combination has a low risk of side effects. A clinical study looked at the off-label use of Amitiza with MiraLAX as a bowel cleanser prior to colonoscopy. In the study:

      • about 4% of people had stomach cramps
      • less than 2 percent of people had nausea
      • less than 1 percent of people had bloating

      Tell your doctor or pharmacist what you want to add before using these drugs together Miralax into your treatment plan.

      Amitiza and methadone

      Laboratory studies have shown that methadone (an opioid pain reliever) reduces the effect of chloride channels. Chloride channels are proteins that carry specific molecules across cell membranes.

      This effect may prevent Amitiza from working well. This is because Amitiza works by activating the same chloride channels that help increase fluid levels in the intestines. The increased amount of fluid promotes the passage of the stool through the intestines.

      Tell your doctor if you are taking methadone. Your doctor may choose another medicine instead of Amitiza for constipation.

      How Amitiza works

      Amitiza belongs to a class of drugs called chloride channel activators. Chloride channels are found throughout the body in almost all cell types. These are proteins that carry certain molecules across cell membranes.

      Amitisa activates (increases activity) these chloride channels in the intestine.This action increases the amount of fluid that passes into the intestines. This increased amount of fluid allows stool to pass through your body more easily, helping to relieve constipation.

      How long does it take to work?

      Amitiza starts working quickly. For example, a clinical study looked at the use of Amitiza in adults with chronic idiopathic constipation (CIC). About 57 percent of the people studied had defecated within 24 hours of taking the medication.In the placebo group (no medication), this effect was found in only 37 percent of people.

      Within 48 hours of treatment, 80 percent of people taking Amitiza had a defect. Only 61 percent of people in the placebo group had the same result.

      Amitisa and Pregnancy

      Not enough research has been done to know if Amitisa is safe to use during pregnancy. In animal studies, amitisa has been shown to harm the fetus. However, animal studies do not always predict what will happen to humans.

      If you are pregnant or become pregnant during treatment with Amitiza, consult your doctor. Together, you will be able to assess the benefits and risks of using Amitiza during pregnancy.

      Amitisa and breastfeeding

      It is not known whether amitisa passes into breast milk and how it affects milk production in the body. In animal studies, amitisa was not found in the milk of lactating animals. But animal studies don’t always reflect the effects that humans might have.

      Talk to your doctor about whether using Amitiza while breastfeeding is right for you. And if you choose to breastfeed your baby while you are taking Amitiza, watch for signs of diarrhea. Amitisa can cause diarrhea in a breastfed baby. If your baby develops diarrhea, stop breastfeeding and see a doctor.

      General questions about Amitiza

      Here are answers to some frequently asked questions about Amitiza.

      Can Amitiza be used for men?

      Amitisa is approved for the treatment of three types of constipation in adults.For two of these types, it can be used in men. These types include chronic idiopathic constipation (CIC) and constipation caused by opioid use in people with chronic pain not caused by active cancer.

      However, the third type of constipation that is approved for the treatment of Amitiza cannot be used in men. This type is irritable bowel syndrome with constipation (IBS-C).

      The reason for this difference is that not enough research has been done on the use of amitiza in men with IBS-C.In clinical studies, only 8 percent of the people with IBS-C studied were men. Because the male population in the studies was so low, we do not have enough evidence to determine if men with IBS-C respond differently to amitiza than women.

      Will I have withdrawal symptoms when I stop taking Amitiza?

      No, when you stop taking Amitiz, you will most likely have no withdrawal symptoms. In clinical studies in which people stopped treatment with the drug, these symptoms were not observed.

      Is Amitya a controlled substance?

      No, Amitiza is not a controlled substance. A controlled substance is a drug that is regulated by the government for abuse.

      However, Amitiza is a medication that requires a prescription from your doctor.

      Amitisa Warnings

      Before taking Amitisa, talk to your doctor about your health history. Amitiza may not be for you if you have certain medical conditions.This includes:

      • Bowel obstruction. If you have a bowel obstruction, you should not use Amitiza. If you are not sure if you have one, ask your doctor to examine you before starting treatment with amitiza.
      • Severe diarrhea. Taking Amitiza may worsen severe diarrhea. If you have severe diarrhea, you should avoid taking this drug.
      • History of allergy to Amitiza or any of its ingredients. If you are allergic to amitiza or have had a reaction in the past, you should not use amitizu.If you have such allergies, talk to your doctor about other treatment options for constipation.

      Amitiza overdose

      Taking too much amitiza may increase the risk of serious side effects.

      Overdose symptoms

      Overdose symptoms may include:

      • nausea
      • diarrhea
      • vomiting
      • dizziness
      • Headache
      • abdominal pain
      • redness (warmth and flushing of the face or neck)
      • dry swelling )
      • Difficulty breathing
      • Chest tightness
      • Fainting

      What to do in case of overdose

      If you think you have taken too much of this drug, call your doctor or contact the American Association of Poison Control Centers for advice 800-222-1222 or through their online tool. But if you have severe symptoms, call 911 or go to the nearest emergency room right away.

      Expiry date of Amitiza

      When Amitiza is dispensed from the pharmacy, the pharmacist will add the expiry date to the bottle label. This date is usually one year from the date the medication was dispensed.

      The purpose of these expiration dates is to ensure that the drug is effective at this time. The current position of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is to avoid the use of expired drugs.

      The shelf life of a medicine can depend on many factors, including how and where it is stored. Amitiza capsules should be stored at room temperature around 25 ° C (77 ° F). Store them in a dry place in a tightly closed and lightfast container. Do not store medicines in the bathroom.

      If you have an unused medicine that has expired, talk to your pharmacist about whether you can use it.

      Professional Information for Amitiza

      The following information is intended for physicians and other healthcare professionals.

      Mechanism of Action

      Amitisa is a chloride channel activator (CIC) that increases the secretion of intestinal fluid, which helps to improve stool transit. The CIC-2 receptor is activated by Amitiza. Increasing the amount of fluid that contains chloride helps increase motor skills and allows stool to pass through the intestines.

