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List of antibiotics and what they are used for: Antibiotics: List of Common Antibiotics & Types


Should you take probiotics with antibiotics?

Medically reviewed by Carmen Pope, BPharm. Last updated on Nov 7, 2022.

There is controversy about whether you should routinely take probiotics with antibiotics and the question cannot be answered with a straight yes or no.

Evidence for taking probiotics with antibiotics includes a Cochrane review which reported that children who were given a course of probiotics after antibiotics had less diarrhea. Evidence against taking probiotics with antibiotics includes a 2019 Italian study that reported that the gut microbiome of people given probiotics after antibiotics took six months to return to its normal state compared to only three weeks for those not given any probiotics.

More studies are needed before a definite statement can be made.

What studies support giving probiotics with antibiotics?

A Cochrane review of 23 studies (3938 participants) investigated giving probiotics containing either one or a combination of the following: Bacillus spp. , Bifidobacterium spp., Clostridium butyricum, Lactobacilli spp., Lactococcus spp., Leuconostoc cremoris, Saccharomyces spp., or Streptococcus sp.

Results from 22/23 trials that reported on the incidence of antibiotic-associated diarrhea show a significant benefit from probiotics compared to active, placebo, or no treatment control (8% in the probiotic group compared to 19% in the control group). None of the 16 trials (n = 2455) that reported on side events documented any serious side events attributable to probiotics with the most common ones being rash, nausea, gas, flatulence, abdominal bloating, abdominal pain, vomiting, increased phlegm, chest pain, constipation, taste disturbance, and low appetite. The author’s concluded that there was a protective effect of probiotics for preventing antibiotic-associated diarrhea. The relative risk was 0.46 (95% CI 0.35 to 0.61) and the NNT was 10.

The authors considered Lactobacillus rhamnosus or Saccharomyces boulardii at 5 to 40 billion colony forming units/day to be the most appropriate choice. They also commented that although no serious adverse events were observed among the otherwise healthy children in these trials, serious adverse events have been observed in severely debilitated or immuno-compromised children with underlying risk factors (eg, central venous catheter use), and advised that probiotics should be avoided in pediatric populations at risk for adverse events until further research has been conducted.

What studies do not recommend giving probiotics with antibiotics?

Researchers from the Weizmann Institute of Science in Israel and other institutions reported that the gut microbiome took longer to return to normal in those people given an 11-strain probiotic treatment for four weeks following a course of antibiotics. This was despite the probiotics effectively colonizing the gut with healthy bacteria. The trouble was the presence of the new bacteria and yeasts strains prevented the gut microbiome from returning to normal for the full six month study period.

Conversely, the gut microbiome in those given no probiotics returned to normal within three weeks of going off the antibiotics. “ The authors did conclude that this study just examined one type of probiotic, and a different probiotic may be helpful in patients taking different antibiotics. However, they did point out the findings of the study imply that the traditional practice of taking a probiotic after antibiotic may not be beneficial.

More research is needed to determine if other options to strengthen the gut microbiome, such as fermented food products (eg, sauerkraut and kimchi) or fecal transplantation, is beneficial. Studies have shown that autologous fecal transplantation, which involves collecting stool samples before going on antibiotics and freezing them, brought the gut microbiome back to normal within eight days once the stool was returned to the gut following antibiotic treatment. It took 21 days for the gut microbiota in the group that didn’t undergo fecal transplantation to return to perfect health. Currently, however, the only approved indication for autologous fecal transplantation is for people with C. difficile colitis, which is an inflammation of the colon caused by the bacteria Clostridium difficile.

What are the most common side effects of probiotics?

The most common side effects reported with probiotics in clinical trials included:

  • abdominal bloating
  • abdominal pain
  • chest pain
  • constipation
  • flatulence
  • gas
  • increased phlegm
  • low appetite
  • nausea
  • rash
  • taste disturbance
  • vomiting.

What is the gut microbiome?

Our digestive tract is home to trillions of bacteria as well as fungi and viruses – these are known as the gut microbiome.

The makeup of this biome is largely genetically determined; however, it is heavily influenced by several factors such as whether we are born naturally (vaginally) or by cesarean section, if we were breastfed, our use of antibiotics, and our exposure to chemicals, pesticides, and other toxins.

Scientists now know that this microbiome is critical to our overall well-being. Some call it our second brain. Small imbalances can cause significant changes to our mental health and in the appearance of our skin and has been linked to almost every known condition such as Alzheimer’s disease, multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, and Type 2 diabetes.

