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Lymph glands body: Swollen lymph nodes – Mayo Clinic


Lymphatic system – Better Health Channel

The lymphatic system is a network of delicate tubes throughout the body. It drains fluid (called lymph) that has leaked from the blood vessels into the tissues and empties it back into the bloodstream via the lymph nodes.

The main roles of the lymphatic system include:

  • managing the fluid levels in the body
  • reacting to bacteria
  • dealing with cancer cells 
  • dealing with cell products that otherwise would result in disease or disorders
  • absorbing some of the fats in our diet from the intestine.

The lymph nodes and other lymphatic structures like the spleen and thymus hold special white blood cells called lymphocytes. These can rapidly multiply and release antibodies in response to bacteria, viruses, and a range of other stimuli from dead or dying cells and abnormally behaving cells such as cancer cells.

The lymphatic system and fluid balance

The blood in our blood vessels is under constant pressure. We need that to push nutrients (food the cells need), fluids and some cells into the body’s tissues to supply those tissues with food, oxygen and defence. 

All of the fluids and its contents that leak out into the tissues (as well as waste products formed in the tissues, and bacteria that enter them through our skin) are removed from them by the lymphatic system. 

When the lymphatic system does not drain fluids from the tissues properly, the tissues swell, appearing puffy and uncomfortable. If the swelling only lasts for a short period it is called oedema. If it lasts longer (more than about three months) it is called lymphoedema.

Lymphatic vessels

The lymphatic vessels are found everywhere in our body. Generally, more active areas have more of them. 

The smaller lymphatic vessels, which take up the fluids, are called lymph capillaries. The larger lymphatic vessels have muscles in their walls which helps them gently and slowly pulsate. These larger lymphatic vessels also have valves that stop the lymph flowing back the wrong way.  

Lymph vessels take the lymph back to the lymph nodes (there are about 700 of these in total), which are found in our arm pit and groin as well as many other areas of the body such as the mouth, throat and intestines. 

The fluid that arrives in the lymph nodes is checked and filtered. Most of it continues on to where the lymphatic system from most of our body (the left arm, tummy, chest, and legs) empties out at the left shoulder area. Lymph from the right arm and face and part of the right chest empties into the blood at the right shoulder area.


The spleen is located in the abdominal (tummy) area on the left side, just under the diaphragm. It is the largest of our lymphatic organs. 

The spleen does many things as it filters and monitors our blood. It contains a range of cells, including macrophages – the body’s garbage trucks. It also produces and stores many cells, including a range of white blood cells, all of which are important for our body’s defence.  

As well as removing microbes, the spleen also destroys old or damaged red blood cells. It can also help in increasing blood volume quickly if a person loses a lot of blood.


The thymus is inside the ribcage, just behind the breastbone. It filters and monitors our blood content. It produces cells called T-lymphocytes which circulate around the body. These cells are important for cell mediated response to an immune challenge, such as may occur when we have an infection.  

Other lymphoid tissue

Much of our digestive and respiratory system is lined with lymphatic tissue. It’s needed there because those systems are exposed to the external environment. This lymphatic tissue plays a very important role in the defence of our body. 
The most important sites of this lymphoid tissue are in the throat (called the tonsils), in the intestine area (called Peyer’s patches) and in the appendix.

Lymph nodes

Lymph nodes are filters. They are found at various points around the body, including the throat, armpits, chest, abdomen and groin. Generally they are in chains or groups All are imbedded in fatty tissue and lie close to veins and arteries. 

Lymph nodes have a wide range of functions but are generally associated with body defence. Bacteria (or their products) picked up from the tissues by cells called macrophages, or those that flow into the lymph, are forced to percolate through the lymph nodes. There, white blood cells called lymphocytes can attack and kill the bacteria. Viruses and cancer cells are also trapped and destroyed in the lymph nodes.

More lymphocytes are produced when you have an infection. That is why your lymph nodes tend to swell when you have an infection. 

Common problems involving the lymphatic system

Common problems involving the lymphatic system can be separated into those related to:

  • infection
  • disease
  • destruction or damage to the lymphatic system or its nodes.

Those related to infection include:

  • glandular fever – symptoms include tender lymph nodes
  • tonsillitis – infection of the tonsils in the throat
  • Crohn’s disease – inflammatory bowel disorder.

Those related to disease include:

  • Hodgkin’s disease – a type of cancer of the lymphatic system.

Those related to malformation or destruction or damage to the lymphatic system or its nodes include:

  • primary lymphoedema – when the lymphatic system has not formed properly. May present as a limb or part body swelling at birth, or may develop at puberty or later in life
  • secondary lymphoedema – When the lymphatic system is damaged by surgery or radiotherapy associated with the treatment of cancer, when the soft tissues are damaged by trauma, or when the lymphatic system has some other cause of structural or functional impairment.

Where to get help

Endocrine Diseases – Lymphoma

​​​Lymph Node: Also sometimes referred to as lymph glands, which helps fight viruses or bacteria that cause infection.
There are approximately 600 nodes from head to toe!  They can be found anywhere in the body and are strategically located where bacteria are most commonly found.
A lymph node is a small, round or bean-shaped cluster of cells covered by a capsule of connective tissue.


The cells are a combination of lymphocytes — which produce protein particles that capture invaders, such as viruses — and macrophages, which break down the captured material. Lymphocytes and macrophages filter your lymphatic fluid as it travels through your body and protect you by destroying invaders.

Lymph nodes are located in groups, and each group drains a specific area of your body. You may be more likely to notice swelling in certain areas, such as in the lymph nodes in your neck, under your chin, in your armpits and in your groin. The site of the swollen lymph nodes may help identify the underlying cause.
Lumps may occur when lymph nodes are swollen due to bacterial or viral infections. However, there are many possible causes of swollen lymph nodes. For more serious cases, treatment of swollen lymph nodes involves treating the underlying cause.


Lymphoma can occur in children and adults, and symptoms are similar.

  • swelling in the upper body lymph nodes (it may be associated with pain or without pain).
  •  Unusual tiredness or lack of energy.
  •  Fevers and Chills.
  •  Persistent itch all over the body without an apparent cause or rash.
  •  night sweats.
  •  Weight loss.

Causes of Lymphoma are not very clear, but there are some factors that may increase the chance of a disease, such as:

  01. Genetics.
  02.Immune Diseases.
  03. Viral infection (Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) — the virus that causes AIDS and Hepatitis C).
  04. Bacterial Infection.
  05. Exposure to chemicals, such as pesticides, fertilizers, and solvents.


To diagnose what might be causing your swollen lymph nodes your doctor may need:
Your medical history. In addition, your doctor will want to know when and how your swollen lymph nodes developed and if you have any other signs or symptoms.
A physical exam. Your doctor will also want to check lymph nodes near the surface of your skin for size, tenderness, warmth and texture. The site of your swollen lymph nodes and your other signs and symptoms will offer clues to the underlying cause.
Blood tests. Depending on what your doctor suspects is causing your swollen lymph nodes, certain blood tests may be done to confirm or exclude the suspected underlying condition.


