Loss of vision symptoms: Symptoms, Signs, Causes & Treatment
Sudden Blindness, Sudden Vision Loss: Symptoms, Causes, Treatments
A sudden loss of vision doesn’t necessarily mean total blindness. It can occur in one eye or both eyes, and the loss of sight can be partial or total.
With total vision loss, the sight in the affected eye (or eyes) is lost completely, so that nothing can be seen with the affected eye. With partial vision loss, some sight may remain in the affected eye.
Sudden vision loss can also include a sudden loss of peripheral vision, sudden loss of central vision, or even a sudden blurring of your vision. The sudden appearance of spots within your field of vision could also a symptom of a more serious condition.
Sudden blindness may only last a short time, such as a few seconds, minutes or hours. However, it could potentially be permanent, especially if not treated quickly.
Sudden loss of vision can occur for a number of reasons. Many underlying problems are very serious, and could potentially be sight-threatening or even life-threatening.
It’s therefore essential to seek medical help as soon as possible if you experience any sudden loss of sight.
Damage to the retina
The retina is the focusing surface at the back of your eye. Any damage to your retina, such as a detached retina or artery occlusion, is a possible cause of sudden blindness.
A detached retina can cause total loss of vision in the affected eye, or it may only result in partial vision loss, making it seem as if a curtain is blocking part of your vision.
The macula is the central focusing area of the retina at the back of your eye. When a macular problem occurs, it results in a loss of your central vision, while your peripheral or ‘side’ vision remains.
Some eye conditions can cause blood to leak into the vitreous ‘gel’ within the eye. This is known as a vitreous haemorrhage. If this occurs, it can block the light which enters the eye, causing sudden blurred vision if it is not as dense, or the sudden appearance of spots within your vision.
Serious medical conditions
There are some serious medical conditions that can cause sudden blindness, such as a stroke or brain tumour. While these causes are quite rare, it is nonetheless important to seek medical attention as soon as possible.
If you experience sudden blindness or any sudden loss of vision, you need to see an eye specialist straight away. Treatment will depend on the cause, but in most cases the earlier you are treated, the better your chance of a good outcome.
If you or anyone else suffers a sudden loss of vision, call us at the Eye Institute immediately on 0800 393 527.
Temporary Loss of Peripheral Vision: Causes, Treatment, Prevention
If you’re like most people, losing your sight probably frightens you. A 2016 nationwide survey by John Hopkins University found that Americans across all age and ethnic population groups believe that the worst health outcome would be losing their vision.
Not surprisingly, most respondents also supported prevention and healthcare for eyes, which is practical since having a qualified eye doctor in your corner can catch issues early and help protect you against temporary and permanent vision loss.
The focus of this article is peripheral vision, also known as side vision, which gives us the ability to see to the sides, above and below our central point of focus. This article will provide information on the causes of temporary peripheral vision loss, how to help prevent it and its treatment options.
What does the temporary loss of peripheral vision feel like?
Imagine being in a cabin on a cruise ship. You’re standing a few feet from a porthole. With normal vision, you’ll see the porthole, the sky and ocean outside, which is in your central vision. You’ll also see portions of the off-white walls and ceiling, end table and lamp just right of the porthole and more because you have normal peripheral vision.
If you lose your peripheral vision, the edges of the room you’re standing in may blur and fade from your side vision, and if peripheral vision is completely gone, you only see the porthole and what’s outside.
What causes tunnel vision?
The American Academy of Ophthalmology (AAO) says peripheral vision loss (also called tunnel vision) can be caused by the following conditions:
High blood sugar can damage the small blood vessels in the retina, which is the area of the eye that senses light. As the damage progresses, changes to vision, including peripheral vision loss, could be evident.
This condition damages the optic nerve that communicates to the brain due to a build-up of pressure in the eye. The key to successful management of this disease is early diagnosis and treatment. When the nerve is damaged it can cause peripheral vision loss, and if left untreated, it can cause complete vision loss over time.
This genetic condition damages the retina and usually impacts teenagers and young adults but can affect people at any age. Night blindness is usually the first symptom, but it may progress to an inability to distinguish colors, then to peripheral vision loss.
What causes temporary peripheral vision loss?
There can be a wide variety of causes, from health conditions and emotional stress, to retinal pressure. Here are a few known causes, preventive actions and treatments for temporary loss of peripheral vision.
If you are a migraine sufferer, you may have experienced a migraine that was severe enough to cause peripheral loss of vision in one eye, either with or following a migraine headache.
According to WebMD, the causes of an ocular migraine aren’t known, but some experts theorize they’re caused by:
- Spasms in the blood vessels of the retina
- Changes to the nerve cells that spread across the retina
Ocular migraines usually go away on their own within 60 minutes, so they are not treated – and there’s no known preventive treatment for them.
Vasovagal syncope syndrome
A primary symptom of vasovagal syncope, a syndrome characterized by a drop in blood pressure that leads to fainting, is temporary peripheral vision loss. Other symptoms include pale skin, dizziness and blurred vision.
The syndrome is caused by a trigger, such as the sight of blood, that causes your heart rate and blood pressure to drop and lead to symptoms such as peripheral vision loss and fainting. If you feel faint or lose your peripheral vision, the Mayo Clinic suggests lying down and putting your feet in the air to keep blood circulating.
While avoiding whatever triggers the event may help in prevention, if you experience fainting or loss of vision, talk to a physician immediately.
Extreme panic or stress
Although the feeling of emotional stress itself isn’t the cause of loss of peripheral vision, changes such as a temporary decrease in blood pressure during an extremely emotional time can lead to dimming or loss of vision temporarily, according to the AAO.
In these cases, vision loss usually returns to normal and doesn’t require treatment. However, any type of vision loss can indicate something serious. Contact an eye doctor to get an evaluation to ensure there’s nothing more serious to be concerned with.
If you’re looking for a good eye doctor to help you maintain eye health and diagnose changes to your vision, request an online appointment with Southwestern Eye Center today.
Vision Problems | National Multiple Sclerosis Society
A vision problem is the first symptom of MS for many people. Fortunately, the prognosis is good for recovery from many vision problems associated with MS.
A 2004 study published in Neurology reported optic-spinal MS occurs in 17 percent of African-Americans compared with 8 percent of Caucasians.
A common visual symptom of MS is optic neuritis — inflammation of the optic (vision) nerve. Optic neuritis usually occurs in one eye and may cause aching pain with eye movement, blurred vision, dim vision, or loss of color vision. For example, the color red may appear washed out or gray. Vision may be lost completely in the affected eye. A blurred or dim spot (scotoma) may occur in the center of the visual field, with peripheral vision unaffected. Optic neuritis usually occurs in one eye only. It is possible that after experiencing optic neuritis in one eye, you may experience it in the other eye at some time in the future – although this does not always occur.
Optic neuritis, with a loss of vision can be a frightening symptom, but in most cases, vision returns. Residual symptoms are possible, and you may notice a dimming or blurring of vision if you are very fatigues or overheated. Rest and cooling generally help vision return.
High doses of glucocorticoids, such as intravenous methylprednisolone or prednisone pills are often used to help accelerate recovery from optic neuritis.
Nystagmus is involuntary and uncontrolled movement of the eyes that can impair your vision. Movement is usually rapid and can be up and down, side to side or rotating. Nystagmus may occur when looking straight ahead or may occur when the eyes are moved. Sometimes nystagmus is called “dancing eyes”. It may make you feel like the world is moving and you may notice that you can hold your head at an angle to reduce the symptoms. Nystagmus may come and go or may be persistent. Treatment for nystagmus is limited and may include off-label use of medications such as gabapentin.
In MS, diplopia, or double vision, occurs when the nerves that control your eye movement are inflamed or damaged. The nerves control muscles that allow eye movement. Normally, the muscles work in a coordinated way, but when diplopia occurs, muscles on one side may be weak from nerve damage and the eye movements are no longer coordinated. This may produce two side by side images or one image on top of another. Diplopia may be temporary or persistent and may resolve without treatment. When diplopia is a new symptom, it may be part of a relapse of MS and a brief course of corticosteroids may be helpful. Patching one eye can also be useful for driving or other short tasks. Special eyeglass lenses known as prism lens may be helpful for persistent diplopia.
Vision Loss | Loss of Vision in One Eye
Acute close-angle glaucoma
Acute closed-angle glaucoma is also called angle-closure glaucoma or narrow-angle glaucoma. “Acute” means it begins suddenly and without warning.
“Glaucoma” means the fluid pressure inside one or both eyes is too high. “Closed-angle” means that the iris – the circular band of color in the eye – does not dilate open properly and blocks the natural drainage mechanism within the eye. The fluid builds up and causes the pressure to increase.
The exact cause of any glaucoma is not known. It may be an inherited trait.
Acute closed-angle glaucoma can be triggered by an extreme dilation of the eyes, as when walking from bright light into total darkness.
Symptoms include sudden eye pain, headache, nausea, blurred vision, and seeing a rainbow-like aura around lights. This is a medical emergency. Take the patient to the emergency room or call 9-1-1.
Diagnosis is made through patient history and thorough eye examination.
Treatment involves surgery to correct the dilation and drainage mechanisms of the eyes, as well as prescription eyedrops and oral medications.
Top Symptoms: headache, nausea or vomiting, vision changes, being severely ill, eye pain
Urgency: Hospital emergency room
Optic nerve disease
This condition, officially known as non-arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION), refers to loss of blood flow to the optic nerve (which is the information cable that connects the eye to the brain). This condition typically causes sudden vision loss in one eye, without any pain.