      The antisecretory effects of opiates are ignored and serum sodium and potassium concentrations are unchanged. It is also believed that amitisa triggers the restoration of the barrier function of the mucous membranes and reduces intestinal permeability by restoring tight contacts.

      Pharmacokinetics and metabolism

      Plasma amitiza concentrations are below the precise count. Consequently, the half-life and maximum concentrations cannot be reliably calculated. However, the pharmacokinetics of M3, which is the only active metabolite of amitiza that can be measured, has been calculated.

      After oral administration, the maximum concentration of M3 is reached within one hour. Eating a meal high in fat can lower your maximum concentration.However, in most clinical trials, amitiza was taken with food and water.

      The half-life of M3, the only active metabolite of amitiza that can be measured, was approximately 1 to 1.5 hours.

      Amitisa is believed to be rapidly metabolized in the stomach and jejunum.


      Amitiza is contraindicated in people who have had an allergic reaction to it in the past, as well as people who have had a blockage of the stomach or intestines.

      Storage location

      Amitiza should be stored at room temperature around 77 ° F (25 ° C).

      Disclaimer: Medical News Today has made every effort to ensure that all information is truly correct, complete and current. However, this article should not be used as a substitute for the knowledge and experience of a licensed healthcare professional. Always consult your doctor or other healthcare professional before taking any medication.The drug information contained in this document is subject to change and is not intended to cover all possible uses, indications, precautions, warnings, drug interactions, allergic reactions or side effects. The absence of warnings or other information about a particular drug does not mean that the drug or drug combination is safe, effective, or appropriate for all patients or all specific uses.

      Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center

      This document, provided by Lexicomp ® , contains all the information you need to know about the drug, including the indications, route of administration, side effects and when you should contact your healthcare provider.

      Trade names: USA


      Trade names: Canada



      • Do not give to children under 18 years of age. If this drug is given to a child, it may harm the child. Consult your doctor.

      What is this drug used for?

      • Used to treat irritable bowel syndrome.
      • This medication is used to treat constipation.

      What do I need to tell my doctor BEFORE taking this drug?

      • If you are allergic to this drug, any of its ingredients, other drugs, foods or substances. Tell your doctor about your allergy and how it manifested itself.
      • If you have a bowel obstruction.

      This list of drugs and diseases that may be adversely associated with this drug is not exhaustive.

      Tell your doctor and pharmacist about all medicines you take (both prescription and over-the-counter, natural products and vitamins) and your health problems.You need to make sure that this drug is safe for your medical condition and in combination with other drugs you are already taking. Do not start or stop taking any medication or change the dosage without your doctor’s approval.

      What do I need to know or do while taking this drug?

      • Tell all healthcare providers that you are taking this drug.These are doctors, nurses, pharmacists and dentists.
      • If you have diarrhea, you will need to take steps to stay hydrated. Drink plenty of fluids and control weight loss. Please consult your doctor.
      • Keep out of the reach of children. Very bad side effects such as very severe diarrhea and dehydration can develop if this drug is accidentally taken by a child. If a child accidentally takes this drug, seek immediate medical attention.
      • Tell your doctor if you are pregnant, planning to become pregnant, or breastfeeding. The benefits and risks for you and your child will need to be discussed.

      What side effects should I report to my doctor immediately?

      WARNING. In rare cases, some people with this drug can cause serious and sometimes deadly side effects. Call your doctor or get medical help right away if you have any of the following signs or symptoms, which may be associated with serious side effects:

      • Signs of an allergic reaction such as rash, hives, itching, reddened and swollen skin with blistering or scaling, possibly associated with fever, wheezing or wheezing, tightness in the chest or throat, difficulty breathing, swallowing or speaking, unusual hoarseness, swelling in the mouth, face, lips, tongue, or throat.
      • Black, tarry, or bloody stools.
      • Abdominal edema.
      • Bloating.
      • In some cases, very severe diarrhea led to the need for hospitalization. See your doctor immediately if you have very severe diarrhea or diarrhea that does not go away. Call your doctor right away if you develop signs of dehydration, such as very severe dizziness or fainting, difficulty urinating, a change in the amount of urine you pass, or feeling very tired.

      What are some other side effects of this drug?

      Any medicine can have side effects. However, many people have little or no side effects. Call your doctor or get medical help if these or any other side effects bother you or do not go away:

      • Abdominal pain or diarrhea.
      • Gas.
      • Signs of a cold.

      This list of potential side effects is not exhaustive.If you have any questions about side effects, please contact your doctor. Talk to your doctor about side effects.

      You can report side effects to the National Health Office.

      You can report side effects to the FDA at 1-800-332-1088. You can also report side effects at https://www.fda.gov/medwatch.

      What is the best way to take this drug?

      Use this drug as directed by your healthcare practitioner.Read all the information provided to you. Follow all instructions strictly.

      • Take on an empty stomach. Take at least 30 minutes before your first meal.
      • Swallow capsules whole. Do not chew, break, or crush.
      • If you find it difficult to swallow, you can mix this drug with applesauce or water. Follow the directions previously given or follow the instructions inside the package. Check with your doctor or pharmacist if you are not sure how to mix this drug properly.
      • If taken mixed, swallow immediately. Do not store for future use.
      • The mixture should not be chewed.
      • Patients with feeding tubes may use this medication. Apply as directed. Flush the feeding tube after using this drug.

      What should I do if a dose of a drug is missed?

      • Skip the forgotten dose and return to your normal schedule.
      • Do not take 2 doses at the same time or an additional dose.

      How do I store and / or discard this drug?

      • Store at room temperature in a dry place. Do not store in the bathroom.
      • Store in original packaging. Do not remove the moisture absorber.
      • The lid must be tightly closed.
      • Store all medicines in a safe place. Keep all medicines out of the reach of children and pets.
      • Dispose of unused or expired drugs. Do not empty into toilet or drain unless directed to do so. If you have any questions about the disposal of your medicinal products, consult your pharmacist. Your area may have drug recycling programs.