The specific tests will depend on the suspected cause, but most likely will include a complete blood count (CBC), which helps evaluate your overall health and detect a range of disorders, including infections such as mononucleosis and leukemia.
Imaging studies. A chest X-ray or computerized tomography (CT) scan of the affected area may help determine potential sources of infection or find tumors.
Lymph node biopsy. If your doctor can’t pin down the diagnosis, it may be helpful to remove a sample from a lymph node or even an entire lymph node for microscopic examination.
Swollen glands caused by cancer require treatment for the cancer. Depending on the type of cancer, treatment may involve surgery, radiation or chemotherapy.
The best means of prevention is to raise awareness about the disease (know the most important symptoms and signs of infection) and, God willing, that will help in early diagnosis and then treatment, and to try to stay away from the causes of this type of cancer such as avoiding exposure to chemicals and others.

Lymph Nodes, Enlarged – Tufts Medical Center Community Care

What are lymph nodes?

Lymph nodes are small, bean-shaped organs. They are part of the lymph system and can be found in groups or just one by itself. The lymph system is part of your body’s system for fighting infection. The lymph system consists of lymph nodes that store blood cells (lymphocytes) to fight infection and vessels that carry fluid, nutrients, and wastes between your body and your bloodstream. You have lymph nodes in your neck, armpits, groin, and in other places in your body. When the nodes get bigger (enlarged), you may notice lumps in your neck, armpits, or groin.

Lymph nodes are also called lymph glands even though they are not really glands.

What causes enlarged lymph nodes?

The nodes get bigger when they fight germs or cancer. For example, they may become enlarged because of:

  • Infection in the part of the body near the swollen nodes, such as infected sores and wounds
  • Infections such as colds, flu, sore throat, strep throat, ear infections, mononucleosis, and tuberculosis
  • Diseases such as Hodgkin’s disease and other types of cancer

Once the lymph nodes become enlarged, they often do not completely go back to their original size. It is not unusual, for example, to feel enlarged lymph nodes in the groin because of a previous injury to the legs, such as a stubbed toe or skinned knee.

What are the symptoms?

The symptoms of enlarged lymph nodes may include:

  • One or more swollen lumps
  • Tenderness when the glands are touched
  • Nodes that are hard and not movable

How are they treated?

Lymph nodes that are swollen for more than a couple of weeks should be checked by your healthcare provider. Treatment is not always needed, but when it is, the treatment depends on why the nodes are enlarged.

How can I take care of myself?

Follow your healthcare provider’s instructions. Ask your provider:

  • How long it will take to recover
  • If there are activities you should avoid and when you can return to your normal activities
  • How to take care of yourself at home
  • What symptoms or problems you should watch for and what to do if you have them

Make sure you know when you should come back for a checkup.

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This content is reviewed periodically and is subject to change as new health information becomes available. The information is intended to inform and educate and is not a replacement for medical evaluation, advice, diagnosis or treatment by a healthcare professional.

Copyright ©1986-2015 McKesson Corporation and/or one of its subsidiaries. All rights reserved.

The Lymphatic System – Lymphangiomatosis & Gorham’s Disease Alliance

The spleen, which is located in the upper left part of the abdomen under the ribcage, works as part of the lymphatic system to protect the body, clearing worn out red blood cells and other foreign bodies from the bloodstream to help fight off infection.


Functions of the Lymphatic System

The lymphatic system has three functions:

  1. The removal of excess fluids from body tissues. This process is crucial because water, proteins, and other substances are continuously leaking out of tiny blood capillaries into the surrounding body tissues. If the lymphatic system didn’t drain the excess fluid from the tissues, the lymph fluid would build up in the body’s tissues, and they would swell.
  2. Absorption of fatty acids and subsequent transport of fat, chyle, to the circulatory system.
  3. Production of immune cells (such as lymphocytes, monocytes, and antibody producing cells called plasma cells).

Fluid and Protein Balance

As blood moves through the arteries and veins, 10% of the fluid filtered by the capillaries, along with vital proteins, becomes trapped in the tissues of the body. This loss of this fluid (approximately 1-2 liters/day) would rapidly become life threatening if the lymphatic system did not properly function. The lymphatic system collects this fluid and returns it to the circulatory system.


Immunity and Spread of Infection

The lymphatic system plays an integral role in the immune functions of the body. It is the first line of defense against disease. This network of vessels and nodes transports and filters lymph fluid containing antibodies and lymphocytes (good) and bacteria (bad). The body’s first contact with these invaders signals the lymphatics, calling upon this system to orchestrate the way the infection-fighting cells prevent illness and diseases from invading microorganisms. The spleen also helps the body fight infection. The spleen contains lymphocytes and another kind of white blood cell called macrophages, which engulf and destroy bacteria, dead tissue, and foreign matter and remove them from the blood passing through the spleen.



Lymph vessels in the lining of the gastrointestinal tract absorb fats from food. A malfunction of this part of the lymphatic system can result in serious malnutrition. The lymphatic system also impacts diseases such as excessive obesity caused by abnormal fat and carbohydrate metabolism.


Basic Anatomy

The lymphatic system is a network of very small tubes (or vessels) that drain lymph fluid from all over the body. The major parts of the lymph tissue are located in the bone marrow, spleen, thymus gland, lymph nodes, and the tonsils. The heart, lungs, intestines, liver, and skin also contain lymphatic tissue.

One of the major lymphatic vessels is the thoracic duct, which begins near the lower part of the spine and collects lymph from the pelvis, abdomen, and lower chest. The thoracic duct runs up through the chest and empties into the blood through a large vein near the left side of the neck. The right lymphatic duct is the other major lymphatic vessel and collects lymph from the right side of the neck, chest, and arm, and empties into a large vein near the right side of the neck.

Lymph nodes are round or kidney-shaped, and can be up to 1 inch in diameter. Most of the lymph nodes are found in clusters in the neck, armpit, and groin area. Nodes are also located along the lymphatic pathways in the chest, abdomen, and pelvis, where they filter the blood. Inside the lymph nodes, lymphocytes called T-cells and B-cells help the body fight infection. Lymphatic tissue is also scattered throughout the body in different major organs and in and around the gastrointestinal tract.


How a Healthy Lymph System Typically Works

Carrying Away Waste

Lymph fluid drains into lymph capillaries, which are tiny vessels. The fluid is then pushed along when a person breathes or the muscles contract. The lymph capillaries are very thin, and they have many tiny openings that allow gases, water, and nutrients to pass through to the surrounding cells, nourishing them and taking away waste products. When lymph fluid leaks through in this way it is called interstitial fluid. Lymph vessels collect the interstitial fluid and then return it to the bloodstream by emptying it into large veins in the upper chest, near the neck.

Fighting Infection

Lymph fluid enters the lymph nodes, where macrophages fight off foreign bodies like bacteria, removing them from the bloodstream. After these substances have been filtered out, the lymph fluid leaves the lymph nodes and returns to the veins, where it re-enters the bloodstream.


Looking at the Lymphatic System

Lymphatic vessels and lymph nodes can be visualized by the process of lymphangiography. A radiopaque (not transparent to x-rays) contrast material is injected into a lymphatic vessel. This will show up the vessel and its’ connections to other lymph vessels. The fluid is left in the system for 24 hours and the lymph nodes can then be observed by X-rays. This technique is quite important in the treatment of neoplasms and other disorders of the lymphatic system. The technique is also used to locate lymph nodes for radiation therapy or for surgical removal.