Rarity: Ultra rare
Top Symptoms: loss of vision, blurry vision, eye pain
Symptoms that always occur with optic nerve disease: loss of vision
Urgency: Hospital emergency room
Stroke or tia (transient ischemic attack)
Transient ischemic attack, or TIA, is sometimes called a “mini stroke” or a “warning stroke. ” Any stroke means that blood flow somewhere in the brain has been blocked by a clot.
Risk factors include smoking, obesity, and cardiovascular disease, though anyone can experience a TIA.
Symptoms are “transient,” meaning they come and go within minutes because the clot dissolves or moves on its own. Stroke symptoms include weakness, numbness, and paralysis on one side of the face and/or body; slurred speech; abnormal vision; and sudden, severe headache.
A TIA does not cause permanent damage because it is over quickly. However, the patient must get treatment because a TIA is a warning that a more damaging stroke is likely to occur. Take the patient to the emergency room or call 9-1-1.
Diagnosis is made through patient history; physical examination; CT scan or MRI; and electrocardiogram.
Treatment includes anticoagulant medication to prevent further clots. Surgery to clear some of the arteries may also be recommended.
Top Symptoms: dizziness, leg numbness, arm numbness, new headache, stiff neck
Symptoms that never occur with stroke or tia (transient ischemic attack): bilateral weakness
Urgency: Emergency medical service
Carotid artery dissection
A carotid artery dissection is a tear in a layer of the wall of a blood vessel called a carotid artery, one of two such arteries found in the neck. Blood vessel walls normally have three layers, and a tear in any of these can allow blood to flow into the result..
Wegener’s granulomatosis, more recently re-named granulomatosis with polyangiitis, is a disorder in which a dysregulated immune system causes widespread inflammation of small blood vessels throughout the body. This results in slower or impaired blood flow to your nose, sinuses, throat, lungs, and kidneys.
Symptoms can be widespread and affect various parts of the body such as the eyes and ears or respiratory system, yet usually begin more generally with fever, fatigue, a loss of appetite, and weight loss. With treatment, a full recovery is possible; however, this condition can be fatal.
Treatments include immunosuppressive medications in order to control the disease in the short- and long-term.
Rarity: Ultra rare
Top Symptoms: fatigue, loss of appetite, joint pain, shortness of breath, fever
Urgency: Primary care doctor
Diabetic retinopathy is a condition in which the retina becomes damaged in people with diabetes. Risk factors for developing diabetic retinopathy include high blood sugars, high blood pressure, abnormal cholesterol levels, genetic factors, undergoing cataract surgery, puberty,..
The retina is a layer of tissue in the eye. When the retina detaches, its normal position is disrupted causing vision changes.
Top Symptoms: floating spots in vision, flashing lights in vision
Symptoms that always occur with retinal detachment: floating spots in vision
Symptoms that never occur with retinal detachment: eye pain, eye redness, eye itch, wateriness in both eyes
Urgency: Hospital emergency room
New, or new-onset, migraine means the person has never experienced a migraine headache before. A migraine is a one-sided headache that causes intense pain and throbbing due to blood vessels dilating in the brain.
The exact reason for new-onset migraine headache is not known, but a number of causes are being studied:
- Soy isoflavone supplements, especially in men.
- Use and overuse of certain medications.
- Traumatic head injury.
- Angioma, which is a cluster of dilated blood vessels in the brain.
- A complication of surgery for some heart conditions.
Anyone with a sudden severe headache should be seen by a medical provider, so that a more serious cause can be ruled out. A transient ischemic attack, also known as TIA or mini-stroke, can have symptoms similar to a migraine but is far more serious.
Diagnosis is made through patient history, physical examination, and imaging such as a CT scan.
Treatment for migraine varies with the individual. Lifestyle changes may be recommended and there are a number of medications that may be tried.
Top Symptoms: new headache, fatigue, nausea, mild headache, headache that worsens when head moves
Symptoms that always occur with new migraine: new headache
Symptoms that never occur with new migraine: fever, diarrhea, productive cough, headache resulting from a head injury
Giant cell arteriis
Giant cell arteritis is a disorder that causes inflammation of arteries of the scalp, neck, and arms. It narrows the arteries, which keeps blood from flowing well.
Top Symptoms: fatigue, joint pain, new headache, fever, muscle aches
Urgency: Primary care doctor
Vision loss – neurological – Better Health Channel
Neurological vision impairment is loss of vision resulting from an acquired brain injury or impairment in the coordination of the eyes, and difficulties with visual perception (also known as ABI VI). Damage to the areas of the brain that are responsible for sight is involved.
The many causes of ABI VI include stroke, brain tumour, head injury and infections such as meningitis. ABI VI used to be called cortical visual impairment and cortical blindness.
Our eyes deliver information on the world around us to various parts of the brain via nerves that detect light. The occipital cortex, situated at the rear of the brain, processes the information and allows us to see distance, shape, movement and colour.
The type and severity of vision loss depend on which area of the brain was affected and to what degree. In some cases, the impairment may improve with time – for example, children with ABI VI tend to experience improvement as they grow older.
Symptoms of neurological vision loss
Symptoms and signs of ABI VI depend on the kind of vision impairment the person has and the area of the brain affected, but may include:
- blurry or hazy vision
- double vision
- colliding with obstacles or people
- problems with balance or depth perception
- photophobia (difficulty with bright light)
- difficulty perceiving and interpreting what is being looking at
- partial loss of the visual field (for example, half of the visual field in each eye or a quarter of the visual field in each eye).
Causes of neurological vision loss
Some of the many causes of ABI VI can include:
- stroke or ‘brain attack’, where part of the brain is damaged by a haemorrhage or blockage in a blood vessel of the brain
- traumatic brain injury – for example, after a car accident or fall
- infection, such as meningitis or cytomegalovirus
- lack of oxygen, such as near-drowning or a heart attack, which can interrupt the flow of blood to the brain
- disease, such as a brain tumour or multiple sclerosis.
A range of neurological vision loss
Some of the different kinds of vision loss caused by brain injury include:
- visual field defects – such as homonymous hemianopia, when one half of the visual field in each eye is missing
- double vision (diplopia) – where a single object is seen as two and cannot be merged together
- fluctuating vision – this means the impairment is variable, for example, the person may be able to see something one day, but not the next
- visual acuity problems – reduced clarity of vision
- eye movement problems – for example, jittery eye movements or the tendency of the eyes to flicker around when the person is trying to look steadily at something (nystagmus)
- strabismus (squint) the eyes are not aligned – for example, it may turn inwards or outwards.
One of the most common vision impairments from an acquired brain injury is hemianopia. Hemianopia can be in one eye only or, if it is a homonymous hemianopia, one half of the visual field in each eye is affected.
In the case of a left homonymous hemianopia, the person may describe this impairment as being unable to see out of the left eye, but that is not the case. The visual field on the left of both eyes is affected.
The person with homonymous hemianopia may report other people appearing to have only half a face. When reading, words and sentences disappear once they fall into the missing visual field.
This type of vision impairment can affect a person’s safe independence, because the person may not be aware of hazards on their blind side. In severe cases, they may not be aware of the reduced visual field and consequently, what they are missing. This is referred to as a visual neglect.
Treatment for neurological vision loss
ABI VI cannot be corrected with glasses or contact lenses, as the cause lies within the person’s brain rather than their eyes.
Treatment involves managing the symptoms and depends on the type of vision impairment and its cause. Options may include:
- treating the underlying brain injury. If the brain can recover from its injury, the person’s vision may also improve
- wearing an eye patch – this can relieve double vision
- options for managing poor visual clarity include using large print, writing with a thick black pen on a white background to heighten contrast, increasing magnification and ensuring adequate and appropriate lighting
- a person with a visual field defect can learn to use their eyes and head in a scanning fashion, which means moving the eyes and head back and forth to make sure they look for objects in their blind spot.
Special programs, such as the Acquired Brain Injury Mobility Service provided by Guide Dogs Victoria, are available to people with ABI VI. The Acquired Brain Injury Mobility Service provides a specialised assessment and training program for people who have a vision loss caused by a brain injury.
Each person who applies for the Acquired Brain Injury Mobility Service undergoes an initial assessment which aims to:
- determine the ability to move freely and safely around a range of environments and establish appropriate mobility goals
- determine the extent of vision loss and impact on independent travel skills
- determine the impact of other impairments, such as memory, balance, attention and concentration on mobility
- determine the person’s ability to walk confidently on different surfaces
- develop skills for using public transport
- evaluate the need for a mobility aid
- educate the person, their family and rehabilitation professionals about the nature and impact of the vision loss.
The instructors encourage each person and their families to give their input into developing tailored programs designed to achieve the person’s optimal potential and personal goals.
Acquired Brain Injury Mobility Service
The program is available free of charge to both the person with the neurological vision loss and their carers. Accommodation is available in the residential training centre, known as Arnold Cook House, if necessary.
Where to get help
- Your doctor
- Vision Specialist
- Rehabilitation specialist
- Acquired Brain Injury Mobility Service, Guide Dogs Victoria Tel. (03) 9854 4467 – contact the Referrals Officer
- BrainLink Tel. (03) 9845 2950 or 1800 677 579
Things to remember
- Vision impairment related to an ABI is loss of vision caused by damage to the areas of the brain that are responsible for sight.
- Glasses or contact lenses generally won’t help, because the vision impairment is due to damage to the brain and not the eyes.
