Low serum creatinine indicates: Low creatinine levels: Causes, symptoms, and treatments
Low creatinine levels: Causes, symptoms, and treatments
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Low levels of the waste product creatinine in the body could be a sign that the liver or muscles are not working as well as they should.
This MNT Knowledge Center features aims to find out what causes creatinine levels to drop, whether this is always a cause for concern, and what can be done to restore healthier levels.
When the body uses the amino acid creatine for energy, creatinine is left behind as waste. The levels of creatinine in the bloodstream or urine can be checked if there is a concern that someone may have a disease of the liver or muscles.
More often, low creatinine levels are a sign of losing muscle mass as people age, or it is a temporary condition during pregnancy or periods of illness, or due to malnutrition.
Fast facts on creatinine:
- Creatine is an amino acid made naturally in the body, with a small amount coming from food.
- It is used for energy in the body, made in the liver and found in muscles.
- Lower creatinine levels in an older adult, or in someone who is slightly underweight, should not be a serious cause for concern.
Share on PinterestCreatine powder is a popular dietary supplement that may increase body mass.
The amino acid called creatine has gained popularity as a dietary supplement due to evidence that it may increase body mass, improve short-term intense exercise performance, and aid in recovery.
When creatine breaks down as it is used for energy, creatinine is created as a waste product.
Creatinine levels vary from person to person depending on factors such as body size, age, or gender, so there is no standard or ‘normal’ level.
Low creatinine levels could indicate a problem with the muscles or liver but may be due to something less serious, such as reduced muscle mass in older adults, or pregnancy.
Creatinine is always present in the bloodstream, where it is removed by the kidneys and leaves the body in urine.
Although it is a waste product, research suggests that creatinine in the body may also play a part in fighting disease, as it has been shown to stop the growth of bacteria.
Creatinine clearance is a test used by doctors that shows how well the kidneys are removing creatinine from the bloodstream.
The test is done using a timed urine sample, which means that all the urine someone passes in a set time period, such as 24 hours, is collected and tested to show how much creatinine has been removed from the body by the kidneys.
This test is most often used to judge high, rather than low creatinine levels in the body and is likely to be used alongside other tests to look at overall kidney health.
There are four key causes of low creatinine:
- low muscle mass
- liver problems
- pregnancy or illness
Low muscle mass
Levels of creatinine are often linked with muscle mass or the amount of muscle in the body, which can decrease with age or illness.
Low levels may indicate that muscles are less strong or are deteriorating, for example with a disease such as muscular dystrophy (MD).
Older adults often lose some muscle mass with age, and this is not usually a serious medical concern.
Creatine is made in the liver, and an unhealthy liver that is not working properly will not be able to make the normal amount of creatine.
For chronic liver disease, there can be a 50 percent reduction in the production of creatine. This means that there will be lower levels of creatinine in the blood, which can be checked with a simple blood test called a serum creatinine test.
Although creatine is made naturally in the body, a small amount comes from food, so low levels of creatinine could relate to diet.
Creatine is mostly found in meat, so those who follow a vegetarian or low-protein diet are likely to have lower levels than people who eat meat.
A prolonged period of not eating, or having an illness that prevents someone from eating, could be another cause of low levels of creatinine.
Pregnancy is often a cause of low creatinine levels, which should return to normal after a woman has given birth.
Symptoms of low creatinine will vary depending on the underlying condition but can include:
- Low muscle mass: Lack of strength, difficulty exercising, a thin or frail body.
- Liver disease: Inflamed liver, which may cause pain in the upper right-side of the abdomen, fatigue or nausea.
- Diet-related: Feeling faint or dizzy, losing weight.
In the majority of cases, symptoms are unlikely to point clearly to low creatinine levels and could indicate other health problems.
A medical professional will test creatinine levels as part of a diagnosis if other symptoms are present, and a test is needed.
Usually, low creatinine means that there is too little creatine being produced in the body. This state will relate to the liver, muscles, or diet.
High levels of creatinine usually mean that there is too much creatine in the body, or that creatinine is not being filtered and removed from the body properly.
Creatinine levels often rise during intense exercise, as more creatine is burned for energy, or because someone may eat a high-protein diet.
High levels could also indicate a problem with the kidneys, as these organs get rid of waste products from the body to keep the blood clean.
Share on PinterestIf low creatinine levels indicate liver disease, then treatment may include quitting alcohol.
Low creatinine levels may indicate various different conditions, so a doctor will use test results alongside other checks to work out what the underlying issue could be.
If low creatinine levels, alongside other symptoms, show that someone may have liver disease, treatment is likely to start with medication and lifestyle changes. These changes could include eating a more healthful diet and giving up alcohol.
If someone has a muscle disease, treatment may include physical therapy, medication, or surgery to support them to remain mobile.
How to increase creatinine levels
Gentle exercise to increase muscle mass, or increasing creatine intake in the diet may help, particularly for those on a vegetarian diet who may not be eating enough protein.
For people who do high-intensity exercise, creatine as a dietary supplement is generally considered safe. A range of creatine supplements is available for purchase online.
However, the body produces creatine naturally, and most people who eat a balanced diet and are moderately active should not need to supplement their diet.
Low creatinine levels can indicate an underlying health problem, such as liver disease, but if this is the case, it will usually present alongside other symptoms. In these instances, the condition will be best tested by a doctor.
More often, low levels of creatinine are a normal part of aging or a temporary issue that can be resolved with changes to diet.
Creatinine and Creatinine Clearance | Michigan Medicine
Creatinine and creatinine clearance tests measure the level of the waste product creatinine (say “kree-AT-uh-neen”) in your blood and urine. These tests tell how well your kidneys are working.
Another substance, creatine (say “KREE-uh-teen”), is formed when food is changed into energy through a process called metabolism. Creatine is broken down into creatinine. Your kidneys take creatinine out of your blood and pass it out of your body in urine.
If your kidneys are damaged and can’t work as they should, the amount of creatinine in your urine goes down while its level in your blood goes up.
Three types of tests can be done.
Blood creatinine level
The blood creatinine level shows how well your kidneys are working. A high level may mean that your kidneys aren’t working as they should. The amount of creatinine in the blood depends partly on the amount of muscle tissue you have. Men generally have higher creatinine levels than women.
A creatinine clearance test measures how well creatinine is removed from your blood by your kidneys. This test gives better information than a blood creatinine test on how well your kidneys are working. The test is done on both a blood sample and on a sample of urine collected over 24 hours.
Blood urea nitrogen-to-creatinine ratio
This test measures the amount of urea in your blood. Urea is a waste product made when protein is broken down in your body. Urea is made in the liver and passed out of your body in the urine.
The levels of blood creatinine and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) can be used to find the BUN-to-creatinine ratio. This ratio can help your doctor check for problems, such as dehydration, that may cause abnormal BUN and creatinine levels.
Why It Is Done
These tests are done:
- To see if your kidneys are working normally.
- To find out if your kidney disease is changing.
- To see how well the kidneys work in people who take medicines that can cause kidney damage.
- To check for severe dehydration. Dehydration generally causes BUN levels to rise more than creatinine levels. This causes a high BUN-to-creatinine ratio. Kidney disease or blocked urine flow from your kidney causes both BUN and creatinine levels to rise.
How To Prepare
You may be asked to:
- Not do any strenuous exercise for 2 days (48 hours) before having the tests.