Learn more about the lymphatic system…


*From The Merck Manual of Medical Information – Second Home Edition, p. 1053, edited by Mark H. Beers. Copyright 2003 by Merck & Co., Inc., Whitehouse Station, NJ. Available at:http://www.merck.com/mmhe Accessed (April 25, 2008).
Please visit all of The Merck Manuals free online at www.MerckManuals.com Thank you

Lymph Node – Normal


  • Lymph nodes are small bean-shaped lumps found under the skin
  • Also called lymph glands
  • They help the body fight infections

Call or Return If

  • A lymph node starts to look infected
  • A lymph node becomes 1 inch (2. 5 cm) or larger in size
  • You have other questions or concerns

About This Topic


  • Normal lymph nodes are found in the neck, armpit and groin.
  • Usually they are the same size on both side of the body.
  • The easiest one to feel is the one that drains the tonsils. It’s in the neck just under the angle of the jaw.
  • Normal nodes are usually less than ½ inch (12 mm) across. This is the size of a pea or baked bean. They also feel soft and are easy to move.
  • Swollen nodes with a viral infection are usually ½ to 1 inch (12 -25 mm) across.
  • Swollen nodes with a bacterial infection are usually over 1 inch (25 mm) across. This is about the size of a quarter.


  • Over 100 normal lymph nodes are located on the surface of the body. Over 400 others are inside the chest, abdomen and deep tissues. They are all connected by lymph channels.
  • Normal nodes can usually be felt in the neck and groin crease.
  • They are on guard to fight infections. They also can react to any skin irritation (such as an insect bite).

Common Objects Used to Guess the Size

  • Pea or pencil eraser- 1/4 inch or 6 mm
  • Dime- 3/4 inch or 1.8 cm
  • Quarter- 1 inch or 2.4 cm
  • Golf ball- 1 1/2 inches or 3.6 cm
  • Tennis Ball- 2 1/2 inches or 6 cm

After Care Advice


  • You have found a pea-sized or bean-sized normal node.
  • Normal lymph nodes are smaller than ½ inch or 12 mm across.
  • Don’t look for lymph nodes, because you can always find some.
  • They are easy to find in the neck and groin.
  • They are a wonderful defense against infections.


  • No treatment is needed for normal lymph nodes.

Avoid Squeezing:

  • Don’t squeeze lymph nodes.
  • Reason: This may cause them to swell up.

What to Expect:

  • Normal lymph nodes won’t ever completely go away.
  • They are easiest to find in slender children.


Author: Barton Schmitt MD, FAAP
Copyright 2000-2021 Schmitt Pediatric Guidelines LLC
Disclaimer: This health information is for educational purposes only. You the reader assume full responsibility for how you choose to use it.

Article 2661

Swollen Lymph Nodes: Symptoms and Causes

Lymph glands (also known as lymph nodes) are pea-sized lumps of tissue which contain white blood cells.  The white blood cells filter the lymphatic fluid through the body and protect you by destroying any viruses or bacteria that they find.  They are an important part of the immune system and are found throughout the body.

How do I know if my lymph glands are swollen?

Normally, you cannot feel your lymph glands, but if an infection or disease is present then the lymph glands can swell to a few centimetres, becoming more prominent. Swollen glands caused by an infection is known as lymphadenitis. Swollen glands (lymphadenopathy) can be found in groups in various parts of the body including under the chin, on the neck, armpits or in the groin area.  The site of the swollen lymph gland may help identify the cause of your illness as you may only have one aea of lymphdenopathy.

Other symptoms of lymphadenopathy include:

  • Tenderness or pain when you press on the lymph glands

  • Other signs of infection such as fever, sore throat

  • Red, warm swollen skin over the lymph node

  • A lump where the lymph gland sits

Swollen lymph nodes caused by infection or inflammation are soft, tender and can easily be moved when examined.

What are the causes of swollen glands?

Causes can be seen using Isabel’s symptom checker:

Strep throat / Tonsillitis: is caused by a bacterial infection and other symptoms include sudden fever, sore throat, headache and chills.

Infectious mononucleosis / Glandular fever: As well as lymphadenopathy, other characteristic symptoms are fever, fatigue, malaise and a sore throat.

Acute infectious laryngitis: Common alternative symptoms include loss of voice, hoarseness, dry throat and a dry cough.

Lung tuberculosis: Other symptoms are persistent coughing for several days, coughing up blood, fever, excessive sweating and chest pain.

Cat Scratch disease: This is a disease caused by the organism bartonella henselae.  40% of cats carry this bacteria in their saliva and it can be transmitted to humans via a cat scratch or a bite from a cat. Other symptoms include a bump or blister where the bite or scratch occurred, fatigue, headaches and low grade fever.

Toxoplasmosis: Flu like symptoms with high temperature, myalgia, tiredness and sore throat may also be present.

Viral infections such as the common cold can also cause swollen glands.  Rarer causes also include some cancers including lymphomas, which originate in the lymphatic system where the lymph nodes sit, or leukemias, which originate in the bone marrow and lymphatic system.

When should I see my health care provider?

  • If the lump is hard, not mobile and does not cause pain then further evaluation should be sought from your health care provider

  • If the lumps have appeared for no reason

  • If the lumps continue to enlarge or have been present for over 2 weeks

  • If you have other signs of infection like night sweats, fever or unexplained weight loss

  • If you have a sore throat, have difficulty swallowing or breathing

Appointment preparation:

Take to the appointment with you the following information:

  • What symptoms you are experiencing

  • How long you have had the symptoms

  • Any recent travel abroad or exposure to ticks, animals, under cooked meat or high risk sexual behaviour with a new partner

  • List of medications and your key past medical history

Ask your doctor the following questions:

  • What’s causing my symptoms?

  • What tests do I need?

  • What treatment do I need?

  • Am I infectious, do I need to take any precautions to prevent infection to others?

  • When will I start to feel better?

  • Are they any complications I should look out for?

Further Tests:

If the health care provider feels after examining you that they cannot clearly say your swollen lymph glands are caused by a viral infection or a bacterial disease then they may refer you for further tests such as blood tests, chest x-ray or CT scan, or a lymph node biopsy.

What is the treatment of Swollen Glands?

Treatment is determined by the cause of the swollen glands.  If the health care provider recommends self-care due to the cause being viral, then over the counter pain relievers such as Advil or Tylenol may helwith your symptoms. If the glands are painful applying a warm, wet compress to the area affected will help. Rest until your body recovers.  

If the cause is found to be bacterial then you may be prescribed antibiotics and should take them as instructed.

Once the underlying disease has been treated then the glands will return to their normal size and the symptoms should disappear.



Take a look at our Isabel Symptom Checker and run your symptoms through it:

Swollen Glands – HealthyChildren.org

Lymph glands (or lymph nodes) are an important part of the body’s defense system against infection and illness. These glands normally contain groups of cells, called lymphocytes, which act as barriers to infection. The lymphocytes produce substances called antibodies that destroy or immobilize infecting cells or poisons. When lymph glands become enlarged or swollen, it usually means that the lymphocytes have increased in number due to an infection or other illness and that they are being called into action to produce extra antibodies. Rarely, swollen glands, particularly if long-lasting and without other signs of inflammation, such as redness or tenderness, may indicate a tumor.