- In some cases, glasses may help to improve double vision, through the use of prisms.
- Treatment involves managing the symptoms and depends on the type of vision impairment and its cause.
Eye Stroke: Overview and More
An eye stroke is a term used to describe the loss of vision caused by reduced flow of blood to the eye. There are different conditions associated with eye stroke, some that affect the retina (the layer of tissue at the back of the eye that converts light images into nerve signals) and others that damage the optic nerve (which carries nerve signals to the brain).
Symptoms of eye stroke include sudden blurring or vision loss in all or part of one eye, usually without pain. While the sudden loss of vision can be frightening, prompt medical attention can often prevent or limit permanent damage.
Jim Craigmyle / Getty Images
Types of Eye Stroke
Eye strokes are caused by occlusion (blockage) of a blood vessel that services the back of the eye. The causes of eye stroke differ by the mechanism of the blockage, the type of blood vessel affected, and the part of the eye serviced by the vessel.
The four common most common causes of eye strokes are:
- Retinal artery occlusion (RAO): One or more arteries carrying oxygenated blood to the retina are blocked.
- Retinal vein occlusion (RVO): The small veins carrying blood away from the retina are blocked.
- Arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (AION): There is loss of blood flow to the optic nerve, mainly involving the medium-to-large blood vessels and most often due to an inflammatory disorder known as giant cell arteritis (GCA).
- Non-arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION): There is loss of blood flow to the optic nerve, mainly involving the smaller vessels and without inflammation.
Retinal occlusion and ischemic optic neuropathy can sometimes co-occur.
The term arteritic describes reduced blood flow that occurs with inflammation, while non-arteritic describes reduced blood flow without inflammation.
Eye Stroke Symptoms
Eye stroke usually occurs with little-to-no warning of the impending vision loss. Most people with eye stroke notice a loss of vision in one eye upon waking in the morning or experience worsening vision over the course of hours or days. There is rarely any pain.
Some people will notice darkened areas (blind spots) in either the upper or lower half of the field of vision. There may also be a loss of peripheral vision or visual contrast, as well as light sensitivity.
Retinal Vascular Occlusion
Depending on which vessels in the eye are occluded, the symptoms and severity of the resulting visual disturbance can vary. The types of retinal occlusion are broadly characterized as follows:
- Central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO): Involving the primary artery that delivers oxygenated blood to the retina, this usually manifests with sudden, profound vision loss in one eye with no pain.
- Central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO): Involving the primary vein that receives deoxygenated blood from the retina, this can cause sudden, painless vision loss ranging from mild to severe.
- Branch retinal artery occlusion (BRAO): Involving smaller vessels that branch off of the central retinal artery, this can manifest with the loss of peripheral vision and/or loss in parts of the central vision.
- Branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO): Involving smaller vessels that branch off of the central retinal vein, this can cause reduced vision, peripheral vision loss, distorted vision, or blind spots.
Ischemic Optic Neuropathy
The symptoms of anterior ischemic optic neuropathy can vary depending on whether the condition is arteritic (AAOIN) or non-arteritic (NAOIN). The symptoms are categorized as follows:
- AION: Occurring secondary to giant-cell arteritis, it can result in the complete loss of vision in one eye, often within hours. This condition must be treated promptly. If left untreated, AAOIN may affect the other eye and lead to bilateral blindness in one to two weeks. Vision loss may be accompanied by other symptoms of GCA, including fever, fatigue, jaw claudation or pain, scalp tenderness, muscle aches, and unintentional weight loss.
- NAION: This usually manifests with painless vision loss over the course of several hours or day ranging from mild blurring to total blindness in the affected eye. In many cases, there will be vision loss in the lower part of the visual field. Color vision may also be reduced in tandem with the severity of the vision loss.
Eye stroke is caused when the flow of blood to the back of the eye is impaired, starving tissues of oxygen. In the same way a stroke causes cell death in the brain due to the lack of oxygen, eye stroke can destroy tissues of the retina or optic nerve, thus preventing transmission of nerve signals to the brain. The causes and risk factors of eye stroke vary by the condition involved.
Retinal Vascular Occlusion
RAO and RVO are caused by physical obstruction of the retinal artery or retinal vein, respectively. Arteries may be blocked may be due to a blood clot (thromboembolus) or a small piece of cholesterol (plaque) that has broken off the wall of a blood vessel. Veins may be blocked due to compression, usually by a nearby artherosclerotic artery.
The occlusion may last for a few seconds or minutes if the obstruction breaks up. If it doesn’t self-destruct, the obstruction may be permanent.
Both RAO and RVO are closely linked to cardiovascular diseases (involving the heart and blood vessels) and cerebrovascular diseases (involving the blood vessels of the brain). The risk factors for retinal vascular occlusion include:
Retinal occlusion tends to affect people over 50, with men being slightly more at risk than women. Retinal occlusion in younger people often is related to a blood clotting disorder such as thrombophilia.
Glaucoma also is a risk factor for retinal occlusion, although it occurs far more frequently with RVO than RAO. Studies suggest people with glaucoma are five times more likely to develop CRVO than the general population.
Ischemic Optic Neuropathy
AION and NAION are also potential causes of eye stroke. AION is almost always the result of giant cell arteritis (GCA). Similarly, with NAOIN, the vascular damage to the optic nerve is related to a multitude of factors that uncommonly come together to cause nerve injury.
AION is almost exclusively caused by GCA, also known at temporal arteritis. GCA is a form of vasculitis (blood vessel inflammation) that mainly affects the arteries around the head and neck but can extend to the chest.
Other rare causes of AION are lupus (an autoimmune disorder) and periarteritis nodosa (a rare inflammatory blood vessel disease).
GCA causes inflammation of the medium to large blood vessels which can “spill over” to the smaller vessels, causing them to swell and obstruct blood flow. When the vessels servicing the optic nerve are affected, AION can result.
GCA is believed to have both genetic and environmental origins. There are several known triggers for GCA in people who’ve inherited a predisposition to the condition. One is a severe bacterial or viral infection: Studies suggest varicella-zoster virus (shingles) may be involved in the onset of GCA in up to 74% of people.
Another is inflammatory disorders (including autoimmune diseases). For example, GCA is closely linked to polymyalgia rheumatica, which occurs in 40% to 50% of people with GCA. High-dose antibiotics also have been implicated.
GCA affects around two of every 100,000 people in the United States each year, mainly those of Nordic origin over 50. Women are up to three times more likely to have GCA—and thereby AION—than men.
NAION is caused by the transient disruption of blood flow to the optic nerve unrelated to inflammation. The disruption can be caused by a multitude of co-occurring factors that either slow the flow of blood to the optic nerve (hypoperfusion) or stop it altogether (nonperfusion). Unlike AION, NAION mainly affects the smaller vessels.
One condition believed to increase the risk of NAION is nocturnal hypotension (low blood pressure during sleep) which can reduce the amount of blood that reaches the optic nerve.
The decreased blood circulation, hypovolemia, causes progressive injury as some, but not enough, blood reaches the optic nerve. Because of this, vision loss with NAION tend to be less abrupt than with AION.
Studies suggest at least 73% of people with NAION are affected by nocturnal hypotension.
Another common cause of hypotension and hypovolemia is end-stage kidney disease. People with end-stage kidney disease are at three times greater risk of NAION than people in the general population.
With that said, having hypotension or hypovolemia does not mean developing NAION is inevitable. Other risk factors are believed to contribute.
One is the shape of the optic disc, a circular area on the back of the eye that connects the retina to the optic nerve. Optic discs normally have an indentation in the center called a cup. Small to nonexistent cups are considered strong risk factors for NAION, as is high intraocular pressure commonly experienced by people with glaucoma.
On rare occasions, NAION may be the result of a blood clot or other obstruction affecting a vessel servicing the optic nerve. When this occurs, it is not uncommon for NAION to be accompanied by RAO or RVO.
NAION affects 10 of every 100,000 Americans each year, almost exclusively those over 50. Whites are affected more than non-Whites, while men are nearly twice as likely to have NAION as women.
If your eye doctor suspects you may have had an eye stroke, they will conduct a routine exam first by checking your vision, evaluating your eye pressure, and examining your retina.
Based on the results and the characteristics of your vision loss, along with a review of your medical history and risk factors, your eye doctor may perform some or all of the following tests, which are usually effective in diagnosing retinal vascular occlusion:
- Ophthalmoscopy: An examination of the interior structure of the eye lighted magnifying device called an ophthalmoscope.
- Tonometry : A non-invasive procedure that measures intraocular eye pressure and can help diagnose glaucoma.
- Optical coherence tomography (OCT): A non-invasive imaging study that uses light waves to scan the retina and optic nerve and capture highly detailed images.
- Fluorescein angiography: A procedure in which a fluorescent dye injected into a vein in the arm will flow to the vascular structure of the eye to highlight it.
Other tests may be ordered to identify the underlying cause of eye stroke. Among them, blood pressure readings and blood tests (including serum glucose, complete blood count, platelet count, and erythrocyte sedimentation rate) can help identify if diabetes, cardiovascular disease, a clotting disorder, or an inflammatory process is involved.
Diagnosing Ischemic Optic Neuropathy
Because retinal occlusions involve the physical obstruction of a blood vessel, they are often easier—or at least more straightforward—to diagnose than ischemic optic neuropathy.
While ophthalmoscopy and OCT can help detect optic nerve damage, AION or NAION require an extensive investigation with additional tests and procedures.