- Not eat more than 8 ounces of meat, especially beef, or other protein for 24 hours before the blood creatinine test and during the creatinine clearance urine test.
- Drink plenty of fluids if you are asked to collect your urine for 24 hours. But don’t drink coffee or tea. These are diuretics that cause your body to pass more urine than normal.
If you are asked to collect urine, your doctor will give you a large container that holds about 1 gallon. You will use the container to collect your urine for 24 hours.
Tell your doctor ALL the medicines, vitamins, supplements, and herbal remedies you take. Some may increase the risk of problems during your test. Your doctor will tell you if you should stop taking any of them before the test and how soon to do it..
How It Is Done
A health professional uses a needle to take a blood sample, usually from the arm.
Timed urine test
You collect your urine for a period of time, such as over 4 or 24 hours. Your doctor will give you a large container that holds about 1 gallon. You will use the container to collect your urine.
- When you first get up, you empty your bladder.
But don’t save this urine. Write down the time you began.
- For the set period of time, collect all your urine.
Each time you urinate during this time period, collect your urine in a small, clean container. Then pour the urine into the large container. Don’t touch the inside of either container with your fingers.
- Don’t get toilet paper, pubic hair, stool (feces), menstrual blood, or anything else in the urine sample.
- Keep the collected urine in the refrigerator for the collection time.
- Empty your bladder for the last time at or just before the end of the collection period.
Add this urine to the large container. Then write down the time.
How long the test takes
The urine test will take 24 hours. The blood test will take a few minutes.
How It Feels
When a blood sample is taken, you may feel nothing at all from the needle. Or you might feel a quick sting or pinch.
This test usually doesn’t cause any pain or discomfort.
Risks of a blood test
There is very little chance of having a problem from this test. When a blood sample is taken, a small bruise may form at the site.
There are no known risks from having this test.
These tests give information about how well your kidneys are working. The creatinine clearance value is found from the amounts of creatinine in the urine and blood and from the amount of urine you pass in 24 hours. This value is the amount of blood cleared of creatinine per minute, based on your body size.
Each lab has a different range for what’s normal. Your lab report should show the range that your lab uses for each test. The normal range is just a guide. Your doctor will also look at your results based on your age, health, and other factors. A value that isn’t in the normal range may still be normal for you.
Blood creatinine, creatinine clearance, and BUN-to-creatinine ratios can be measured.
High creatinine blood levels can be caused by:
- Serious kidney damage or chronic kidney disease. Kidney damage can be caused by a life-threatening infection, shock, cancer, or low blood flow to the kidneys.
- Muscle injury and conditions. These include crush injuries, burns, rhabdomyolysis, muscular dystrophy, polymyositis, and strenuous exercises.
- Shock. This is low blood pressure with many causes including severe bleeding and very severe infection.
- High creatinine clearance levels can be caused by carbon monoxide poisoning and pregnancy.
- High BUN-to-creatinine ratios occur with sudden (acute) kidney problems. This may be caused by shock or severe dehydration. A very high BUN-to-creatinine ratio may be caused by bleeding in the digestive tract.
- Low blood creatinine levels can mean lower muscle mass caused by a disease, such as muscular dystrophy, or by aging. Low levels can also mean some types of severe liver disease or a diet very low in protein. Pregnancy can also cause low levels.
- Low creatinine clearance levels can mean you have chronic kidney disease or serious kidney damage. Kidney damage can be from conditions such as a life-threatening infection, shock, cancer, low blood flow to the kidneys, or urinary tract blockage. Other conditions, such as heart failure and dehydration, can also cause low clearance levels.
- Low BUN-to-creatinine ratios may be linked with a diet low in protein, a severe muscle injury called rhabdomyolysis, pregnancy, cirrhosis, or syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH). SIADH sometimes occurs with lung disease, cancer, diseases of the central nervous system, or the use of certain medicines.
Current as of:
December 17, 2020
Author: Healthwise Staff
E. Gregory Thompson MD – Internal Medicine
Kathleen Romito MD – Family Medicine
Adam Husney MD – Family Medicine
Caroline S. Rhoads MD – Internal Medicine
Current as of: December 17, 2020
Medical Review:E. Gregory Thompson MD – Internal Medicine & Kathleen Romito MD – Family Medicine & Adam Husney MD – Family Medicine & Caroline S. Rhoads MD – Internal Medicine
Creatinine tests – Mayo Clinic
A creatinine test is a measure of how well your kidneys are performing their job of filtering waste from your blood.
Creatinine is a chemical compound left over from energy-producing processes in your muscles. Healthy kidneys filter creatinine out of the blood. Creatinine exits your body as a waste product in urine.
A measurement of creatinine in your blood or urine provides clues to help your doctor determine how well the kidneys are working.
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Why it’s done
Your doctor or other health care provider may order a creatinine test for the following reasons:
- To make a diagnosis if you have signs or symptoms of kidney disease
- To screen for kidney disease if you have diabetes, high blood pressure or other conditions that increase the risk of kidney disease
- To monitor kidney disease treatment or progression
- To monitor for side effects of drugs that may include kidney damage or altered kidney function
- To monitor the function of a transplanted kidney
How you prepare
A standard blood test is used to measure creatinine levels in your blood (serum creatinine). Your doctor may ask you not to eat (fast) overnight before the test.
For a creatinine urine test, you may need to collect urine over 24 hours in containers provided by the clinic.
For either test, you may need to avoid eating meat for a certain period before the test. If you take a creatine supplement, you’ll likely need to stop use.
What you can expect
For a serum creatinine test, a member of your health care team takes a blood sample by inserting a needle into a vein in your arm.
For a urine test, you’ll need to provide a single sample in the clinic or collect samples at home over 24 hours and return them to the clinic.
Results from creatinine in blood or urine are measured and interpreted in many ways, including the following:
Serum creatinine level
Creatinine usually enters your bloodstream and is filtered from the bloodstream at a generally constant rate. The amount of creatinine in your blood should be relatively stable. An increased level of creatinine may be a sign of poor kidney function.
Serum creatinine is reported as milligrams of creatinine to a deciliter of blood (mg/dL) or micromoles of creatinine to a liter of blood (micromoles/L). The typical range for serum creatinine is:
- For adult men, 0.74 to 1.35 mg/dL (65.4 to 119.3 micromoles/L)
- For adult women, 0.59 to 1.04 mg/dL (52.2 to 91.9 micromoles/L)
Glomerular filtration rate (GFR)
The measure of serum creatinine may also be used to estimate how quickly the kidneys filter blood (glomerular filtration rate). Because of variability in serum creatinine from one person to another, the GFR may provide a more accurate reading on kidney function.
The formula for calculating GFR takes into account the serum creatinine count and other factors, such as age and sex. A GFR score below 60 suggests kidney disease. The range of scores below 60 may be used to monitor treatment and disease progression.
Creatinine clearance is a measure of how well the kidneys filter creatinine out of the bloodstream for excretion in urine.
Creatinine clearance is usually determined from a measurement of creatinine in a 24-hour urine sample and from a serum sample taken during the same time period. However, shorter time periods for urine samples may be used. Accurate timing and collection of the urine sample is important.
Creatinine clearance is reported as milliliters of creatinine per minute per body surface area (mL/min/BSA). The typical range for men, 19 to 75 years old, is 77 to 160 mL/min/BSA.