      General information on medicinal products

      • If your health does not improve or even worsens, see your doctor.
      • You should not give your medicine to anyone and take other people’s medicines.
      • Some medicines may come with other patient information sheets. If you have questions about this drug, talk with your doctor, nurse, pharmacist, or other healthcare professional.
      • A separate patient instruction sheet is attached to the product. Please read this information carefully. Reread it each time you replenish your supply.If you have questions about this drug, talk with your doctor, pharmacist, or other healthcare professional.
      • If you think an overdose has occurred, call a Poison Control Center immediately or seek medical attention. Be prepared to tell or show which drug you took, how much and when it happened.

      Use of information by consumer and limitation of liability

      This information should not be used to make decisions about taking this or any other drug.Only the attending physician has the necessary knowledge and experience to make decisions about which drugs are appropriate for a particular patient. This information does not guarantee that the drug is safe, effective, or approved for the treatment of any disease or specific patient. Here are only brief general information about this drug. It does NOT contain all available information on the possible use of the drug with instructions for use, warnings, precautions, information about interactions, side effects and risks that may be associated with this drug.This information should not be construed as a treatment guide and does not replace information provided to you by your healthcare professional. Check with your doctor for complete information on the possible risks and benefits of taking this drug.


      © UpToDate, Inc. and its affiliates and / or licensors, 2021. All rights reserved.

      90,000 What is Irritable Bowel Syndrome?

      Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a disorder that affects 10-20% of the world’s adult population.Women are less fortunate, because they are faced with IBS 2 times more often than men. This syndrome does not pose a health hazard, but noticeably affects the state of health during periods of acute manifestation.

      This is not a disease, but a functional disorder of the intestines – there are no pathologies in the structure of the organ, but its function is impaired. According to British doctors, if you examine the colon of a patient with IBS under a microscope, it will look completely normal.

      IBS is characterized by a group of symptoms that occur simultaneously and affect the large intestine.Pain, abdominal discomfort, and changes in the regularity of bowel movements are the main signs of irritable bowel syndrome. Scientists today have established that IBS has both physiological and psychological causes. This disorder is not a product of the person’s imagination.

      Depending on the consistency of the stool, doctors classify irritable bowel syndrome into 4 types.

      1. IBS with constipation – at least 25% of the time a person has hard stools, and loose or watery stools less than 25% of the time.
      2. IBS with diarrhea – At least 25% of the time a person has loose or watery stools, and hard stools less than 25% of the time.
      3. Mixed IBS – both watery and hard stools – at least 25% of the time.
      4. Unclassified IBS – Both watery and hard stools – less than 25% of the time.

      What are the symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome?

      The most common manifestations of the disorder are pain, cramps and abdominal discomfort.IBS has 3 key features:

      • Pain and discomfort decrease after emptying,
      • Frequency of going to the toilet increases and decreases,
      • The appearance of feces changes.

      Irritable Bowel Syndrome is a chronic disorder from which people suffer for a long time. Its symptoms appear and disappear for a while. Some people are tormented only by constipation, others – only by diarrhea, and in others, periods of constipation and diarrhea alternate.Often, symptoms of IBS appear immediately after a meal. In women, symptoms worsen during menstruation.

      Other signs of irritable bowel syndrome include:

      • Flatulence,
      • Feeling of incomplete emptying after going to the toilet,
      • Whitish mucus in stool.

      Although IBS is uncomfortable and painful, it does not harm the digestive tract or cause other health problems.

      What other problems do people with irritable bowel syndrome face?

      Often, patients with a functional disorder also suffer from other concomitant disorders.Among the pathologies associated with the gastrointestinal tract, gastroesophageal reflux disease and dyspepsia are noted. Other disorders not related to the gastrointestinal tract:

      • Chronic fatigue syndrome,
      • Chronic pelvic pain,
      • Pathologies in the temporomandibular joint,
      • Depression and anxiety,
      • Somatoform disorders.

      What are the causes of irritable bowel syndrome?

      The exact cause of the development of IBS is unknown – experts believe that a complex of problems can lead to this functional disorder.

      Disruption of communication between the brain and intestines

      Signals that the brain exchanges with the nervous tissue of the small and large intestines are responsible for the control of the intestines. Disruption of this connection can be the cause of IBS.

      Intestinal motility problems

      Colon motility may be impaired in people with irritable bowel syndrome. Slowing down motor skills leads to constipation, and too fast peristalsis leads to diarrhea. Also, patients with IBS are faced with hyperactivity – a sharp increase in bowel contractions during stress or immediately after eating.

      Pain sensitivity

      The brain processes signals that come from the intestines. In patients with IBS, the nerves in the intestine may be oversensitive. For this reason, their brains perceive pain signals differently than in healthy people. Due to pain sensitivity with the accumulation of gas or feces, a person experiences great discomfort or pain.

      Intestinal infections

      Sometimes the cause of IBS is hidden in a bacterial infection.Scientists don’t yet know why, but the infection only causes IBS in some people.

      Growth of bacteria in the small intestine

      Normally, a small amount of bacteria is present in the small intestine of a healthy person. Overgrowth is an increase in their number or a change in species. The bacteria can produce too much gas and cause diarrhea and weight loss. Some experts believe that overgrowth of bacteria can trigger irritable bowel syndrome.

      Neurotransmitters (transmitters of nerve impulses)

      In people with IBS, the level of neurotransmitters that are produced in the digestive tract changes. It is not known exactly what role this plays in relation to irritable bowel, but the influence of neurotransmitters can be traced.


      If a member of your immediate family has had gastrointestinal problems, your chances of experiencing irritable bowel syndrome are increased.

      Food sensitivities

      People with IBS find that certain foods and beverages exacerbate their symptoms. These foods include:

      • Foods rich in carbohydrates,
      • Spicy or fatty foods,
      • Coffee and alcohol.

      Researchers believe that the main problem is poor absorption of carbohydrates. Also, bile acids can play a role, which take part in the process of digestion and absorption of fats.

      Mental health problems

      Panic attacks, anxiety, depression and post-traumatic stress disorder are all common in people with IBS. Experts believe that in patients with IBS, psychological stress manifests itself in the form of physiological symptoms.

