Male anatomy images: Prostate Picture, Definition, Function, Conditions, Tests, and Treatments
Prostate Picture, Definition, Function, Conditions, Tests, and Treatments
© 2014 WebMD, LLC. All rights reserved.
Side View of the Prostate
The prostate is a walnut-sized gland located between the bladder and the penis. The prostate is just in front of the rectum. The urethra runs through the center of the prostate, from the bladder to the penis, letting urine flow out of the body.
The prostate secretes fluid that nourishes and protects sperm. During ejaculation, the prostate squeezes this fluid into the urethra, and it’s expelled with sperm as semen.
The vasa deferentia (singular: vas deferens) bring sperm from the testes to the seminal vesicles. The seminal vesicles contribute fluid to semen during ejaculation.
- Prostatitis: Inflammation of the prostate, sometimes caused by infection. It is typically treated with antibiotics.
- Enlarged prostate: Called benign prostatic hypertrophy or BPH, prostate growth affects virtually all men over 50. Symptoms of difficult urination tend to increase with age. Medicines or surgery can treat BPH.
- Prostate cancer: It’s the most common form of cancer in men (besides skin cancer), but only one in 41 men die from prostate cancer. Surgery, radiation, hormone therapy, and chemotherapy can be used to treat prostate cancer. Some men choose to delay treatment, which is called watchful waiting.
- Digital rectal examination (DRE): A doctor inserts a lubricated, gloved finger into the rectum and feels the prostate. A DRE can sometimes detect an enlarged prostate, lumps or nodules of prostate cancer, or tenderness from prostatitis.
- Prostate-specific antigen (PSA): The prostate makes a protein called PSA, which can be measured by a blood test. If PSA is high, prostate cancer is more likely, but an enlarged prostate can also cause a high PSA. Recommendations about whether or not a man should be screened and at what age differ. Talk with your doctor about whether you need testing and the potential benefits and risks.
- Prostate ultrasound (transrectal ultrasound): An ultrasound probe is inserted into the rectum, bringing it close to the prostate. Ultrasound is often done with a biopsy to test for prostate cancer.
- Prostate biopsy: A needle is inserted into the prostate to take tissue out to check for prostate cancer. This is usually done through the rectum.
Enlarged Prostate Treatment
- Alpha-blockers: Alpha-blockers relax the muscles around the urethra in men with symptoms from an enlarged prostate. Urine then flows more freely.
- 5-alpha-reductase inhibitors: These medications reduce the level of a certain form of testosterone (DHT). The prostate shrinks when less DHT is present, improving urine flow.
- Surgery for an enlarged prostate: Usually, medications resolve symptoms of an enlarged prostate, but some men require surgery to improve symptoms and prevent complications.
Prostate Cancer Treatment
- Prostatectomy: Surgery for prostate cancer, called a prostatectomy, removes the prostate with the goal of removing all the cancer.
- Radiation therapy: Radiation kills prostate cancer cells while minimizing damage to healthy cells.
- Radioactive seed implants: Instead of radiation pointed at the prostate from outside the body, radioactive seeds can be implanted into the prostate to kill cancer cells.
- Cryotherapy: Cryotherapy involves killing prostate cancer cells by freezing them.
- Hormone therapy: Prostate cancer cells grow in response to hormones. Hormone therapy helps block that effect.
- Chemotherapy: When prostate cancer is advanced, chemotherapy may help reduce the cancer’s spread.
- Watchful waiting: Since prostate cancer is often slow growing, some older men and their doctors hold off on treatment and wait to see if the cancer appears to be growing.
- Clinical trials: Through prostate cancer clinical trials, researchers test the effects of new medications on a group of volunteers with prostate cancer.
- Acute and chronic prostatitis: Depending on the type of prostatitis, treatment includes antibiotics, other medications, and/or surgery.
Ductus deferens | anatomy | Britannica
Ductus deferens, also called vas deferens, thick-walled tube in the male reproductive system that transports sperm cells from the epididymis, where the sperm are stored prior to ejaculation. Each ductus deferens ends in an enlarged portion, an ampulla, which acts as a reservoir. There are two ductus deferentes, identical in structure and function, which emerge from the two epididymides.
