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Magnesium oxide 400mg uses: Magnesium Oxide Oral: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions, Pictures, Warnings & Dosing


Magnesium Supplement (Oral Route, Parenteral Route) Description and Brand Names

Description and Brand Names

Drug information provided by: IBM Micromedex

US Brand Name

  1. Almora
  2. Citrate Of Magnesia
  3. Dewees Carminative
  4. Elite Magnesium
  5. Mag-Gel 600
  6. Maginex
  7. Mag-Tab SR
  8. Phillips Milk of Magnesia

Canadian Brand Name

  1. Citracal Slow Release
  2. Mag 2
  3. Magnesium-Rougier


Magnesium is used as a dietary supplement for individuals who are deficient in magnesium. Although a balanced diet usually supplies all the magnesium a person needs, magnesium supplements may be needed by patients who have lost magnesium because of illness or treatment with certain medicines.

Lack of magnesium may lead to irritability, muscle weakness, and irregular heartbeat.

Injectable magnesium is given only by or under the supervision of a health care professional. Some oral magnesium preparations are available only with a prescription. Others are available without a prescription.

Importance of Diet

For good health, it is important that you eat a balanced and varied diet. Follow carefully any diet program your health care professional may recommend. For your specific dietary vitamin and/or mineral needs, ask your health care professional for a list of appropriate foods. If you think that you are not getting enough vitamins and/or minerals in your diet, you may choose to take a dietary supplement.

The best dietary sources of magnesium include green leafy vegetables, nuts, peas, beans, and cereal grains in which the germ or outer layers have not been removed. Hard water has been found to contain more magnesium than soft water. A diet high in fat may cause less magnesium to be absorbed. Cooking may decrease the magnesium content of food.

The daily amount of magnesium needed is defined in several different ways.

For U.


  • Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) are the amount of vitamins and minerals needed to provide for adequate nutrition in most healthy persons. RDAs for a given nutrient may vary depending on a person’s age, sex, and physical condition (e.g., pregnancy).

  • Daily Values (DVs) are used on food and dietary supplement labels to indicate the percent of the recommended daily amount of each nutrient that a serving provides. DV replaces the previous designation of United States Recommended Daily Allowances (USRDAs).
For Canada—

  • Recommended Nutrient Intakes (RNIs) are used to determine the amounts of vitamins, minerals, and protein needed to provide adequate nutrition and lessen the risk of chronic disease.

Normal daily recommended intakes in milligrams (mg) for magnesium are generally defined as follows:

Information about this magnesium-supplement-oral-route-parenteral-route
Persons U. S.
Infants birth to 3 years of age 40 to 80 20–50
Children 4 to 6 years of age 120 65
Children 7 to 10 years of age 170 100–135
Adolescent and adult males 270–400 130–250
Adolescent and adult females 280–300 135–210
Pregnant females 320 195–245
Breast-feeding females 340–355 245–265

This product is available in the following dosage forms:

  • Capsule
  • Tablet, Extended Release
  • Tablet
  • Capsule, Liquid Filled
  • Powder
  • Tablet, Chewable
  • Packet


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Magnesium Information | Mount Sinai

Aydin H, Deyneli O, Yavuz D, Gözü H, Mutlu N, Kaygusuz I, Akalin S. Short-Term Oral Magnesium Supplementation Suppresses Bone Turnover in Postmenopausal Osteoporotic Women. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2009 Jun 2. (Epub ahead of print).

Bartlett HE, Eperjesi F. Nutritional supplementation for type 2 diabetes: a systematic review. Ophthalmic Physiol Opt. 2008 Nov;28(6):503-23. Review.

Bendich A. The potential for dietary supplements to reduce premenstrual syndrome (PMS) symptoms. J Am Coll Nutr. 2000;19(1):3-12.

Bo S, Pisu E. Role of dietary magnesium in cardiovascular disease prevention, insulin sensitivity and diabetes. Curr Opin Lipidol. 2008 Feb;19(1):50-6. Review.

Borja-Del-Rosario P, Basu SK, Haberman S, Bhutada A, Rastogi S. Neonatal serum magnesium concentrations are determined by total maternal dose of magnesium sulfate administered for neuroprotection. J Perinat Med. 2014;42(2):207-11.

Bureau I, Anderson RA, Arnaud J, Raysiguier Y, Favier AE, Roussel AM. Trace mineral status in post menopausal women: impact of hormonal replacement therapy. J Trace Elem Med Biol. 2002;16(1):9-13.

Champagne CM. Magnesium in hypertension, cardiovascular disease, metabolic syndrome, and other conditions: a review. Nutr Clin Pract. 2008 Apr-May;23(2):142-51. Review.

Chiladakis JA, Stathopoulos C, Davlouros P, Manolis AS. Intravenous magnesium sulfate versus diltiazem in paroxysmal atrial fibrillation. Int J Cardiol. 2001;79(2-3):287-291.

Chiuve SE, Korngold EC, Januzzi JL, Gantzer ML, Albert CM. Plasma and dietary magnesium and risk of sudden cardiac death in women. Am J Clin Nutr. 2011;93(2):253-60.

Ciarallo L, Brousseau D, Reinert S. Higher-dose intravenous magnesium therapy for children with moderate to severe acute asthma. Arch Ped Adol Med. 2000;154(10):979-983.

Crowther CA, Brown J, McKinlay CJ, Middleton P. Magnesium sulphate for preventing preterm birth in threatened preterm labour. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014;8:CD001060.

Dacey MJ. Hypomagnesemic disorders. Crit Care Clin. 2001;17(1):155-173.

Del Gobbo LC, Imamura F, Wu JH, de Oliveira Otto MC, Chiuve SE, Mozaffarian D. Circulating and dietary magnesium and risk of cardiovascular disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective studies. Am J Clin Nutr. 2013;98(1):160-73.

Demirkaya S, Vural O, Dora B, Topcuoglu MA. Efficacy of intravenous magnesium sulfate in the treatment of acute migraine attacks. Headache. 2001;41(2):171-177.

Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2005. Rockville, MD: US Dept of Health and Human Services and US Dept of Agriculture; 2005.

Duley L, Gulmezoglu AM. Magnesium sulphate versus lytic cocktail for eclampsia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2001;(1):CD002960.

Duley L, Henderson-Smart D. Magnesium sulphate versus phenytoin for eclampsia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2000;(2):CD000128.

Eby GA, Eby KL. Magnesium for treatment-resistant depression: a review and hypothesis. Med Hypothesis. 2010;74(4):649-60.

Eby GA, Eby KL. Rapid recovery from major depression using magnesium treatment.Med Hypotheses. 2006;67(2):362-70.

Ford ES, Mokdad AH. Dietary magnesium intake in a national sample of U.S. adults. J Nutr. 2003;133:2879-82. Fox C, Ramsoomair D, Carter C. Magnesium: its proven and potential clinical significance. South Med J. 2001;94(12):1195-1201. Review.

Getaneh W, Kumbi S. Use of magnesium sulfate in pre-eclampsia and eclampsia in teaching hospitals in Addis Ababa: a practice audit. Ethiop Med J. 2010;48(2):157-64.

Gilliland FD, Berhane KT, Li YF, Kim DH, Margolis HG. Dietary magnesium, potassium, sodium, and children’s lung function. Am J Epidemiol. 2002;155(2):125-131.

Goldman. Goldman’s Cecil Medicine. 24th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2011.

Gontijo-Amaral C, Guimaraes EV, Camargos P. Oral magnesium supplementation in children with cystic fibrosis improves clinical and functional variables: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled crossover trial. Am J Clin Nutr. 2012;96(1):50-6.

Gontijo-Amaral C, Ribeiro MA, Gontijo LS, Condino-Neto A, Ribeiro JD. Oral magnesium supplementation in asthmatic children: a double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2007 Jan;61(1):54-60.

Guerrera MP, Volpe SL, Mao JJ. Therapeutic uses of magnesium. Am Fam Physician. 2009;80(2):157-62.

Guerrero-Romero F, Rodríguez-Morán M. The effect of lowering blood pressure by magnesium supplementation in diabetic hypertensive adults with low serum magnesium levels: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. J Hum Hypertens. 2009 Apr;23(4):245-51.