      An irritated colon can react to even minor stress. In turn, stress makes the brain more receptive to gut sensations. In addition, irritable bowel syndrome symptoms themselves increase stress levels.A kind of vicious circle is formed.

      How is irritable bowel syndrome diagnosed?

      During the diagnosis, the doctor carefully analyzes the patient’s medical history. The doctor pays special attention to the following points:

      • The presence of symptoms characteristic of IBS,
      • Family history of gastrointestinal diseases,
      • Recent infections,
      • Taking medications,
      • Stressful events, after which symptoms began to appear.

      During the physical examination, the doctor:

      • Checks if a large amount of gas has accumulated in the intestines,
      • Listens to abdominal sounds with a stethoscope,
      • Presses on the stomach and asks the patient about the sensations.

      There is no specific diagnostic procedure for irritable bowel syndrome. The examination is carried out in order to exclude other diseases with similar symptoms. The patient may be referred to the following procedures:

      Often, doctors recommend temporarily eliminating certain foods from the diet to determine if the patient’s diet is contributing to symptoms.

      How to treat irritable bowel?

      There are no drugs for the treatment of IBS, but it is possible to significantly alleviate the suffering of a person during the period of the disorder. For this, a complex strategy is applied, which includes a special diet, certain drugs and probiotics. To develop an individual approach, make an appointment with the gastroenterologists at the Persomed Clinic.

      Treatment for irritable bowel syndrome aims to relieve symptoms.For this, the patient is prescribed some drugs and supplements, the main of which will be discussed below.


      For IBS with constipation, treatment should start by increasing the amount of fiber in the diet. If dietary fiber isn’t helping, it can be taken as a supplement.


      Sometimes doctors prescribe a laxative for constipation. These remedies work in different ways, so in no case should you buy the first laxative you find in the pharmacy.It is the doctor who determines which drug is suitable for a particular case.


      Often, treatment of IBS with diarrhea is impossible without taking pritivodiarrhea drugs. The principle of their work is based on slowing down the speed of movement of feces through the colon. Loperamide is recommended by the National Institute of Diabetes, Gastrointestinal Diseases and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK). This drug helps people with IBS cope with diarrhea. Loperamide is powerless against other symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome.


      These drugs help control spasms of the muscles of the colon and relieve abdominal pain.


      Low doses of tricyclic antidepressants and SSRIs help relieve symptoms, including abdominal pain. Tricyclic antidepressants reduce pain sensitivity in the gastrointestinal tract, and also normalize peristalsis.

      Lubiprostone (Amitiza)

      This drug is prescribed for patients with IBS who suffer from constipation. It helps to reduce the sensations of discomfort and abdominal pain.

      Linaclotide (Linzess)

      Another drug for the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome. It can help relieve abdominal pain and increase toilet trips in patients with constipation.

      What if the cause of IBS is mental disorders?

      Coping with psychological problems requires an integrated approach.Here will help:

      • Relaxation and meditation,
      • Regular exercise,
      • Adequate amount of sleep,
      • Consulting a psychologist and psychiatrist.

      Please note that this material is for informational purposes only. Irritable bowel syndrome treatment should be under the guidance of an experienced gastroenterologist.

      How Significantly relieve IBS symptoms with the FODMAP diet developed by scientists in Australia? Read about this in the second part of the article.


      1. Irritable Bowel Syndrome, Academy of Nutrition and Dietetic,
      2. Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS), Harvard Medical School,
      3. Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS), The National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK),
      4. Irritable Bowel Syndrome, Patient.info.

      The Natural Approach to Constipation Treatment | Live Healthy

      In this Article:

      Constipation – irregular bowel movements or difficult bowel movements – is a common problem that worries 20% of people.With constipation, the bowel is emptied less than three times a week. A condition is considered chronic if it persists for two weeks or longer.

      Constipation is very common but should not be ignored. In each case, it is necessary to establish the cause of the constipation, especially if the symptoms persist after a few weeks. It is important to check with your doctor to make sure your constipation is not caused by a serious medical condition.

      The main causes of constipation are:

      A sedentary lifestyle Constipation can be caused by lack of physical activity, as a result of which normal intestinal motility is disrupted.

      Nutrition is a low fiber diet – one that is low in legumes, vegetables and fruits. Eating a lot of fiber can help normalize healthy gut microflora and promote regular bowel movements.

      Constipation can be caused by processed foods – fried foods, cakes, candy, baked goods, pasta and bread. Cheese is also a common cause of constipation. If you suspect a certain food or foods are causing your gut problems, start keeping a food journal to find out the cause of your constipation.

      Dehydration , often caused by not drinking enough water or drinking too much coffee and tea, can interfere with bowel movements. Certain medications, such as pressure diuretics, can also lead to dehydration.

      As you know, some drugs cause constipation – drugs for allergies (diphenhydramine, loratadine, fexofenadine, etc.) and opiate drugs (hydrocodone, oxycodone, morphine, etc.) for chronic pain.

      Food supplements – calcium and iron – can also contribute to constipation. Calcium in a daily dose of more than 1000 mg per day can cause constipation if not taken with sufficient amounts of magnesium. Likewise, constipation can be triggered by iron supplements, which are often taken for iron deficiency anemia (should be diagnosed by a doctor). However, if you take iron with vitamin C, it can help the absorption of iron and prevent constipation.

      Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) – IBS sometimes presents with diarrhea, but often constipation. In some patients with IBS, constipation alternates with diarrhea. For those with constipation predominant with IBS, doctors often prescribe medications if diet and lifestyle changes are not enough.

      Small Intestine Bacterial Overgrowth (SIBO) – An overgrowth of bacteria that produce methane gas has been reported to increase the risk of constipation due to methane gas, which slows intestinal transit time.

      Hypothyroidism – hypofunction of the thyroid gland, which affects up to 10% of the inhabitants of the Earth. With this disease, the transit of food through the gastrointestinal tract slows down, which leads to constipation.