The typical range, by age, for creatinine clearance in women is as follows:
- 18 to 29 years: 78 to 161 mL/min/BSA
- 30 to 39 years: 72 to 154 mL/min/BSA
- 40 to 49 years: 67 to 146 mL/min/BSA
- 50 to 59 years: 62 to 139 mL/min/BSA
- 60 to 72 years: 56- to 131 mL/min/BSA
Standard measures have not been determined for older adults.
Results lower than the typical range for your age group may be a sign of poor kidney function or conditions that affect blood flow to your kidneys.
Another interpretation of urine creatinine count is called the albumin/creatinine ratio. Albumin is a protein in blood. Healthy kidneys generally don’t filter it out of the blood, so there should be little to no albumin found in the urine.
Albumin/creatinine ratio describes how much albumin is in a urine sample relative to how much creatinine there is. The results are reported as the number of milligrams (mg) of albumin for every gram (g) of creatinine. Results indicating a healthy kidney are:
- For adult men, less than 17 mg/g
- For adult women, less than 25 mg/g
A higher than typical result may be a sign of kidney disease. In particular, the result may indicate a complication of diabetes called diabetic nephropathy, or diabetic kidney disease.
Your doctor or other health care provider will discuss the results of a creatinine test with you and help you understand what the information means for a diagnosis or treatment plan.
Feb. 25, 2021
Low Creatinine Levels – Symptoms, Causes, And Treatments + Diet Tips
Creatinine is the chemical waste product of an amino acid called creatine that is produced and stored by the liver. Creatinine levels are usually an indication of normal muscle metabolism. It usually enters your blood after it is broken down. Your kidneys then remove it from your bloodstream before creatinine finally exits your body through urine. This entire process is responsible for maintaining normal creatinine levels in your body.
The normal levels of creatinine usually vary for different body sizes and muscle mass. The normal range of creatinine level for men is within 0.6 and 1.2 mg/dl, whereas for women, it is between 0.5 and 1.1 mg/dl (1). Any levels lower or higher than this could be an indication of deteriorating muscles.
Low creatinine levels could be an indication of loss of muscle mass that can occur due to various reasons. To know more about what could trigger this loss and how you can restore your creatinine levels to normal, continue reading.
Let us now take a look at the signs and symptoms of low creatinine levels.
Symptoms And Causes Of Low Creatinine
The signs and symptoms of low creatinine levels are usually associated with an underlying medical condition. They include:
- Muscle diseases like muscular dystrophy that can lead to symptoms like muscle weakness, stiffened muscles, pain, and reduced movement.
- Liver diseases or poor functioning of the liver can also interfere with the production of creatine, thereby causing low creatinine levels. This may lead to symptoms like jaundice, abdominal swelling and pain, swelling, and pale/tar-colored/bloody stool.
- Low creatinine levels can also be caused due to loss of water from your body (dehydration). This could either be due to an excess of water intake, pregnancy, or even due to certain medications.
As you already know, the breakdown of muscle tissues produces creatinine. Therefore, low levels of this chemical waste (creatinine) could be an indication of low muscle mass – a risk factor for low creatinine levels.
Malnutrition and a low-protein or low-meat diet are some of the common causes of low muscle mass (2).
To determine your creatinine levels, your doctor or healthcare provider may use multiple diagnostic tests.
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One of the options to determine your creatinine levels is a serum creatinine test that can help measure the creatinine levels in your bloodstream.
Another option is a creatinine urine test that will test your urine to determine your creatinine levels.
Once the diagnostic test reveals your creatinine levels, your doctor will suggest a treatment plan. Low creatinine levels may need further diagnostic tests to rule out a muscular disease (if any). A muscle biopsy or a muscle enzyme test may be conducted to look for muscle damage.
Once the cause of your low creatinine levels is determined, your doctor will discuss the treatment options available to treat your condition.
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If you are found to have an underlying muscle disease, your treatment will be focused on combating the condition and alleviating its symptoms. Some of the options to treat muscle diseases include taking corticosteroids that can help in strengthening your muscles or therapy to improve the quality of your remaining life (3).
Low creatinine levels that occur due to pregnancy are usually normalized after delivery.
If your low creatinine levels are not due to an underlying muscle disease, medical intervention may not be necessary.
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Other Treatment Options
If the low creatinine levels are not a result of muscle disease, your doctor may recommend a few ways that can help in increasing and strengthening your muscle mass to normalize your creatinine levels without medications.
They may ask you to increase your level of physical activity or do strength training exercises regularly to increase your muscle mass.
You can also try:
If your doctor doubts that your low muscle mass is a result of malnutrition or extreme weight loss or dieting, you may be asked to modify your diet to rebuild the lost muscles. Listed below are some diet tips that can help increase your creatinine levels by increasing your muscle mass.
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Diet For Low Creatinine Levels
Start by eating 5-6 small but healthy meals daily. Your diet must consist of protein-rich foods like lean meat, seafood, milk, cheese, yogurt, cottage cheese, and soy. Vegetarians are more likely to be protein-deficient that non-vegetarians. Hence, they should consume alternative sources of protein to make up for it. Avoid alcohol as it can accelerate muscle loss (4).
You can also practice some muscle-building exercises to improve your muscle mass.
Note: You may take supplements (like creatine monohydrate) to improve creatinine levels in your body. Good creatinine levels help enhance athletic performance, keep your muscles and bones healthy as your age, and improve brain health.
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Exercises To Improve Low Muscle Mass
Some exercises that can help improve muscle mass are (5):
- Lifting weights
- Military press
- Seated dumbbell press
- Bench press
- Leg raises
- Weighted abdominal crunches
While some of these exercises, like squats and lunges, can be done right at home, you may need to go to a gym to do the others.
Here are some tips that can help prevent muscle loss.
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- Follow a healthy diet that contains important nutrients, like vitamin D.
- Workout regularly.
- Get sufficient sleep.
- Don’t cut down on your carbohydrate intake.
- Limit your alcohol intake.
- Drink enough water to prevent dehydration.
Low creatinine levels are usually easy to restore, especially when they are not caused by an underlying medical issue. The tips and exercises discussed will help improve your muscle mass in the long run. However, it is best to stick to the treatment plan provided by your doctor if your low creatinine levels are due to an underlying muscular disease.
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Expert’s Answers For Readers’ Questions
What is the creatinine level for kidney failure?
The normal serum creatinine levels are supposed to be 0.5-1.1 mg/dl in women, and 0.6-1.2 mg/dl in men. Creatinine levels higher than this could be an indication of kidney damage.
Is a creatinine level of 1.2 bad?
A serum creatinine level of 1.2 mg/dl is clinically insignificant.
What is the best thing to drink for your kidneys?
Water is one of the best drinks for promoting the health of your kidneys. Other drinks include fruit juices like cranberry juice and lemon juice that can help in detoxifying your kidneys and preventing the formation of kidney stones.
What does low creatinine indicate?
Low levels of creatinine may indicate muscle loss or an underlying medical condition like muscular dystrophy.
Stylecraze has strict sourcing guidelines and relies on peer-reviewed studies, academic research institutions, and medical associations. We avoid using tertiary references. You can learn more about how we ensure our content is accurate and current by reading our editorial policy.
- Hosten, Adrian O. “BUN and Creatinine.” Clinical Methods: The History, Physical, and Laboratory Examinations. 3rd Edition., U.S. National Library of Medicine, 1 Jan. 1990.