AION is suspected if the erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) is above 70 millimeters per minute (mm/min) along with an elevated C-reactive protein (CRP) test. Both tests measure systemic inflammation.
There will also be characteristic signs of GCA, including jaw spasm, fever, muscle aches, and scalp tenderness.
To confirm GCA as the cause, the ophthalmologist will order a biopsy of the temporal artery. Performed under local anesthesia on an outpatient basis, the biopsy is used to obtain a small sample of tissue from the temporal artery which is situated close to the skin just in front of the ears and continues to the scalp.
A temporal artery biopsy is considered the gold standard for diagnosing of giant-cell arteritis. The thickening and fragmentation of arterial tissues paired with an infiltration of inflammatory cells are confirmatory of the disease.
NAION occurs without inflammation, so there will be no elevation of the ESR or CRP. One clue that NAION is involved is the minimal-to-no cupping of the optic nerve. This can be detected using ophthalmoscopy.
To confirm a NAION diagnosis, your eye doctor will exclude other possible causes in the differential diagnosis, including:
NAION is diagnosed clinically based on a review of symptoms, optic nerve characteristics, and predisposing risk factors. There are no tests to confirm NAION.
The goal of treatment for the various types of eye stroke is to restore vision or at the very least minimize vision loss.
Retinal Vascular Occlusion
Many people with RAO and RVO will regain vision without treatment, although it rarely returns fully to normal. Once a blockage has occurred, there is no way to physically unblock it or dissolve the embolus.
To improve blood flow to the retina, doctors may inject a corticosteroid drug such as triamcinolone acetonide into the eye to help relax adjacent blood vessels and reduce swelling caused by inflammation. Severe cases may benefit from an implant of a corticosteroid drug called dexamethasone which comes as a pellet that is injected near the site of the occlusion.
To reduce the risk of occlusion in the unaffected eye, doctors will often recommend aspirin or another blood thinner such as warfarin. If the occlusion was caused by a dislodged piece of plaque from an arterial wall, antihypertensive or cholesterol-lowering drugs may be prescribed.
There is also a treatment called anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) that is warranted if you have risk factors for neovascularization in vein occlusions. Anti-VEGF is a monoclonal antibody injected into the eye that blocks the growth of new blood vessels that can lead to glaucoma and progressive vision loss.
Eylea (aflibercept) and Lucentis (ranibizumab) are two anti-VEGF drugs approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.
Eylea and Lucentis are approved to treat macular degeneration but are sometimes used off-label to prevent progressive vision loss in people with RVO.
This condition requires aggressive treatment to prevent total blindness in the affected eye. Once vision loss occurs, it is almost never fully reversible. Without treatment, vision loss will occur in the majority of people with AION and eventually affect the other eye in 50% of cases.
The first line of treatment is systemic corticosteroids delivered either orally (in tablet form) and or intravenously (injected into a vein). Oral prednisone is taken daily for several weeks or months and then gradually tapered off to prevent withdrawal and other serious side effects.
Severe AION may require intravenous methylprednisolone for the first three days, followed by a daily course of oral prednisone.
Some doctors, concerned about the long-term side effects of prednisone use (including the risk of cataracts), may opt to taper the corticosteroid dose while adding the immunosuppressive drug methotrexate to the treatment plan.
Once prednisone is stopped, methotrexate can continue as a maintenance drug. Studies have shown that methotrexate, taken by mouth once weekly, is effective in preventing the relapse of GCA.
Actrema (tocilizumab) is another drug used in “corticosteroid-sparing” therapies. It is an injectable monoclonal antibody approved for the treatment of GCA that is typically used when prednisone underperforms or poses a risk of severe side effects.
As with methotrexate, Actrema is given once weekly and introduced to the treatment plan as the prednisone dose is gradually tapered down.
NAION can be as challenging to treat as it is to diagnose, but if not treated, it causes visual loss or impairment in 45% of people.
To prevent recurrence or the involvement of the other eye, it is important to treat the underlying cause of NAION, which typically involves improving blood flow by using blood thinners, aspirin, and anti-thrombolytics.
Though corticosteroid eye injections have been proposed as a treatment for NAION, they have not proven to be any more effective than oral corticosteroids and may end up injuring the optic nerve. Anti-VGF monoclonal antibodies have also not proven to be effective in treating NAION.
One approach sometimes considered for people with severe NAION is optic nerve sheath decompression (OPSD). OPSD is a surgical procedure used to alleviate pressure on the optic nerve, thereby improving the transmission of nerve signals to the brain.
OPSD is primarily used to treat vision loss caused by high intracranial pressure (such as can occur with meningitis and solid brain tumors).
Optic nerve sheath decompression may be useful in people with acute NAION symptoms, potentially stopping the progression of vision loss, but is usually not helpful when damage to the optic nerve has already occurred.
A Word From Verywell
If you experience sudden vision loss of any sort, see your doctor immediately or go to your nearest emergency room. Prompt treatment—delivered within hours, not days—is essential to preventing vision loss, particularly if GCA is involved.
If you notice a vision change that is progressive or unexplained, that is usually enough to warrant a visit to your doctor or an ophthalmologist. Never ignore changes in vision, however minimal.
What is Tunnel Vision? Causes, Symptoms and Treatments for Peripheral Vision Loss
‘Tunnel Vision’ is quite a self-explanatory term, isn’t it? If you want it even simpler, it is a condition when your eyes’ field of vision is narrowed down to an extent that you can’t see sideways like you used to previously without turning your head sideways.
That is why it is also referred as the ‘peripheral vision loss’ or ‘tunnel vision syndrome’, your inability to see through the outer edges of your visual field. You can either have a temporary tunnel vision or may become its victim permanently.
This write-up is not only about what tunnel vision is, but it also sheds a light on what are some of its major causes and symptoms, and what can be the best way to treat your loss of peripheral vision.
You can lose your peripheral vision due to a myriad of reasons depicted by a host of symptoms. Some major of them include:
Losing peripheral vision or getting affected by tunnel vision is likely to affect your life in a lot of different ways. It not only robs you of your ability to see things properly, but it also snatches away the independence and convenience that you enjoyed once in living your life.
As mentioned earlier, tunnel vision syndrome can hit you in different manners, which can be temporary as well as permanent, affecting your quality of life either way. Degenerative eye diseases like glaucoma end up inflicting peripheral vision loss permanently, whereas other conditions like concussion and alcohol abuse are most likely to lead you to temporary loss of peripheral vision.
Unfortunately, even with today’s medical advancements, no viable treatment is available in instances when you lose your side vision due to retinal disintegration. That’s why ophthalmologists insist so much on taking good care of your eyes to ensure optimal eye health, an aspect of which is to get regular eye exam. This helps doctors diagnose any possible eye problems as early as possible, making sure to take best care of them in due time.
Moreover, there are certain low vision aids, which when combined with appropriate visual rehabilitation, can help tremendously in augmenting your receded vision. IrisVision is one such amazing initiative, specially designed electronic glasses that are revolutionizing the low vision aids industry with their groundbreaking technology, helping countless people suffering from low vision conditions due to various eye diseases including tunnel vision syndrome.
In the video below, Brandy Darby from the ‘Rehabilitation Center for the Blind’ describes her personal experience with the IrisVision and how it helped her reclaim the joys of her life once again after being subjected to hopelessness and fear of not being able to see the world again after she lost her vision to stroke.
90,000 Why does short-term vision loss happen?
January 13, 2021
A sudden and sharp loss of vision can indicate various pathologies, including an acute inflammatory process, neuralgia, vitreous hemorrhage.
There are the following types of blindness:
- complete – as a rule, it is congenital;
- scotoma – partial (fragmentary) loss of vision;
- hemianopsia – loss of up to half of the visual fields in each eye.
Color blindness is classified as a separate type of blindness, in which the patient cannot distinguish shades of colors.
Causes of temporary blindness
Various pathological disorders can cause short-term blindness:
- increased intracranial pressure;
- vertebral artery thrombosis;
- benign or malignant intracranial neoplasms;
- acute glaucoma;
- detachment of the retina;
- inflammation of the peripheral optic nerves;
- disruption of the central nervous system;
- diabetes mellitus;
- congenital or degenerative diseases, eye injuries;
- neovascular macular degeneration.
There are other causes of temporary blindness. So, with a hypertensive crisis and stroke, sudden and regular surges in blood pressure can lead to partial or complete loss of vision. In this case, complex rehabilitation treatment is required.
Short-term blindness manifests itself in the form of partial (when it is possible to distinguish between individual objects, their shade and shape) or complete loss of vision. The symptom may come and go suddenly.If vision is partially lost and areas of visibility are preserved, this means that the work of those parts of the brain that are responsible for processing visual information is impaired.
Blindness affects one or both eyes. In this case, the symptom often changes. For example, if visual function is initially lost in one eye, the other (or both) may be affected in case of relapse.
The duration of blindness varies from a few minutes to several hours.Concomitant symptoms of temporary loss of vision:
painful sensations, including severe pain in the area of the eyeballs;
a feeling of tightness in the eyes;
In some cases, dizziness is possible.
Diagnostics and analyzes
To choose the correct method of treatment, you must come to an appointment with an ophthalmologist. Comprehensive diagnostics includes the following types of research:
external examination of the affected organs;
general blood analysis;
Analysis of urine.
In some cases, to obtain a complete clinical picture, an examination of the vessels and nerve fibers of the affected eyes is required.