If your child has swollen glands, you’ll be able to feel them or actually see the swelling. They also may be tender to the touch. Often, if you look near the gland, you can find the infection or injury that has caused it to swell. For example, a sore throat often will cause glands in the neck to swell, or an infection on the arm will produce swollen glands under the arm. Sometimes the illness may be a generalized one, such as those caused by a virus, in which case many glands might be slightly swollen. In general, because children have more viral infections than adults, lymph nodes, particularly in the neck, are more likely to be enlarged. Swollen glands at the base of the neck and just above the collarbone may be an infection or even a tumor within the chest, and should be examined by a physician as soon as possible.


In the vast majority of cases, swollen glands are not serious. Lymph node swelling usually disappears after the illness that caused it is gone. The glands gradually return to normal over a period of weeks. You should call the pediatrician if your child shows any of the following:

  • Lymph glands swollen and tender for more than five days

  • Fever higher than 101 degrees Fahrenheit (38.3 degrees Celsius)

  • Glands that appear to be swollen throughout the body

  • Tiredness, lethargy, or loss of appetite

  • Glands that enlarge rapidly, or the skin overlying them turning red or purple

As with any infection, if your child has a fever or is in pain, you can give her acetaminophen in the appropriate dosage for her weight and age until you can see the pediatrician. When you call, your doctor probably will ask you some questions to try to determine the cause of the swelling, so it will help if you do a little investigating beforehand. For instance, if the swollen glands are in the jaw or neck area, check if your child’s teeth are tender or her gums are inflamed, and ask her if there is any soreness in her mouth or throat. Mention to your doctor any exposure your child has had to animals (especially cats) or wooded areas. Also check for any recent animal scratches, tick bites, or insect bites or stings that may have become infected.

The treatment for swollen glands will depend on the cause. If there’s a specific bacterial infection in nearby skin or tissue, antibiotics will clear it, allowing the glands gradually to return to their normal size. If the gland itself has an infection, it may require not only antibiotics but also warm compresses to localize the infection, followed by surgical drainage. If this is done, the material obtained from the wound will be cultured to determine the exact cause of the infection.

Doing this will help the doctor choose the most appropriate antibiotic. If your pediatrician cannot find the cause of the swelling, or if the swollen glands don’t improve after antibiotic treatment, further tests will be needed. For example, infectious mononucleosis might be the problem if your child has a fever and a bad sore throat (but not strep), is very weak, and has swollen (but not red, hot, or tender) glands, although mononucleosis occurs more often in older children. Special tests can confirm this diagnosis. In cases where the cause of a swollen gland is unclear, the pediatrician also may want to do a tuberculosis skin test.

If the cause of prolonged swelling of lymph nodes cannot be found in any other way, it may be necessary to perform a biopsy (remove a piece of tissue from the gland) and examine it under a microscope. In rare cases this may reveal a tumor or fungus infection, which would require special treatment.


The only swollen glands that are preventable are those that are caused by bacterial infections in the surrounding tissue. In cases of suspected infection, you can avoid involving the lymph nodes by properly cleaning all wounds and receiving early antibiotic treatment.

The information contained on this Web site should not be used as a substitute for the medical care and advice of your pediatrician. There may be variations in treatment that your pediatrician may recommend based on individual facts and circumstances.

90,000 ultrasound of lymph nodes – Ultrasound Center, Sevastopol

Lymph nodes are the basic building blocks of the lymphatic system. They participate in the formation of immunity, act as a filter for lymph coming from different organs and parts of the body, maintain a uniform volume of interstitial fluid, and participate in metabolism.

The following groups of lymph nodes are distinguished:

If the body is working properly, the lymph nodes are barely perceptible when palpating.

If the lymph node has increased in size, this is an indication that it is inflamed. The most common cause is infectious processes, but it can also be an autoimmune disease.

Main indications for ultrasound of lymph nodes:

  • pain in the area of ​​the lymph nodes;

  • increased fatigue, body aches;

  • acute headache;

  • lymph nodes increased in size;

  • the presence of tumor formations;

  • neoplasms in the area of ​​the salivary glands;

  • endocrine diseases;

  • tuberculosis;

  • syphilis;

  • a number of autoimmune pathologies;

  • evaluation of the effectiveness of the treatment.

Timely ultrasound diagnostics of lymph nodes allows detecting pathology at early stages, making a diagnosis, preventing serious diseases and adjusting treatment.

In our center you can do an ultrasound of lymph nodes using modern equipment from experienced and qualified doctors.

Cost of services:

Service name



Ultrasound of lymph nodes (cervical, supraclavicular and subclavian)


Ultrasound of lymph nodes (inguinal)


Sign up for an ultrasound of the lymph nodes in St.You can call Sevastopol by phone:

+7 (8692) 55-15-61, +7 (978) 718-49-88, +7 (978) 071-31-01

Lymph nodes in the lungs

Lymph nodes (lymph nodes) are organs of the lymphatic system in the human body. The lymph nodes play an important role as a filter for lymph from various organs and parts of the body. Lymph nodes are round or oval formations ranging in size from half a centimeter to five centimeters in diameter.Lymph nodes are usually located near the lymph and blood vessels. Often, lymph nodes play the role of a so-called barrier that protects the body from various infections. Lymph nodes located in the area of ​​the lungs are called bronchopulmonary.

The main disease associated with lymph nodes is inflammation.

Inflammation of the lymph nodes, which is called lymphadenitis, is hard to miss. The lymph node becomes inflamed, greatly increases in size and exhibits the following symptoms:

  • Painful sensations
  • Headache
  • General weakness
  • Increased body temperature

The inflamed lymph node becomes convex, becomes dense, and when pressed on the patient feels soreness.Inflammation can affect not only one lymph node, but also a group of lymph nodes or all lymph nodes at the same time.

Inflammation of the bronchopulmonary lymph node, i.e. in the lungs is especially dangerous, because you cannot visually see it or feel it. Therefore, in case of headache, general weakness or fever, you should immediately contact the Pulmonology Center. Only here can they correctly diagnose inflammation of the lymph node in the lungs.

The Pulmonology Center is equipped with modern diagnostic technology that helps our doctors quickly and accurately diagnose and prescribe the correct treatment.A doctor’s consultation at the Pulmonology Center begins with a careful examination of the patient and listening to complaints. The doctor will ask clarifying questions and carry out the necessary diagnostics. For a complete picture of the patient’s condition, the doctor needs to collect as complete anamnesis as possible, i.e. to obtain information about previously transferred diseases, characteristics of their course and treatment, etc. A blood test is required, which will help to find out the cause of the inflammation of the lymph nodes. To rule out a tumor or find the source of infection, the patient is referred for x-rays or computed tomography (CT).The Pulmonology Center has innovative equipment – 3D NLS graphy. The results obtained after the diagnosis allow the doctor to see the picture of the disease more clearly and to institute the correct treatment.

Doctors of the Pulmonology Center approach treatment in a complex way, because only this approach will allow to cure the cause of the disease, and not its external manifestations. By contacting us, you can be sure that our doctors will definitely get to the bottom of the causes of your illness and heal you as soon as possible.

Contact us, we will definitely help you!

Lymph node | Pathology Dictionary

What is a lymph node?

Lymph nodes are small organs located in different parts of the body. They are connected to the body and to each other by small channels called lymphatic vessels that contain fluid.

Lymph nodes are part of the immune system and their main function is to “sample” fluids circulating through the body to detect changes such as infection, injury, or cancer.The average person has hundreds or even thousands of lymph nodes, although most people will never see or feel one unless it enlarges.