Hassan TB, Jagger C, Barnett DB. A randomised trial to investigate the efficacy of magnesium sulphate for refractory ventricular fibrillation. Emerg Med J. 2002;19(1):57-62.

Hijazi N, Abalkhail B, Seaton A. Diet and childhood asthma in a society in transition: a study in urban and rural Saudi Arabia. Thorax. 2000;55:775-779.

Ince C, Schulman SP, Quigley JF, et al. Usefulness of magnesium sulfate in stabilizing cardiac repolarization in heart failure secondary to ischemic cardiomyopathy. Am J Cardiol. 2001;88(3):224-229.

Institute of Medicine. Food and Nutrition Board. Dietary Reference Intakes: Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium, Vitamin D and Fluoride. National Academy Press. Washington, DC, 2004.

Johnson S. The multifaceted and widespread pathology of magnesium deficiency. Med Hypotheses. 2001;56(2):163-170.

Joosten MM, Gansevoort RT, Mukamal KJ, et al. Urinary and plasma magnesium and risk of ischemic heart disease. Am J Clin Nutr. 2013;97(6):1299-306.

Kim DJ, Xun P, Liu K, et al. Magnesium intake in relation to systemic inflammation, insulin resistance, and the incidence of diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2010;33(12):2604-10.

Klevay LM, Milne DB. Low dietary magnesium increases supraventricular ectopy. Am J Clin Nutr. 2002;75(3):550-554.

Krauss RM, Eckel RH, Howard B, et al. AHA dietary guidelines. Revision 2000: A statement for healthcare professionals from the Nutrition Committee of the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2000;102:2284-2299.

Kushner JM, Peckman HJ, Snyder CR. Seizures associated with fluoroquinolones. Ann Pharmacother. 2001;35(10):1194-1198.

Liu S, Manson JE, Stampfer MJ, et al. A prospective study of whole-grain intake and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus in US women. Am J Pub Health. 2000;90(9):1409-1415.

Lopez-Gonzalez B, Molin-Lopez J, Florea DI, et al. Association between magnesium-deficient status and anthropometric and clinical-nutritional parameters in posmenopausal women. Nutr Hosp. 2014;29(3):658-64.

Mathers TW, Beckstrand RL. Oral magnesium supplementation in adults with coronary heart disease or coronary heart disease risk. J Am Acad Nurse Pract. 2009;21(12):651-7.

Mauskop A. Alternative therapies in headache. Is there a role? Med Clin North Am. 2001;85(4):1077-1084.

Moulin DE. Systemic drug treatment for chronic musculoskeletal pain. Clin J Pain. 2001;17(4 Suppl):S86-S93.

Muir KW. Magnesium for neuroprotection in ischaemic stroke: rationale for use and evidence of effectiveness. CNS Drugs. 2001;15(12):921-930.

Nechifor M. Magnesium in major depression. Magnes Res. 2009;22(3):163S-166S.

Nygaard IH, Valbø A, Pethick SV, Bøhmer T. Does oral magnesium substitution relieve pregnancy-induced leg cramps? Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2008 Nov;141(1):23-6.

Orchard TS, Larson JC, Alghothani N, et al. Magnesium intake, bone mineral density, and fractures: results from the Women’s Health Initiative Observational Study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2014;99(4):926-33.

Patrick L. Nutrients and HIV: part 2: vitamins A and E, zinc, B-vitamins, and magnesium. Alt Med Rev. 2000;5(1):39-51.

Pearlstein T, Steiner M. Non-antidepressant treatment of premenstrual syndrome. J Clin Psychiatry. 2000;61 Suppl 12:22-27.

Rowe BH, Edmonds ML, Spooner CH, Camargo CA. Evidence-based treatments for acute asthma. Respir Care. 2001;46(12):1380-1390. Review.

Sun-Edelstein C, Mauskop A. Foods and supplements in the management of migraine headaches. Clin J Pain. 2009 Jun;25(5):446-52. (Epub ahead of print).

Toraman F, Karabulut EH, Alhan HC, Dagdelen S, Tarcan S. Magnesium infusion dramatically decreases the incidence of atrial fibrillation after coronary artery bypass grafting. Ann Thorac Surg. 2001;72(4):1256-1261.

Walker JJ. Pre-eclampsia. Lancet. 2000;356(9237):1260-1265.

Wark PA, Lau R, Norat T, Kampman E. Magnesium intake and coloretal tumor risk: a case-control study and meta-analysis.Am J Clin Nutr. 2012;96(3):622-31.

Nature Made High Potency Magnesium, 400mg, 60 Softgels

Nature Made High Potency Magnesium, 400mg, 60 Softgels | Rite Aid

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From the Manufacturer


Item No. 0367506

Nature Made Extra Strength Magnesium Oxide 400 mg Softgels are Magnesium supplements that help support muscle relaxation, nerve health, heart health, bone health, and they help convert the food you eat into cellular energy. This Magnesium supplement 400 mg is gluten free, and has no synthetic dyes, no artificial flavors, and no preservatives. These Nature Made Magnesium 400 mg Softgels are sourced from high quality ingredients and provide 400 mg of Magnesium for those whose diet is lacking in magnesium-rich foods. Adults take one of these 400 mg Magnesium softgel dietary supplements daily with water and a meal. Nature Made supplements are quality you can trust. (1)Based on a survey of pharmacists who recommend branded vitamins and supplements.

  • Muscle support supplement: contains one 60 count bottle of Nature Made Extra Strength Magnesium 400 mg Softgels for a 60-day supply
  • Nature Made Magnesium Oxide 400 mg is a dietary supplement that helps support nerve health, muscle health and heart health
  • This Nature Made Magnesium Oxide supplement also supports healthy bones and teeth and helps convert the food you eat into cellular energy
  • Adults take one of these Magnesium Softgels 400 mg daily with water and a meal
  • These gluten free Nature Made Magnesium 400 mg Softgels have no synthetic dyes, no artificial flavors, and no preservatives
  • *These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. These products are not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease.


More Information
Product Name Nature Made High Potency Magnesium Softgels, 400mg – 60 ct
Package Count 60
Container Type plastic bottle
Form Softgel
Dosage 1
Dosage UOM softgel(s)

These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease.

Country of Manufacture United States
Serving Size 1 Softgel
Calorie Count 10
Nutritional/Supplemental Facts

See Image

Best For Bone & Joint Health
Allergy Option Gluten Free
Prop 65 No


Adults, take 1 softgel daily with water and a meal. Store tightly closed, in a cool, dry place, out of reach of children. Do not use if imprinted seal under cap is broken or missing.


Magnesium Oxide Medium Chain Triglycerides, Gelatin, Glycerin, Rapeseed Lecithin, Colors Added, Natural Flavor.


CAUTION: Do not exceed one softgel daily or take with other products that contain magnesium, unless recommended by your physician. Product may cause gastrointestinal disturbance, including diarrhea. Consult your physician before use if you have kidney disease or are taking medication.



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What’s the difference between oral and IV magnesium replacement?

Magnesium repletion is very common in hospitalized patients.  Is there any difference between PO and IV magnesium in patients without symptoms of hypomagnesemia?

Dosage Forms

There are a lot of magnesium-based dosage forms approved in the United States.  Two of the most common are magnesium sulfate (IV) and magnesium oxide (PO):

Magnesium sulfate IV 20% 2 gm = 200 mg elemental Mg
Magnesium oxide PO 60% 400 mg = 240 mg elemental Mg

As you can see, a “typical” dose of magnesium sulfate and magnesium oxide contain similar amounts of elemental magnesium.  Of course, because magnesium oxide is taken orally, bioavailability must be considered.  One must also consider a potential for diarrhea with oral magnesium, particularly given that oral magnesium is actually used for constipation in some OTC products (eg, magnesium citrate laxative).

Clinical Data

There is a retrospective chart review comparing oral and intravenous magnesium therapy, although the article has some significant limitations for clinical applicability.1

This study compared varying doses of oral magnesium oxide (800-1600 mg, N=164) to a single dose of IV magnesium sulfate (2 gm, N=188).  As would be anticipated, the baseline characteristics were very different between the two groups.  The oral magnesium group received about three times the dose of elemental magnesium (1130 mg vs. 400 mg), had higher baseline magnesium levels (1.78 vs. 1.64 mg/dL), and had repeat serum levels drawn much earlier following magnesium replacement (8.25 vs. 18 hrs).