- Yildiz, Abdulmecit, and Fatih Tufan. “Lower creatinine as a marker of malnutrition and lower muscle mass in hemodialysis patients.” Clinical Interventions in aging 10 1593.
- Hanada, Masatoshi et al. “Effect of long-term treatment with corticosteroids on skeletal muscle strength, functional exercise capacity and health status in patients with interstitial lung disease.” Respirology (Carlton, Vic.) 21,6 (2016): 1088-93.
- Vargas, Roberto, and Charles H Lang. “Alcohol accelerates loss of muscle and impairs recovery of muscle mass resulting from disuse atrophy.” Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research 32,1 (2008): 128-37.
- Tipton, Kevin D, and Arny A Ferrando. “Improving muscle mass: response of muscle metabolism to exercise, nutrition and anabolic agents.” Essays in Biochemistry 44 (2008): 85-98.
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Creatinine levels and creatinine clearance (urine and blood)
Urine and Serum Creatinine and Creatinine Clearance
|Why is this test performed?||Serum and urine creatinine, as well as creatinine clearance, are used to assess kidney function. Creatinine clearance is used, among other things, to detect early stage kidney disease, to adjust medication dosages and to monitor the adverse effects of certain medications on the kidneys.|
|How to prepare:||
To measure urine creatinine
To measure serum creatinine
Creatinine clearance progressively decreases with age. Serum creatinine levels vary in children.
|Related tests:||In addition to creatinine measurements, blood urea nitrogen levels are also measured. Normal values are between 2.5 and 8.2 mmol/L.|
Note that target ranges may vary between laboratories.
Creatinine is a waste product that is produced by the muscles through normal contraction. Serum creatinine levels are fairly constant and proportional to muscle mass. Creatinine is excreted from the body through the kidneys. As a result, creatinine provides a good measure of how well the kidneys are working. An individual’s creatinine clearance is determined using a mathematical calculation and the level of creatine in urine and in the blood. The resulting value indicates the amount of blood cleared of creatinine in one minute.
What does an abnormal test result mean?
If the result is too high
- Creatinine clearance
A higher than normal creatinine clearance level can be indicative of anemia or increased blood flow to the heart.
- Serum creatinine
The following factors can increase serum creatinine levels:
- Acute or chronic kidney disorders
- Decreased blood flow to the kidneys
- Urinary tract obstruction
- Severe muscle diseases
- Complications of diabetes
- Creatinine clearance
A lower than normal creatinine clearance level may indicate that the kidneys are not working to their full capacity. It could also mean a low blood flow to the kidneys.
- Serum creatinine
Low muscle mass, liver disease or muscle conditions may explain low serum creatinine levels.
- Urine creatinine
Could indicate reduced kidney function.
- Serum creatinine levels
The following can result in elevated serum creatinine levels:
- Eating large amounts of meat before the test
- Vigorous exercise
- Certain drugs
- Serum creatinine levels
Pregnancy and significant muscle loss (amputation, paralysis, etc.) are usually associated with decreased serum creatinine levels.
- Urine creatinine levels
Improper urine collection can affect creatinine clearance or urine creatinine levels. Age is also associated with lower urine creatinine levels.
- Aminosides (e. g. gentamicin (Garamycin®))
- Amphotericin-B (Fungizone®)
- Cephalosporins (e.g. Cefoxitin (Mefoxin®)
- Cimetidine (Tagamet®)
- Cisplatin (Platinol®)
- Corticosteroids (e.g. Prednisone (Deltasone®))
- Cyclophosphamide (Procytox®)
- Lithium (e.g. Carbolith®)
- Mannitol (Osmitrol®)
- Non-steroidal anti-inflammatories (e.g. Ibuprofen (Motrin®))
- Methyldopa (Aldomet®)
- Probenecid (Benemid®)
- Rifampicin (Rifadin®)
- Trimethoprim (Proloprim®)
- Vancomycin (Vancocin®)
- Vitamin C
- Furosemide (Lasix®)
- Hydrochlorothiazide (Hydrodiuril®)
- Indapamide (Lozide®), etc.
If the result is too low
Factors that can affect test results
Certain drugs can affect serum and urine creatinine levels, including:
Tell your doctor if you are taking diuretics. Diuretics are drugs that promote urine production and output and can affect results. The following products are examples of diuretics:
A mathematical formula is used to calculate creatinine clearance. Measurements may be biased in infants, the elderly, obese patients or those with low muscle mass.
What you need to know before the test
Before going for blood tests, a procedure or other exam, it is best to always bring a list of all the
drugs you take (prescription, OTC and natural health products). Unless told otherwise, you should take
your medication as usual on the day of the test. When in doubt, ask your pharmacist for more
Creatinine Clearance Blood Test: Purpose, Procedure, Results
What Is a Creatinine Test?
A creatinine test, also called a serum creatinine test, is a way for doctors to measure how well your kidneys are working. Creatinine is a waste product from the normal breakdown of muscle tissue. As your body makes it, it’s filtered through your kidneys and expelled in urine. Your kidneys’ ability to handle creatinine is called the creatinine clearance rate, and this helps estimate how fast blood is moving through your kidneys, called the glomerular filtration rate (GFR).
Normal Kidney Function and the GFR
All the blood in your body flows through your kidneys hundreds of times each day. The kidneys push the liquid part of blood through tiny filters called nephrons and then reabsorb most of the fluid back into the blood. Fluid and waste products that the kidneys don’t reabsorb are sent out of your body in your urine.
The rate of blood flow through your kidneys is the GFR. (The glomeruli are tiny bundles of blood vessels inside nephrons, and they’re crucial parts of the filtering system.) Your doctor can’t measure the GFR itself, so that’s where creatinine and creatinine clearance come in.
What Is Creatinine and Creatinine Clearance?
Creatinine is a waste product that your body constantly makes during normal muscle breakdown. Your kidneys filter creatinine from the blood into the urine and reabsorb almost none of it.
The amount of blood the kidneys can make creatinine-free each minute is called the creatinine clearance. Creatinine clearance in a healthy young person is about 95 milliliters (mL) per minute for women and 120 mL per minute for men. This means each minute, that person’s kidneys clear 95 to 120 mL of blood free of creatinine. The GFR can vary depending on age, sex, and size. Generally, the creatinine clearance is a good estimation of the glomerular filtration rate.
Why Creatinine Tests Are Done
Doctors use creatinine and creatinine clearance tests to check how well your kidneys work. This is called renal function. Testing the rate of creatinine clearance shows the kidneys’ ability to filter the blood. As renal function gets worse, creatinine clearance also goes down. Your doctor may also order a creatinine test if you have symptoms of kidney disease, including:
Preparing for a Creatinine Test
Before you take a creatinine test, your doctor may tell you not to eat cooked meat for 24 hours. Studies show that it can raise your creatinine levels for a short time.
How Is a Creatinine Test Done?
There are two main ways doctors use creatinine tests to measure kidney function:
Urine tests. Creatinine clearance can be pinpointed by measuring the amount of creatinine in a sample of pee collected over 24 hours. For this method, you store all your urine in a plastic jug for one day and then bring it in for testing. This method is inconvenient, but it may be necessary to diagnose some kidney conditions.