Abnormal lymph nodes

Doctors use the word lymphadenopathy to describe large or abnormal lymph nodes. Your doctor may find abnormal lymph nodes during a physical exam or with radiological imaging, such as x-rays, computed tomography, or MRI scans.

Lymph nodes may enlarge in response to infection or when cancer cells fill up.A lymph node enlarged as a result of an infection is often referred to as a “reactive” lymph node. Cancer cells can travel to a lymph node from another area of ​​the body in a process called a lymph node. metastasis or they can arise from cells that are usually found in the lymph node (this type of cancer is called lymphoma).

Enlarged lymph nodes are often sent for pathological examination to determine the cause of the enlargement. This is especially important when the doctor is unsure whether the swollen lymph node is caused by an infection or cancer cells.

In other cases, the lymph nodes are removed with the tumor to see if any of the lymph nodes contain cancer cells (lymph node metastases). In these cases, each lymph node will be described as “positive” or “negative”, which means that cancer cells have been found in the lymph node.

90,000 Lymph Nodes are … What are Lymph Nodes?

peripheral organs of the immune system that function as biological filters, as well as lymphocytopoiesis and antibody formation.

Lymph nodes are soft, elastic to the touch of a pinkish color of the formation. They have an ovoid (kidney) shape, in old and senile age – often ribbon-like, segmental as a result of the fusion of adjacent nodes. L.U. varies from 0.5 to 50 mm in length. Their size in healthy people depends on age, constitution, hormonal and other factors. With age, due to the replacement of small L. at. connective tissue, as well as as a result of the fusion of neighboring nodes, their number decreases, and their size increases.Lymph nodes are located along the lymphatic vessels (see Lymphatic system) , , as a rule, in loose fibrous connective tissue next to large blood vessels, mainly veins. The nodes located on the walls of the body cavities are called parietal (parietal), and those located near the internal organs are called visceral. L. at. designate, respectively, those parts of the body or areas (regions) where they are localized (for example, occipital, sublingual, lateral cervical, periosternal, lumbar, iliac, inguinal), or by the name of the blood vessels to which they are adjacent.On the limbs, superficial and deep L. are distinguished. depending on the depth of their occurrence in relation to the superficial fascia.
Lymph nodes are located in groups, usually several nodes (sometimes up to several dozen). The number of of them in each group fluctuates. So, the upper mesenteric include 60-404 nodes, lumbar – 11-41 nodes, lateral deep cervical – 32-83 nodes, left stomach – 7-38 nodes, axillary – 12-45 nodes. Some groups include only 1-4 nodes (for example, ulnar, popliteal).Outside L.u. covered with a thin connective tissue capsule, which thickens in the area of ​​the gate (portal thickening). Visceral L.u. (gastric, mesenteric, tracheobronchial) have up to 2 4 portal thickenings, parietal – usually one. Thin bundles of connective tissue – trabeculae (capsular and portal) – depart from the capsule and the portal thickening inside the LA, into its parenchyma. Between the trabeculae are located Lymphoid tissue , in which the cortical substance, which is closer to the capsule, and the medulla, which occupies the central part of L.at., closer to its gate ( fig. 1 ). Stromu L.u. forms reticular tissue, represented by reticular cells and fibers that form a fine-mesh network. In the loops of this network, there are lymphocytes of various degrees of maturity (small, medium, large), young cells of the lymphoid series (blasts), plasma cells, macrophages, as well as single leukocytes, mast cells (mast cells). In the cortical substance, round-shaped cell clusters are visible – lymphoid nodules, or follicles, measuring 0.5-1 mm in diameter.Most lymphoid nodules have a light center (multiplication center), in which there are many dividing and young lymphoid cells. The parenchyma between the lymphoid nodules is called the inter-nodular zone, or cortical plateau. The inner part of the cortex, a narrow strip bordering the medulla, is called the paracortical, or thymus-dependent, zone. It contains mainly T-lymphocytes. In this zone, numerous postcapillary venules are found, through the walls of which the migration of lymphocytes occurs.The medulla is formed by the so-called pulp strands, oriented from the inner part of the cortical substance to the portal thickening, between the pulp strands, under the capsule, in the cortex there is a system of narrow channels lined with endothelium-like cells – sinuses, connected to each other ( Fig. 2 ) through which Lymph flows . It enters the lymph nodes through 2-4 lymph vessels that approach the node on its convex surface.Initially, the lymph flows into the subcapsular sinus with the sinuses of the cortical substance extending from it, piercing the latter and continuing into the sinuses of the medulla, lying between the pulp cords and flowing into the portal sinus. From the portal sinus, located in the area of ​​the gate, the outflowing lymphatic vessels originate (there are 1 or 2 of them). Through them, the lymph, passing through the lymph node, leaves it. Inside the sinuses, through which lymph flows from the subcapsular to the portal sinus, there is a small-looped network formed by reticular fibers and cells.In this network, various foreign particles that appear in the lymph are retained and actively captured by macrophages: bodies of dead cells, microorganisms, tumor cells (barrier-filtration function of lymph nodes). Immunological function L. at. it is also expressed in the participation of lymphocytes in the immune processes of the body, the formation of plasma cells and the production of antibodies. L.u. are one of the main organs that implement immune responses and phylogenetically older mechanisms (phagocytosis) in response to various infections and other antigenic stimuli.Normally L. at. can be found on palpation (Palpation) . They reach their largest sizes along the lymphatic vessels draining areas that are most susceptible to antigenic irritations (lungs, armpits, groin areas; in infants – the mesentery; in older children – the neck, chin area).
When examining a patient, attention is paid to the color of the skin and temperature in the area of ​​superficial lymph nodes, their size, consistency (elastic, densely elastic, dense, the presence of softening, fluctuations), soreness, relationship with surrounding tissues (can be mobile, inactive, soldered to surrounding tissues).Deep L.u. determined by palpation only with a significant increase (for example, with lymphocytic leukemia). Suspect an increase in L. mediastinum is possible with chest percussion. The study of LU, not accessible to palpation and puncture, can be carried out by X-ray, radionuclide ultrasound methods or using computed tomography (Tomography) , lymphography (Lymphography) . In each specific case of detection of increased L. at. a comprehensive examination is necessary to clarify the diagnosis.A correct and complete history is important. It is necessary to find out when the L.U. increased, it happened with complete well-being or during a period of any illness, fever, to determine the amount of increased L.u. (single or several in different areas), to establish the presence of any disease by the time of detection of increased HP, contact with infectious patients, animals, loss of body weight, etc.
Increased L.u. – a symptom of many diseases. Non-inflammatory reactive lymphadenopathy can accompany endocrine diseases, systemic lesions of connective tissue, psoriasis and other skin diseases; it can occur with certain medications. The so-called idiopathic lymphadenopathy is characteristic of pathological processes such as angioimmunoblastic lymphadenopathy, sinus histiocygosis, etc. The main clinical manifestation of many neoplastic diseases of the blood system (for example, leukemia, lymphogranulomatosis, lymphosarcoma) is an increase in L.U. Lymphogranulomatosis , Lymphosarcoma is characterized by an initially local increase in L. at., In chronic lymphocytic leukemia, a generalized increase in L. at. Is possible. (see Leukemias) .
An increase in cervical and submandibular l.u., especially in childhood, is often detected in viral diseases (infectious mononucleosis, measles, rubella, infectious lymphocytosis), inflammatory processes in the ear, throat, nose, and also in the oral cavity (see . Lymphadenitis) . With supraclavicular, abdominal localization of enlarged L. at. it is necessary to exclude the tumor process. With an increase in L.u. in the left supraclavicular region, one should remember about the possibility of their metastatic lesion in malignant tumors of the gastrointestinal tract, breast, kidneys, testicles, ovaries, the upper lobe of the left lung (right supraclavicular L. at. can be increased with metastases from other parts of the lung). Cancer metastases spread to both regional and distant nodes.
An increase in the size of L., accompanied by prolonged unexplained fever, night sweats, weight loss, can be observed in hemoblastosis, cancer, tuberculosis. The rapid increase in the size of L. at. and pain syndrome are characteristic of inflammatory processes, although in some of them (for example, with syphilis, toxoplasmosis, tuberculosis), pain syndrome may be absent.With inflammatory reactive lymphadenopathies L. at. usually soft consistency, with cancer metastases – dense. In lymphoproliferative diseases (see Lymphoproliferative diseases), their consistency can vary from elastic to dense. Conglomerates of L. at., Especially germinating in the underlying tissues and therefore inactive, with a high degree of probability may indicate hemoblastosis, cancer. In inflammatory processes, an increase in the size of L. at. due to the physiological proliferation of immunocompetent cells and the accumulation of granulocytes and monocytes. With hemoblastosis, cancer, an increase in L. is the result of the proliferation of tumor cells in them, which can form as a result of tumor transformation in the lymphatic tissue itself (for example, with lymphosarcoma, lymphogranulomatosis) or metastasize from other organs and systems (for example, with cancer, leukemia). The enlargement of the spleen, accompanying lymphadenopathy, is often observed in lymphoproliferative diseases.
Lymphadenopathy can be a non-specific manifestation of many viral diseases, post-vaccination reactions.An infectious origin of lymphadenopathy may be indicated by a short-term fever, the presence of an inflammatory process, and a rash. As the inflammation subsides (within 2-3 weeks) L. at. decrease in size. In order to exclude the infectious origin of lymphadenopathy, specific serological studies are performed. It is known that with the spread of infection by the lymphatic pathway, , as a rule, regional L. at. Increases; with the hematogenous path of infection, generalized lymphadenopathy usually develops. With prolonged (more than 3 weeks) unexplained increase in L. at. conduct a diagnostic biopsy of it. With widespread lymphadenopathy, it is better to remove the supraclavicular and cervical lymph nodes, since nonspecific reactions are often noted in the axillary and inguinal ones. In this case, the most enlarged L.s are selected. Sometimes, to clarify the diagnosis, a biopsy of two or more L. at. Is performed. It should be borne in mind that in malignant processes, even such as acute leukemia, lymphosarcoma, the hemogram may not be changed, therefore, with lymphadenopathy of unknown origin, the remote L.at. and bone marrow. These studies are carried out in medical institutions with appropriate diagnostic capabilities. At the same time, in some lymphadenopathies, changes detected in the hemogram make it possible to confirm the diagnosis (for example, the detection of pathological mononuclear cells in infectious mononucleosis).
The results of the histological examination L.u. should be considered in connection with the clinical picture of the disease, as well as with data obtained with other research methods (for example, hematological, radiological, serological, immunological). The adequacy of therapy and the prognosis of the disease largely depend on the timeliness and completeness of the study.