An imbalance may also cause constipation, diarrhea, skin rashes, yeast infections, and a suppressed immune system. Your likelihood of putting on weight also comes down to your microbiome and the influence it has on your response to insulin and thyroid gland function.

What are probiotics?

Probiotics are live bacteria and yeasts that are beneficial for health. They are often referred to as ‘good’, ‘helpful’, or ‘healthy’ bacteria.

Probiotics are available as dietary supplements and can be brought over the counter from a drug store, pharmacy, or health store. Probiotics are also found naturally or added to foods such as dark chocolate, yogurt, miso soup, pickles, sauerkraut, tempeh, or kefir.

What is the rationale behind taking probiotics with antibiotics?

Taking an antibiotic for an infection can kill beneficial bacteria that live in your gut.

Probiotics may be taken orally to restore any imbalance in the normal intestinal or urogenital flora. This is the rationale behind taking probiotics with antibiotics. Severe antibiotic-induced diarrhea can also lead to an infection with Clostridium difficile, also known as C. difficile, a bacteria which can cause dangerous inflammation in your colon (colitis).

Experts have hypothesized that If you suffer from stomach cramping, gas or diarrhea when you take antibiotics, adding a probiotic may help to lessen, or even prevent, these symptoms. The addition of a probiotic will also reintroduce helpful bacteria into your digestive tract that have been killed or had their numbers reduced by the antibiotic.

How should I take probiotics with antibiotics?

If you do decide to take a probiotic with an antibiotic, start it the same day you start the antibiotic, but do not take it at exactly the same time as the antibiotic. Allow at least two hours to elapse after taking your antibiotic before you take your probiotic.

Probiotics are usually taken twice a day on an empty stomach. They should then be continued for at least several weeks after your course of antibiotics has finished, although some people take probiotics daily to not only continue to help digestion but to boost their immune system and enhance the absorption of some nutrients.

If you wish to take probiotic supplements, choose a high-quality probiotic made by a reputable company that contains at least one of the following: Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Saccharomyces boulardii, or Bifidobacterium sp. at 5 to 40 billion colony units/day.

Do prebiotics help return the gut microbiome to normal?

Prebiotics are foods for probiotics and include fiber-rich foods such as fruits, vegetables, cereals.

Mixing prebiotics with probiotics, such as yogurt with fruit and cereal or sauerkraut with a vegetable stir fry could be helpful for your gut, although there is no scientific evidence to support this.

Good prebiotic foods include vegetables such as artichokes, asparagus, garlic, onions, and any green vegetable; fruits such as bananas, berries, and tomatoes; herbs such as chicory or garlic; grains like barley, oat, and wheat; and other fibers such as inulin that may be available on its own or added to foods such as granola bars, cereal, and yogurt.


  • Goldenberg JZ, Lytvyn L, Steurich J, Parkin P, Mahant S, Johnston BC. Probiotics for the prevention of pediatric antibiotic-associated diarrhea. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015 Dec 22;(12):CD004827. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD004827.pub4. Update in: Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2019 Apr 30;4:CD004827. PMID: 26695080.
  • Suez J, Zmora N, Zilberman-Schapira G, et al. Post-Antibiotic Gut Mucosal Microbiome Reconstitution Is Impaired by Probiotics and Improved by Autologous FMT. Cell. 2018 Sep 6;174(6):1406-1423.e16. doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2018.08.047. PMID: 30193113.
  • Goderska K, Agudo Pena S, Alarcon T. Helicobacter pylori treatment: antibiotics or probiotics. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2018 Jan;102(1):1-7. doi: 10.1007/s00253-017-8535-7. Epub 2017 Oct 26. PMID: 29075827; PMCID: PMC5748437.
  • Neut C, Mahieux S, Dubreuil LJ. Antibiotic susceptibility of probiotic strains: Is it reasonable to combine probiotics with antibiotics? Med Mal Infect. 2017 Nov;47(7):477-483. doi: 10.1016/j.medmal.2017.07.001. Epub 2017 Aug 7. PMID: 28797834.
  • Guandalini S. Probiotics for prevention and treatment of diarrhea. J Clin Gastroenterol. 2011 Nov;45 Suppl:S149-53. doi: 10.1097/MCG.0b013e3182257e98. PMID: 21992955.
  • Do probiotics provide effective and safe protection against antibiotic-associated adverse effects? Best Practice Journal > 2015 > BPJ: 68 > Do probiotics provide effective and safe protection against antibiotic-associated adverse effects? https://bpac.org.nz/bpj/2015/june/probiotics.aspx

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Medical Disclaimer

Sulfamethoxazole and Trimethoprim Suspension Information



Generic name: Sulfamethoxazole and Trimethoprim Suspension [ sul-fa-meth-OKS-a-zole-& trye-METH-oh-prim ]
Drug class: Sulfonamides

Medically reviewed by Drugs. com. Last updated on May 20, 2023.