The primary endpoint of the study (change in serum magnesium level after 6 to 24 hours) was greater with IV therapy than any dose of oral therapy (mean change 0.24 mg/dL vs. 0.05-0.11 mg/dL, p=0.003).  Linear regression showed that the following factors were significantly associated with a greater change in magnesium level:

  1. IV route of administration
  2. Shorter time between magnesium dose and rechecking serum level
  3. Renal dysfunction
  4. Concomitant use of loop diuretics

Putting It Into Perspective

Despite the limitations of the previously mentioned study, it does demonstrate some interesting points about magnesium replacement:

  1. Oral magnesium replacement is probably best given as chronic therapy.  In the study, all oral magnesium doses increased serum magnesium similarly (a median of 0.1 mg/dL).  This may indicate a saturable absorption process, where a multi-dose oral regimen may be better than the traditional single-dose repletion strategy.
  2. You are a magnesium replacement wimp.  In the study, 2 grams of IV magnesium sulfate increased serum levels by a paltry median of 0.2 mg/dL.  If you’re serious about repleting magnesium, don’t be afraid to reach for big doses — consider 3 or 4 grams.
  3. Rechecking too soon may give a false sense of security.  Because magnesium is primarily an intracellular cation, there may be a delayed distribution phase from the plasma into the cells.  It is unclear whether rechecking early results in higher magnesium levels because of a less time for intracellular distribution or less time for urinary excretion.


  1. Reed BN, Zhang S, Marron JS, Montague D. Comparison of intravenous and oral magnesium replacement in hospitalized patients with cardiovascular disease. Am J Health Syst Pharm. 2012;69(14):1212-7. PMID 22761075.

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This entry was posted in Clinical Questions on by Sean P. Kane.

Magnesium Oxide is a Great Way to Deal With Migraine Headaches

If you’ve ever suffered from a migraine then you understand that many people are willing to try anything to ease the multitude of symptoms to avoid that pain. With increasing research surrounding migraines, physicians have uncovered several natural supplements and techniques to eliminate or reduce the number of migraine days patients have each month.

One of those natural supplements is magnesium, and specifically magnesium oxide.

Here are a few key things you should know about magnesium oxide before using it as a supplement for migraines.

  • 400 milligrams of magnesium oxide a day has been shown to improve migraines for nearly 46% of sufferers in a recent study.
  • Make sure you are utilizing the correct magnesium as there are nine types of magnesium supplements. Some of the other types could have unwanted side effects, such as magnesium citrate – a natural laxative.
  • Results aren’t immediate. You should see results after three months of consistent use.
  • Taking too much magnesium oxide isn’t dangerous, but other side effects from excessive use could be undesirable, such as gastrointestinal upset.
  • Taking magnesium oxide while pregnant is safe.
  • If you have kidney failure or other issues with electrolytes, you should talk to your physician prior to trying magnesium oxide. Otherwise, it is safe to try on your own.
  • If you are looking for other natural ways to fight migraines, consider looking into mindfulness. Reducing stress in your daily life can also work alongside magnesium to increase successful results.
  • Other supplements that are being studied for headache relief in other countries include vitamin B2, Q10 and butter burr.

While this method has proven to work for a number of people, it’s important to note that everyone has different triggers. While on your journey to relieve your migraine pain, consider adjustments to other triggers such as stress, food and environmental allergies, sensory stimuli, hormones, medications, dehydration and changes in the environment.

Magnesium Hydroxide – an overview

Definition CaCO3 lozenges contain NLT 90.0% and NMT 110.0% of the labeled amount of CaCO3
Identification Ca 〈191〉: The addition of 6 N HCl to a lozenge produces effervescence, and the resulting solution, after being boiled to expel CO2 and then neutralized with 6 N ammonium hydroxide, meets the requirements of the tests
Assay [Note: The standard solutions and the sample solution may be modified, if necessary, to obtain solutions of suitable concentrations adaptable to the linear or working range of the instrument]
Lanthanum chloride solution: Transfer 10 g of potassium chloride and 20 g of lanthanum chloride to a 2000-mL volumetric flask. Add 1000 mL of water and 40 mL of HCl, mix, and allow to cool. Dilute with water to volume
Standard stock solution: Transfer 250 mg of chelometric standard CaCO3, previously dried at 110°C for 2 h and then cooled in a desiccator, to a 500-mL volumetric flask. Add 100 mL of water and 12 mL of 1 N HCl, swirl to dissolve the CaCO3, and allow to cool. Dilute with water to volume. This stock solution contains about 500 μg/mL of CaCO3
Standard solutions: To three separate 100-mL volumetric flasks add 2.0, 3.0, and 4.0 mL of the standard stock solution, and dilute each with lanthanum chloride solution to volume. These standard solutions contain 10, 15, and 20 μg/mL of CaCO3, respectively
Sample stock solution: Transfer the equivalent to 3000 mg of CaCO3, from powdered lozenges, to a 1000-mL volumetric flask. Add 100 mL of 1 N HCl and 300 mL of water, and sonicate to dissolve the powder. Dilute with water to volume
Sample solution: Transfer 5.0 mL of sample stock solution to a 1000-mL volumetric flask, and dilute with lanthanum chloride solution to volume
Instrumental conditions: (See Spectrophotometry and Light Scattering 〈851〉) Mode: Atomic absorption spectrophotometry

Lamp: Ca hollow cathode, Flame: Nitrous oxide-acetylene, Analytical wavelength: Ca emission line at 422.7 nm

Blank: Lanthanum chloride solution

Samples: Standard solutions, sample solution, and blank

Plot the absorbances of the standard solutions vs their concentrations of CaCO3 (μg/mL), by drawing a straight line best fitting the three plotted points. From the graph determine the concentration, C (μg/mL), of CaCO3 in the sample solution.

Calculation: Calculate the percentage of label claim of CaCO3 in the portion of lozenges taken:
Result = (C/CU) × 100. C and CU = measured and nominal concentrations of CaCO3 in the sample solution (μg/mL)

(If so labeled)
Standard stock solution: Transfer 2.542 g of sodium chloride, previously dried at 105°C for 2 h, to a 1000-mL volumetric flask. Dissolve in and dilute with water to volume. Transfer 10.0 mL of this solution to a 100-mL volumetric flask, and dilute with water to volume
Standard solutions: To three separate 100-mL volumetric flasks, add 1.0, 3.0, and 5.0 mL of the standard stock solution, and dilute each with water to volume. These standard solutions contain 1.0, 3.0, and 5.0 μg/mL of sodium, respectively
Sample stock solution: Prepare as directed in the Assay. Pass a portion of it, if necessary, through a filter of 0.5 μm or finer pore size, and use the clear solution
Sample solution: Transfer 10.0 mL of the sample stock solution to a 25-mL volumetric flask, and dilute with water to volume
Instrumental conditions: (See Spectrophotometry and Light Scattering 〈851〉)

Mode: Atomic absorption spectrophotometry, Lamp: Sodium hollow cathode, Flame: Air-acetylene, Analytical wavelength: Sodium emission line at 589.6 nm, Blank: Water

Samples: Standard solutions, sample solution, and blank

Plot the absorbances of the standard solutions vs their contents of sodium (μg/mL) by drawing a straight line best fitting the three plotted points. From the graph determine the quantity, C (μg), of sodium in each milliliter of the sample solution

Calculation: Calculate the percentage of label claim of sodium in the portion of lozenges taken:
Result = (C/CU) × 100. C = measured concentration of sodium in the sample solution (μg/mL), as calculated earlier. CU = nominal concentration of sodium in the sample solution (μg/mL)
Acceptance criteria: NMT 115.0% of the labeled amount

Uniformity of dosage units 〈905〉 Meet the requirements
Acid-neutralizing capacity 〈301〉 Analysis: The acid consumed by the minimum single dose recommended in the labeling is NLT 5 mequiv. of acid and NLT the number of mequiv. calculated by: Result = (FC × C) × 0.9. FC = theoretical acid-neutralizing capacity of CaCO3, 0.02 mequiv. C = quantity of CaCO3 in the sample tested (mg), based on the labeled quantity
Storage Preserve in well-closed containers

MAGNESIUM FOR CONSTIPATION · Parkinson’s Resource Organization

Magnesium for constipation is simple, cost effective, time tested and efficient. For many people, it just works. In industrialized nations, people are overwhelmingly deficient in magnesium. This lack of magnesium creates multiple long-term health problems for the cardiovascular, muscular and nervous systems. A supplementation of 200 mg per day is often recommended to palliate this deficiency. Later we discuss how to use magnesium for constipation. In those instances, we will see that upping the doses to 500 to 1000 mg per day is often required. The Magnesium Crisis –If you live in an industrialized country, you have to worry about being magnesium deficient. Today, deficiencies are reaching epidemic proportions. Studies (1) show that in the US, 68% of adults consume less than the recommended daily allowance (RDA) of magnesium, and 19% consume less than half of that RDA. And keep in mind that the RDA sets by the government expert’s panel is usually very conservative and is meant to avoid clear physiological problems, not to optimize long term health.