Bibliography: Borodin Yu.I. and Grigoriev V.N. Lymph node in circulatory disorders, Novosibirsk, 1966; Volkov I.N. Lymph node pathology, trans. from bulg., Sofia, 1980; Karr Y. et al. Lymphoreticular diseases, trans. from English., M., 1980; Guide to Hematology, ed. A.I. Vorobyov, t. 1, M., 1985; Sapin M.P., Yurina N.A. and Etingen L.E. Lymph node, M., 1978, bibliogr .; Weinstein F.E. and other Diseases of the blood system, p. 313, Tashkent, 1987.
capsule; 2 – trabecula; 3 – sine; 4 – cortical substance; 5 – follicles; 6 – bringing lymphatic vessels; 7 – outflowing lymphatic vessels; 8 – medulla; 9 – gate of the lymph node “>

Fig. 1. Schematic representation of the structure of the human lymph node (in section): 1 – capsule; 2 – trabecula; 3 – sine; 4 – cortical substance; 5 – follicles; 6 – bringing lymphatic vessels; 7 – outflowing lymphatic vessels; 8 – medulla; 9 – gate of the lymph node.

follicle; 6 – bringing lymphatic vessel; 7 – cortical substance; 8 – marginal sinus; 9 – pulpy strand; 10 – outflowing lymphatic vessel; 11 – connective thickening in the area of ​​the gate of the lymph node; 12 – medulla; 13 – blood vessels; 14 – portal sinus; 15 – paracortical zone “>

Fig. 2. Schematic representation of the microscopic structure of the human lymph node: 1 – capsule; 2 – capsular trabecula; 3 – cortical intermediate sinus; 4 – cerebral intermediate sinus; 5 – follicle; 6 – bringing lymphatic vessel; 7 – cortical substance; 8 – marginal sinus; 9 – pulpy strand; 10 – outflowing lymphatic vessel; 11 – connective thickening in the area of ​​the gate of the lymph node; 12 – medulla; 13 – blood vessels; 14 – portal sinus; 15 – paracortical zone.

is an accumulation of lymphatic fluid in the tissues due to a violation of its transportation

What causes lymphedema?

The lymphatic system, together with the cardiovascular system, constitutes the circulatory system of the body and performs a number of important functions. It plays a crucial role in the immune system, so a healthy person hardly has any reason to think about the lymphatic system. We remember about her only when there are disruptions in her work, for example, in the case of the development of lymphedema.

What is it? Lymphedema occurs when lymphatic fluid cannot drain away from tissues and builds up in tissues. The arms and legs increase in volume and chronic edema forms.

However, with the right treatment and a positive attitude, the patient can lead a normal daily life. One thing is for sure: there are ways to stop the development of lymphedema.

Service for “disposal of hazardous waste” of the body

The lymphatic system can be compared to a “hazardous waste disposal” service in that it removes them from the body.Such wastes include, for example, proteins, metabolic products, inflammatory mediators or fats absorbed during digestion. The vessels of the lymphatic system are located along the blood vessels and cover our body like a network.

Every day, the lymphatic system transports up to four liters of purified lymph back into the bloodstream. Lymphedema can develop if the flow of fluid from tissues is impaired. With modern treatment options, a patient with lymphedema can lead a normal life.

Forms of lymphedema

There are two forms of lymphedema: primary and secondary lymphedema:

Primary lymphedema:

Primary lymphedema is a congenital disorder. As a rule, it develops due to a violation of the development of lymph nodes and blood vessels.

Secondary lymphedema:

Secondary lymphedema is edema that is not congenital and develops over the course of a patient’s life.Causes can be, for example, surgery, infection, injury, etc.

Signs and symptoms

The so-called Stemmer symptom is a reliable diagnostic sign for recognizing lymphedema. Try the skin in a crease (for example, on the back of your toe). If it is difficult or even impossible to do this, we speak of a “positive Stemmer symptom”.