Uses of Sulfamethoxazole and Trimethoprim Suspension:

  • It is used to treat or prevent bacterial infections.

What do I need to tell my doctor BEFORE I take Sulfamethoxazole and Trimethoprim Suspension?

For all patients taking sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim suspension:

  • If you are allergic to sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim suspension; any part of sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim suspension; or any other drugs, foods, or substances. Tell your doctor about the allergy and
    what signs you had.
  • If you have anemia caused by a lack of folic acid.
  • If you have any of these health problems: Kidney disease or liver disease.
  • If you have any of these health problems: Asthma, porphyria, thyroid disease, not enough folate in the body, poor absorption, or poor
  • If you have been drinking alcohol for a long time or are taking a drug for seizures.
  • If you have ever had a low platelet count when using trimethoprim or a sulfa (sulfonamide) drug.
  • If you are taking any of these drugs: Amantadine, cyclosporine, dofetilide, indomethacin, leucovorin, methotrexate, or pyrimethamine.
  • If you are taking or have recently taken any of these drugs: Benazepril, captopril, enalapril, fosinopril, lisinopril, moexipril,
    perindopril, quinapril, ramipril, or trandolapril.
  • If you are taking a water pill.
  • If you are breast-feeding or plan to breast-feed.


  • If your child is younger than 2 months of age. Do not give sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim suspension to an infant younger than 2 months of age.

This is not a list of all drugs or health problems that interact with sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim suspension.

Tell your doctor and pharmacist about all of your drugs (prescription or OTC, natural products, vitamins) and health problems. You must check
to make sure that it is safe for you to take sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim suspension with all of your drugs and health problems. Do not start, stop, or change the dose of
any drug without checking with your doctor.

What are some things I need to know or do while I take Sulfamethoxazole and Trimethoprim Suspension?

  • Tell all of your health care providers that you take sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim suspension. This includes your doctors, nurses, pharmacists, and dentists.
  • Have blood work checked as you have been told by the doctor. Talk with the doctor.
  • Have your urine checked as you have been told by your doctor.
  • This medicine may affect certain lab tests. Tell all of your health care providers and lab workers that you take sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim suspension.
  • Do not use longer than you have been told. A second infection may happen.
  • Be careful if you have G6PD deficiency. Anemia may happen.
  • If you have high blood sugar (diabetes), you will need to watch your blood sugar closely.
  • Talk with your doctor before you drink alcohol.
  • This medicine may make you sunburn more easily. Use care if you will be in the sun. Tell your doctor if you sunburn easily while taking this
  • Rarely, very bad effects have happened with sulfa drugs. Sometimes, these have been deadly. These effects have included liver problems,
    blood problems, and very bad skin reactions (Stevens-Johnson syndrome/toxic epidermal necrolysis). Call your doctor right away if you have a
    rash; red, swollen, blistered, or peeling skin; red or irritated eyes; sores in your mouth, throat, nose, or eyes; fever, chills, or sore
    throat; cough that is new or worse; feeling very tired or weak; any bruising or bleeding; or signs of liver problems like dark urine, feeling
    tired, not hungry, upset stomach or stomach pain, light-colored stools, throwing up, or yellow skin or eyes.
  • This medicine may raise the chance of a very bad brain problem called aseptic meningitis. Call your doctor right away if you have a headache,
    fever, chills, very upset stomach or throwing up, stiff neck, rash, bright lights bother your eyes, feeling sleepy, or feeling confused.
  • If you are 65 or older, use sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim suspension with care. You could have more side effects.
  • This medicine may cause harm to the unborn baby if you take it while you are pregnant. If you are pregnant or you get pregnant while taking
    sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim suspension, call your doctor right away.

How is this medicine (Sulfamethoxazole and Trimethoprim Suspension) best taken?

Use sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim suspension as ordered by your doctor. Read all information given to you. Follow all instructions closely.