      Frequent use of antibiotics – Disruption of the gut microbiome can be caused by antibiotics. In some cases, this can lead to diarrhea. This disrupts the beneficial microflora, which can lead to chronic constipation or SIBO, as mentioned above.

      Stress – each of us reacts to stress differently.For some, stress can lead to constipation. To maintain mental and physical health, it is important to find a healthy way to reduce internal stress. As I said before, constipation arises from containment, literally. Therefore, reducing stress, biofeedback and restoring normal work and rest will help to establish regularity of the stool.

      Chronic diseases such as Parkinson’s disease, colon cancer, spinal cord injury and sometimes even stroke can lead to chronic constipation.

      Complications of chronic constipation:

      • Pain during bowel movements
      • Increased risk of diverticulosis (small pockets in the colon) and ultimately diverticulitis (infection of the pockets)
      • Blood in stool
      • Development of hemorrhoids
      • Increased exposure to intestinal toxins and bacterial growth in the intestines
      • Difficulty urinating (due to stool pressure on the urethra)

      Have you been tested for colon cancer?

      Most doctors recommend that people over 50 get tested for colon cancer.This can be done with a colonoscopy, sigmoidoscopy, or stool testing for blood or DNA from cancer cells.

      Those with a family history of colon cancer may need to be screened at age 40 or even earlier. Talk to your doctor and read medical advice based on your age and family risk factors.

      Prescription drugs:

      If no underlying or reversible cause of constipation is identified, doctors often prescribe sodium docusate (Colace), polyethylene glycol (PEG or Miralax), lactulose (enulose), or sorbitol.

      Other medications are prescribed for chronic constipation, including linaclotide (lenses, constella), plecanatid (trulance), and lubiprostone (amitiza).

      If an opiate drug is the cause of constipation (constipation is a common side effect for this class of drugs), pharmaceutical companies have developed drugs (methylnaltrexone) to address this side effect.

      The Natural Approach

      Many people want to avoid taking prescription drugs because of the side effects they cause.Listed below are the natural approaches to constipation that are preferred by many patients looking to relieve constipation symptoms and help the body get regular bowel movements. Diet and lifestyle are decisive factors underlying normal bowel function. It is always worth starting with them. True, sometimes this is not enough.

      Physical Education – To stimulate regular bowel movements, it is important to be as active as possible. Doctors recommend that most people do moderate physical activity for a total of at least 150 minutes per week.It promotes normal functioning and regular bowel movements. A simple 30 minute walk every day can be very beneficial to your health. For some, yoga also works well.

      A high fiber diet is very important. Doctors advise eating at least 25 grams of fiber a day, for this you need to eat 5-9 servings of vegetables and fruits. For example, one avocado has 13 grams of fiber, an average apple has 4 grams, and a banana has 3 grams. Berries are not only rich in fiber, but they also help protect the body against colon cancer, according to a 2016 study published in Molecules.Chia seeds are also a good product – just one teaspoon of chia seeds contains almost 6 grams of fiber. There are as many as 15 grams of fiber in a glass of black beans.

      Herbal products will help normalize stool frequency. Plant foods have a number of other beneficial properties, including increased absorption of vitamins A, K, and E, as well as vitamin C and other antioxidant-rich phytonutrients.

      A 2015 study found fiber to be effective for mild to moderate constipation and constipation caused by IBS.A diet high in plant foods is associated with a reduced risk of colon cancer and has a beneficial effect on beneficial gut microflora. A 2012 study published in the World Journal of Gastroenterology found that fiber helps increase stool frequency in adults.

      Foods with probiotics – probiotics are beneficial bacteria. They can be very effective in restoring the balance of the gut microbiome, especially if this balance has been imbalanced due to antibiotics or chronic use of acid-lowering drugs.

      Restoring the population of healthy bacteria (such as lactobacilli, bifidobacteria) and other important and beneficial microorganisms is important for promoting general health and treating constipation. A 2017 study published in Advances in Nutrition showed a downward trend in the population of these vital bacteria in chronic constipation.

      Eating sour milk and fermented foods and beverages, such as sauerkraut, yogurt, and kombucha, can also be beneficial in restoring this natural balance.A 2016 study in Iran found that constipated pregnant women improved with daily yogurt consumption. Many also take probiotic supplements. We will talk about them a little later.

      The best dietary supplements for constipation

      Magnesium – Magnesium is an ubiquitous trace mineral that participates in more than 350 biochemical reactions throughout the body. Magnesium deficiency is one of the most common nutritional deficiencies and can manifest as headaches, palpitations, muscle cramps, and even constipation.

      Therefore, magnesium supplements can be an effective remedy for those with constipation. If a laxative effect is observed while taking magnesium, the dosage of magnesium should be reduced. Patients with advanced kidney disease should consult their doctor. A 2017 study published in Magnesium Research assessed the condition of patients undergoing open-heart surgery. Magnesium helped prevent not only constipation, but also arrhythmias, especially atrial fibrillation.

      A study published in 2014 in Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology involved French women with constipation. The researchers found that constipation symptoms were significantly reduced with daily consumption of magnesium-rich mineral water.

      Vitamin C – Commonly found in citrus fruits and peppers. Taking vitamin C is important for preventing scurvy. Helps vitamin C and constipation.

      Psyllium husk – Psyllium husk can be very effective for chronic constipation.It can also help control blood sugar in diabetes. A 2018 study published in Complementary Therapies in Medicine found that constipated patients with type 2 diabetes not only lost weight, but also saw improvements in glucose control when taking psyllium seed husks. And a 2016 study published in Appetite found that taking psyllium seed shells increased satiety, which allowed subjects not to feel hungry between meals.

      Prebiotics – Prebiotics are nutrients and / or foods consumed by the beneficial bacteria in the gut. By introducing prebiotics such as inulin into the diet, it is possible to provide adequate nutrition for beneficial intestinal bacteria, helping to restore a harmonious balance in the gastrointestinal tract.