Temporary Blindness Treatment
After diagnosing the causes of temporary blindness, treatment is prescribed. It is aimed at eliminating both the disease itself and its manifestations. For the treatment of temporary blindness, vitamins are used that normalize metabolic processes and microcirculation in the tissues of the eye (retinol, thiamine, ascorbic acid, tocopherol). In some cases, surgical intervention is required to restore visual function.
90,000 Blurred vision – causes and treatment.Affordable prices, modern clinic in Moscow.
- Causes of occurrence
- If “fog” appears in only one eye
Blurred vision is a fairly common symptom in a wide variety of eye pathologies. Its main manifestation is visual impairment with the loss of the ability to distinguish details when looking into the distance or when visual work near.
The appearance of fog is possible both in one and in both eyes (one- and two-sided blurring of vision).Often this symptom becomes an important detail in the diagnosis of the disease.
The appearance of fog in the eyes indicates a decrease in visual acuity or sharpness. As a rule, this condition develops gradually. With a sudden decrease in vision with the onset of complete blindness, we are talking about a symptom of vision loss.
Causes of occurrence
The appearance of fog in front of the eyes is a completely explainable phenomenon and can be triggered by the following factors:
- Clouding of the cornea of the eye .Pathology is caused by inflammatory diseases of the eye, trauma, burns, dystrophy.
- Lens opacity . A similar phenomenon is called cataracts and in most cases is explained by age-related changes in the substance of the lens of the eye. Cataracts are an especially common cause of fog in front of the eyes in people over 50-60 years old.
- Retinal disease . Blurred vision can cause diabetic and hypertensive retinopathy, chorioretinitis, uveitis, macular degeneration.
- Pathology of the optic nerve . Inflammation of the optic nerve at the initial stage is accompanied by a feeling of blurring of visible objects, this fog is the first symptom of the disease. Then pains when moving the eye join.
- Refractive errors. Myopia, hyperopia, astigmatism are the most common causes of fog in the eyes. To eliminate this symptom, correct vision correction with glasses or contact lenses is necessary. Sometimes, blurred vision is possible when wearing contact lenses.In this case, it is necessary to consult an ophthalmologist in order to exclude possible inflammation of the cornea.
- Computer visual syndrome . Prolonged work at the computer and the resulting fatigue of vision is often accompanied by complaints of fog in the eyes. This is due to a spasm of the muscle that focuses the image. After sufficient rest, vision is usually restored.
- Instillation of eye drops . Some eye drops cause temporary blurring of vision, which is always indicated in the instructions for the drug.
- Secondary cataract . Some time after cataract surgery, a whitish fog may appear in front of the operated eye. It indicates clouding of the lens capsule and is easily removed by laser incision.
If “fog” appears in only one eye
This may be a symptom of an inflammatory condition affecting the eye. These diseases, experts include keratitis, conjunctivitis, iridocyclitis. In this case, fog in front of the eye will not be an isolated symptom.Also may appear: redness, burning, pain, watery eyes, and in some cases, discharge from the eye and loss of part of the visual field. It is these manifestations of the disease that should prompt an urgent visit to a doctor.
As already mentioned, fog in front of the eyes is only a symptom of the disease, so its elimination is possible only by treating the cause that caused it. So vision correction with glasses and contact lenses solves the problem in case of refractive errors.In addition, properly selected glasses will remove fog in the early stages of cataracts.
In all other cases, it is necessary to treat the underlying disease and it should be done as soon as possible. Therefore, if you constantly or periodically have fog in front of your eyes, be sure to consult a specialist.
The doctors of our clinic have vast practical experience and are ready to help the patient in solving any, even the most complex ophthalmological problems. However, the sooner you seek help, the better results can be guaranteed.
Causes of visual impairment | VIZIOBUD
It is difficult to overestimate the role of vision in human life. With its help, a person receives about 80% of information about objects, their external properties and location in the surrounding world. This is vital for us. Everyone needs sharp eyesight, without exception. And this does not depend on the type of activity or age.
Fortunately, thanks to modern methods of treating eye diseases, today, even at 80 years old, you can have excellent eyesight and enjoy a fulfilling life. The reasons for visual impairment can be different, and we will tell you about the most basic ones.
Causes of visual impairment in adults
An adult, a young and even completely healthy person may suddenly have vision problems. What happened? Why does the text in the book “float”? Why objects from a distance have become less visible? The exact cause can only be determined by an ophthalmologist after a detailed diagnosis.
The reasons for visual impairment can be the following:
- Gadgets, mobile phones, laptops, computers .Have you calculated how much time you spend with them every day? And the point is not that we receive radiation. Frequent frame changes, bright and unnatural colors, close proximity to the device’s screen, improper lighting can negatively affect the condition of the eyes. The eyes work only at one distance, as a result of constant tension, muscle tone decreases, and the lens begins to lose elasticity. That is why, when determining the causes of visual impairment in adults , it often turns out that the whole point is in prolonged contact with the screens of gadgets every day.The cumulative effect is triggered here.
- Poor lighting . Unevenness of the light source – lack of it or excess, have a negative effect on the eyes. The bright sun can damage the retina, and the lack of light can cause a lot of stress and cause decreased vision.
- Dry eye . With prolonged work and focusing on objects, we begin to blink less often, which contributes to the rapid rupture of the tear film and can also cause visual impairment.
- Bad habits . As you know, the toxins contained in nicotine and alcoholic beverages have a negative effect on the entire body and, in particular, impede normal blood circulation in the vessels of the eye. This contributes to an insufficient supply of oxygen to the tissues of the eye and will definitely sooner or later cause visual impairment.
- Spine problems . The condition of the spine directly affects blood circulation, including in the brain.Impaired circulation leads to impaired transmission of signals between the brain and the visual system and, as a result, decreased vision.
- Incorrect power supply . Insufficient amount of vitamins and trace elements in the diet leads to decreased vision, intolerance to bright light, poor vision at dusk.
- Overwork . Lack of sleep, stress, high loads lead to severe fatigue, and can cause a decrease in vision.
- Injuries, eye burns require urgent help from an ophthalmologist and can lead not only to a decrease in vision, but also to its loss. It is forbidden to get a foreign body from the eye on your own, as such actions can harm.
- Among the factors affecting eye health, there may also be heredity, age-related changes, some infectious and viral diseases.
Common eye diseases | TsLKZiM
Diagnosis of eye diseases at the Central Clinical Hospital
Ophthalmologists count several hundred diseases affecting the organs of vision.Each of them, in the absence of proper treatment, can lead to depressing consequences
Many human eye diseases are associated with inflammatory processes, due to which the structure of the retina suffers and the function of the pupil is impaired.
Medicine knows effective methods of dealing with all ophthalmological ailments, but sometimes, due to the late appeal of the patient for help, it is not possible to implement them due to . The information you glean from this article will help you avoid this error.
Common symptoms of eye diseases
Despite the variety of human eye diseases, the majority of patients suffering from various ailments have the same manifestations. The following are the most common symptoms encountered in ophthalmic practice:
- eye redness
- purulent wards
- decrease in visual acuity
- “sand under the eyelids”
- increased eye pressure
- blurred vision
- floating points before eyes
- foreign body sensation
- eyelid edema
- increased susceptibility to bright light
- profuse lacrimation
Ait Ahmed Khaled, a leading ophthalmologist and head of the microsurgical department, told about hereditary eye diseases
Consider the most common eye diseases
Nearsightedness (myopia) is an anomaly of the refractive power of the eye (refraction), characterized by the focusing of the image of objects not on the retina of the eye, but in front of it.With myopia, a person poorly distinguishes distant objects, but sees well up close.
impaired twilight vision
progressive deterioration in visual acuity.
Diagnostics of myopia includes visometry, skiascopy, refractometry, ophthalmoscopy, biomicroscopy, eye ultrasound .
It is worth noting that recently ophthalmologists have begun to sound the alarm, as the number of cases of myopia is growing every year .Myopia is especially common in school-age children. The progression of pathology is facilitated by constant eye strain during study, playing on the computer, watching TV, and so on.
Causes of myopia
There are many reasons for the progression of myopia in children and adults. But most often a person ceases to normally see objects located in the distance, due to the following reasons:
Genetic predisposition .The most common reason for the progression of the disease. If the pathology is diagnosed in one of the parents, then the child will have a 50% probability of a deficiency of minerals, vitamins and nutrients in the human body, systematic tension of the visual apparatus due to constant and continuous work at the computer, working with small parts, etc.
This can also include the following reasons – the absence of breaks during the work process, improper lighting and other lack of adequate treatment when the first signs of myopia appear (not wearing glasses with a minus, contact lenses, failure to perform special gymnastics, etc.) there is a group of reasons that clinicians call congenital.It includes the weakness of muscle structures, which are responsible for changing the curvature of the lens, pathology of the organs of the visual apparatus, and other regular increase in intraocular pressure. More often, this reason leads to the progression of pathology in elderly people, other reasons. This includes hormonal disruptions, previously transferred ailments of an infectious nature, a history of TBI, and so on.
The reasons for the appearance of myopia can be found in the video with the participation of the leading ophthalmologist of the Central Clinical Hospital and the Head of the Microsurgical Department – Ait Ahmed Khaled
Prevention of myopia
To slow down the process of deterioration of vision, it is recommended to take complexes containing essential carotenoids, enzymes and antioxidants; carry out preventive procedures and take breaks when working with a computer.