To optimize long-term health, more and more alternative practitioners recommend a daily supplementation of about 200 mg (more or less depending on the person and situation) to ensure their bases are covered. How do we make sure we optimize our intake? In theory, all that magnesium is supposed to come from natural sources, mainly from fruits, vegetables and drinking water. But as we will see in the next chapters, this isn’t as easy as it used to be. Magnesium In Water – Water used to be a good source of minerals. A water that is deemed “hard” is a water rich in minerals, magnesium included. However, it is also a water that is hard on the pipes, so more and more people (and cities) use filters to remove those minerals. Water from city water systems usually vary in the amount of magnesium provided. Bottled water is a lot more predictable, and specific brands can be chosen for the amount of magnesium they provide. The amount is provided on the bottle, simply check the labels. The magnesium rich waters (Vittel, Vichy, Badoit) contain more than 100 mg/liter. The magnesium poor water can be as low as 1 to 5 mg/liter (Arrowhead and the likes). If you have access to one of those magnesium rich brands, you can obtain 200 mg of magnesium by drinking 2 liters of that water every day, which is quite a bit for some people (except if you are constipated, in which case you may indeed want to absorb lots of water and magnesium for constipation… but more on this later). Magnesium in foods – Any type of leafy green vegetable (spinach or collard greens for instance) is a good source of magnesium. Sea weeds also qualifies. Chlorophyll, which gives leafy vegetables its green color, contains magnesium as its central molecule. Beans, peas, nuts and seeds usually contain a good amount of magnesium too.

The issue is that magnesium is water soluble, and will leach into the cooking water. So the best way to cook your vegetables is in little water, and to consume that water after cooking. Cooking your vegetables in a bit of broth and drinking the broth is a great way to preserve its magnesium content. Whole grains is often mentioned as a good source, but to me they are more and more problematic, and I often recommend removing all grains from the diet to see if it has any effect on constipation. Overall, the level of magnesium from foods is declining, due to intensive farming on impoverished soils. Therefore, again to be on the safe side, a daily supplementation is often required for optimal health. The Magnesium “Wasters”—Diets high in refined sugars and carbohydrates will make you burn through your magnesium reserves very quickly. Magnesium is a very key component of glucose metabolism and management. The more glucose you generate via highly glycemic food, the more magnesium you will burn. We already mentioned that cooking leaches magnesium out of foods, unless you consume the cooking water. Stress drains your magnesium reserves2. If you lead a stressful life, magnesium supplementation is highly recommended. If you do lots of physical activity, you will consume a significant amount of magnesium. First, you will lose magnesium when you sweat. Second, you will burn a lot more glucose, which as we said increase magnesium consumption. Supplementing For Good Health — For overall good health and when you are constipation-free, I recommend supplementing with 150 to 200 mg of magnesium per day, sometimes more depending on lifestyle (e.g. consumption of lots of carbohydrates, physical activity). B-vitamins are required for optimal magnesium absorption, so I usually recommend a broad spectrum B-vitamin complex to my naturopathic clients as well. If your body already has enough magnesium (which is fairly rare these days, but occurs once in a while), you will know very quickly; those 200 mg will give you diarrhea, a sign that you need to reduce the dose or not take a supplement at all.

This amount of supplementation is usually safe and without risks, unless you have kidney issues (your kidneys will work harder to eliminate any excess magnesium). If you have any doubts regarding magnesium supplementation, check with your doctor. The recommendations given on this page are for adults only. Magnesium citrate brings a good compromise between absorbability and price. Magnesium for Constipation — Now that I have convinced you that daily magnesium supplementation is beneficial, let’s talk about the use of magnesium for constipation. First of all, let me explain how magnesium acts as a laxative; It draws water into the gut, adding extra moisture to over-dehydrated fecal matter; It helps the smooth muscles of the gastro-intestinal tract contract better to move things along. Magnesium promotes better gut muscle contractions especially for those who are magnesium deficient. The symptoms of magnesium deficiencies can often be irritability and nervousness, anxiety, sleeping problems, chronic fatigue and tiredness. Scientific studies tell us that magnesium for constipation can be as effective as polyethylene glycol, also called PEG, a very popular laxative often prescribed by doctors. In one study done on children3, the researchers concluded that “the two laxatives showed no difference in effectiveness for the treatment of constipation”. In a study done in Japan4 on the effect of diet on constipation, the researchers concluded that “low magnesium intake was associated with increasing prevalence of constipation”. In another study comparing different laxatives on elderly patients5, the researchers found “magnesium hydroxide to be more efficient than bulk-laxative in treating constipation in elderly long-stay patients”. Note that magnesium hydroxide was the form tested in that study, other forms are active as well. Overall, there is a high probability that magnesium will provide punctual help during your constipation crisis. You will still have, of course, to get to the root cause of the problem.

If you were magnesium deficient, there is a possibility that it may provide a longer lasting effect, in which case lack of magnesium may have been one of your constipation triggers. If you have serious constipation with fecal impaction, magnesium may not make any difference – the added water and stronger contractions won’t be sufficient to remove the impaction. If you have an acute constipation case without impaction though, magnesium is definitely worth a try. Magnesium For Constipation: Protocol — You will need a dose that is higher than the maintenance dose mentioned above. You only need one B-vitamin complex capsule a day. If you have already taken your B-vitamin capsule with your 200 mg magnesium maintenance dose, you do not need to take another one. As discussed previously, when you take too much magnesium, you get loose stools. This is the effect we want to create. As a result, you will need to take enough magnesium to reach what we call “bowel tolerance”. Bowel tolerance is the point where you start to get loose stools. That dose is highly individual-specific. So you will have to experiment with what works best for you. Then, after a few tries, you will be able to figure out roughly your “bowel tolerance” dosage range, and whether magnesium for constipation works at all for you. Here is the recommended protocol : In the evening, before bed, take 400 mg of magnesium with water (2 capsules of 200 mg) The next morning, see if you can have a normal bowel movement. If yes, you have found your “bowel tolerance” dose. If not, take an additional 400 mg in the morning (2 capsules of 200 mg). Wait for the afternoon. Let at least 4 hours pass. In the afternoon, if you still cannot have a bowel movement and you are still backed up, take another 400 mg (another 2 capsules).

If you still cannot have a bowel movement by the end of the second day, magnesium for constipation will probably not work for you. If you manage to have a bowel movement at some point, write down the dose that achieved this effect. If, for instance, you manage to have a bowel movement by the end of the second day, you know that your bowel tolerance is about 1000 mg of magnesium, which you can try next time you are constipated (in one dose – 5 capsules of magnesium). For more information about constipation you may want to visit constipation-remedies-for-all.com.