      Prebiotics include foods such as apples, asparagus, banana, barley, chicory root, dandelion greens, flaxseed and garlic

      More about prebiotics:

      A 2019 study demonstrated the benefits of optimizing prebiotic intake for treating constipation.A similar 2017 study published in the American Journal of Medical Sciences found that a prebiotic alone and in combination with probiotics can improve stool frequency and reduce symptoms of tension and bloating.

      Probiotics – over the years, many of my patients have noticed that when taking probiotics, their constipation has disappeared. The authors of a 2017 study published in the Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics compared a probiotic supplement to a placebo pill and found that probiotics reduced constipation in 10-40% of patients.

      Another 2017 study of constipated Asian children found probiotics helped increase stool frequency. A 2018 study also demonstrated the effectiveness of probiotics in treating constipation in patients with Parkinson’s disease.

      Debt Against Equity Financing & Compromise Concepts – Investment World

      Company Investment Analysis (Machine Translation):

      I have been investing in Drug Synergy (Nasdaq Index: SGYP) for some time.Over the years, I have learned a few things and believe that I have grown to be the right investor as a result of this promotion. Synergy Pharmaceuticals have gone through the typical life cycle of any small Bio cap stock, and it was interesting to see how the company develops. The company is currently about to announce its Q2 earnings in a couple of days, which will be a major milestone in the company’s history. The final chapter in the synergy financing saga, and I’ll go into the pros and cons of two different financing methods.

      Before getting into this, I think it would be important to explain the success of this company, it seems to me, is always forgotten. The odds of someone getting hit by a bus and dying on the spot work around 1 in 4,292. The chances of a pharmaceutical company taking a new drug from pre-clinical trials are all the way for FDA approval in 1 in 5000. Synergy has passed all the clinical trials they have conducted, they have never received any negative feedback, such as blacklisted, from the FDA and the company has so far exceeded all sales expectations for Trulance.However, retail investors constantly bang the management company for lack of communication when they could read this highly detailed press release published a few months ago.

      There have been two permanent dark clouds over Synergy for some time now, which will be Citigroup and fundraising. I will decide Citigroup the first, which is home to only an analyst with a “sell” rating for Synergetics. Citi analyst, Liav Abraham, had this to say in terms of share synergies:

      Since our stock rating in April 2017, our Trulance launch thesis is slow and higher than expected, operating costs have largely been verified. with the company reporting $ 61M of operating expenses in Q1 2017.

      Before this quote, which was made at the end of June, City had no explanation as to why stock synergies are growing rapidly. At the same time, the Securities Commission’s Biotechnology Index (NASDAQ: IBB) increased by almost 7%. This comment was meant to give the impression that Trulance’s launch is not as good as planned. Below is a graph showing the sharp increase in the index in the month of June:

      IBB Details on YCharts

      More evidence that Trulance’s launch is no slower than expected, as the saying goes, City can be seen in Ironwood’s latest earnings report, where the company has been bored a lot.The lack of estimates contributed to a reduction in inventory holdings, a direct response to the launch of Trulance. Investors should look for further inventory cuts in the upcoming earnings report and a slowdown in sales in general. It is also important to note that Amitiza’s inventory did not test any inventory during the same period. It is clear that City has a hard time with Synergy, and the reasoning suggests the founder of “Synergy”, the profile of Cerrone Gabriele.

      In January 2012, Bristol-Myers Squibb paid $ 2.6 billion to Inhibitex, a company that develops drugs for hepatitis C.the internet represented a massive 163% premium and cerrone Gabriele’s profile was on the board for Inhibitex. Cerrone is also the main point of contact during the negotiations. Citigroup was advising Inhibitex on this transaction and the investment bank lost hundreds of millions of dollars in consulting fees. Eight months after spending billions, the drug that Bristol-Myers Squibb bought had to be discontinued after the death of the patient. This is my reasoning on Citigroup’s constant negative comments on Gabriela’s profile of cerrone and synergy, a reasoning that I think has weight.Citigroup is looking for “revenge” on cerrone’s profile.

      Returning to the Trulance launch and the need for cash synergies. The companies continue to say they are happy with the reaction they are getting for Trulance. Analysts said recharge rates in the 32% range, which will be 8-9% higher than Linzess’s recharge rates for their newest 72mcg dose. The most recent corporate presentation can be viewed here.

      The recipes for Trulance have been impressive and the company is now approaching 2,000 recipes a week.The company has a sales force of 250, up from approximately 1,400 for Ironwood / Allergan. The company is also not yet approved for MBS-s, the Linzess state is intended for. Note: Linzess was approved for cic and SRK-z at the same time at the end of 2012, while Synergy will have to wait a year. Synergy also has over 60% of patients with unlimited access (for those with commercial insurance), while ironwood has over 70%. Synergy saw a slight rollback after the Trulance-based Express Scripts to its updated form for 2018.An important passage from canaccord discussed the situation below:

      Higher discounting is probably the reason that Linzess is a major pharmaceutical reference for urgent scripts, and not because Express scripts Linzess view as the best medicine. Pharmaceutical managers would rather have patients getting cheaper (albeit often less effective) treatments for the condition in the first place, especially when new treatments enter a gap.

      Synergy also has plans for a DTC campaign that is likely to start soon.The company’s snda submission for IBS-C has recently been approved, and the company expects to receive approval for this figure in January 2018. The IBS-C addition will foster synergy on the road to profitability next year after a year and a half in the market, while ironwood continues to struggle and remains unprofitable as six years on the market approaches. Investors should expect the company’s management to be laser focused on SRK-s launch and recipe augmentation.The company works with renowned casting agencies in New York, which will remain unnamed, along with the filing of signs for additional names (which I name). I suspect the trademark is for European marketing efforts, but this is not an absolute certainty. It is very common for pharmaceutical companies to market the same drug, but with different names in different parts of the world. It makes sense for synergies to establish themselves in the United States before overseas marketing efforts.Investors should familiarize themselves with EMAs, as FDA and EMA approvals differ.