Blood tests.Doctors can estimate GFR using a single blood level of creatinine, which they enter into a formula. Different formulas take into account your age, sex, and sometimes weight and ethnicity. The higher the blood creatinine level, the lower the estimated GFR and creatinine clearance.
For practical reasons, the blood test method for GFR is used far more often than the 24-hour urine collection test for creatinine clearance. But urine collections may still be useful in people who have large muscle mass or a marked decrease in muscle mass.
Creatinine Test Results
A low GFR or creatinine clearance demonstrates kidney disease. The decline in kidney function can be either acute (sudden, often reversible) or chronic (long-term and permanent). Repeated GFR or creatinine clearance measurements over time can identify kidney disease as acute or chronic.
Kidney function and creatinine clearance go down with age. Fortunately, your kidneys have a huge reserve capacity. Most people can lose 30 percent to 40 percent of their renal function without major problems.
Doctors figure out the severity of chronic kidney disease with a staging system that uses GFR:
Stage 1: GFR 90 or greater (normal kidney function)
Stage 2: GFR 60-89 (mild decline in kidney function)
Stage 3a: GFR 45 – 59 (mild to moderate decline in kidney function)
Stage 3b GFR 30 – 44 (moderate to severe decline in kidney function)
Stage 4: GFR 15-29 (severe decline in kidney function)
Stage 5: GFR less than 15 (kidney failure, usually requiring dialysis)
People over age 60 may have an apparently normal creatinine blood level but still have a low GFR and creatinine clearance. The 24-hour urine collection method, or one of the GFR estimation formulas, can more accurately identify the decline in kidney function.
Abnormal creatinine test results don’t always mean kidney disease. Sometimes, they can be signs of:
What to Do About a Low Creatinine Clearance
If you have a low GFR or creatinine clearance, your doctor will design an action plan with you to address the problem.
The main causes of chronic kidney disease are high blood pressure and diabetes. If you have these conditions, the first step is to get them under control with improved diet, exercise, and medications. Otherwise, you may need more testing to identify the cause of kidney disease.
Checking the GFR or creatinine clearance regularly allows you and your doctor to follow any decline in kidney function over time. Your doctor may need to make changes in your medications to adjust for any changes in renal function.
Because over-the-counter medications (especially medications for mild aches, pains and headaches), herbs, and supplements can all affect your kidneys, don’t take any of these without first discussing with your doctor.
Most people don’t need dialysis until GFR and creatinine clearance fall very low. But because kidney function naturally declines with age, it’s important to take action early to keep as much as you can.
High vs. Low Levels, Normal Range
Your doctor may order a blood urea nitrogen test as part of a routine health screening. It helps them see how well your kidneys are working.
Urea nitrogen is a normal waste product that your body creates after you eat. Your liver breaks down the proteins in your food — and while it does that, it creates blood urea nitrogen, also known as BUN. Your liver releases the substance into the blood, and it eventually ends up in your kidneys.
When your kidneys are healthy, they remove the BUN, usually leaving a small amount of it in the blood. But for the most part, your kidneys get rid of it by flushing it out of your body through urine.
When your kidneys are not healthy, they have trouble removing BUN and leave more of it in your blood.
The blood urea nitrogen test, which is also called a BUN or serum BUN test, measures how much of the waste product you have in your blood. If your levels are off the normal range, this could mean that either your kidneys or your liver may not be working properly.
Why You Get the BUN Test
Your doctor may order a BUN test as part of a routine checkup. It may be one of several blood tests that you get.
If you have a kidney condition, the test is a way to check what your BUN levels are before you start a medication or treatment. Also, it’s standard for a BUN test to be given when you’re in the hospital for certain conditions.
If your doctor suspects you may be getting kidney problems, they may order the BUN test.
Tell your doctor if you have the following symptoms, which can be signs that something is wrong with your kidneys:
● A change in how much you urinate
● Pee that is foamy, bloody, discolored, or brown
● Pain while you pee
● Swelling in your arms, hands, legs, ankles, around your eyes, face, or abdomen
● Restless legs during sleep
● Pain in the mid-back where kidneys are located
● You’re tired all the time
How Do I Prepare for the Test?
Before the blood test, tell your doctor what medications you’re taking. If any of them might alter the test result, your doctor may ask you to stop taking them for a period of time.
If you’re only getting a BUN test, you can eat and drink. But if you’re getting other blood tests, your doctor may give you directions that may include fasting before the test.
What Happens During the Test?
A lab tech will take a sample of your blood from a vein in your arm or the back of your hand. You may feel a slight sting when the needle pricks through your skin.
It may feel a little bit sore afterward, but you can go straight back to your everyday activities.
Your doctor’s office will send the blood sample to a lab to be analyzed. You should get the results in a few days, depending on how fast the lab and your doctor’s office can work.
Understanding Your Results
Your result will be a number that measures how much BUN is in your blood. The range considered normal is between 7 to 20 milligrams per deciliter. (A milligram is a very tiny amount — more than 28,000 to an ounce, and a deciliter is equal to about 3.4 ounces).
If your test results are not in that range, talk to your doctor.
Several things can affect your BUN test results, so having a BUN level that is lower or higher than the normal range doesn’t always mean there is a problem.
Things that affect your BUN level might include:
● High-protein diet (may cause high BUN levels)
● Low-protein diet (may cause low BUN levels)
● Several medications, including steroids and antibiotics (increased or decreased BUN levels)
What High BUN Levels Can Mean
High BUN levels can also indicate various problems with your kidneys. Talk to your doctor about what could be causing the problem and plan your next steps.
High levels can also indicate the following:
● Urinary tract obstruction (blockage from being able to pee)
● Congestive heart failure (when your heart doesn’t pump blood to your body like it should)
● Burn injuries
● Heart attack
● Gastrointestinal bleeding (bleeding in your digestive tracts, such as your stomach, intestines, or esophagus)
Low BUN levels are rare. If you have low BUN levels, it could indicate:
● Liver disease
● Malnutrition (when your diet doesn’t have enough nutrients or your body can’t take them in well)
● Overhydration (having too much fluid)
But a BUN test is not a way to diagnose these issues, so more tests may be needed
Your doctor may also order a creatinine test, which is another blood test that also checks your kidney health. This is because the BUN level by itself doesn’t always reveal much.
When your BUN levels are compared with your creatinine levels, it gives a fuller picture of what’s happening with your kidneys. This is known as the BUN/Creatinine ratio.
Creatinine is a waste product from your muscles that is also filtered by your kidneys. Like BUN, high levels of creatinine could mean there is a lot of waste product that hasn’t been removed by the kidneys.
The ideal ratio of BUN to creatinine falls between 10-to-1 and 20-to-1.
Having a ratio above this range could mean you may not be getting enough blood flow to your kidneys, and could have conditions such as congestive heart failure, dehydration, or gastrointestinal bleeding.
A ratio below the normal range could mean liver disease or malnutrition.
90,000 Take a blood test for creatinine in the laboratory Find out the prices for the analysis., Prices in the laboratory KDL
Creatinine is a substance, the level of which in the blood is most often used to assess kidney function. Creatinine is an ideal marker of renal filter function, as it is not reabsorbed in the kidney tubules and is excreted from the body. Healthy person’s creatinine level depends on muscle mass
In what cases is blood creatinine test usually prescribed?