Myopia in children and adults is much easier to prevent than to cure later. Prevention of myopia is recommended to be carried out at home since childhood:
- Observance of the distance between the eyes and the monitor, book, tablet, etc. – not less than 40 cm
- eyes should be allowed to rest regularly – every 30-60 minutes, for 5-10 minutes
- proper nutrition – more fish and vegetables
- correct posture
- taking special vitamin complexes (a method of prevention and treatment of myopia, which has proven to be highly effective)
- lighting normalization
- do not read in transport or lying on its side
Cataract – a pathology of the light-refracting structure of the eye – the lens, characterized by its opacity and loss of natural transparency .Cataract is manifested by “blurred” vision, deterioration of night vision, weakening of color perception, sensitivity to bright light, diplopia.
As a rule, cataract is an age-related disease. However, there are cases of pathology at any age.
In most cases, lens replacement surgery is required.
Glaucoma is a chronic eye pathology characterized by an increase in intraocular pressure , the development of optic neuropathy and impaired visual function.
Clinically, glaucoma is manifested by narrowing of the visual fields, pain, cramps and a feeling of heaviness in the eyes, blurred vision, deterioration of twilight vision, in severe cases, blindness.
Diagnostics of glaucoma includes perimetry, tonometry and tonography, gonioscopy, optical coherence tomography, laser retinotomography.
Treatment of glaucoma requires the use of antiglaucoma drops, the use of methods of laser surgery (iridotomy (iridectomy) and trabeculoplasty) or antiglaucomatous operations (trabeculectomy, sclerectomy, iridectomy, iridocycloretraction, etc.)).
The clinical course of open-angle glaucoma is usually asymptomatic . The narrowing of the visual field develops gradually, sometimes progresses over several years, so often patients accidentally discover that they can see with only one eye. Sometimes there are complaints of blurred vision, the presence of iridescent circles before the eyes, headache and aches in the brow region, decreased vision in the dark. In open glaucoma, both eyes are usually affected.
During the closed-angle form of the disease, the phase of preglaucoma, acute attack of glaucoma and chronic glaucoma is distinguished.
Preglaucoma is characterized by the absence of symptoms and is determined by ophthalmological examination, when a narrow or closed angle of the anterior chamber of the eye is revealed. With preglaucoma, patients can see rainbow circles in the light, feel visual discomfort, and short-term loss of vision.
There are three main approaches to glaucoma treatment: conservative (medical), surgical and laser.The choice of treatment tactics is determined by the type of glaucoma. The objectives of the drug treatment of glaucoma are to reduce IOP, improve blood supply to the intraocular optic nerve, and normalize metabolism in the tissues of the eye.
Methods of laser surgery for glaucoma are quite numerous
- type of laser used (argon, neodymium, diode, etc.)
- by means of exposure (coagulation, destruction)
- by object of influence (iris, trabecula)
- indications for carrying out
In laser glaucoma surgery, laser iridotomy and iridectomy, laser iridoplasty, laser trabeculoplasty, and laser goniopuncture are widely used.For severe glaucoma, laser cyclocoagulation can be performed.
Antiglaucomatous operations have not lost their relevance in ophthalmology. Among the fistulizing (penetrating) operations for glaucoma, the most common are trabeculectomy and trabeculotomy. Non-fistulizing interventions include non-penetrating deep sclerectomy. Operations such as iridocycloretraction, iridectomy, etc. are aimed at normalizing the circulation of IHF. Cyclo-cryocoagulation is performed in order to reduce the production of IHF in glaucoma.
Retinal detachment is a pathology of the retina of the eye, in which it is separated from the underlying choroid (choroid).
Retinal detachment is accompanied by a sharp deterioration of vision , the appearance of a veil in front of the eye, progressive narrowing of the field of vision, flashing of “flies”, “sparks”, “flashes”, “lightning”, etc. Diagnostics is carried out using visometry, perimetry, tonometry , biomicroscopy, ophthalmoscopy, eye ultrasound, electrophysiological studies.
Treatment is carried out by surgery (filling of the sclera, ballooning of the sclera, transciliary vitrectomy, vitreoretinal surgery, cryocoagulation, etc.) or by laser methods (laser coagulation of the retina).
Symptoms of retinal detachment
At the beginning of the disease, precursor symptoms appear – the so-called light phenomena. These include flashes of light (photopsies) in front of the eyes and zigzag lines (metamorphopsias). When the retinal vessel ruptures, flashes of “flies” and black dots appear in front of the eyes, pain in the eye.These phenomena indicate irritation of the light-sensitive cells of the retina, caused by traction from the vitreous body.
With further progression of retinal detachment, a “veil” appears before the eyes (according to patients, “a wide curtain, curtain”), which increases over time and can occupy most or all of the field of view
Visual acuity decreases rapidly. Sometimes in the morning, visual acuity improves for a while, and the visual field expands, which is associated with the partial absorption of fluid during sleep and the independent adherence of the retina.However, symptoms of retinal detachment return within a day.
Treatment of retinal pathologies
Revealing pathology requires immediate surgical treatment. Delay in the treatment of this pathology is fraught with the development of persistent hypotension and subatrophy of the eyeball, chronic iridocyclitis, secondary cataract, and incurable blindness. The main goal of the treatment of retinal detachment is to bring the layer of photosensitive receptors closer to the pigment epithelium and to create adhesion of the retina with the underlying tissues in the zone of rupture.
In retinal detachment surgery, extrascleral and endovitreal techniques are used: in the first case, the intervention is carried out on the scleral surface, in the second – inside the eyeball. Extrascleral methods include filling and scleral ballooning
Extrascleral filling involves suturing a special silicone sponge (filling) to the sclera, which creates an area of scleral depression, blocks retinal tears and creates conditions for gradual absorption of fluid accumulated under the retina by capillaries and pigment epithelium.Options for extrascleral filling in case of retinal detachment can be radial, sectoral, circular (circlage) filling of the sclera.
Ballooning of the sclera in case of retinal detachment is achieved by temporarily suturing a special balloon catheter in the projection zone of the rupture, when inflated, an effect similar to filling occurs (shaft of scleral depression and resorption of subretinal fluid).
Endovitreal treatments for retinal detachment may include vitreoretinal surgery or vitrectomy.In the process of vitrectomy, the altered vitreous body is removed and instead of it, special preparations (liquid silicone, saline, special gas) are injected, which bring the retina and choroid closer together.
The gentle methods of treatment of retinal detachment include cryocoagulation of tears and subclinical retinal detachments and laser coagulation of the retina, which allows to achieve the formation of chorioretinal adhesions. Cryopexy and laser coagulation of the retina can be used both for the prevention of retinal detachment and for therapeutic purposes alone or in combination with surgical techniques.
Now you have read the 4 most common types of eye diseases. Unfortunately, the physiology of the eye is arranged so that at the first stages of the onset of abnormalities, a person does not experience serious discomfort This is why the first signs of diseases appear when the disease is already developing.
In order to prevent such problems and to be confident in your health, it is imperative to undergo a complete examination of the state of eye health. Don’t put it on the back burner!
90,000 Eye migraine: a description of the disease, causes, symptoms, cost of treatment in Moscow
Ocular migraine is characterized by the presence of an aura with visual disturbances, which appears before the onset of pain. Also, visual problems can appear in the patient without a subsequent attack of headache. In this case, they can persist for more than 2 weeks. Treatment of the disease is symptomatic. To exclude the presence of serious diseases, the patient needs a full examination.Therapy is necessary not only at the time of an ocular migraine attack, but also after it, to lengthen the period of normal well-being. The second name of the pathology is ciliated scotoma.
With ophthalmic migraine, there are no organic changes in the visual system. Signs of a visual aura appear only due to a temporary deterioration in blood circulation in the tissues of the eyes and the development of a hypoxic attack. For the first time, such a disease as ocular migraine was described in the 19th century.Most patients are faced with a violation at a young age due to the lability of the autonomic nervous system. More often, pathology occurs in women who work with heavy eye strain. Also, doctors found that pathology has the ability to be hereditary. In the event that both parents suffered from migraines, the likelihood of a child developing it is 90%. The mechanism of inheritance of the disorder has not yet been established. In some patients, spontaneous remission occurs, which can last for a significant period of time.
Reasons for violation
The basis of ocular migraine is neurological dysfunction, leading to a disruption in the work of the visual analyzer. This condition develops due to a decrease in the tone of the posterior cerebral artery. As a result, transient retinal ischemia and oxygen starvation of the brain occur. The disease is of a purely neurological nature and is not associated with pathologies that lead to changes in the tissues of the brain or eyes.
The appearance of ocular migraine attacks is associated with the effect of provoking factors on the body, the main of which are considered by doctors to be the following:
Chronic lack of sleep – an adult needs a night’s sleep of 8 hours.Reducing it even by an hour, if this continues for a long time, leads to frequent attacks;
sudden change in weather;
rapid climate change, when conditions in a new place are seriously different from those that were previously;
severe mental overload;
abrupt hormonal surges;
exposure to flickering light;
inhalation of tobacco smoke;
sharp emotional outburst;
exposure to pungent odors or heavy and sweet;
severe physical fatigue;
consuming a large number of products containing caffeine;
taking a number of medicines.
Quite often, the disease debuts in persons aged 14-16 years, when there is a rapid change in the circulatory system, hormonal changes and rapid growth is observed. Also, during this period, the body is much worse tolerated by any nervous stress. With age, the symptoms of migraine gradually weaken and disappear completely by old age.