This is a symptom of lymphedema.In addition, deepening of the natural folds of the skin over the joints, swelling on the back of the hands and feet, and taut skin indicate the presence of lymphedema.

Stages of lymphedema

  • Stage 0: The lymphatic vessels are damaged, but there is no visible edema yet.
  • Stage 1: The edema develops during the day, but partially or completely disappears when the limb is in an elevated position. When you press on the tissue with your finger, a pit is formed, which persists for some time.
  • Stage 2: Raising the limb no longer helps. The swelling persists even with prolonged rest. The skin begins to thicken. It is difficult or even impossible to make a hole in the skin with pressure.
  • Stage 3: Characterized by severe swelling and changes in the skin (for example, holes from which lymphatic fluid leaks). Another name for this stage of development of lymphedema is elephantiasis or elephantiasis.

It is recommended to consult a doctor as early as possible (ideally already in the first stage).The doctor will recommend an appropriate treatment and check that the swelling does not increase, but begins to decrease, or at least has stabilized. Thus, it is possible to prevent the further development of edema up to Stage 3.

Lymphedema after surgery for the treatment of breast cancer

Breast cancer is one of the most common forms of cancer in women. More than 70,000 new cases are diagnosed annually.

On average, 20 to 30% of patients suffer from lymphedema associated with surgery for breast cancer with removal of axillary lymph nodes and adjuvant radiation therapy.

Risk factors

Cancer patients often have to undergo radiation therapy of lymph nodes or remove them completely. Of course, this affects the entire lymphatic system, so edema may begin to develop. Other factors, such as age or female gender, can also contribute to the development of lymphedema.

Lymphedema can also often develop in connection with a previous venous disorder in combination with insufficient exercise.There are many reasons for lymphedema, but the good news at this point is that there are effective treatment options that can restore quality of life to patients.


Do you have lymphedema? Pay attention to the little things in your daily life that can help control swelling. For example, wear clothes that are comfortable and free of pressure and movement. Use only pH neutral products for skin care. Are you overweight? Try to lower it.For example, ask your doctor about groups of remedial gymnastics and exercises to relieve congestion in the extremities. Avoid trauma to the skin. Avoid stress and hypothermia, as this leads to vasoconstriction. Also, activities that can lead to sustained vasodilation, such as sunbathing, going to the sauna or hot baths, are not recommended. Important: Although manual lymphatic drainage has a positive effect on the lymphatic system, rough massage, which can overstrain the affected part of the body, should be avoided.And last but not least, when exercising (for example, during sports), be sure to use compression hosiery.

Living with lymphedema – information, treatment, quality of life

Lymphedema changes life. For the patient, this chronic disease will be a constant companion in all aspects of life. What is the best way to deal with the symptoms of the disease? Which treatment is best for you? How to live a normal life with lymphedema? The film Living with Lymphedema – Information, Treatment, Quality of Life by medi provides answers to questions as well as practical advice for everyday life.

How can lymphedema be treated?

Lymphedema is a chronic condition.Nevertheless, correct and, above all, continuous treatment gives very good results. Comprehensive physical edema decongestant therapy (PTFE) has been particularly successful. The goal is to first remove the swelling from the affected limbs, as the name suggests.

Initially focused on skin care and hygiene. Clean and care for the affected area thoroughly. The therapist then performs manual lymphatic drainage and then immediately applies a compression bandage. This stimulates the return of lymph fluid during this phase. Without dressing, the swelling will return in about two hours. It is important to move in the process of getting rid of edema, preferably immediately after manual lymphatic drainage and with bandaging.

As soon as the edema removal phase is completed, the second phase begins: the keep-alive phase. The four components are the same as for puffiness: hygiene, lymphatic drainage, compression and physical activity. But now the compression bandage is being replaced by compression hosiery.Flat knit compression stockings are usually used for this. These are garments that are made of a less stretchable, more rigid material than circular knits. Circular compression garments are used more often for venous diseases such as varicose veins.

Phase 1 – Phase reduction of edema

The goal is to reduce the circumference of the affected limbs. Thus, in the first stage of complex physical therapy for edema (PTFE), manual lymphatic drainage of the whole body is performed once or twice a day in order to facilitate the return transfer of fluid from the tissues. Compression hosiery is applied after each treatment session. Puffiness therapy is also supported with specific exercises. Skin conditions such as cracks or athletic feet are intensively treated at the start of treatment, as inflammation can lead to additional damage.Consistent skin hygiene and grooming are also essential. Only pH neutral cleaners and creams can be used.

The first phase of complex physical therapy for edema lasts from three to six weeks. The individual duration depends on how successfully the edema is reduced. Once the circumference of the affected areas of the body can no longer be reduced, we move on to the State of the Art Supportive Treatment Phase.

Phase 2 – Maintenance phase

The purpose of the second stage of complex physical therapy for edema (CTE) is to maintain the successes and results obtained in Stage 1. During this phase of treatment, manual lymphatic drainage should be performed at least once a week in winter and twice a week in summer. Compression therapy continues to be supported by compression devices for the upper and lower extremities. Additional treatment measures such as special skin care and exercise cannot be neglected at this stage.

Lymphatic drainage – “Massage” to reduce edema

Manual lymphatic drainage is a special form of massage designed to increase the transport capacity of the lymphatic system.It applies not only to the affected part of the body, but to the entire body.

The massage begins in the neck area, where large lymphatic vessels pass into the veins behind the collarbones. This stimulates the outflow of lymph to the large lymph vessels to facilitate transport in the smaller vessels. Then the torso and limbs are massaged.

Flat knit compression products for maintenance treatment

Flat knit compression garments apply constant pressure to the upper or lower extremities during the Supportive Care Stage. It does not cut into the folds of the skin, which can lead to restriction of movement. Compression hosiery can be purchased with a prescription at an orthopedic salon and made to order according to individual measurements.

Measurements will be removed right in the salon. Compression hosiery is very important to wear regularly. Only then will the result be preserved and the edema will not spread further. Medicines can be taken as an adjunct to treat edema – your doctor will decide if you need them.

Thus, it can be said that lymphedema is not completely curable.However, very good results are achieved with the help of KFTO. Compression garments these days are even available in trendy colors and patterns, making them much more comfortable for patients to wear than they used to be.

Swelling of the upper and lower extremities should be taken seriously and see a doctor immediately. Look for additional qualifications “Phlebologist” or “Lymphologist” when looking for the right specialist. Phlebologists and lymphologists specialize in diseases of the venous and lymphatic systems and take part in continuous professional development in this area of ​​specialization.Your doctor will then prescribe the treatments described here (such as manual lymphatic drainage or compression garments) if needed.

1 www.krebsdaten.de
2 Deutsche Krebsgesellschaft e.V. (2008): Interdisziplinäre S3-Leitlinie für die Diagnostik, Therapie und Nachsorge des Mammakarzinoms, Germering, München: W. Zuckschwerdt Verlag.