The creatinine test is usually used to assess the filtration function of the kidneys, traditionally two tests are prescribed for this purpose: urea and creatinine. The blood creatinine level is needed to calculate the glomerular filtration rate (Rehberg’s test). It is possible to reduce the content of creatinine in the blood during pregnancy, fasting, with a decrease in muscle mass.
Usually, the analysis for creatinine is included in the basic biochemistry prescribed before hospitalization and during the annual medical examination. This indicator is mandatory for research in case of suspicion of insufficient renal function.
Signs of possible renal dysfunction:
- Fatigue, decreased concentration, sleep problems
- Decreased appetite
- Swelling of the face, especially around the eyes
- Decrease in the amount of urine or change in its color
- Changes in the frequency of urination, especially at night
- High blood pressure
What exactly is determined in the analysis process?
The content of creatinine in the blood is determined by the Jaffe colorimetric method.
What do the test results mean?
Elevated blood creatinine levels indicate kidney disease or other conditions that affect kidney function. This is usually a sign of malfunctioning of the renal glomeruli. Kidney damage can be associated with infection, autoimmune processes, and toxic effects. A decrease in blood creatinine levels more often indicates a lack of muscle mass.
Typical Test Lead Time
Usually a blood creatinine result can be obtained within 1-2 days
Do I need special preparation for the analysis?
No special training required.More information about the conditions of delivery can be found in the “Preparation” section
Analysis for creatinine in urine
Functional state of the body
Creatinine is an end product of the breakdown of creatine, which plays an important role in the energy metabolism of muscle and other tissues. Its formation directly depends on the state of muscle mass.Creatinine is excreted by the kidneys (excreted only by the glomeruli, and unlike urea, it is not reabsorbed in the renal tubules), therefore, a decrease in the excretion of creatinine in the urine and an increase in creatinine in the blood are observed in patients with kidney damage. Daily urinary excretion of creatinine depends on gender, age, and total muscle mass. In combination with serum creatinine, it is used to calculate creatinine clearance, assess renal function.
Indications for appointment
1.Acute and chronic renal dysfunction. 2. Diabetes. 3. Diseases of the endocrine glands (thyroid, pituitary, adrenal glands). 4. Pregnancy. 5. Decrease in muscle mass.
Marker for assessing renal function (glomerular filtration).
Assessment of renal function (acute and chronic renal dysfunction), diabetes, diseases of the thyroid gland, pituitary gland, adrenal glands, pregnancy, muscle loss.
Composition of indicators:
Creatinine in urine
Measuring range :
Unit of measure :
Micromole for 24 hours
Measuring range :
Unit of measure :
Micromole per liter
Execution possible on biomaterials:
24 Hours.at a temperature from 2 to 25 degrees Celsius
Sterile container with lid
24 Hours.at a temperature from 2 to 25 degrees Celsius
Cone test tube, graduated
24 Hours.at a temperature from 2 to 25 degrees Celsius
Sterile container with lid
24 Hours.at a temperature from 2 to 25 degrees Celsius
Cone test tube, graduated
24 Hours.at a temperature from 2 to 25 degrees Celsius
Sterile container with lid
24 Hours.at a temperature from 2 to 25 degrees Celsius
Cone test tube, graduated
Rules for the preparation of the patient
Morning urine sample – into the toilet.Collect urine in a clean container for a day, including the morning portion of the next day. After the last collection of urine, mix all collected urine, determine its volume and record it. Pour 35-40 ml and deliver to the nearest department of ML “DILA” within 2 hours. Keep the container with biomaterial in a cool, dark place during collection. Possibly: To collect daily urine, the patient is offered to purchase a 2.0 liter container at the price list (the cost of the container is not included in the cost of the study).
You can add this study to the cart on this page
- Taking nephrotoxic drugs, ascorbic acid, acetone, lidocaine, glucose, fructose, ibuprofen
- Often called “hyperfiltration”, it is detected in the following conditions: exercise, acromegaly, gigantism, diabetes mellitus (before the clinical manifestations of diabetic nephropathy), infections, hypothyroidism, meat food, increased cardiac output, pregnancy, burns, carbon monoxide poisoning, increased metabolism, anemia.
- Indicates a decrease in glomerular filtration rate, is detected in the following conditions: hyperthyroidism, anemia, paralysis, muscular dystrophy, diseases with a decrease in muscle mass (for example, neurogenic atrophy, polymyositis, etc.), inflammatory and metabolic diseases.
90,000 Creatinine – what is it, the norm of creatinine in the blood and what to do if it is elevated
Home / Frequently Asked Questions
January 14, 2021
- Creatinine in the blood – what is it
- The norm for women, men and children
- Signs of violation formation of creatinine
- Methods of laboratory diagnostics
- What does a low level say
- When creatinine is elevated
Hello, dear readers of the blog KtoNaNovenkogo.ru. One of the informative diagnostic procedures is a biochemical blood test.
It is difficult for a person without medical education to understand his testimony. After all, blood is not only shaped elements – platelets (what is it?), Red and white bodies.
It is also an extensive complex of organic substances (lipids, proteins, including specifically colored ones, carbohydrates, vitamins and enzymes (what is this?), Inorganic and low molecular weight nitrogenous substances).
By the level of content in the blood plasma of each of them, one can judge the state of the human body and the pathological processes occurring in it.
Today’s topic is devoted to one of the representatives of low molecular weight nitrogenous substances – creatinine. What is this substance, what role does it play in the body, what is the physiological norm, and what its imbalance can tell about.
Creatinine in the blood – what is it
Creatinine belongs to the group of low molecular weight nitrogenous substances. In fact, it is an anhydride (chemical compound) of creatine (nitrogen-containing carboxylic acid), which provides the muscle tissue of the body with the necessary energy.
Formed as a result of metabolic processes in the structure of muscle tissue by cleavage of enzyme proteins (dephosphorylation) and non-enzymatic dehydration (decomposition) of nitrogen-containing carboxylic acid.
The “energy raw material” necessary for tissues is produced by the pancreas, kidneys and liver.
After its formation, it is delivered through the bloodstream to the cellular structure of muscle tissues. Here, as a result of reaction with the enzyme, kinase is converted into the form of creatine phosphate, or phosphocreatine.The addition of phosphate acids to the process gives the reaction of the formation of powerful energy for the contractile function of the muscles.
It is during the process of energy formation that creatine is temporarily transformed into creatinine. Subsequently, the substance is excreted from the body with urine.
Our body stably produces creatinine and creotene in a certain amount, maintaining the necessary balance. Up to 2% of creatine is converted to creatinine every day. Its value in the body is constant, since the muscle mass in humans is virtually unchanged.
Creatinine levels can fluctuate depending on muscle mass, gender and age of the patient. Almost all of the energetic substance is produced by glomerular filtration in the kidneys, only 15% is secreted by the renal tubules.
Since the substance is excreted from the body through the urinary system, then by the creatinine clearance (the volume of blood that passed through the kidneys and purified from the substance in 1 minute) in urine, one can judge the efficiency of glomerular filtration processes and the performance of the kidneys themselves.
Therefore, the concentration of creatinine in the blood plasma, which does not go beyond a certain norm, is a good indicator of the functional viability of the kidneys, or a sensitive indicator of their pathologies.
This is interesting. Since fish and meat are considered the richest foods in creatinine, many “experts” believe that it is possible to provide the necessary energy to muscle tissue only through a balanced diet.