The channel of the ductus deferens is slightly larger than that of the ductus epididymidis, the tube found in the epididymis gland from which it originates. The tissue lining the inside wall is a moist and folded layer of mucous membrane. Surrounding the mucous membrane are three layers of circular and longitudinal muscle fibres. These fibres cause the ducts to contract and thus allow the sperm and fluids to be transported. The ductus deferens begins at the tail of the epididymis, in the lower region of the scrotal sac, the pouch of thin skin that covers the testes and epididymides. It extends into the pelvic region. While ascending to the level of the bladder, the ductus deferens is surrounded by a network of arteries, veins (pampiniform plexus), and nerve fibres, and the whole is covered by layers of connective tissue. (This complex tubular structure, called the spermatic cord, also serves to suspend the testes.) At the level of the bladder, each duct separates from its sheath of connective tissue and travels back over the top of the bladder; the two ducts turn downward at the rear of the bladder, and their channels enlarge to form the two ampullae attached to the outside left and right walls of the bladder.
Sagittal section of the male reproductive organs, showing the prostate gland, seminal vesicles, and ductus (vas) deferens.
Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.
The ampullae act as storage chambers for the semen and contribute secretions to it. The yellow secretions of the ampullae include ergothioneine, a substance that reduces chemical compounds, and fructose, a sugar and nutrient. Both secretions moisten the sperm and help to keep them viable. The inside cavities of the ampullae have several meshlike partitions and folds. The walls of the ampulla are thinner than the rest of the sperm canal, and the channel is usually larger. The size of the ampulla varies with different animal species; in the stallion the ampullae are relatively large, whereas in man they are only about twice the size of the ductus deferentes. The ampullae join the ducts of the seminal vesicles to form the ejaculatory ducts. See also ejaculation.
2021 Ultimate Veterinary Guide to Dog Anatomy with Images
As the pace of veterinary advancement accelerates, even the most experienced veterinary teams are challenged to keep up with all the changes that impact their practice.
Veterinary teams need practical, concise and relevant visual aids at their fingertips while in practice, helping them to prescribe the right information at the right time, to improve client communication, increase compliance rates, enhance the pet owner experience and most importantly better pet health outcomes.
Why visual aids are important.
Your working day is often fast-paced and always changing. But, a large part of your job is pet owner communication.
There are many barriers to managing client communication in a veterinary setting:
- Veterinary support teams find it difficult to juggle work and keep up to date with the latest pet health information
- Pet owners struggle to describe the pet’s symptoms
- Pet owners are often pre-occupied with pet restraint or their children
- Veterinarians may not always have the time they need to fully understand a case
- The primary carer is not always present
- There is never enough time to explain everything from diagnosis, treatment plan, prognoses and more
A simple way to overcome these barriers is to use digital visual aids and digital pet treatment summaries.
VetCheck is going to help you be the best vet or nurse clinician you can be by:
- Offering you a proven client communication and engagement system that helps you deliver value and high quality care
- Giving you access to up to date pet health information e.g. health updates, treatment options, potential outcomes and prognoses and tools e.g. anatomical diagrams, clinical formulas and programs and home care videos
- Enhancing the delivery of your healthcare messages, managing client expectations and improving compliance for better pet health outcomes
- Improving your clinical efficiency and streamlining the care you deliver by improving patient data capture and reducing call backs
Needing veterinary visual aids, anatomical diagrams, home compliance videos and images to improve the quality of care that you can provide?
The use of veterinary anatomical terminology can be confusing. When discussing a pet’s condition, always use both technical and laymens terminology.
People think and hear in pictures. Below are a selection of visual aids to help you communicate the importance of the pet’s health as well as the recommended veterinary services.
Get access to 100’s of anatomical diagrams. Simply register online and once approved, gain access within a few minutes.
Common anatomical terminology
Here are some common veterinary terms and their meanings:
|Dew claw||First digit|
|Digit||Finger or toe|
|Flank||Side of the body between chest and tail base|
|Muzzle||Nose and upper and lower lip|
Pets communicate in a very different way than people do. They have the same basic senses like sight, hearing, smell, touch, and taste, but they use them differently to communicate with the world.
In general, pets have a much better sense of
smell, hearing, and sight than humans. This allows
them to identify odours better, to hear
noises at greater distances, and to see in the
dark. Pets also have sharp teeth and claws that
developed to help them survive in the wild.
In the wild, dogs are pack animals that require a strong leader. Their excellent
senses of smell and hearing have allowed them to survive and catch prey in
the wild. Because of their highly developed senses they are great trackers.