  • Take with or without food. Take with food if it causes an upset stomach.
  • Take with a full glass of water.
  • Take sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim suspension at the same time of day.
  • Keep taking sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim suspension as you have been told by your doctor or other health care provider, even if you feel well.
  • Drink lots of noncaffeine liquids unless told to drink less liquid by your doctor.
  • Shake well before use.
  • Measure liquid doses carefully. Use the measuring device that comes with sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim suspension. If there is none, ask the pharmacist for a device to
    measure sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim suspension.

What do I do if I miss a dose?

  • Take a missed dose as soon as you think about it.
  • If it is close to the time for your next dose, skip the missed dose and go back to your normal time.
  • Do not take 2 doses at the same time or extra doses.

What are some side effects that I need to call my doctor about right away?

WARNING/CAUTION: Even though it may be rare, some people may have very bad and sometimes deadly side effects when taking a drug. Tell your
doctor or get medical help right away if you have any of the following signs or symptoms that may be related to a very bad side effect:

  • Signs of an allergic reaction, like rash; hives; itching; red, swollen, blistered, or peeling skin with or without fever; wheezing;
    tightness in the chest or throat; trouble breathing, swallowing, or talking; unusual hoarseness; or swelling of the mouth, face, lips, tongue,
    or throat.
  • Signs of a high potassium level like a heartbeat that does not feel normal; change in thinking clearly and with logic; feeling weak,
    lightheaded, or dizzy; feel like passing out; numbness or tingling; or shortness of breath.
  • Signs of low blood sugar like dizziness, headache, feeling sleepy, feeling weak, shaking, a fast heartbeat, confusion, hunger, or sweating.
  • Signs of kidney problems like unable to pass urine, change in how much urine is passed, blood in the urine, or a big weight gain.
  • Signs of low sodium levels like headache, trouble focusing, memory problems, feeling confused, weakness, seizures, or change in balance.
  • Muscle or joint pain.
  • Purple patches on the skin or mouth.
  • Shortness of breath.
  • Hallucinations (seeing or hearing things that are not there).
  • Mood changes.
  • Diarrhea is common with antibiotics. Rarely, a severe form called C diff–associated diarrhea (CDAD) may happen. Sometimes, this has led
    to a deadly bowel problem (colitis). CDAD may happen during or a few months after taking antibiotics. Call your doctor right away if you have
    stomach pain, cramps, or very loose, watery, or bloody stools. Check with your doctor before treating diarrhea.

What are some other side effects of Sulfamethoxazole and Trimethoprim Suspension?

All drugs may cause side effects. However, many people have no side effects or only have minor side effects. Call your doctor or get medical
help if any of these side effects or any other side effects bother you or do not go away:

  • Upset stomach or throwing up.
  • Diarrhea.
  • Not hungry.

These are not all of the side effects that may occur. If you have questions about side effects, call your doctor. Call your doctor for medical
advice about side effects.

You may report side effects to the FDA at 1-800-332-1088. You may also report side effects at https://www.fda.gov/medwatch.

If OVERDOSE is suspected:

If you think there has been an overdose, call your poison control center or get medical care right away. Be ready to tell or show what was
taken, how much, and when it happened.

How do I store and/or throw out Sulfamethoxazole and Trimethoprim Suspension?

  • Store at room temperature protected from light. Store in a dry place. Do not store in a bathroom.
  • Keep all drugs in a safe place. Keep all drugs out of the reach of children and pets.
  • Throw away unused or expired drugs. Do not flush down a toilet or pour down a drain unless you are told to do so. Check with your
    pharmacist if you have questions about the best way to throw out drugs. There may be drug take-back programs in your area.

Consumer Information Use and Disclaimer

  • If your symptoms or health problems do not get better or if they become worse, call your doctor.
  • Do not share your drugs with others and do not take anyone else’s drugs.
  • Some drugs may have another patient information leaflet. Check with your pharmacist. If you have any questions about sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim suspension, please talk
    with your doctor, nurse, pharmacist, or other health care provider.
  • If you think there has been an overdose, call your poison control center or get medical care right away. Be ready to tell or show what was
    taken, how much, and when it happened.