      At the end of March 2017, Synergy had approximately $ 139 million in cash. The company spent over $ 60 million a quarter. Citibank claims the costs of the synergy are higher than their expectations, so they now consider the $ 60 million rate as constant. It makes little sense, as it did last quarter when the company officially launched its drug. They will not release a new Medication every quarter.Despite this, the company needs additional cash, which brings the topic of home equity and debt financing. The financial performance of the company is good, as they basically have no debts. The company has $ 16.7 million remaining in convertible debt, which is the minimum. Not to mention, the company has $ 6.3 million in receivables and $ 4.3 million in deferred income. For this I am very confident in the company to produce impressive numbers for the upcoming earnings report.

      Now the question of equity or debt financing. Synergy has made a conscious effort to reduce their convertible debt. As a result, the company remains on track to achieve profitability next year, significantly improved its financial performance and made itself more attractive in a merger situation. The large volume of convertible debt financing puts the company in a difficult financial position like Ironwood below:

      Ironwood has nearly $ 238 million in convertible bonds.and long-term debt, totaling $ 146 million. Both are massive and contribute to the reasons why the company is still far from profitable, entered into disadvantageous supply partnerships and own less than 50% of its expensive drugs. Some of the benefits of debt financing for synergy will be to maintain 100% ownership of Trulance, which is a huge competitive advantage. Synergy will also be able to deduct principal and interest payments on the loan, which essentially means that interest rates can be reduced.For example, a loan at 10% per annum, and a corporate tax rate of, say, 30%, this is essentially a 7% interest rate after tax deductions.

      Cons for debt financing, however, involves paying off the actual debt. Ironwood dug a hole for themselves with a huge amount of debt, they do not have. Synergy would create a steady stream of income for them to get such a loan, and because Synergy is too early to sell, their interest rates can be very high. Synergy needs to make sure Trulance sells in the future where loan repayment is not an issue.Of course, getting a loan means bankruptcy if the company slows sales and lenders get the first cash. Another disadvantage that I mentioned earlier is the high interest rates, but, as in the previous point, the rate of effective reduction after tax deductions. However, the rate may still be too high. Relypsa, in May 2016, announced $ 150 million in debt financing. The Relypsa interest rate was 11.5%, which is too high, and around 7% would be considered normal.The company was eventually bought out in less than two months for $ 1.5 billion, which was widely viewed as a disappointment. The key difference is with Synergy, although this start was very good, in contrast to Relypsa by Veltassa drug, which struggles at the start. Taking on debt financing, of course, also means that the company’s credit rating will be damaged, possibly and cash difficulties, which is also discussed in Ironwood below:

      In fact, Synergy learned what not to do by looking at their main competitor.Ironwood will have huge debt problems, will continue to experience cash flow anxiety and will never again get a full worldwide man who is one key to profitability.

      By doing other equity financing, the interaction will have no interest payments, almost no debt and will remain on the track to quickly achieve profitability. This time next year, when the company reaches profitability, they will either pay off debt or buy back shares.The share buybacks will, of course, have fewer shares outstanding. Of course, there is no guarantee that the company will initiate a share buyback, but if they did it would be my preference.

      Business in general involves risk. There are advantages and disadvantages of equity and debt financing. It gets to what stage your business is, and the right to know makes sense for the synergy to take over debt financing. Investors should remember that more emphasis will be placed on selling for Trulance if this route is chosen and sales are impressive right now.The interest rate is as high as Relypsa can be very discouraging. If an investor is not willing to accept these disadvantages, they should not invest in the first place. In the end, whatever route Synergy chooses, will be explored not only by Citigroup, but also by the meanings assigned to the shares. As we know, no basher parties are bad stock.

      Medicines for IBS

      You have many treatment options if you have irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Taking medication is one option.Your doctor may recommend medications if diet and lifestyle changes do not seem to be helping your condition. You need a prescription for some IBS medications. Others are available over the counter (OTC). You will have to work with your doctor to find the medications that work best for you.

      OTC drugs for IBS

      Medicines that you can buy without a prescription without a prescription include:

      • Fiber additives .These supplements dissolve in water and help increase your bowel movements. They can help you with symptoms of constipation or diarrhea. A typical example is psyllium, which is a natural plant fiber.

      • Antidiarrheal drugs . If diarrhea is one of your symptoms, there are several over-the-counter medications you can try. Loperamide (Imodium) is a common over-the-counter medicine used to treat diarrhea.

      • Probiotics .Your colon contains many healthy and normal bacteria that help fight harmful bacteria. There is some evidence that supplementing with additional beneficial bacteria called probiotics may help some people with IBS. An example is bifidobacteria. This is a group of bacteria that lives in your gut, but can be grown outside your body and taken as medicine.

      Prescription drugs for IBS

      Some prescription drug options for IBS include:

      • Antispasmodics .This type of medication can help if you have stomach cramps and pain. (Another name for IBS is spastic bowel.) These drugs can reduce muscle spasms in the colon. Examples include dicyclomine (bentyl) and hyoscyamine (levsin).

      • Antidepressants . Many people with IBS also have anxiety or depression. Low doses of an antidepressant can help reduce depression or anxiety. This can reduce pain signals from the colon to the brain.

      • Antibiotics .While good bacteria in the colon can be beneficial for IBS, bad bacteria can cause some of the symptoms of IBS. Your doctor may recommend antibiotic treatment.

      New drugs for IBS

      In the past few years, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved several drugs for the treatment of IBS. This includes:

      • Lubiproston (Amitiza) .Your doctor may suggest this drug if you are a woman and constipation is one of the main symptoms of IBS.

      • Alosetron hydrochloride (Lotronex) . This is also a drug for women. You can try it if diarrhea is one of the main symptoms and other treatments are not working.

      • Linaclotide (Linzess) . This medication is for men and women who have constipation as their main symptom.

      • Eluxadoline (Viberzi) .This drug activates the nerves in the colon, which reduce spasms. This is for men and women with IBS diarrhea.

      • Rifaximin (Xifaxan) . It is a new antibiotic for the treatment of diarrhea and abdominal pain associated with IBS. This is for men or women. The drug may help reduce harmful bacteria known to cause IBS symptoms. You have been taking this for two weeks.