Dogs identify each other by their unique scent. They have scent glands located
around their bottom and use them to mark territory as their own. This is why we
commonly see dogs greeting other dogs by sniffing their bottom.
|Hearing||Dogs have a greater hearing range than
people do. They can detect sound as low
as 16 Hz frequency to as high as 100,000 Hz
(people hear 20 to 20,000 Hz ). Their ears have
a great degree of flexibility that allows them to
funnel sounds and easily locate the direction
of sound. They can hear sounds much sooner
and at much greater distances than people
do. Dogs with cone ears naturally hear better
than those with floppy ears.
|Sight||People used to think that a dog’s sight is dichromatic (see in black
and white). But the latest research suggests that dogs may actually
see some color, though certainly not as much as people do.
Depending on the dog breed, their field of vision can vary up to
270 degrees for sight hounds like greyhounds and whippets, and as
low as 180 degrees for flat-faced breeds like the bulldog or Boston
terrier. People also have a narrow field of vision of 180 degrees.
Dogs can see much better at night than people do. Their eyes
are more sensitive to light and motion than ours. They have a
structure, the tapetum lucidum, that allows them to see in dim light.
Have you ever noticed their eyes reflecting back when bright lights
like a car headlight or flashlight are directed at them?
|Voice||Different dog breeds have different voices. There are many
different types of voices: bark, growl, howl, and whimper. A
dog’s bark expresses different emotions like pleasure, fun,
loneliness, fear, or stress.
|Smell||Smell is the dogs’ primary sense. Dogs have
nearly 220 million olfactory (smelling) cells,
compared to 5 million in people. Dogs sniff to
take in air quickly to identify different smells.
Their sense of smell is extremely sensitive and
the government often uses dogs to track
people, drugs, or explosives. They can even
use smell to sense human and animal moods
such as fear, happiness, or sadness from long
|Taste||Dogs have 42 permanent teeth to chew on meat and vegetables. They have a broad tongue with only 1,700 taste buds, since their heightened sense of smell allows them to identify food. People have 9,000 taste buds.|
Get access to more anatomical diagrams on special senses.
- Normal eye
- Nusclear sclerosis
- Corneal ulceration
- Normal ear
- Normal hearing aparatus
- Otitis externa
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Cardiovascular and Circulatory System
The cardiovascular system refers to the organs and vessels that allow blood to circulate nutrients, oxygen, carbon dioxide, wastes and hormones to the various cells within the body. The heart pumps oxygenated blood from the lungs to the rest of the body, while pumping deoxygenated blood to the lungs.
The heart is made up of the following structures:
- Pulmonary artery
- Right atrium
- Right ventricle
- Left atrium
- Left ventricle
- Ventricular septum
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Good heart health starts with good nutrition.
Taurine, an important amino acid, is essential for strong heart muscles as well as eye and brain function.
Most commercial cat foods contain taurine.
But, in the case of homemade diets, cats are at higher risk of taurine deficiency and heart problems.
Cardiovascular conditions are particularly complex. In order for pet owners to make sound health decisions, they need to under the risks and benefits that come with medical treatments and diagnostic tests.
Studies have shown that people consider risk information easier to understand and recall when it is presented visually.
Get access to more anatomical diagrams on the cardiovascular system.
- Chronic Valvular Disease
- Heartworm Disease
- Feline Dilated Cardiomyopathy
- Feline Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy
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The digestive system is made up of the organs responsible for processing food into a format that can be used by the body in the form of energy and nutrients. Food enters the mouth and travels through the oesophagus, stomach, small intestine and large intestine before being passed through the anus as solid waste.
The digestive system includes the:
- Mouth & Teeth
- Salivary glands
- Stomach & Stomach Lining
- Small intestine
- Large intestine
- Gall bladder
Nutrition for good health
Dogs are omnivores meaning they need vegetables and meat. The ideal diet is one that is tailored to the individual nutritional requirements. This is based on the health, life stage and lifestyle.
An appropriate diet combines a high quality, balanced, commercial diet and human-grade foods. Unless you have specific recipes that have been formulated by a veterinary nutritionist, commercial diets should be considered, particularly for puppies up to 12 months of age. All reputable veterinary nutritional companies must follow strict dietary requirements to ensure the diets are balanced and nutritionally beneficial.
Mouth and teeth
Stomach and stomach lining
The food enters via the oesophagus, into the stomach is where the food is digested so that the nutrients can be absorbed.