At the same time, completely unaware that for a normal “load” of creatinine into the body, it will take up to 5 kg, among other products, in the daily diet for a week.pure meat.
The norm of creatinine in the blood in women, men and children
The level of creatinine in the blood depends on the development of muscles and their volume. Accordingly, the reference (normative) indicators for people of different sex and age differ.
The average norm is:
|Patient groups||Age||Creatinine level in micromoles / L|
|In children||newborns||from 27.0 to 88.0|
|babies||from 18.0 to 35.0|
|– * –||to 10 years old||from 27.0 to 62.0|
|– * –||teenagers||from 44.0 up to 88.0|
|For men||from 18 to 60 years old||from 60.0 to 115.0|
|– * –||over 60 years old||from 71.0 to 115.0|
|For women||from 18 to 60 years old||from 53.0 to 97.0|
|– * –||over 60 years old||from 53.0 to 106.0|
In addition , there is a norm for patients with one working kidney – this is 180.0 – 190.0 micromol / l.In the elderly, long-term ill, and malnourished people, reference values can be greatly underestimated.
But with a pathological increase in the substance in children up to 200.0 micromol / l and in adults up to 400 micromol / l inclusive, it can talk about the development of a pathological process in the body.
The norm of the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in men – from 125 ml per minute, in women – from 110 ml / min. The higher the GFR (clearance), the less creatinine is in the urine.
Signs of impaired creatinine formation
The most indicative symptom is impaired renal function, accompanied by:
- general fatigue;
- increased fatigue;
- Difficulty shallow breathing;
- various forms of impairment of consciousness;
- pain and a feeling of heaviness in the lumbar region.
Methods of laboratory diagnostics
To identify the real level of creatinine in the body, various methods of laboratory diagnostics are used to help make a correct assessment of the functional characteristics of many organs and systems, to determine the nature of changes in the general state of the human body by capillary or venous blood.
- Complex diagnostics of blood biochemistry.
- Hemorenal tests (Reberga – Tareeva) – determination of the level of endogenous substance by GFR.
- Azotemia is the standard for early diagnosis of renal pathologies (protein / creatinine ratio).
To exclude errors in the readings of laboratory tests, two days before the examination, power loads should be abandoned.
24 hours before donating blood, exclude protein and meat foods from the diet, especially beef. A plentiful drinking regime is useful, but on the eve of blood sampling, strong tea and coffee should not be consumed.
Based on the results of each of these tests, the patient’s health condition can be judged.
What a low creatinine level says
- Reduced creatinine titers in a biochemical blood test can be caused by a sharp decrease in muscle tissue as a result of: poor nutrition due to a protein-free or low-protein diet, muscular dystrophy or impaired liver functional properties.
- The clearance of creatinine in the blood decreases when the blood supply to the renal tissues is disturbed, the development of oncological processes in them, or when there are signs of cardiac failure.
- In the analysis of azotemia, a decrease in blood creatinine may indicate a lack of protein in the diet, muscle injuries, pregnancy, destruction of cells in the tissue structure of muscles (rhabdomyliosis), and the presence of liver cirrhosis.
When creatinine is elevated
The only reason why elevated blood creatinine levels are not considered a pathology is the deliberately voluntary use of various dietary supplements with a high concentration of an endogenous component for greater endurance and artificial muscle building.
What is often observed in professional athletes.
In other cases, increased titers of the endogenous component in the biochemical analysis of blood plasma give grounds for a more complete examination of patients, since they may indicate: oncological neoplasms.
Biochemical laboratory screening of blood and a competently diagnosed doctor allow you to choose reasonable treatment tactics and prevent complications in time.
The author of the article: pediatric surgeon Victoria Mikhailovna Sitchenko
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Blood creatinine – description, indications for analysis, norm
Creatinine (in blood)
Blood creatinine is one of the end products of protein metabolism in the body. Its precursor, creatine, is responsible for providing energy to muscle cells.
Creatine is formed in the liver, then is transported by the blood stream to the muscles.In muscle tissue, the remainder of phosphoric acid is attached to it. The resulting compound – creatinine phosphate – transports energy in cells.
When the phosphate group is cleaved from creatinine phosphate, creatinine is formed in muscle tissue. It is released into the general bloodstream at a certain constant rate, therefore, its concentration in the blood is a constant value.
In the kidneys, creatinine is freely filtered from the blood and excreted in the urine. If its content in the blood rises, this indicates a malfunction of the kidneys, which do not promptly remove creatinine from the body.In the initial stages of kidney disease, the level of creatinine does not increase significantly, therefore, the doctor usually prescribes a test for creatinine and urea at the same time.
The level of creatinine in the blood differs in people of different age, sex and weight. Low creatinine levels are typical for people with low muscle mass, for the elderly, for patients after limb amputation. It should be remembered that the normal value of creatinine in the blood test does not completely exclude kidney pathology.
To whom is creatinine in the blood determined?
Suspected kidney disease.
Diseases of skeletal muscles.
Routine examination before surgery.
Preparation for research
Blood for research is taken in the morning on an empty stomach, even tea or coffee is excluded. It is permissible to drink plain water.
Limit fatty foods the night before, do not drink alcohol, physical activity is undesirable.
You need to donate blood before taking the morning dose of medications.
Material for research
Material for research – blood serum.The laboratory assistant takes blood from a vein, it is given in the morning on an empty stomach. If you donate blood for creatinine in the afternoon, the indicator will be higher than in the morning. The reason is physical activity, accompanied by the release of creatitine from the muscles and the presence of protein foods in the diet.
Interpretation of results
Norm: the indicator depends on gender and age.
- up to 1 month – 12 – 50 μmol / l,
- 2 – 12 months – 20 – 60 μmol / L,
- 1 – 14 years old – 27 – 62 μmol / L,
- Women – 53 – 96 μmol / L,
- Men (under 50) – 62 – 115 μmol / l,
- Men (> 50 years old) – 62 – 124 μmol / L.
Increased blood creatinine level:
1. Acute renal failure: the kidneys suddenly stop performing their basic functions. Normally, creatinine and urea, as end products of nitrogen metabolism, are excreted in the urine. With acute renal failure, they accumulate in the blood and are not excreted from the body. At the same time, the exchange of electrolytes (potassium, chlorine and sodium) and water is disrupted. The amount of urine produced by the kidneys is sharply reduced. ARF develops in acute inflammatory diseases of the kidneys, in case of poisoning with toxic substances (arsenic, mercury), in violation of the patency of the urinary tract.
Criteria for ARF by creatinine level:
- blood level 200 – 500 μmol / l,
- increase in creatinine levels 2 times compared with the baseline.
2. Chronic renal failure – gradually developing impairment of the kidneys. It is irreversible, due to the death of nephrons – the main elements of the kidneys. CKD leads to amyloidosis, glomerulonephritis, pyelonephritis.
3. Acromegaly – neuroendocrine disease, excessive growth of limbs in adults (thickening and expansion).
4. Gigantism is a neuroendocrine disease in children and adolescents, which is characterized by excessive proportional growth of the trunk and limbs. In this case, the bones grow not only in thickness, but also in length.
5. Myositis, dermatomyositis.
6. Reception of nephrotoxic substances (mercury compounds, barbiturates, cimetidine, antibiotics – aminoglycosides, tetracyclines).