References: 1 King DE, Mainous AG 3rd, Geesey ME, Woolson RF. Dietary magnesium and C-reactive protein levels. J Am Coll Nutr. 2005 Jun;24(3):166-71. 2 Takase B, Akima T, Uehata A, Ohsuzu F, Kurita A. “Effect of chronic stress and sleep deprivation on both flow-mediated dilation in the brachial artery and the intracellular magnesium level in humans.” Clin Cardiol. 2004 Apr;27(4):223-7 3 Gomes PB, Duarte MA, Melo Mdo C. Comparison of the effectiveness ofpolyethylene glycol 4000 without electrolytes and magnesium hydroxide in the treatment of chronic functional constipation in children. J Pediatr (Rio J). 2011 Jan-Feb;87(1):24-8 4 Lee WT, Ip KS, Chan JS, Lui NW, Young BW. Increased prevalence of constipation in pre-school children is attributable to under-consumption of plant foods: A community-based study. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health. 2008 Apr;44(4):170-5 5 Kinnunen O, Salokannel J. Constipation in elderly long-stay patients: its treatment by magnesium hydroxide and bulk-laxative. Ann Clin Res. 1987;19(5):321-3. PubMed PMID: 3126699

Instructions for the use of OMEZ® 10mg drug for heartburn for the whole family


Capsules are usually taken in the morning, preferably 30 minutes before meals, swallowed whole with half a glass of water. The recommended dose of OMEZ® is 20 mg (2 capsules) once a day.

The therapeutic effect can be achieved with a daily dose of 10 mg, therefore, individual selection of the dose is not excluded. The maximum daily dose of the drug taken without a prescription for all categories of patients should not exceed 20 mg.The lowest effective dose should always be used. The maximum course of treatment without consulting a doctor is 14 days. The interval between 14-day courses of treatment should be at least 4 months. If symptoms do not improve or worsen within 2 weeks, contact your doctor.

Special patient groups
The possibility of using the drug OMEZ® in special cases is assessed by a doctor. Renal dysfunction: No dose adjustment required.Liver dysfunction: in hepatic insufficiency, 10-20 mg is prescribed (maximum daily dose of 20 mg). Older age: despite the fact that the metabolic rate of omeprazole in the elderly is reduced, dose adjustment when using the drug in a daily dose of 20 mg or less is not required. Patients with difficulty swallowing: Patients can open the capsule and swallow its contents by drinking half a glass of water or mixing the contents of the capsule with fruit juice, puree, still water, drink the resulting suspension immediately (or within 30 minutes), after thoroughly stirring it.To make sure you take the full dose, refill the used container with half a glass of water, shake it and drink.

Side effects

The most common side effects (1-10% of patients) are headache, abdominal pain, constipation, diarrhea, flatulence, and nausea / vomiting. The following adverse drug reactions have been reported in clinical and post-marketing studies of omeprazole. None of these reactions were found to be dose-dependent.The adverse reactions below are classified according to the frequency of occurrence. The incidence of adverse reactions is determined in accordance with the following classification: very frequent (≥ 1/10), frequent (≥ 1/100 to <1/10), infrequent (≥ 1/1000 to <1/100), rare (≥ 1 / 10000 to <1/1000), very rare (<10000), frequency unknown (cannot be estimated from the available data).

System organ class / h frequency

Adverse reaction

Blood and lymphatic system disorders


Leukopenia, thrombocytopenia

Very rare

Agranulocytosis, pancytopenia

Immune system disorders


Hypersensitivity reactions, incl.h., fever, angioedema and anaphylactic reaction / shock

Metabolic and nutritional disorders



Very rare


Mental disorders




Excitement, confusion, depression

Very rare

Aggression, hallucinations

Nervous system disorders




Dizziness, paresthesia, drowsiness


Impaired taste

Visual disorders


Blurred vision

Hearing and labyrinth disorders



Disorders of the respiratory system, chest and mediastinal organs



Gastrointestinal disorders


Abdominal pain, constipation, diarrhea, flatulence, nausea / vomiting


Dry mouth, stomatitis,
gastrointestinal candidiasis

Liver and biliary tract disorders


Increased level of liver enzymes


Hepatitis with or without jaundice

Very rare

Liver failure, encephalopathy in patients with underlying liver diseases

Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders


Dermatitis, itching, rash, urticaria


Alopecia, photosensitivity

Very rare

Erythema multiforme, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis

Muscular, skeletal disorders
and connective tissue


Arthralgia, myalgia

Very rare

Muscle weakness

Renal and urinary tract disorders


Interstitial nephritis

Disorders of the reproductive system and mammary glands

Very rare


General violations


Malaise, peripheral edema


Increased sweating

There are reports of overdose cases when using omeprazole orally at a dose of 2400 mg.Symptoms: nausea, vomiting, dizziness, abdominal pain, diarrhea, headache, apathy, depression, confusion. Treatment: symptomatic. Hemodialysis is not effective enough.

Interaction with other medicinal products
Active substances with pH-dependent absorption A decrease in the acidity of gastric juice with the use of omeprazole can increase or decrease the absorption of pharmacologically active substances. Nelfinavir, atazanavir When used simultaneously with omeprazole, there may be a significant decrease in the plasma concentration of atazanavir and nelfinavir.The simultaneous use of omeprazole and nelfinavir is contraindicated. The combined use of omeprazole (40 mg per day) reduces the exposure of nelfinavir by approximately 40%, and the average exposure of the pharmacologically active metabolite M8 is reduced by 75-90%. The mechanism of inhibition of CYP1C19 may be involved in the interaction. The concomitant use of omeprazole with atazanavir is not recommended. The combined use of omeprazole (40 mg per day) and atazanavir 300 mg / ritonavir 100 mg in healthy volunteers resulted in a 75% reduction in atazanavir exposure.Increasing the dose of atazanavir to 400 mg does not compensate for the effect of omeprazole on atazanavir exposure. The use of 20 mg of omeprazole per day with 400 mg of atazanavir and 100 mg of ritonavir in healthy volunteers resulted in an approximately 30% reduction in atazanavir exposure and is comparable to the exposure with a single dose of 300 mg of atazanavir and 100 mg of ritonavir. Digoxin Concomitant treatment with omeprazole (20 mg daily) and digoxin in healthy volunteers increased the bioavailability of digoxin by 10%. Despite the fact that glycosidic intoxication while taking omeprazole is not a frequent event, increased monitoring is necessary, especially in the treatment of elderly patients.Clopidogrel In a crossover clinical study, the duration of administration of clopidogrel at a loading dose of 300 mg (75 mg per day) and a combination of clopidogrel with omeprazole at a dose of 80 mg was 5 days. The effect of the active metabolite of clopidogrel decreased by 46% (on the 1st day) and 42% (on the 5th day) when clopidogrel and omeprazole were taken together. The mean time of inhibition of platelet aggregation decreased by 47% (24 hours) and 30% (on the 5th day) when clopidogrel and omeprazole were taken together. In another study, it was shown that taking clopidogrel and omeprazole at different times does not prevent their interaction, which is probably due to the inhibitory effect of omeprazole on CYP2C19.Based on the results of observational and clinical studies, conflicting data have been obtained on the clinical impact of these PK / PD interactions in terms of the development of severe cardiovascular events. Other drugs The absorption of posaconazole, erlotinib, ketoconazole and itraconazole is significantly reduced, and their clinical efficacy is impaired accordingly. Avoid co-administration of omeprazole with posaconazole or erlotinib. Medicines metabolized by the isoenzyme CYP2C19 Omeprazole moderately inhibits CYP2C19, the main enzyme of omeprazole metabolism.Thus, the metabolism of other drugs, also metabolized by CYP2C19, can be reduced and their systemic exposure increased. Examples of such drugs are R-warfarin and other vitamin K antagonists, cilostazol, diazepam and phenytoin. Cilostazol In a crossover clinical study, taking omeprazole at a dose of 40 mg to healthy volunteers increased Cmax and AUC of cilostazol by 18% and 26%, respectively, and one of the active metabolites of cilostazol by 29% and 69%, respectively.Phenytoin Monitoring of the plasma concentration of phenytoin is recommended during the first two weeks after initiation of omeprazole therapy and in the event of a dose adjustment of phenytoin. Monitoring and subsequent dose adjustment of phenytoin should be carried out before the end of treatment with omeprazole. Unknown mechanism of interaction Saquinavir Co-administration of omeprazole and saquinavir / ritonavir is well tolerated in HIV-infected patients, and also leads to a decrease in the plasma concentration of saquinavir to approximately 70%.Tacrolimus Co-administration with omeprazole increases the serum concentration of tacrolimus. Increased monitoring of tacrolimus concentrations and renal function (creatinine clearance) should be performed, with tacrolimus dose adjustments as needed. The effect of other drugs on the pharmacokinetics of omeprazole Inhibitors of the CYP2C19 and / or CYP3A4 isoenzyme Given the metabolism of omeprazole with the participation of CYP2C19 and CYP3A4 isoenzymes, drugs that can inhibit these enzymes (such as clarithromycin and voriconazole) may increase the serum metabolism rate.
Special instructions
If, before starting treatment with omeprazole, one of the symptoms is present, such as significant spontaneous weight loss, repeated vomiting, vomiting with blood, impaired swallowing, discoloration of feces (tarry stools), as well as in the presence of a stomach ulcer (or if suspected for its presence) before starting treatment, a malignant neoplasm should be excluded, since treatment can lead to masking of symptoms and delay the correct diagnosis.Proton pump inhibitors, especially with high doses of the drug and with prolonged use (> 1 year), may moderately increase the risk of fractures of the hip, wrist and vertebrae, especially in elderly patients or in the presence of other risk factors. Severe hypomagnesemia has been reported in patients treated with omeprazole for at least three months, with symptoms such as fatigue, delirium, convulsions, dizziness, and ventricular arrhythmia. In most patients, hypomagnesemia was stopped after discontinuation of proton pump inhibitors and administration of magnesium preparations.In patients who are planning long-term therapy or who are prescribed omeprazole with digoxin or other drugs that can cause hypomagnesemia (for example, diuretics), the magnesium content should be assessed before starting therapy and monitored periodically during treatment. Omeprazole, like all drugs that reduce acidity, can lead to a decrease in the absorption of vitamin B12 (cyanocobalamin). This must be borne in mind in relation to patients with a reduced supply of vitamin B12 in the body or with risk factors for impaired absorption of vitamin B12 during prolonged therapy.In patients who took orally for a long time, drugs that lower the secretion of gastric glands, the formation of glandular cysts in the stomach was more often observed. These phenomena are due to physiological changes as a result of inhibition of the secretion of hydrochloric acid, and undergo a reverse development against the background of continued therapy. A decrease in the secretion of hydrochloric acid in the stomach leads to an increase in the growth of normal intestinal microflora, which, in turn, may lead to a slight increase in the risk of developing intestinal infections caused by bacteria of the genus Salmonella spp.and Campylobacter spp., as well as probably Clostridium difficile. Due to a decrease in the secretion of hydrochloric acid, the concentration of chromogranin A (CgA) increases. An increase in CgA concentration may affect the results of studies for the detection of neuroendocrine tumors, in order to avoid which it is necessary to temporarily stop taking omeprazole 5 days before determining the CgA concentration.