The small intestine connects the stomach to the large intestine. It can be broken into three sections – the duodenum, jejunum and ileum. It is where food absorption continues to take place after it has left the stomach.
The pancreas is a gland located near the stomach. It produces a number of important hormones that aid in digestion and regulates blood sugar.
The liver is responsible for removing toxins that come from the digestive tract.
Get access to more anatomical diagrams on the digestive system.
- Hemorrhagic Gastritis with Ulcers
- Gastric Dilatation with Volvulus
- Intestinal Foreign Bodies
- Parvoviral Enteritis
- Chronic Colitis
- Constipation/Colonic Impaction
- Acute Pancreatitis
- Exocrine Pancreatic Insufficiency
- End-Stage Liver Disease
- Hepatic Neoplasia
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The musculoskeletal system is responsible for form, support, stability and movement. It is made up of skeletal bones, muscles, cartilage, tendons, ligaments, joints and connective tissue.
Common joints include the:
- Stifle (knee)
The shoulder joint is made up of the scapula (shoulder blade) and humerus (large arm bone).
VetCheck Passive Range of Motion Guidelines
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The pelvis is where the femoral (large leg bone) head fits into the hip joint.
Stifle and patella
The stifle is the knee and the patella is the knee cap. They are both positioned in the hindlimbs of the cat.
Get access to more anatomical diagrams on the musculoskeletal system.
- Intervertebral Disk Disease
- Osteochondritis Dissecans
- Ununited Anconeal Process/Panosteitis
- Hip Dysplasia
- Femoral Fracture
- Ruptured Cranial Cruciate Ligament
- Patellar Luxation
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The respiratory system is responsible for bringing oxygen into the body and removing wastes in the form of carbon dioxide. Pets cannot regulate their heat through their skin in the form of sweat – the respiratory system is responsible for regulating the body temperature for example panting when the pet is hot.
The respiratory system includes the:
- Bronchi (smaller airways)
Get access to more anatomical diagrams on the respiratory system.
- Collapsing Trachea
- Pulmonary Edema
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The urogenital system refers to the urinary system that includes the kidneys, ureter, urethra and bladder in the excretion of liquid wastes and the reproductive system that includes the female uterus, ovaries, fallopian tubes and vagina and the male testes, epididymis, vas deferens and penis.
Lower urinary tract
A spey or ovariohysterectomy involves the removal of both ovaries and the uterus. Without desexing, your pet will proceed to puberty and leave bloodstains around the house during each heat cycle.
Benefits of desexing:
- Prevention of unwanted litters
- Health benefits for females such as womb infections (pyometra), breast cancer
- Health benefits for males such as reduced prostate disease, testicular cancer, perianal tumours
- Behavioural benefits such as reduced spraying, marking, fighting if castration occurs before 6 months of age or before the onset of these behaviours
- Prevention of hormonal changes that can interfere with the medical management of pets with diabetes or epilepsy
Desexing is usually recommended before puberty between the age of 4 and 9 months but can occur at any age. Six months is an ideal age as the puppy vaccination series is usually completed. Males undergo a castration which is the removal of both testicles from beneath the skin. Females undergo a spey or ovariohysterectomy which requires abdominal surgery to remove the uterus and ovaries.
A castration involves the removal of the testicles from within the scrotal sac.
Get access to more anatomical diagrams on the urogenital system.
- Chronic Renal Disease
- Acute Renal Failure
- Bladder Stones
- Urethral Obstruction
- Feline Lower Urinary Tract Disease
- Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia
- Testicular Tumors
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The nervous system is responsible for the transmission of messages to and from the brain and spinal cord. The spinal column is protected by the boney spinal vertebrae.
The nervous system includes the:
Do you ever see cases of Intervertebral disc disease or cognitive dysfunction? Help your customers understand these complex conditions with the VetCheck handouts.
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The eye is responsible for collecting light from the environment and converting this into an image in a three dimensional, moving image.