      Medication reminders

      There are many treatment options for IBS.If you want to try medications, talk to your doctor about possible side effects. In addition, there is no one-size-fits-all treatment for IBS. You will need to work with your doctor to find the best treatment for you.

      Regarding the regulation of body weight by athletes

      On the peculiarities of body weight regulation by strength athletes

      In the process of sportsmanship formation, the task of appropriate regulation of the body weight of athletes certainly arises. So, in order to optimally implement the task of increasing strength and athletic performance, it is required that the athlete has a certain muscle mass.

      When an athlete is at the entry level of athletic prowess, it becomes necessary to determine in advance whether there is a need to adjust his own weight accordingly. While Strength Training is not bodybuilding, there are a number of specific techniques available to stimulate an athlete’s body weight to increase or decrease.

      It is obvious that for an effective increase in strength, an athlete needs to have a body mass that is within the range of of some optimal values ​​of .If an athlete is underweight, then it will be difficult for him to constantly increase strength indicators – not only a lack of muscle mass can affect, but also the absence of a minimum fat layer, which serves as a source of energy with sufficient volumetric loads.

      At the same time, the athlete’s excess body weight, when fat prevails, also creates some obstacles in the development of strength. They are expressed, first of all, in an increased negative effect on the cardiovascular system , which in turn has a negative effect on an athlete’s fitness increase, as well as on the degree of endurance development.

      To find the optimum body weight, it is necessary to assess the weight-to-height ratio of the athlete.

      Table 1 shows weight and height indicators for athletes of various levels of sportsmanship. These values ​​are derived from data on the height and weight of athletes of various qualifications. The basis for the qualification division of athletes is taken from the standards of the WPC of Ukraine on powerlifting and bench press.

      Achievement of the indicated weight values ​​may be one of the promising goals of the current training period, however, you should not rebuild the training process entirely and completely for weight gain or weight loss.

      The task of adjusting the body weight of an athlete is successfully solved both during periods of strength and endurance improvement. It should be noted that, of course, athletes whose body weight is 90,030 exceeds the optimal values ​​of are in a more advantageous position. In this case, the following athlete’s weight optimization algorithm can be used:

      1. Training volume starts to increase by a fixed amount weekly. To avoid overloading the athlete’s ligaments, the intensity values ​​are initially set too low.The athlete’s diet and diet remains unchanged;
      2. If during the period there is no significant decrease in the athlete’s weight, and the training volume has already reached its peak values, it is necessary to introduce additional means of general physical training (GPP) into the training process, as well as additional exercises to develop explosive strength (running short distances, long jumps , height, etc.). Thus, the level of the athlete’s energy expenditure increases even more, the rate of improvement in fitness increases.
      3. If the dynamics of body weight reduction is still unsatisfactory, then jogging at a distance of 1-3 km is introduced either after training, or, more preferably, on non-training days.
      4. Only if the above measures do not bring significant results, you need to start adjusting the athlete’s diet – offer him to exclude fast carbohydrates, and also simply lower the total amount of carbohydrates in the diet.

      As you can see from the algorithm, the first steps are directed to increase the level of training stress by increasing the training volume.Thus, the energy expenditure of an athlete increases, which leads not only to an accelerated growth rate of sports results, but also to an increased dynamics of the growth of fitness. In this case, when the athlete reaches the required body weight values, he has higher sports results than he had before the start of the increase in training volume.

      If the inverse problem is posed, when the athlete is faced with the goal of weight gain, then the algorithm used will have the opposite character:

      1. First of all, the athlete’s diet is evaluated.An increase in the proportion of complex carbohydrates in the diet is made;
      2. If these methods do not bring the desired result, the training volume is reduced to the lower limit values. This increases the intensity of the training process;
      3. The next step is an almost complete exclusion of general physical training means from training, an emphasis on basic and special auxiliary exercises, while their share in training is more than 80%;

      When athletes are guided by the solution of their local problems , for example, winning a prize in an upcoming competition, then the chances in each weight category should be assessed and the athlete’s weight should be adjusted accordingly.This fit is done using the same methods used for weight loss by the athlete. Nevertheless, taking into account the current patterns of sport, it is more expedient to focus on achieving long-term goals, for example, on fulfilling the standards (CCM, MS, MSMK).

      So, if an athlete needs to quickly lose weight to take a prize-winning place and a decision is made to drastically cut carbohydrates, include intense aerobic exercise and other methods, then it should be understood that in this way the potential is greatly spent, which could be used more effectively in the future …In this situation, it will be advisable to perform in order to gain competitive experience, but not burn the athlete too much, forcibly pushing him into a lower weight category.

      If an athlete is at a high level of sportsmanship, then often in the offseason, the weight is deliberately kept 4-5 kg ​​higher than the competitive one. This enables to more effectively increase the strength of . Then, just before the performance, due to the diet (cutting of carbohydrates), the athlete’s weight is adjusted, which does not lead to severe loss of strength.It should be remembered that this practice is mainly used for athletes of intermediate and high level of sportsmanship.

      Often, athletes use the practice of daily counting the components of the diet in terms of the proportion of proteins, carbohydrates and fats. This measure, in our opinion, is not advisable, since it is quite laborious and, carried out every day, heavily burdens the athlete psychologically, with the need for strict control of each meal. Nevertheless, superficial control of the diet is necessary: ​​you need to try to minimize the consumption of fried and fatty foods, constantly maintain a high level of fiber intake, and also control the amount of fast carbohydrates.In addition, it is advisable to eat at strictly defined hours of the day, which is one of the components of the athlete’s regimen. These measures are sufficient in the analysis of the diet of a strength athlete.

      A video that describes the general mechanism of weight gain and weight loss

      When, within certain periods, the goal of increasing the athlete’s weight is set, then you must first try to increase the number of meals. This is accomplished by adding small intermediate meals.They can be fruit or some other light meal, such as a cup of cocoa and 1-2 sandwiches. At the initial stage, 2-3 such techniques are added. If these measures are not enough, then 1-2 full meals should be added, consisting mainly of complex carbohydrates. Also, do not forget about proteins, which must also enter the body in sufficient quantities.