Influence on the ability to drive vehicles, mechanisms
During the use of omeprazole, care should be taken when driving vehicles and mechanisms, as well as when engaging in potentially hazardous activities that require increased concentration of attention and speed of psychomotor reactions.90,000 Magnesium is … What is Magnesium?

Appearance of a simple substance
Lightweight, malleable, silvery-white metal
Properties of the atom
Name, symbol, number

Magnesium (Mg), 12

Atomic mass
(molar mass)

24.305 a. e.m. (g / mol)

Electronic configuration

[Ne] 3s 2

Atom radius

160 pm

Chemical properties
Covalent radius

136 pm

Ion radius

66 (+ 2e) pm


1.31 (Pauling scale)

Electrode potential

-2.37 V

Oxidation states


Ionization energy
(first electron)

737.3 (7.64) kJ / mol (eV)

Thermodynamic properties of simple matter
Density (at n.y.)

1.737 g / cm³

Melting point

650 Celsius

Evaporating temperature

1105 Celsius

Heat of fusion

9.20 kJ / mol

Heat of vaporization

131.8 kJ / mol

Molar heat capacity

24.90 [1] J / (K · mol)

Molar volume

14.0 cm³ / mol

Crystal lattice of a simple substance
Lattice structure


Lattice parameters

a = 0.32029 nm, c = 0.52000 nm Å

C / A Ratio


Debye temperature

318 K

Other characteristics
Thermal conductivity

(300 K) 156 W / (m K)

Metallic magnesium

Magnesium – an element of the main subgroup of the second group, the third period of the periodic system of chemical elements D.I. Mendeleev, with atomic number 12. It is designated by the symbol Mg (lat. Magnesium ). Simple substance magnesium (CAS number: 7439-95-4) is a light, malleable silver-white metal.


Origin of the name

In 1695, salt was isolated from the mineral water of the Epsom spring in England, which had a bitter taste and laxative effect. Pharmacists called it bitter salt and Epsom or Epsom salt. The mineral epsomite has the composition MgSO 4 7H 2 O.The Latin name for the element comes from the name of the ancient city of Magnesia in Asia Minor, in the vicinity of which there are deposits of the mineral magnesite.

In 1792, Anton von Ruprecht received a new metal, which he named austria , by reduction with coal from white magnesia. Later it was found that “ austria ” is magnesium of an extremely low purity, since the starting material was heavily contaminated with iron [2] .

Was first isolated in pure form by Sir Humphrey Davy in 1808 by distilling mercury from magnesium amalgam, which he obtained by electrolysis of a semi-liquid mixture of magnesium oxide and mercury.

Being in nature

Clark magnesium 19 kg / t. It is one of the most common elements of the earth’s crust. Large amounts of magnesium are found in seawater. The main types of magnesium raw materials are:

  • sea water – (Mg 0.12-0.13%),
  • carnallite – MgCl 2 • KCl • 6H 2 O (Mg 8.7%),
  • bischofite – MgCl 2 • 6H 2 O (Mg 11.9%),
  • kieserite – MgSO 4 • H 2 O (Mg 17.6%),
  • epsomite – MgSO 4 • 7H 2 O (Mg 16.3%),
  • cainite – KCl • MgSO 4 • 3H 2 O (Mg 9.8%),
  • magnesite – MgCO 3 (Mg 28.7%),
  • dolomite – CaCO 3 MgCO 3 (Mg 13.1%),
  • brucite – Mg (OH) 2 (Mg 41.6%).

Magnesian salts are found in large quantities in the salt deposits of self-deposited lakes. Deposits of fossil carnallite salts of sedimentary origin are known in many countries.

Magnesite is formed mainly in hydrothermal conditions and belongs to medium-temperature hydrothermal deposits. Dolomite is also an important magnesium raw material. Dolomite deposits are widespread, their reserves are huge. They are associated with carbonate strata and most of them are of Precambrian or Permian age.Dolomite deposits are formed by sedimentary means, but can also arise when limestones are exposed to hydrothermal solutions, ground or surface waters.

Types of deposits

Natural sources of magnesium:

Most of the world’s magnesium production is concentrated in the USA (43%), the CIS countries (26%) and Norway (17%), the share of China is increasing [3] .


A common industrial method for producing metallic magnesium is the electrolysis of a melt mixture of anhydrous magnesium chlorides MgCl 2 (bischofite), sodium NaCl and potassium KCl.Magnesium chloride undergoes electrochemical reduction in the melt:

MgCl 2 (electrolysis) = Mg + Cl 2 .

Molten metal is periodically withdrawn from the electrolysis bath, and new portions of magnesium-containing raw materials are added to it. Since the magnesium obtained in this way contains a relatively large amount (about 0.1%) of impurities, if necessary, “crude” magnesium is subjected to additional purification. For this purpose, electrolytic refining, remelting in vacuum with the use of special additives – fluxes, which “take away” impurities from magnesium, or distillation (sublimation) of the metal in vacuum, are used.The purity of refined magnesium reaches 99.999% and higher.

Another method of magnesium production has been developed – thermal. In this case, silicon or coke is used to reduce magnesium oxide at high temperatures:

MgO + C = Mg + CO

The use of silicon makes it possible to obtain magnesium from raw materials such as dolomite CaCO 3 · MgCO 3 without preliminary separation of magnesium and calcium. With the participation of dolomite, reactions occur:

CaCO 3 MgCO 3 = CaO + MgO + 2CO 2 ,

2MgO + CaO + Si = CaSiO 3 + 2Mg.

The advantage of the thermal method is that it allows the production of magnesium of higher purity. To obtain magnesium, not only mineral raw materials are used, but also sea water.