Frequently asked questions

  • What drugs should be avoided with a sulfa allergy?
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Medical Disclaimer

What are antibiotics? – article on the website Aptechestvo, Nizhny Novgorod

Antibiotics are a group of drugs that are used in the treatment of bacterial infections. Bacteria are living microorganisms that, having penetrated into the human body, begin active life and reproduction. The effect of antibiotic therapy is the direct destruction of the pathogen, as well as slowing down the reproduction of pathogens. In connection with these antibacterial drugs are divided into 2 large groups: bactericidal – destroying the bacterium itself, as well as bacteriostatic, inhibiting their growth. In addition, antibiotics have a narrow and broad spectrum of action. Narrow-spectrum drugs destroy the infection selectively, while broad-spectrum drugs destroy most of the microorganisms, including those that benefit humans. What antibiotics to take for the treatment of various diseases should be decided by the doctor after the diagnosis. Taking such drugs at your own discretion is fraught with complications.


They suppress the activity of enzymes involved in the formation of bacterial DNA, as a result of which the infection dies. The drugs are available in the form of tablets, injections, ophthalmic drops. Indications for appointment:

This group of drugs:

  • Ciprofloxacin;

  • Ofloxacin;

  • Pefloxacin;

  • Norfloxacin.


Broad-spectrum agents that kill most types of Gram-negative aerobic and facultative bacteria. The active substance disrupts the process of protein synthesis, as a result of which the pathogen is destroyed and dies.

Aminoglycosides are poorly absorbed when taken orally, so, as a rule, they are prescribed as intravenous or intramuscular injections. Members of this group:

  • Amikacin;

  • Gentamicin;

  • Kanamycin;

  • Neomycin;

  • Plazomycin;

  • Streptomycin.

As a rule, these drugs are used in combination with other antibiotics to treat such infectious diseases:


Bacteriostatic antibiotics that retard the growth of pathogenic microorganisms, but do not completely destroy them. As a result, the reproduction of the infection stops, and it gradually dies.

Tetracyclines have a wide spectrum of activity, with pronounced activity against aerobic gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Tetracyclines are not prescribed for children under 8 years of age, since long-term use causes a number of serious complications.

The drugs of this group can be prescribed in tablet forms and in the form of injections. For the treatment of ophthalmic infections, ointments are produced, the active substance of which is tetracycline.


  • doxycycline;

  • minocycline;

  • Tetracycline;

  • Oxytetracycline.

Diseases for which tetracyclines are prescribed:


They suppress vital activity and prevent the reproduction of anaerobic and aerobic gram-positive bacteria. Preparations of this group are used in the treatment of bronchopulmonary infections, tonsillitis, otitis, scarlet fever, intestinal infections. Medicines that are included in this group:

  • Erythromycin;

  • Azithromycin;

  • Clarithromycin;

  • Spiramycin.


A group of antibiotics produced by the fungus Penicillium. Penicilli are active against most Gram-positive and some Gram-negative bacteria. This group of drugs:

  • Amoxicillin;

  • Augumetin;

  • Amoxiclav;

  • Flemoxin Slutab.


These are bactericidal beta-beta-lactam antibiotics that interfere with cell protein synthesis. There are 5 generations of cephalosporins. The active substance penetrates well into most body fluids, having a pronounced bactericidal effect. Cephalosporins are used for uncomplicated skin and soft tissue infections caused by staphylococcal and streptococcal bacteria. This group of drugs:

  • Ceftriaxone;

  • Cefodox;

  • Cefix;

  • Tsepefim.

Bacteria are organisms that do not live long, but in order to restore their population, they multiply rapidly, and, accordingly, quickly mutate, adapting to new living conditions. Microorganisms that survive after taking antibiotics become resistant to them. Their offspring also become immune to a particular drug.

Antibiotic resistance is a common problem of modern man, which causes serious complications. A person who has tried many antibiotics, that is, self-medicated, is at risk for patients with antibiotic resistance. Very often they die before a specialist can pick up a drug that works against a specific pathogen. Therefore, it is important to follow the recommendations of the doctor and take antibacterial agents strictly according to an individual scheme.

8 groups of antibiotics and a list of the best


  • 1 8 groups of antibiotics, a list of the best drugs for fighting bacteria
    • 1.1 Antibacterials: groups and best examples
    • 1.2 Group of beta-lactam antibiotics 90 014
    • 1.3 Macrolide antibiotic group
    • 1.4 Tetracycline antibiotic group
    • 1.5 Aminoglycoside antibiotic group
    • 1. 6 Quinolone antibiotic group
    • 1.7 Glycopeptide group
    • 1.8 Lincosamide group
    • 1.9 Polymyxin group
    • 1.10 Antibacterial drug Azithromycin
    • 1.11 Antibacterial drug Amoxicillin
    • 1. 12 Antibacterial drug Levofloxacin
    • 1.13 Related videos:

Explore the list of 8 groups of antibacterial drugs and get detailed information about the best antibiotics that will help get rid of various infections with a high level of effectiveness and safe for health. The use of antibiotics should be carried out under the recommendation of a doctor who will determine the dosage, duration of the course and the specific drug depending on the type of infection.