The eye is made up of the:
- Ciliary Body
- Vitreous Body
- Anterior Chamber
- Optic disk
- Optic Nerve
Common eye condition terminology
Here are some common eye condition terms and their meanings:
|Conjunctivitis||Inflammation of the pink tissue inside the eyelids.|
|Uveitis||Inflammation of the middle layer of the eyeball. Represented by eye redness, pain and poor vision.|
|Corneal ulcer||Painful hole in the cornea (the clear membrane on the front of the eye).|
|Keratitis||Inflammation of the cornea.|
|Glaucoma||Increased pressure within the eyeball that can lead to sudden blindness. This is an emergency situation.|
|Lens luxation||Movement of the eye lens out of normal position.|
|Cherry eye||Permanent exposure of the third eyelid.|
|Dry eye||Chronic lack of sufficient eye lubrication that results in irritation of the eye.|
|Retinal detachment||Where the retina comes away from the back wall of the eye. This is an emergency situation.|
|Entropion||The rolling in of the eyelids where the eyelashes constantly rub on the cornea, causing irritation and ulceration.|
|Distichia||Eyelashes that grow from an unusual spot and causes irritation and ulceration.|
|Retinal Dysplasia||Abnormal retinal development that can lead to retinal detachment.|
Some dog breeds are prone to eye conditions.
Knowing if the dog is genetically predisposed can help pick up early signs of a problem and prevent blindness.
Annual vet visits with an eye examination will also help pick up early changes and determine whether further eye examinations are required.
This is particularly important for dogs that will be put into a breeding program.
Here are some common eye conditions and some breed predispositions*:
|Progressive Retinal Atrophy||Australian Cattle Dog, Collie, Dachshund, Irish Setter, Irish Wolfhound, Lhasa Apso, Labrador Retriever, Miniature Schnauzer, Poodle, Golder Retriever, Cocker Spaniel, Springer Spaniel, Tibetan Spaniel, Welsh Corgi|
|Glaucoma||Maltese, Chinese Crested, Basset Hound, Shiba Inu, Retriever, Siberian Husky, Cocker Spaniel, Springer Spaniel, Spanish Water Dog.|
|Hereditary Cataracts||Bichon Frise, Alaskan Malamute, Australian Shepherd, Boston Terrier, Cavalier King Charles Spaniel, German Shepherd Dog, Giant Schnauzer, Irish Setter, Red Setter, Miniature Schnauzer, Old English Sheepdog, Poodle, Golden Retriever, Labrador Retriever, Siberian Husky, Cocker Spaniel, Springer Spaniel, Staffordshire Bull Terrier|
|Primary Lens luxation||Border Collie, Bull Terrier, Fox Terrier, Jack Russell|
|Collie Eye Anomaly||Australian Shepherd, Border Collie, Shetland Sheepdog|
|Cherry Eye||Bull dog|
|Dry Eye||Cavalier, Chinese Crested|
|Entropion||Chow Chow, Cocker Spaniel, Golden Retriever|
|Retinal Dysplasia||Bedlington Terrier, Cavalier King Charles Spaniel, Golden Retriever, Cocker Spaniel, Springer Spaniel, Labrador Retriever|
* This is not a comprehensive list of genetic eye conditions or breeds.
For a comprehensive list of genetic diseases by dog breed, visit the Orthopaedic Foundation for Animals
Common eye tests that can be performed at the vets:
|Schirmer tear test||Used to meature the tear production. Normal tear production is 10-15mm in one minute.|
|Swab||Sample collection to investigate foreign cells, bacteria or viruses.|
|Fluorescein staining||To check for ulcers that will absorb the stain and fluoresce. It can also be use to check the functioning of the tear duct, where the stain will appear from the nostrils within 5-15minutes if healthy.|
|Tonometry||Tests the pressure within the eye.|
|Gonioscopy||Tests the drainage angle of the eye.|
|Imaging techniques||The use of radiographs, ultrasound or MRI to investigate diseases of the eye or surrounding tissue.|
|DNA swab||The collection of cheek cells or blood to investigate genetic disorders via specific genetic markers.|
Get access to more anatomical diagrams on the eye.
- Normal eye
- Nusclear sclerosis
- Corneal ulceration
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Garcia-Retamero, R., & Cokely, E.T. (2013). Communicating health risks with visual aids. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 22 (5), 392-399.
These illustrations are available with permission by the copyright owner, Hill’s Pet Nutrition, from the Atlas of Veterinary Clinical Anatomy. This illustration should not be downloaded, printed or copied except for non-commercial use.
© Hill’s Pet Nutrition Pty Ltd.
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Male reproductive system (urogenital system) anatomy
What is the male urogenital system?
The term urogenital refers to something that has both urinary and genital origins. The word urogenital is used because the urinary and reproductive systems in males merge. The male urogenital system consists of several parts, including the testes, epididymis, vas deferens, ejaculatory ducts, urethra, penis, prostate and accessory glands.