7. Extensive surgical interventions.
9. Radiation sickness.
10. Excessive physical activity.
11. The predominance of protein foods in the diet.
Decrease in the level of creatinine in the blood:
1. First and second trimester of pregnancy.
3. Vegetarian diet.
4. Taking hormonal drugs.
Blood test for biochemistry in Chelyabinsk
Usually this is the result of a “total protein” analysis. This is the total concentration of all proteins in the blood serum.High protein levels are common in infectious diseases, rheumatism, rheumatoid arthritis, and dehydration, such as from vomiting or diarrhea. Reduced protein in the blood is observed in diseases of the liver, pancreas, intestines, kidneys, bleeding and tumor processes.
An increase in lipids is a sign of diabetes mellitus, hepatitis, obesity or jaundice. The content of one of the most important lipids, cholesterol, is investigated separately.Elevated cholesterol can cause liver disease, hypothyroidism, alcohol abuse, atherosclerosis, and pregnancy and oral contraceptives. Too low total cholesterol levels indicate hyperthyroidism and impaired fat absorption.
Carbohydrates analyzed by the general biochemical blood test include glucose.
Glucose is one of the most important indicators of carbohydrate metabolism. An increase in blood sugar is observed in diabetes mellitus, thyrotoxicosis, pheochromocytoma, Cushing’s syndrome, acromegaly, diseases of the pancreas, liver and kidneys, as well as in physical and emotional overload.A decrease in glucose levels is typical of malnutrition (often a decrease in sugar is observed in women who abuse diets), insulin overdose, diseases of the pancreas, tumors and insufficient function of the endocrine glands.
Inorganic substances and vitamins
The inorganic substances and vitamins that are examined during the biochemical blood test include iron, potassium, calcium, sodium, chlorine, vitamin B12 and folic acid.
Increased iron levels are characteristic of hemolytic anemia, sickle cell anemia, aplastic anemia, acute leukemia, and uncontrolled iron supplementation. A decrease in iron levels may indicate iron deficiency anemia, hypothyroidism, malignant tumors, and occult bleeding.
An increase in potassium indicates cell damage, dehydration, acute renal or adrenal insufficiency.A decrease in the content of this element is a consequence of chronic starvation and a lack of potassium in food, prolonged vomiting or diarrhea, impaired renal function or excess adrenal hormones.
An increase in calcium occurs with the activation of the function of the parathyroid gland, malignant tumors with damage to the bones, sarcoidosis, excess vitamin D and dehydration. A decrease in calcium is a reason to suspect a decrease in thyroid function, vitamin D deficiency, chronic renal failure, magnesium deficiency, or hypoalbuminemia.
An increase in sodium content is a sign of excessive salt intake, loss of extracellular fluid, hyperactivity of the adrenal cortex, disorders of the central regulation of water-salt metabolism. A decrease in sodium content is typical for people with kidney disease, diabetes mellitus, liver cirrhosis and nephrotic syndrome, and may also be the result of diuretic abuse.
An increase in this indicator is a sign of dehydration, acute renal failure, diabetes insipidus, salicylate poisoning or increased adrenal cortex function.A decrease is observed with excessive sweating, prolonged vomiting and after gastric lavage.
An increase in the content of this substance is caused by a vegetarian diet and an excess of folic acid in food, and a decrease is caused by vitamin B12 deficiency, alcoholism, malnutrition and malabsorption.
An excess of this vitamin usually indicates an unbalanced diet. The same reason can also cause a B12 deficiency.In addition, a low content of this vitamin is a frequent companion of gastritis, peptic ulcer disease, and malabsorption.
Low molecular weight nitrogenous substances
Low molecular weight nitrogenous substances investigated in the course of biochemical blood analysis are creatinine, uric acid and urea.
Too high urea indicates impaired renal function, urinary tract obstruction, increased protein content in food, and this condition is also typical for burns and acute myocardial infarction.Decreased urea levels are due to protein starvation, pregnancy, acromegaly, and malabsorption.
The reasons for the increase and decrease in creatinine levels are the same as for urea, except for acromegaly – with this pathology, creatinine increases.
Increased uric acid levels are characteristic of gout, kidney failure, multiple myeloma, pregnancy toxicosis, a diet high in nucleic acids and strenuous physical activity – for example, in athletes during intense training.A decrease in the content of uric acid occurs in Wilson-Konovalov disease, Fanconi syndrome and a diet poor in nucleic acids.
There are also other elements of biochemical analysis.
The attending physician will help you to correctly interpret the results, it is he who will prescribe the correct treatment for you, after which repeated biochemical studies may be prescribed in order to fix the result of the treatment.
Ferritin (S-Fer) – SYNLAB Eesti
Ferritin is an iron depot protein.Consisting of the albuminous membrane (apoferritin) and the iron atom inside it, the iron molecule allows you to preserve iron in this biological form and at the same time protect cells from the toxic effects of ionized iron. Determined from the blood serum, ferritin comes from the cells of the bone marrow, spleen and liver, and also has a direct quantitative relationship with the main iron stores of the body located in these organs.
- Diagnosis of iron deficiency anemia
- Differential diagnosis of anemia
- Assessment of body iron stores
- Control of ongoing treatment with iron preparations
- Monitoring groups at risk for the incidence of iron deficiency anemia (young children, pregnant women, the elderly, donors, patients on hemodialysis treatment)
- Ferritin as a tumor marker Assay method: Chemiluminescent method
|<8 days||30 – 400 μg / L|
|8 – 30 days||30 – 230 μg / L|
|1 – 6 months||10 – 340 μg / L|
|6 – 12 months||10 – 80 μg / L|
|1 – 16 L||5 – 120 μg / L|
|> 16 L L||10 – 150 μg / L|
|> 16 L M||28 – 370 μg / L|
Interpretation of the result:
Determination of ferritin is considered the best test for diagnosing iron deficiency anemia, with a positive predictive result of 95%.Iron deficiency and the emptying of iron stores are the only known reasons for the drop in serum iron concentration so far. Therefore, the determination of ferritin can diagnose the arisen iron deficiency at an early stage and prevent the formation of iron deficiency anemia.
If the cause of the iron deficiency was not anemia, then the iron depot is full and the serum ferritin concentration is normal. When interpreting the ferritin test result obtained, it is necessary to take into account other factors that could affect iron stores in the body.They are – natural daily fluctuations in the amount of iron, the menstrual cycle, pregnancy, oral hormonal combined contraceptives, iron preparations.
Low ferritin values:
- Iron deficiency
- Iron deficiency anemia:
- Chronic blood loss
- Insufficient iron content in food – a uniform diet based on cow’s milk, vegetarianism (for example, small children)
- Disorders of iron absorption
- Acute blood loss – decrease in ferritin 1-2 weeks
Stages of iron deficiency and their laboratory studies
Ferritin is an acute stage protein, the concentration of which, regardless of the state of iron reserves, can increase in inflammation, liver disease, and tumors.This complicates the diagnosis of iron deficiency in patients with chronic disease – their amount of ferritin may be within the reference interval or be increased even with iron deficiency.
When interpreting ferritin test results, it is useful to keep the following points in mind:
- The traditional ferritin cut-off value (10-12 ng / mL) is not always optimal for detecting iron deficiency.
- In an anemic patient with inflammation, a high ferritin cut-off value of up to 70 ng / mL should be considered.It is also recommended to assess the saturation of blood serum with transferrin.