Physical properties

Magnesium – a silver-white metal with a hexagonal lattice, has a metallic luster; space group P 6 3 / mmc , lattice parameters a = 0.32029 nm, c = 0.52000 nm, Z = 2. Under normal conditions, the magnesium surface is covered with a strong protective film of magnesium oxide MgO, which collapses when heated in air to about 600 ° C, after which the metal burns with a blinding white flame to form magnesium oxide and nitride Mg 3 N 2 .The density of magnesium at 20 ° C is 1.737 g / cm³, the melting point of the metal is t pl = 651 ° C, the boiling point is t kip = 1103 ° C, the thermal conductivity at 20 ° C is 156 W / (m · K).

Magnesium of high purity is ductile, well pressed, rolled and amenable to cutting.

Chemical properties

A mixture of powdered magnesium with potassium permanganate KMnO 4 – explosive

Hot magnesium reacts with water:
Mg + H 2 O = MgO + H 2
Alkalis do not act on magnesium, in acids it dissolves easily with the evolution of hydrogen:
Mg + 2HCl = MgCl 2 + H 2
When heated in air, magnesium burns to form an oxide and a small amount of nitride.At the same time, a large amount of heat and light energy is released:
2Mg + O 2 = 2MgO
3Mg + N 2 = Mg 3 N 2
Magnesium can burn even in carbon dioxide:
2Mg + CO 2 = 2MgO + C

Burning magnesium must not be extinguished with water.


Used to recover titanium metal from titanium tetrachloride. It is used for the production of light and ultralight alloys (aircraft construction, automobile production), as well as for the manufacture of lighting and incendiary rockets.


Magnesium-based alloys are an important structural material in the aviation and automotive industries due to their lightness and strength. Prices for magnesium bullion in 2006 averaged $ 3 / kg. In 2012, the prices for magnesium are about $ 2.8-2.9 / kg.

Chemical power sources

Magnesium in the form of a pure metal, as well as its chemical compounds (bromide, perchlorate) are used for the production of very powerful backup electric batteries (for example, magnesium-perchlorate cell, sulfur-magnesium cell, lead-magnesium chloride cell, silver-chloride-magnesium element, copper chloride- magnesium element, magnesium-vanadium element, etc.) and dry elements (manganese-magnesium element, bismuth-magnesium element, magnesium-m-DNB element, etc.). Magnesium-based chemical power sources are distinguished by very high specific energy characteristics and high discharge voltage.


Magnesium hydride is one of the most capacious hydrogen storage batteries.

Refractory materials

Magnesium oxide MgO is used as a refractory material for the production of crucibles and special lining of metallurgical furnaces.

Magnesium perchlorate, Mg (ClO 4 ) 2 – (anhydrone) is used for deep drying of gases in laboratories, and as an electrolyte for chemical current sources with the participation of magnesium.

Magnesium fluoride MgF 2 – in the form of synthetic single crystals used in optics (lenses, prisms).

Magnesium bromide MgBr 2 – as an electrolyte for chemical backup current sources.


The property of magnesium to burn with a white blinding flame is widely used in military technology for the manufacture of lighting and signal rockets, tracer bullets and shells, incendiary bombs.Mixed with suitable oxidizing agents, it is also the main component of the charge of flash-noise ammunition.


Magnesium is a vital element that is found in all tissues of the body and is necessary for the normal functioning of cells. Participates in most metabolic reactions, in the regulation of the transmission of nerve impulses and in muscle contraction, has an antispasmodic and antiplatelet effect. Magnesium oxide and salts are traditionally used in medicine in cardiology, neurology and gastroenterology (asparkam, magnesium sulfate, magnesium citrate.The most interesting natural resource of magnesium is bischofite). It turned out that the magnesium effects of bischofite are primarily manifested in transcutaneous (through skin) application in the treatment of pathology of the musculoskeletal system. Bischofitotherapy uses the biological effects of natural magnesium in the treatment and rehabilitation of a wide range of diseases, primarily the spine and joints, the consequences of trauma, the nervous and cardiovascular systems.


Magnesium powder with oxidizing additives (barium nitrate, potassium permanganate, sodium hypochlorite, potassium chlorate, etc.)was used (and is used now in rare cases) in photography in chemical flashlights (magnesium flash).


Magnesium-sulfur batteries are one of the most promising, surpassing in theory the capacity of lithium-ion batteries, however, while this technology is at the stage of laboratory research due to the insurmountability of some technical obstacles. [4]

Biological role and toxicology

Magnesium is one of the important biogenic elements; it is found in significant quantities in the tissues of animals and plants (chlorophylls).Its biological role was formed historically, during the period of origin and development of proto-life on our planet due to the fact that the marine environment of the primitive earth was predominantly magnesium chloride, in contrast to the current sodium chloride.

Magnesium is a part of the salt balance of living organisms: a lack of magnesium impairs the absorption of other microelements, an excess – their leaching (replacement) [5] [ unauthorized source? ] . Magnesium is a cofactor in many enzymatic reactions.Magnesium is necessary for the conversion of creatine phosphate into ATP, a nucleotide that is a universal supplier of energy in living cells of the body. Magnesium is essential at all stages of protein synthesis.

Magnesium deficiency can manifest itself in different ways: insomnia, chronic fatigue, osteoporosis, arthritis, fibromyalgia, migraine, muscle cramps and spasms, cardiac arrhythmia, constipation, premenstrual syndrome (PMS). With sweating, frequent use of laxatives and diuretics, alcohol, great mental and physical exertion (primarily under stress and in athletes), the need for magnesium increases.

Foods rich in magnesium include sesame seeds, bran, nuts. There is very little magnesium in bread, dairy, meat and other everyday foods of modern man. The daily intake of magnesium is about 300 mg for women and 400 mg for men. Recent studies have found that magnesium citrate is the most digestible food containing magnesium [6] [7] .

One of the most biologically expedient sources of magnesium for transcutaneous (transdermal) absorption is bischofite mineral, which is widely used for medical rehabilitation, physiotherapy and spa treatment.The advantage of transcutaneous application is the high bioavailability of magnesium ions, which saturates local problem areas bypassing the excretory system.



  • Eydenzon M.A., Magniy, M., 1969; Tikhonov V.N.
  • Analytical chemistry of magnesium, Moscow, 1973 Ivanov A.I., Lyandres M.B., Prokofiev O.V.
  • Production of magnesium, M., 1979. S.I.Drakin. P. M. Chukurov.
  • Davis A. Nutraceuticals. Nutrition for life, health and longevity.- M .: Sattva, Institute of transpersonal psychology, 2004. – P.180-188. – ISBN.5-93509-021-X
  • Mindell E. Vitamins and Minerals Handbook. – M .: Medicine and Nutrition, 2000. – P.83-85. – ISBN.5-9-03-0


Electrochemical range of metal activity

Eu, Sm, Li, Cs, Rb, K, Ra, Ba, Sr, Ca, Na, Ac, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Pm, Gd, Tb, Mg , Y, Dy, Am, Ho , Er, Tm, Lu, Sc, Pu, Th, Np, U, Hf, Be, Al, Ti, Zr, Yb, Mn, V, Nb, Pa, Cr, Zn, Ga, Fe, Cd, In, Tl , Co, Ni, Te, Mo, Sn, Pb, H 2 , W, Sb, Bi, Ge, Re, Cu, Tc, Te, Rh, Po, Hg, Ag, Pd, Os, Ir, Pt, Au

Magnesium supplements and benefits of their use

Although it is often overlooked among many other minerals and vitamins, magnesium actually plays an important role in the body.It is responsible for and supports 300 different biochemical processes in the body, ranging from nerves to bones and metabolism, as well as other intermediates. You can consume magnesium from food sources or supplements.

Why Consider Supplements
Magnesium supplements are available in a variety of forms, such as magnesium oxide, magnesium chloride, magnesium citrate, magnesium hydroxide, magnesium gluconate and many others. The average adult is advised to consume between 300 and 400 mg of magnesium per day.This magnesium can be obtained from food, but it is very difficult to get it from food alone.

Most people may benefit from an additional magnesium supplement to the magnesium they consume in their diet to help the body with over 300 functions. You should take magnesium supplements with meals to mimic the natural process of magnesium digestion. Taking it on an empty stomach with water can confuse the body and cause loose stools.

Improve recovery from exercise
During exercise, our body releases hormones, including cortisol and adrenaline, which somehow break down the body and leave it in a catabolic state.Until you start to recover, you will not feel an improvement in performance from exercise. After taking magnesium supplements, you will feel better, relax, and your muscles will hurt less. Magnesium supplementation has been shown to play an important role in muscle relaxation.