Antibacterials are medicines used to treat various infectious diseases caused by bacteria. There are several groups of antibiotics, each of which is aimed at suppressing certain types of bacteria.

One of the main tasks of an infectious disease doctor is to choose the right drug for a particular patient, taking into account the type of infection, age, the presence of allergic reactions and other factors. Listed below are the 8 groups of antibacterial drugs most widely used in medicine.

  1. Penicillins are the oldest group of antibiotics that were first discovered in the middle of the 20th century. They act on a wide range of bacteria and are highly effective in the treatment of many infections.
  2. Cephalosporins are a group of antibiotics that act on bacteria that cause infections in the respiratory tract, urinary tract, skin and teeth. They are also widely used in surgery to prevent postoperative infections.
  3. Macrolides are a group of antibiotics used to treat infections of the upper respiratory tract, skin and soft tissues. They are often prescribed for allergies to penicillins.
  4. Aminoglycosides are a group of antibiotics that act on bacteria that cause severe urinary tract, lung, bone and joint infections. They are often used to treat patients in hospitals.
  5. Lincosamides is a group of antibiotics used to treat infections caused by anaerobic bacteria. They can also be used as an alternative to macrolides in the treatment of respiratory or skin infections.
  6. Fluoroquinolones are a group of antibiotics that act on bacteria that cause urinary tract, genital, lung and skin infections. They are often prescribed as a treatment for urogenital infections.
  7. Tetracyclines are a group of antibiotics that act on bacteria that cause respiratory, urinary, and skin infections. They are also used to treat sexually transmitted infections.
  8. Carbapenems are a group of antibiotics that act on bacteria that cause severe infections, including bone, lung and hospital infections. Carbapenems are used as a last line of treatment when other antibiotics do not work.

Antibacterials: groups and best examples

There are 8 groups of antibiotics, which are classified according to their mechanism of action and chemical structure. Each group has its own specific activity and is used to treat certain infections.

The second group is cephalosporins. They are more stable in acidic environments and are more widely used for more serious infections. Particularly effective are cefotaxime, ceftriaxone, and cefepime.

The third group is macrolides. These antibiotics act on the bacterium, preventing it from multiplying. These include erythromycin, clarithromycin, and azithromycin.

The fourth group is tetracyclines. They are widely used in the treatment of various infections, including respiratory and genitourinary infections. A famous example is doxycycline.

Fifth group – aminoglycosides. These antibiotics are powerful bactericidal and are used to treat severe infections such as sepsis and pneumonia. Gentamicin, tobramycin and amikacin are the most widely used.

Sixth group – lincosamides. They are also used to treat severe infections and have anti-inflammatory effects. These include lincomycin and clindamycin.

Seventh group – carbapenems. They are powerful antibiotics and are widely used to treat infections caused by many different bacteria, including those resistant to other groups of antibiotics. Of these, the best known are imipenem and meropenem.

Eighth group – fluoroquinolones. They are effective in treating a variety of infections, including acute and chronic bronchitis, bacterial diarrhea, and urinary tract infection. These include ofloxacin, levofloxacin, and ciprofloxacin.

The above groups of antibiotics are the main ones, but there are other groups of antibacterial drugs on the market.

Group of beta-lactam antibiotics

Beta-lactam antibiotics are one of the most widely used groups of antibiotics. Their basis is the beta-lactam ring fragment in their chemical structure.

Beta-lactam drugs fall into four main categories:

  • Penicillins
  • Cephalosporins
  • Carbapenems
  • Monobactams

Penicillins are widely used to treat infections caused by various bacteria, including pneumococci, streptococci, and staphylococci. Cephalosporins are also widely used to treat infections and are usually an alternative if penicillins are ineffective or cannot be used. Carbapenems are strong antibiotics often used in the hospital to treat severe infections caused by various bacteria, including Pseudomonas and Acinetobacter. Monobactams are a relatively new class of antibiotics used to treat infections caused by Gram-negative bacteria such as Pseudomonas and Haemophilus influenzae.