The testis is a firm, mobile organ lying within the scrotum; the left testis lies slightly lower than the right. The testes are the primary reproductive organs (gonads) in the male, and are responsible for the production of sperm. The testis is covered by a capsule. The inner surface of the testicular capsule has projections that divide the organ into lobules. Contained within these lobules are the seminiferous tubules, which open into a series of channels called the rete testis. Sperm moves from the rete testis to the upper epididymis via the efferent ductules.
One of the main functional components of the testes are the seminiferous tubules. Other important functional components of the testis are Sertoli cells and Leydig cells.
The Leydig cells in the testis are responsible for the production of testosterone, and are almost nonexistent before puberty. The testosterone secreted by these cells is responsible for the development of secondary sexual characteristics, including:
- Changes to body hair distribution
- Baldness (testosterone decreases hair follicle growth on the top of the head)
- Change in voice
- Increased skin thickness and development of acne
- Increased bone density
- Increased basal metabolic levels
- Increased number of red blood cells
- Increased body water due to increased resorption of water and electrolytes in the kidneys
Formation of sperm
Sperm production occurs within the seminiferous tubules. The Sertoli cells are the supporting, non-sperm producing cells of the seminiferous tubules, and are abundant in puberty and in the elderly. They provide support for surrounding germ cell growth and maturation. Sertoli cells secrete a protein and a nutritious fluid which sustains the developing sperm and helps transport them to the centre of the seminiferous tube.
The developing sperm undergo a series of divisions during development (meiosis). The first division takes approximately 24 days to complete. The second division occurs within 2–3 days of the first. The end result is four daughter cells, each with half the genetic material that they started off with. The importance of this is that when the sperm unites with the ovum, half the genes in the fertilised egg are from the father and half from the mother.
The development of sperm continues after division. The action of Sertoli cells causes cell remodelling, eventually converting the developing sperm into a spermatozoan.
Points to note:
- The temperature of the testes effects spermatogenesis (sperm formation). The scrotum (the skin covered sac that holds the testicles) functions as a sensitive regulator of temperature; by contracting and relaxing, it modifies testicular temperature. The optimal temperature for the testes is approximately 2 degrees below body temperature (i.e. about 35oC).
- Sperm count can effect the fertility of males. The normal range for a sperm count is 35–200 million sperm per ejaculate. A male is defined as being infertile if he has a sperm count below 20 million.
- Male fertility is also affected by the morphology (shape and size) of the sperm in the ejaculate. Abnormal morphology can render the sperm ineffective, thus causing infertility even if the sperm count is normal.
For more information on sperm health, including factors affecting sperm health and investigations of sperm health, see Sperm Health.
The epididymis is a firm structure that consists of three parts: the expanded head, the body, and the tail. The epididymis is a coiled tube covered by connective tissue. Fully expanded, it is approximately 20 m long. At the tail of the epididymis, a tube called the vas deferens emerges.
Sperm pass into the epididymis after they are formed in the seminiferous tubules. The sperm in the seminiferous tubules and early epididymis cannot move. These non-motile sperm gain the potential to move after 18–24 hours in the epididymis, though the production of specific substances within the epididymis prevents actual movement.
The vas deferens is a 45 cm long muscular tube that transports sperm to the ejaculatory ducts.
The two ejaculatory ducts are formed by the union of the vas deferens with the ducts arising from the seminal vesicles (accessory glands that secrete fluid) on either side. They are approximately 2 cm long, piercing the prostate gland and emptying into the part of the urethra that runs through the prostate.
The male urethra is approximately 18–20 cm long; it extends from the internal orifice of the urinary bladder to the external opening at the end of the penis.
The urethra allows the passage of both urine and sperm.
There are two main parts of the penis:
- Root: There are three main parts of the root of the penis: the midline bulb, and the left and right crura on either side of the bulb.
- Body: The body of the penis consists of three cylindrical masses of erectile tissue: the corpus spongiosum in the midline, and the two corpus cavernosa on either side. At the end of the corpus spongiosum is the head of the penis, where the urethra opens.
Erection occurs due to nervous impulses as a result of sexual arousal. The erectile tissue becomes engorged with blood, elongating and stiffening the penis. The nervous input also causes glands to secrete mucus, lubricating the penis in preparation for sexual intercourse.
For information on erectile dysfunction and tips for dealing with it, its medications, and some useful animations, see Erectile Dysfunction.