Anxiety Reduction
If you suffer from stress or anxiety, magnesium supplementation is your solution. In fact, if you use highly absorbable magnesium, such as biospheric magnesium, you will feel the beneficial effects within a week.

Improved Sleep
Another benefit you will experience with magnesium supplements is improved sleep. If you suffer from sleep problems, be sure to take magnesium an hour before bed.

Reducing inflammation and pain
Many people suffer from muscle soreness and inflammation. These problems can be caused by various factors such as wear and tear on the joints due to excessive exercise, joint disease, joint injuries, wear and tear on the joints due to muscle weakness or too little exercise, etc.e. Magnesium can definitely help reduce pain and inflammation.

Health Problems That Magnesium Supplements Can Treat
Women’s Health. Magnesium can help with PMS, as well as preventing osteoporosis and type 2 diabetes.

Digestive tract. Magnesium is beneficial for indigestion.

Heart health. Taking magnesium can help lower cholesterol levels, reduce the symptoms of mistral valve prolapse and angina pain. The official site of the Pin Up Casino to play online.Bonuses and a mirror of the Pin Up casino.

VITRUM tablets – instructions for use, price, dosages, analogs, contraindications

Clinical and pharmacological group

Multivitamins with macro- and microelements

Active ingredients

– retinol (in the form of acetate and beta-carotene) (retinol )
– pantothenic acid (in the form of calcium pantothenate)
– potassium (in the form of chloride) (potassium chloride)
– magnesium (in the form of oxide) (magnesium oxide)
– iron (in the form of fumarate) (ferrous fumarate )
– copper (in the form of oxide)
– zinc (in the form of oxide) (zinc oxide)
– manganese (in the form of sulfate) (manganese sulfate)
– iodine (in the form of potassium iodide) (potassium iodide)
– molybdenum ( in the form of sodium molybdate)
– selenium (in the form of sodium selenate) (selenium)
– chromium (in the form of chloride) (chromic chloride)
– nickel (in the form of sulfate)
– vanadium (in the form of sodium metavanadate)
– tin ( in the form of chloride) 90 004 – chloride (in the form of potassium chloride)
– riboflavin (vit.B 2 ) (riboflavin)
– pyridoxine hydrochloride (vit. B 6 ) (pyridoxine)
– cyanocobalamin (vit. B 12 ) (cyanocobalamin)
– α-tocopherol acetate (vit. E) (tocopherol )
– ascorbic acid (vit. C) (ascorbic acid)
– nicotinamide (vit. PP) (nicotinamide)
– biotin (vit. H) (biotin)
– colecalciferol (vit. D 3 ) (colecalciferol)
– phytomenadione (vit. K 1 ) (phytomenadione)
– thiamine mononitrate (vit.B 1 ) (thiamine)
– phosphorus (in the form of calcium hydrogen phosphate)
– calcium (in the form of hydrogen phosphate)
– silicon (in the form of dioxide)
– folic acid (vit. B 9 ) (folic acid)

Form of issue, composition and packaging

Film-coated tablets from peach to whitish-peach color, capsular, with a dividing line on one side and “VITRUM” engraving on the other; the presence of a specific smell is allowed.

1 tab.
retinol acetate (vit. A) and beta-carotene 1 5000 IU 2
Alpha-tocopherol acetate (Vit. E) 30 IU 3
colecalciferol (vit.D 3 ) 400 ME 4
phytomenadione (vit.K 1 ) 25 μg
Ascorbic acid (vit.C) 60 mg
thiamine mononitrate (vit. B 1 ) 1.5 mg
Riboflavin (Vit. B 2 ) 1.7 mg
calcium pantothenate calculated as pantothenic acid (vit. B 5 ) 10 mg
pyridoxine hydrochloride (vit. B 6 ) 2 mg
folic acid (vit. B 9 ) 400 μg
cyanocobalamin (vit.B 12 ) 6 μg
Nicotinamide (Vit. PP) 20 mg
Biotin (Vit. H) 30 μg
Potassium chloride as potassium 40 mg
calcium hydrogen phosphate calculated as calcium 162 mg
magnesium oxide calculated as magnesium 100 mg
calcium hydrogen phosphate calculated as phosphorus 125 mg
iron fumarate in terms of iron 18 mg
copper oxide in terms of copper 2 mg
zinc oxide calculated as zinc 15 mg
manganese sulfate as manganese 2.5 mg
potassium iodide in terms of iodine 150 μg
Sodium Molybdate as Molybdenum 25 μg
sodium selenate in terms of selenium 25 μg
Chromium Chloride as Chromium 25 μg
Nickel Sulfate as Nickel 5 μg
Sodium metavanadate as vanadium 10 μg
Tin chloride calculated as tin 10 μg
Silicon dioxide calculated as silicon 10 μg
Potassium chloride as chloride 36.3 mg

1 synonym for beta-carotene;
2 equivalent to 1515 μg retinol equivalent;
3 is equivalent to 30 mg alpha-tocopherol acetate;
4 is equivalent to 10 μg of colecalciferol.

Excipients: microcrystalline cellulose – 68.79 mg, stearic acid – 42 mg, croscarmellose sodium – 28 mg, magnesium stearate – 14 mg.

Shell composition: hypromellose – 27.2 mg, titanium dioxide – 12.47 mg, triacetin – 3 mg, sunset yellow dye (E110) – 0.32 mg, charming red dye (E129) – 0.01 mg.

30 pcs. – polyethylene bottles (1) – cardboard packs.
60 pcs. – polyethylene bottles (1) – cardboard packs.
100 pcs. – polyethylene bottles (1) – cardboard packs.
120 pcs. – polyethylene bottles (1) – cardboard packs.
130 pcs. – polyethylene bottles (1) – cardboard packs.

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Pharmacological action

Multivitamin preparation with minerals.The effect of the drug is determined by the properties of the active substances that make up its composition. It is a modern balanced complex containing 13 vitamins and 17 minerals. One tablet a day provides an adult with all the vitamins and minerals it needs to promote health and wellness.


Prevention of hypovitaminosis, lack of minerals and trace elements, incl.h .:

  • during the period of intense mental and physical stress;
  • during the period of recovery after illness;
  • in case of insufficient and unbalanced nutrition.


  • Vitamin A hypervitaminosis;
  • vitamin D hypervitaminosis;
  • children and adolescents up to 18 years old;
  • Hypersensitivity to the components of the preparation.


Adults – 1 tab./ day after meals. The duration of the drug intake is determined by the doctor individually.

Side effects

Possibly: allergic reactions to the components of the preparation.


Symptoms: nausea, weakness, gastrointestinal disturbances. In case of overdose, the patient should consult a doctor.

Treatment: intake of activated carbon by mouth, gastric lavage, symptomatic therapy.

Drug interaction

The drug contains iron and calcium, therefore, with the combined use of antibiotics of the tetracycline group, as well as antimicrobial agents – fluoroquinolone derivatives, the absorption of the latter from the gastrointestinal tract slows down.

Ascorbic acid enhances the action and side effects of antimicrobial agents from the sulfonamide group.

Antacids containing aluminum, magnesium, calcium, and cholestyramine reduce iron absorption.

With the simultaneous use of thiazide diuretics, the likelihood of hypercalcemia increases.

It is not recommended to use Vitrum in conjunction with preparations containing vitamins A and D, because the risk of overdose of these vitamins increases.

Special instructions

Do not exceed the recommended dose of the drug.

Influence on the ability to drive vehicles and mechanisms

The drug has no effect on the ability to drive a car or use other mechanisms.

Pregnancy and lactation

The use of the drug is contraindicated during pregnancy and during breastfeeding.

Application in children

The use of the drug in children and adolescents under 18 years of age is contraindicated.

Terms of dispensing from pharmacies

The drug is dispensed without a prescription.

Terms and conditions of storage

The drug should be stored out of the reach of children, in a dry place at a temperature of 10 ° to 30 ° C.The shelf life is 5 years.

The description of the VITRUM preparation is based on the officially approved instructions for use and approved by the manufacturer.

The information on the prices of drugs provided does not constitute an offer to sell or buy a product.