Some examples of beta-lactam antibiotics: Penicillin drugs Cephalosporin drugs 0282

Ceftriaxone Amoxiclav Cefepime

Group of macrolide antibiotics

Macrolide antibiotics are one of the most widely used groups antibiotics. They are used to treat various infections such as respiratory, genitourinary, gastroenterological, skin and other types of infections. The macrolide group includes drugs such as azithromycin, erythromycin, clarithromycin, and others.

The mechanism of action of macrolide antibiotics is based on the fact that they block the synthesis of proteins in the bacterial cell, which leads to its death. Also, macrolides have the properties of immunomodulators, helping to suppress inflammation and increase immunity.

The advantage of macrolides over other antibiotics is their relative safety and broad spectrum of activity. They are well tolerated by patients and usually do not cause serious side effects. However, like other antibiotics, macrolides can cause allergic reactions and intestinal dysbiosis.

  • Azithromycin is considered the most effective and widely used in this group of drugs, due to its long duration of action and the fact that it can be used to treat bacterial infections of any location.
  • Erythromycin is more active against gram-positive bacteria than azithromycin, but less effective against bacteria that cause urinary tract infections.
  • Clarithromycin has the added benefit of better tissue and vascular penetration than other macrolides, making it more effective against respiratory tract infections.

Tetracycline antibiotic group

Tetracycline antibiotics are a group of medicines that are used to fight many types of bacteria. These antibiotics have a wide spectrum of activity and are used to treat infectious diseases such as pneumonia, urinary tract infections, skin infections, etc.

Some of the most commonly used tetracycline antibiotics include tetracycline, doxycycline, minocycline and oxytetracycline.

Like all antibiotics, tetracyclines can cause side effects and it is important to check with your doctor or pharmacist before taking these medicines. Tetracyclines are not recommended for children under 12 years of age, pregnant women and nursing mothers.

Examples of tetracycline antibiotics Available as…

Tetracycline Tablets, capsules
Doxycycline Tablets, capsules , syrup
Minocycline Tablets, capsules
Oxytetracycline Tablets, capsules

Aminoglycosis group

Aminoglycoside antibiotics are a group of bactericidal drugs that act on bacterial cells by interfering with protein synthesis. They can also produce effects on certain types of cells and tissues, but are more often used only as antibacterial drugs.

Aminoglycosides are often used to treat severe infections caused by Gram-negative bacteria. Including pathogens such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae.

Aminoglycosides have a number of typical representatives: gentamicin, kanamycin, amikacin, streptomycin and others. Each of them has its own characteristics, designed to defeat certain types of bacteria.

Thus, aminoglycoside antibiotics remain an important group of drugs for the treatment of severe infections caused by gram-negative bacteria. Their use requires special care and only after a careful assessment of the side effects in a particular case.

Quinolone antibiotic group

Quinolone antibiotics are a group of bactericides used to treat infectious diseases. They have a wide spectrum of activity and are well tolerated by patients.

Quinolones act on bacteria by inhibiting their ability to synthesize DNA, which leads to their death. Thus, they can be used to treat infections caused by both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria.

  • Examples of quinolone antibiotics:
    • Ciprofloxacin
    • Ofloxacin
    • Levofloxacin
    • Norfloxacin
    • Moxifloxacin
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    Quinolones can be used to treat infections of the respiratory tract, urinary tract, skin infections, infections of the gastrointestinal tract, as well as to prevent infections in immunocompromised states.

    Group of glycopeptides

    Glycopeptides is a group of antibiotics that are intended for the treatment of infections caused by gram-positive bacteria. Usually used to treat pathogens that cause infections of the skin, respiratory tract, bones and purulent blood infections. They are relatively new drugs that have become available for use only recently.

    Preparations of the glycopeptide group:

    • Vancomycin is one of the most commonly used representatives of the glycopeptide group. It is widely used to treat infections caused by bacteria resistant to other types of antibiotics. It is recommended to be used if other drugs have no effect.
    • Telavancin – effective against most gram-positive bacteria, including methicillin-resistant strains of staphylococci. It has a fast action and a wide spectrum of action.
    • Oritavancin – is prescribed for the treatment of skin and soft tissue infections, as well as pneumonia in patients suffering from chronic diseases. It is well tolerated and has minimal side effects.

    Contraindications and side effects:

    Preparations of the glycopeptide group have several contraindications and possible side effects. Some of them can be toxic to the kidneys and/or liver, which can lead to serious complications. Allergic reactions, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea may also occur.