Ejaculation is controlled by separate nerve impulses to the penis. Nerve impulses cause the vas deferens to contract. The prostate gland and seminal vesicles both then contract, releasing their fluids into the propelling sperm. The release of fluid results in a full feeling in the genital organs. The sensory signals caused by this feeling results in contraction muscles compressing the base of the penile erectile tissue. This propels the sperm through the urethra and out of the body. At the same time, the contraction of muscles in the pelvis and body trunk causes pelvic thrusting movements.
The full process is referred to as the male orgasm.
The prostatic part of the urethra is surrounded by the fibromuscular prostate gland. The gland is usually about 3 cm long, and is surrounded by a capsule.
The prostate gland produces a thin milky fluid, the major constituents of which are citrate ions, phosphate ions and enzymes. The prostatic fluid is slightly basic; this is important because an acidic environment inhibits the fertility of sperm. Both the fluid in the vas deferens and in the vagina have a quite acidic pH (the vagina has a pH of 3.5–4.0). The prostatic fluid helps raise this pH to optimal levels (pH of 6.0–6.5), thus enhancing the fertility and motility of the sperm.
There are two seminal vesicles, situated symmetrically on either side of the bladder. They are coil-shaped structures, approximately 5 cm long. Each seminal vesicle narrows at the bottom and joins the vas deferens, forming the ejaculatory duct.
The seminal vesicles produce substances that help provide nourishment for the spermatozoa. The contraction of glandular walls during ejaculation expels the secretion into the ejaculatory ducts, forcing the spermatozoa out of the urethra.
The bulbourethral glands are two small, round, yellow glands, about 1 cm in diameter. The glands produce a secretion that helps lubricate the head of the penis during erection and ejaculation.
|For information on different types of contraception and related health issues, see Contraception.|
|For more information on infertility, including investigations and treatments, as well as some useful animations, see Infertility.|
|For information on prostate cancer, patient experience videos and different types of treatment methods, see Prostate Cancer.|
- Guyton AC, Hall JE. Textbook of Medical Physiology (9th edition). Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders; 1996. [Book]
- Overview of urogenital disorders [online]. New Haven, CT: Yale School of Medicine; 28 October 2005 [cited 6 March 2006]. Available from: URL link
- Snell RS. Clinical Anatomy for Medical Students (6th edition). Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2000. [Book]
- Standring S (ed). Gray’s Anatomy: The Anatomical Basis of Clinical Practice (39th edition). Edinburgh: Elsevier Churchill Livingstone; 2005. [Book]
Male Reproduction | Veterian Key
Few problems affect the penis of cats; conditions found more commonly in other species, such as hypospadias and persistent penile frenulum, are rare in the cat. One case report of hypospadias in a 1-year-old Himalayan cat was associated with chronic cystitis.17 The hypospadias was surgically corrected and the cat recovered fully. A 1-year-old Persian cat presented for infertility was found to have dorsal deviation of the penis resulting from a persistent frenulum.1
A small number of cases of phimosis have been reported in the cat.4,10,22 Phimosis is due to constriction of the preputial opening that prevents protrusion of the penis. Phimosis may be congenital or acquired secondary to trauma, inflammation, or neoplasia. The most common clinical signs are stranguria, pollakiuria, and vocalizing during urination22; other clinical signs include dribbling urine, urinating outside the litter box, and inability to mate. The severity of clinical signs varies with the degree of narrowing. Diagnosis is made on physical examination. In many cases, surgical correction of the defect is necessary.
The records of 10 cats diagnosed with phimosis at Michigan State University Veterinary Teaching Hospital have been reviewed.22 The mean age at presentation was 18.6 weeks (range, 8 weeks to 2.4 years). Two of the cats had other congenital defects (cryptorchidism, penile hypoplasia). Eight of the 10 cats underwent surgical correction of the condition by a full thickness incision in the ventral aspect of the prepuce, with or without resection of a wedge of prepuce. A satisfactory outcome was achieved in seven cats, where long-term follow-up was available. Congenital phimosis has been reported in an 8-week-old domestic shorthair cat presented for hematuria, pollakiuria, and polydipsia.4 Urine culture was positive for E. coli. Surgical correction of the phimosis was accomplished by resection of a small wedge of the dorsal prepuce, and along with antibiotic treatment, led to resolution of clinical signs.