90,000 description, function, location on the human body, causes of inflammation and increase

Lymph nodes are peripheral organs of the lymphatic system.Most of them are located near the blood vessels and large veins, and are also grouped together. Inside the body cavity, namely the abdominal and pelvic, lymph nodes lie directly next to the internal organs and surfaces of the cavities. Given some of the features in the position and movement of the outflow of lymph from the organs, then in our body you can find about one hundred and fifty regional groupings of nodes. The lymph nodes are soft enough to the touch, but at the same time very elastic. They are painted in pink.These formations for the most part have a reniform or oval shape. Already in old age, they turn into ribbon-like and segment-like in the form of association with the nodes located nearby. The size of the lymph nodes can be either half a millimeter or half a centimeter. Depending on the age category, body constitution, as well as hormonal and some other characteristics, the size of the nodes may vary. As you grow older, the number of lymph nodes may decrease due to the fact that small nodes go away, and connective tissue comes in their place, and nearby nodes are combined.But at the same time, the size increases with age. Some parts of our body have groups of lymph nodes that are arranged in several layers. In the interval between them, there is a connective tissue sheath. In such cases, the nodes that are directly on the fascia are called superficial, but those that are under it were called deep.

Lymph nodes, or rather their surfaces, are covered from the outside world by a capsule. Trabeculae move inward from it. These are special beams made of connective tissue.They are so-called support structures. The stroma is the structural basis of the node. It was formed with connective reticular tissue. The process cells of the stroma and also the reticular fibers form a three-dimensional network. The stroma consists of phagocytic cells, that is, a macrophage. They have a number of varieties.

Lymph reaches the lymph nodes through the vessels. Their number usually does not exceed four pieces. Moreover, they get to the convex surface of the node, there they pass through the capsule, falling into the subcapsular sinus.After which it moves along it and also along the intermediate ones, located in the parenchyma of the node and overlapping with each other, as a result, the lymph enters the portal sinus. Two outflow vessels are already moving from this sinus, through which the lymph is already going from the node. If you cut open the organ, you can see two well-defined areas. The one closest to the capsule is called the cortex. It, in turn, is divided into deep crust and surface zone. The inside of the node was called the medulla.The internal cavity of the organ includes the accumulation of lymphoid tissue. A network with small cells is located in the space of the sinuses of the medulla. It was created by means of reticular fibers and cells. During the movement of lymph through the sinus system of the lymph node, foreign particles remain inside the loop of the network, which appear here from the tissues. These can be dead or tumor cells, microbial bodies, and even dust particles. Lymphocytes enter the lymph from the parenchyma related to the lymph node.

Through the vessels that take the lymph from the nodes, she moves to other nodes, trunks and even ducts that meet her on the way. In each regional group, the nodes intersect with each other due to the inter-nodal vessels. Through them, lymph passes from one node to another, moving in the direction of general movement, to the venous angle. On the way from the organs, lymph makes its way through many lymph nodes. True, the esophagus becomes an exception in this regard. From the medial zone, the lymphatic vessels go directly into the thoracic duct, thereby avoiding the lymph nodes.Some of the lymph vessels in the liver can also drain into the thoracic duct.

Normally, the lymph nodes can be found with ordinary fingers. Large nodes are a hint of some disease. The node is a kind of barrier for the divergence of infection and even cancer cells. Lymphocytes are formed inside the node. These are guard cells that take an active part in the destruction of foreign cells and even substances. The lymph node is considered a biological filter through which lymph flows from various organs.

90,000 Open biopsy of skin, soft tissues and lymph nodes

Tumors can appear in the skin, lymph nodes and soft tissues of a person for a number of reasons. To clarify the type of these tumors and determine the tactics of treatment, a biopsy is performed – the collection of cells from one or another part of the body for histological and cytological laboratory studies. Biopsy is the most informative method for diagnosing benign and malignant changes in organs and systems.

In the operating room No. 1Aleksandrov, an open biopsy of soft tissues, skin and lymph nodes is performed. The mini-operation is painless, as the doctor gives the patient anesthesia before taking the cells.

Why do you need a skin biopsy

The skin reflects the work of human internal organs, the state of the immune and endocrine systems. Due to the fact that she has to constantly perform a barrier function and protect the body from external influences, she is vulnerable, and many people are faced with the emergence of various pathologies.To make a diagnosis in suspicious situations, the doctor needs to see what is happening inside the skin – this will help to choose medicines for conservative treatment or refer the patient to an oncologist if the changes are malignant.

The biopsy procedure is done by the surgeon, he also chooses the method of collecting cells and the type of anesthesia – local or general. A dermatologist will refer you for a skin biopsy. This is a short-lived process, but research results will have to wait up to several weeks.

Indications and contraindications for skin biopsy

The dermatologist orders a biopsy if:

  • he suspects a skin infection or sees areas that are inflamed for no apparent reason;
  • the patient has an autoimmune disease;
  • 90,013 people have psoriasis or cutaneous tuberculosis;

  • deep mycosis was found on the skin;
  • neoplasms were found;
  • The patient has skin lymphoma or is suspected of having melanoma.

A scalp biopsy is performed for tumors that do not heal for a long time, wounds of the scalp, rashes, hair loss for unknown reasons.

The procedure is not prescribed if the person has problems with blood clotting. Cells are not taken from areas with acute inflammation and abscesses. A biopsy is delayed if the patient has an acute general infection.

Soft tissue biopsy

Tendons, blood vessels, fat, striated muscles are called soft tissues of the body.A soft tissue biopsy is:

  • excisional – all neoplasm is removed and sent for laboratory research;
  • incisional – the surgeon takes only part of the suspicious education.

If the biopsy does not confirm cancer, but the doctor continues to believe that the neoplasm in the soft tissues is malignant, he may refer the patient for re-diagnosis.

After the procedure, swelling, some soreness at the site of tissue removal is possible.

Lymph node biopsy

The lymphatic system filters body fluids. If the human body is attacked by a virus, bacterial infection, fungus or parasites, the lymph nodes increase, as the number of macrophages in the blood increases, fighting foreign organisms. They can also increase due to the soaking of cancer cells.

If the altered lymph node is located deeply, and the doctor cannot assess its condition with the help of palpation, he directs the patient for a biopsy.

During a biopsy, the surgeon can remove the entire damaged lymph node or take some cells. The procedure is carried out in such cases:

  • there is a suspicion of lymphostasis or lymphedema;
  • 90,013 people are potentially sick with the infection;

  • the lymph node is enlarged for a month or longer, but there is no pain;
  • lymph node is enlarged to 1 cm or more and hurts.

The decision to conduct a biopsy is made by the doctor after a comprehensive examination of the body to identify the causes of the problem using non-invasive methods.Preliminary ultrasound, CT, palpation is performed.

An open biopsy involves removing part or all of the problematic lymph node through a small incision. This method allows the surgeon to visually monitor the process. Complications after the procedure are rare: bleeding, fever, nerve damage at the site of tissue sampling.

How do I care for my biopsy site?

The wound after the biopsy must be carefully cared for to prevent infection and pus from developing.If the surgeon did not sew up the wound, for several days it is covered with a sterile napkin and sealed with a plaster. The damaged area is not washed for a while and does not go to the bathhouse. If there is a suture, the incision site is treated daily with an antiseptic and again come to the surgeon after 7-10 days to remove the threads.

Until the wound heals, taking a hot bath, swimming in pools and open bodies of water, and sunbathing is strictly prohibited. You can take a hygienic shower when the incision site is dry and clean.

Benefits of biopsy in Operating Room 1

  • The procedure is performed by experienced surgeons according to the directions of dermatologists and other specialized doctors of our medical center.