    It is necessary to consult a doctor before starting treatment with drugs of the glycopeptide group. In addition, the recommended dose and duration of treatment should not be exceeded.

    Lincosamide group

    Lincosamides are a group of antibiotics that are active against gram-positive bacteria, including staphylococci, streptococci and pneumococci. They are synthesized by microorganisms that produce them as a defense against other bacteria. Lincosamides are used to treat infections caused by these bacteria, including infections of the skin, respiratory tract, and urogenital system.

    The main member of the group is erythromycin, which has a wide spectrum of action and is often used to treat upper respiratory tract infections. Also in the group of lincosamides are clarithromycin, which has greater activity against gram-negative bacteria, as well as azithromycin, which has a long half-life and can be taken once.

    • Benefits of lincosamides:
    • broad spectrum;
    • good tolerance;
    • choice of dosage and formulation;
    • few side effects.


    1. High price compared to some other groups of antibiotics;
    2. Development of resistance to this group of antibiotics.

    Polymyxin group

    Polymyxin is a group of antibiotics that were discovered in 1947 year. They have a broad spectrum of activity and are active against many Gram-negative bacteria such as Escherichia coli, Salmonella, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Polymyxins may be used to treat pneumonia, urinary tract infections, sepsis, skin infections, and other infections caused by Gram-negative bacteria.

    Despite their toxicity, polymyxins remain an important tool in the fight against infections caused by many Gram-negative bacteria that have become resistant to other antibiotics. They should only be used after other antibiotics have been tried and failed or cannot be used for other reasons.

    Antibacterial Azithromycin

    Azithromycin is a macrolide antibiotic used to treat a variety of infections caused by bacteria, including pneumonia, bronchitis, sinusitis, tracheitis, urinary tract infections, skin infections, and other conditions. This drug has a wide spectrum of action and is considered one of the most effective antibiotics.

    Azithromycin is available in several forms: tablets, capsules, suspension and powder for intravenous solution. The main advantage of this drug is its short course of treatment – usually it is enough to take tablets or capsules for 3-5 days. It is also generally well tolerated and has few side effects.

    It is important to remember that azithromycin is an antibiotic and should only be taken with a doctor’s prescription. Do not exceed the recommended dose and duration of the drug. If side effects occur, you should immediately consult your doctor.

    • Benefits:
    • Broad spectrum;
    • Short course of treatment;
    • Minimum number of side effects.
    1. Purpose:
    2. Treatment of infections of the respiratory tract, genitourinary system, skin infections, etc.

    Antibacterial drug Amoxicillin

    Amoxicillin is an antibacterial drug that belongs to the group of semi-synthetic penicillins. It is widely used to treat various infections caused by bacteria.

    The mechanism of action of amoxicillin is based on the fact that it destroys bacteria by inhibiting the synthesis of their cell walls. The drug is active against many types of bacteria, including staphylococci, streptococci, pneumococci, salmonella, shigella and others.

    Amoxicillin is taken orally, in one dose or divided into several doses. The dosage and duration of the course of treatment depend on the type of infection and its severity, as well as on the age and weight of the patient.

    Side effects of amoxicillin include allergic reactions, diarrhea, nausea and vomiting. In addition, the drug may interact with certain other drugs.

    • Amoxicillin is one of the most common and most effective antibacterial drugs.
    • The drug can be prescribed to adults and children, including newborns.
    • Although highly effective, amoxicillin cannot treat infections caused by viruses, fungi, and protozoa.

    If you are being treated with amoxicillin, follow your doctor’s instructions and do not stop treatment prematurely, even if the symptoms of the infection have gone. This will help prevent recurrence of the infection and reduce the risk of developing bacterial resistance.

    Antibacterial drug Levofloxacin

    Levofloxacin is a fluoroquinolone antibiotic used to treat infections caused by susceptible organisms. It penetrates into bacterial cells and disrupts their viability by blocking DNA synthesis.

    Levofloxacin is effective against a wide range of bacteria, including Gram-positive, Gram-negative, weather-resistant and anaerobic organisms.

    Levofloxacin is most commonly used to treat bacterial infections of the respiratory tract, genitourinary system, skin, soft tissues, and bones. It also has an anti-inflammatory effect, so it can be used to treat acute bronchi and exacerbations of chronic lung diseases.

    • Levofloxacin is not recommended for children under 18 years of age, pregnant or lactating women, or patients with kidney or liver problems.