Ocular migraine occurs during pregnancy mainly in the first trimester.In the later stages of gestation, if seizures develop, then this is usually the classic form of the disease. Most often, migraine of the eye occurs due to disturbances in sleep and rest, as well as emotional instability. Self-treatment of the disease is strictly prohibited. To reduce the intensity of attacks and their frequency, strict adherence to the daily regimen is required, which takes into account all the features of the condition of the pregnant woman. You will also need to reduce physical activity and avoid stressful situations as much as possible.Due to the fact that visual impairments can lead to a loss of orientation in space, at the first signs of the onset of an attack, a woman should sit down, and it is better to lie down.
The earlier a pregnant woman, with the appearance of an ocular migraine, seeks medical help, the higher the likelihood that pain attacks will not cause disorders in the development of the child. Also, following the instructions of a specialist will make the period of bearing the baby more comfortable and reduce the likelihood that headaches will pursue throughout pregnancy.If treatment is not carried out at all, then there is a high probability that even after childbirth the problem will persist.
The prognosis for patients with visual migraine is relatively favorable. This is due to the fact that, despite the incurability of the disease, it can be quite effectively corrected with the help of drugs. Often, with the right treatment, it is possible to completely normalize the patient’s condition and provide him with the opportunity to live a full life.
If, for some reason, therapy is not carried out, then the prognosis becomes unfavorable, and sometimes bad, if ocular migraine attacks begin to occur constantly, due to which the patient is not able to continue a normal life, completely losing his ability to work. It also significantly worsens the condition and the appearance of complications that develop with frequent intense and prolonged attacks, which the patient does not relieve with the help of drugs.
In order to determine the disease and diagnose ocular migraine, it is required to contact not only a neurologist, but also an ophthalmologist.Ocular migraine symptoms are similar to some serious pathologies. In addition to collecting anamnesis, an examination of various parts of the eyes and an assessment of the state of the pupils will be required. To exclude diseases of the brain, to which the disorder is quite often similar, instrumental techniques are used to visualize the structures of the brain. Most often, for this purpose, magnetic resonance imaging is indicated.
When contacting an ophthalmologist, it is important to accurately characterize the visual changes that occur at the time of the attack.To exclude the presence of eye pathologies, the following studies are carried out:
external examination of the eyes, which eliminates the presence of inflammation and trauma;
study of the reaction of pupils to light and other irritations;
assessment of the mobility of the eyeballs;
assessment of the volume of the eyeballs;
definition of the boundaries of the field of view;
ultrasound of eye vessels;
general eye examination.
After pathologies on the part of the visual system are excluded, an examination is carried out to identify structural changes in the brain. To do this, the patient is given a referral to carry out diagnostic procedures, which will:
magnetic resonance imaging or computed tomography;
x-rays of the head;
Based on the results of examinations, symptoms and anamnesis, the doctor makes a diagnosis and prescribes the necessary treatment.
To reduce the likelihood of pathology development, it is necessary to ensure sufficient rest, reduce stress loads and perform physiotherapy exercises to prevent the development of pathologies in the cervical spine. With a family tendency to the disease, it is necessary to begin prevention of the development of the disorder from adolescence, without waiting for the first signs of the disease to appear.A healthy lifestyle also greatly reduces the likelihood of ocular migraines.
Flies before the eyes – the causes of the appearance, under what diseases it occurs, diagnosis and treatment methods
The information in this section cannot be used for self-diagnosis and self-medication. In case of pain or other exacerbation of the disease, diagnostic tests should be prescribed only by the attending physician.For a diagnosis and correct treatment prescription, you should contact your doctor.
Flashing flies before the eyes: the causes of the appearance, under what diseases it occurs, diagnosis and treatment methods.
Flashing of flies in front of the eyes is a subjective sensation, describing which people imply the presence in the field of vision of permanent or transient additional inclusions of various shapes and sizes.
The organ of vision is one of the most important sense organs that provide orientation in space.The visual analyzer consists of an organ of vision (eye), which perceives and interprets the image into an electrical signal, the optic nerve, through which the signal enters the subcortical centers, and the cerebral cortex, where the signal is analyzed. The eye consists of the eyeball and accessory organs, and the eyeball consists of three membranes: outer (cornea and sclera), middle (iris and choroid), inner (retina). Behind the iris there is a lens – a light-refracting lens. The space between the lens and the retina is filled with the vitreous humor.
The vitreous is a gel-like structure enclosed in a dense shell. The gel contains water, hyaluronic acid, collagen fibers, proteins and other substances.
In case of violation of the ratio of certain components of the vitreous body, dense inclusions, perceived by a person as “flies”, can form.
Varieties of flies before eyes
“Flies” are dots, zigzags, worms, dust, dashes, strokes, scratches, cobwebs, commas, etc.
Flies in front of the eyes, arising from destructive processes in the vitreous body, have clear descriptions and do not disappear from the field of vision: granular destruction of the vitreous body;
Destructive processes in the vitreous body
Also, with the destruction of the vitreous body, spots and clots may appear, similar to “plastic wrap” or flakes, which greatly cloud the image.
When cholesterol crystals are included in the vitreous gel, shiny “snowflakes” are found in the field of view.
Any inclusions can freely move across the entire field of view, move within a limited range, or be stationary.
Possible reasons for the flashing of flies before the eyes
The reasons for the flashing of flies before the eyes are quite varied. Flies can be a sign of temporary functional disorders, for example, when lifting weights, overwork, or a sharp change in posture. However, inclusions in the visual field appear in some diseases of the structures of the eye – the vitreous body, choroid, retina, and also arise as a result of diseases of other organs and systems that affect the functioning of the visual analyzer.
What diseases cause flies in front of your eyes?
The destruction of the vitreous body is the reason for the constant presence of additional inclusions in the field of view. It occurs due to a decrease in the ratio of liquid and other components of the vitreous gel during natural aging or after an eye injury, eye surgery and other reasons. The characteristics of the inclusions are described in the previous section.
The prognosis for vision is favorable, but the quality of life may suffer and the ability to work may decrease.
Retinal and / or vitreous detachment , in addition to flies, flashes and sparks, is characterized by a sharp deterioration in visual acuity and blurred vision. Without immediate medical attention, it can lead to blindness. The risk of detachment is increased in people with a high degree of myopia.
With vertebrobasilar insufficiency , blood flow through the vertebral arteries is disturbed, which affects the blood supply to some parts of the brain, including those responsible for visual function.Clinically manifests itself as flies, darkening before the eyes, short-term loss of vision.
The most common cause of acquired vertebrobasilar insufficiency is osteochondrosis of the cervical spine.
Choroiditis (inflammation of the choroid), retinitis (inflammation of the retina), chorioretinitis (inflammation of both structures) can also cause flies. In addition, the patient feels flashes of light (photopsies), visual acuity decreases, vision in the dark is impaired.A disease of an infectious nature in advanced cases leads to blindness.
Retinopathies (hypertensive, atherosclerotic, diabetic) occur when the vessels are affected by the same diseases. For retinopathies, transient visual impairments are characteristic in the form of a decrease in acuity, flies in front of the eyes, the presence of large spots in the field of vision (cattle). Against the background of treatment of the underlying disease, the intensity of symptoms decreases, with progression, it may end in loss of vision.
The transient flickering of flies before the eyes, the sensation of a “noisy” picture can occur at reduced pressure.
Pressure surges in pregnant women can also lead to flies. And if a slight decrease in pressure from an individual norm occurs due to physiological reasons, then an increase may indicate gestosis (late toxicosis) and requires a thorough additional examination.
Which doctor should I contact if there are flashes of flies in front of my eyes?
Since the flashing of flies before the eyes can be caused not only by eye pathologies, but also by diseases of internal organs, consultation is required not only of an ophthalmologist, but also
therapist.If necessary, an additional visit may be recommended
endocrinologist for pregnant women –
Diagnostics and examinations when flies flash before the eyes
ophthalmoscopy, examine the fundus.
Additional laboratory and instrumental research methods are often recommended:
- clinical blood test;
Disease symptoms – POLIST
Blurred vision, spots in front of the eyes, glare in the dark – all this can be a symptom of eye disease. In the following slides, we will talk about eye diseases and suggest two simple vision tests. You will be able to see the world around you through the eyes of people with vitreous opacity, cataracts, myopia and glaucoma.
Color blindness test (color vision test)
Which number do you see in the left picture? If the number is “3”, then you have full color vision. If the number is “5” – it is possible that color vision is impaired. The middle picture is the image seen by a person with partial color blindness. Congenital color blindness occurs in 10% of men and almost never occurs in women. Complete color blindness is very rare; in this case, the person does not see any numbers, as shown in the right picture.To correct color vision disorders, glasses with colored glasses are used.
Risk factors for myopia include:
• Hereditary predisposition (myopia in one or both parents)
• Prolonged visual work at close range
Myopia interferes with driving a car, playing sports, studying and even watching TV. With myopia, headache, strabismus and fatigue occur.To correct myopia, doctors use glasses and contact lenses; some patients undergo surgery.
Most people are born with slight hyperopia, which gradually disappears as the child grows. If farsightedness persists, then you can see well into the distance, and close objects you can not see clearly. In the development of hyperopia, hereditary predisposition matters. With hyperopia, reading difficulties, rapid eye fatigue, blurry vision at night, and headache are observed.To correct hyperopia, doctors prescribe glasses and contact lenses. Some patients undergo surgery.
Age-related hyperopia (presbyopia)
Difficulty reading small text, as well as gray hair and wrinkles, are signs of aging. Symptoms of presbyopia (translated from Greek – “old eye”) appear at the age of 40-50 years. The lens becomes less elastic and loses the ability to change its shape. Reading glasses or bifocals are used to correct presbyopia.
Changes in case of myopia
The main reason for the development of myopia is an increase in the length of the eyeball. The development of myopia can also be facilitated by changes in the shape of the cornea or lens. With myopia, the image of objects is formed not on the retina (the inner shell of the eye), but in front of it. As a rule, myopia develops in schoolchildren and progresses as the child grows. Therefore, children often have to change glasses or contact lenses. As a rule, vision stabilizes by the age of 20.
Changes in hyperopia
The reason for the development of hyperopia is a decrease in the length of the eyeball. With hyperopia, the image of objects is formed not on the retina, but behind it, which leads to a blurry vision of closely spaced objects. The development of hyperopia can also be facilitated by changes in the shape of the cornea or lens. Children with a high degree of hyperopia often develop strabismus and have difficulty reading. Therefore, experts recommend regularly checking children’s eyesight.
With astigmatism, a person loses the ability to see clearly both near and far objects. The cause of the development of astigmatism is the deformation of the cornea – the anterior transparent part of the eyeball. This leads to the fact that the light rays do not converge on the retina at one point, as they normally do. Symptoms of astigmatism include headache, fatigue, and eye strain. Doctors use glasses or contact lenses to correct astigmatism.
Do you dream of good vision without glasses? Your dream can come true! Modern surgical methods of treatment aimed at changing the shape of the cornea can successfully correct myopia, hyperopia and astigmatism in 90% of cases. However, for dry eye, thin cornea, or severe visual impairment, surgery is not performed. Side effects of refractive surgery include glare or increased sensitivity to light.
In glaucoma, there is a gradual decrease in visual acuity due to an increase in intraocular pressure. Symptoms may be absent until a partial loss of peripheral vision occurs. Therefore, for the timely detection of glaucoma, you should undergo regular examinations. Risk factors for glaucoma: family history and age over 60. To treat glaucoma, doctors use medication or surgery.
Changes in glaucoma
The main reason for the development of glaucoma is the accumulation of intraocular fluid, which leads to an increase in intraocular pressure and damage to the optic nerve, through which information about the subject comes from the retina to the brain. If left untreated, glaucoma can lead to blindness. Image Description: A bright yellow spot is the optic nerve head damaged by glaucoma. The dark spot in the central part of the retina is the macula, which provides clear central vision.
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) leads to impairment of the clarity of central vision, which is required for reading and driving a car. Symptoms of the disease are the appearance of a dark spot or distortion of straight lines. Timely diagnosis and treatment of AMD can help prevent vision loss. Risk factors for the development of AMD include: age over 60 years, smoking, arterial hypertension, obesity and hereditary predisposition.
Changes in macular degeneration
With AMD, the central part of the retina – the macula – is damaged. The dry form of AMD is the appearance of yellow deposits in the macula. As the dry form progresses, the macula is destroyed and the transmission of signals from the retina to the brain stops. With a wet form of AMD, new vessels are formed, the rupture of which leads to scarring and damage to the macula. Both forms of AMD result in a central visual field defect.
Macular degeneration test
The Amsler test cannot replace an ophthalmological examination, but it can detect early symptoms of macular degeneration.
You can do the test with reading glasses. The distance from the computer monitor to your eyes should be 30-37 cm. Cover one eye with your palm, and with the other eye, look at the point in the center of the grill. Normally, you should not see wavy, broken or fuzzy lines, dark areas.
Perform the test on the other eye.
Symptoms of macular degeneration
With severe macular degeneration, the Amsler lattice looks curved, and there is a dark spot in the center of the lattice. The transformation of straight lines into wavy lines is the first symptom of wet AMD, a severe and progressive form of macular degeneration. If you find symptoms of AMD during the test, see your ophthalmologist immediately.
Diabetes mellitus types I and II can lead to partial or complete loss of vision.Small vessels of the retina are involved in the pathological process. Timely treatment can prevent vision loss. Patients with diabetes mellitus should have an ophthalmologic examination every year or every two years. Prevention of diabetic retinopathy consists in maintaining normal blood glucose levels.
Changes in diabetic retinopathy
An increase in the level of glucose in the blood leads to damage and rupture of the small vessels of the retina.In some patients, new blood vessels form in the retina, a condition known as proliferative retinopathy. Unlike normal vessels, these vessels are very fragile and tear easily. Gradual damage to the retina leads to loss of vision, the appearance of spots in front of the eyes and, ultimately, blindness.
The aging process is reflected in the eyes: by the age of 80, more than 50% of people develop cataracts (clouding of the lens).Vision gradually becomes blurred, which makes it difficult for people to read, drive and navigate in the dark. Risk factors for developing cataracts include diabetes mellitus, smoking, and prolonged exposure to direct sunlight. To treat cataracts, doctors perform lens replacement surgery.
Changes with cataract
Normally, the lens provides a clear image on the retina. As you age, a protein is deposited in the lens, which leads to its clouding.Scattered rays fall on the retina, so a clear image is not formed. Cataract symptoms: blurry vision, changes in color perception, glare, especially at night. A mature cataract is visible to the naked eye.
Retinitis pigmentosa is an inherited disorder of the retina, the first symptom of which is night vision impairment. In the future, there is a gradual loss of peripheral vision, and in some cases blindness develops.Research shows that high doses of vitamin A can prevent vision loss. However, you should consult your doctor before taking vitamin A, as it can be dangerous in large doses.
Changes in retinitis pigmentosa
With retinitis pigmentosa, a gradual destruction of the light-sensitive layer of the retina is observed, as a result of which signals cease to flow to the brain, and partial loss of vision occurs.When examining the fundus, dark spots can be detected. In patients with retinitis pigmentosa, cataracts appear early, and retinal edema – macular edema is also observed.
Flickering of flies in front of the eyes can be associated with clouding of the vitreous humor, which is easy to see in bright light. Vitreous opacity is quite common and does not require treatment. However, if flashes of light, black or white spots appear in front of your eyes, visual acuity is reduced, or if peripheral vision is lost, see your doctor.
Amblyopia (“lazy eye”)
With a decrease in visual acuity in one eye, most of the visual load falls on the other eye. This disorder is called amblyopia and occurs in children. In addition, amblyopia often develops with strabismus. You can make the “lazy eye” work by “turning off” the healthy eye with a patch or drops. If untreated, amblyopia can persist into adulthood.
Foreign body in the eye
There are many nerve endings under the cornea, so even a small grain of sand in the eye can cause severe pain.Rinse your eye with warm water and never rub it. If the foreign body cannot be removed by flushing, seek medical attention. The doctor will remove the foreign body and put antibiotic drops into the eye to prevent corneal infections.
Dry eye syndrome
Lacrimal fluid is essential for moisturizing the eyes. If it is not enough, the eyes begin to ache and itch. To eliminate dry eyes, there are special drops – an artificial tear.However, some patients require other drugs or manipulations to clear the tear ducts to treat dry eye.
Conjunctivitis is an inflammation of the mucous membrane of the eye that can be caused by viruses, bacteria, irritants or allergens. With conjunctivitis, redness, itching, burning, and discharge from the eyes are observed. Viral conjunctivitis is most common. Antibiotic drops are only used to treat bacterial conjunctivitis.Both types of conjunctivitis are contagious, so hands should be washed as often as possible.
Barley is a red tubercle located at the edge of the eyelid. Barley is a type of infectious disease of the eyelid (blepharitis). Typically, the barley wears off within a week. You can speed up your recovery with warm, moist compresses, which should be applied to the affected area 3 to 6 times a day. Until the barley disappears, do not wear contact lenses or do eye makeup.
Allergy is manifested by lacrimation and itching. Plant pollen, grass, dust, weeds, and pet dander can be allergenic. In order to avoid contact with allergens, use special covers for mattresses and pillows, carry out a thorough cleaning and install anti-allergen filters in air conditioners. Allergy eye drops, artificial tears, and antihistamines can be used to relieve symptoms.
Regular ophthalmological examination
A complete ophthalmologic examination is required by the age of 40. It allows you to detect not only eye diseases, but also other diseases, for example, diabetes mellitus and arterial hypertension. Pathology detected during ophthalmological examination helps diagnose stroke, brain tumor and other serious diseases. Bulging of the eyeballs (exophthalmos) indicates a pathology of the thyroid gland, and the yellow color of the sclera (the white part of the eye) indicates liver disease.
Ultraviolet radiation can harm not only the skin but also the eyes. Regular prolonged exposure to the sun can lead to early development of cataracts, and prolonged exposure to the sun can result in corneal burns. Sunglasses and a hat can help protect your eyes from UV radiation. People with light eyes are more sensitive to the effects of light. Note that severe sensitivity to light, accompanied by headache or nausea, is a symptom of eye disease.
Daily eye protection
When doing housework, you can injure your eyes: oil sprays out of the pan, grass flies off the mower, caustic cleaning agent spills out of the bucket. Therefore, when doing housework, housewives should wear safety glasses. If you still fail to protect your eyes and are injured, see a doctor immediately.
Nutrition for eye health
The following products are good for the eyes: carrots, spinach, nuts, oranges, beef, fish, whole grains.Try to eat foods rich in antioxidants: omega-3 fatty acids, vitamins C, E, and beta-carotene, as well as zinc, lutein, and zeaxanthin.