Priapism is persistent abnormal erection of the penis in the absence of sexual stimulation, and may be caused by a variety of factors, such as spinal cord injury, trauma, neoplasia, and inflammation. It is rarely reported in the cat. Priapism may be confused with paraphimosis; however, paraphimosis is associated with a narrow preputial orifice or other preputial abnormalities. Without intervention, the penis may become dry and edematous, and even necrotic. Most cases in the cat require surgical management. In a series of seven cases of priapism, six cases were in Siamese cats.11 In four of the cases, priapism developed after unsuccessful attempts at mating, despite the fact that three of the cats were castrated. Five of the cats were successfully treated with perineal urethrostomy, and histologic examination revealed thrombosis of the corpus cavernosum.
Priapism was reported in a 1.5-year-old domestic shorthair cat after routine castration.36 Two days after surgery, the cat developed pollakiuria and stranguria, as well as protrusion of the penis. The cat was successfully treated with perineal urethrostomy. Histology of the resected tissue revealed severe congestion of the corpus cavernosum, with organized thrombi and areas of necrosis. Another case of priapism was reported in a 2-year-old castrated cat with feline infectious peritonitis (FIP).31a At necropsy histologic examination of the penis revealed severe pyogranulomatous inflammation and fibrinoid necrosis of the corpus cavernosum.
Transgender Surgery Female To Male
Most transmen will begin their gender confirmation journey with hormone (testosterone) therapy and supportive counseling. In addition to these two vital components, many transmen opt to undergo surgery to complete their transition process. While the decision to have surgery is a very personal one, transmen who do choose to have these procedures typically experience a number of benefits, including improved mental health and overall well-being, decreased gender dysphoria, enhanced self-esteem, greater satisfaction with one’s body, and an increased ability to “pass” in society as a man. In fact, gender transition surgeries are considered medically necessary by the American Medical Association. At the International Center for Transgender Care (ICTC), we offer a full suite of surgical services to assist you in your transition journey.
Mastectomy (Top Surgery)
Mastectomy, or “top surgery”, is typically the first—and sometimes the only—surgical procedure performed for the transman patient who is transitioning. Mastectomy is designed to remove unwanted breast tissue in order to create a more masculine chest appearance. Depending upon your unique needs and anatomy, a number of techniques may be utilized to achieve the desired aesthetic result. These include bilateral mastectomy with free nipple grafts, the peri-areolar/”keyhole” technique, and adjunctive lateral chest wall liposuction. Mastectomy is a very safe and commonly performed procedure, and the surgeons at ICTC will work with you to ensure the best possible results. Read more on top surgery.
Facial Masculinization Surgery
Facial masculinization surgery (FMS) refers to a range of procedures that can be performed to lend a more chiseled and masculine appearance to the face. Because facial features offer important visual cues as to one’s gender, FMS is a vitally important component of the female-to-male transition. Each patient who undergoes FMS will have unique goals and needs; therefore, the surgeons at ICTC will work with you to design a customized surgical plan. In general, FMS may include a combination of forehead lengthening/augmentation, cheek augmentation, rhinoplasty, chin recontouring, jaw contouring, and thyroid cartilage enhancement (Adam’s Apple surgery). Read more on facial masculinization surgery.
Body Masculinization Surgery
Body masculinization surgery (BMS) is an ideal option for the transman who would like to achieve a more masculine contour throughout the upper and lower body. The traditional male figure includes a broad and defined upper torso, trim waist, and minimal fat in the lower body area. While diet, exercise, and hormone therapy play a role in masculinizing the body, certain areas of fat storage can be difficult to change without surgery. BMS is a liposuction technique that targets fat in the flanks, inner and outer thighs, upper body, chest, back, and/or buttocks to reduce the feminine “hourglass” shape and create a masculine physique. Liposuction is a safe and minimally invasive procedure, particularly when performed by the expert surgeons at ICTC. Read more on body masculinization surgery.
Gender Confirmation Surgery
As the final step in his transition journey, a transman may choose to have gender confirmation surgery (GCS). The surgeons at the ICTC perform GCS using an innovative technique known as the Centurion procedure. During this procedure, the patient first undergoes vaginoplasty and a complete hysterectomy including removal of the ovaries. The existing outer genitalia are then used to create a penis that retains sensation and some function, along with a male urethra. The clitoris is used to form the head of the penis, allowing for erectile capability. Finally, a scrotum is formed using the labia majora and testicular implants are placed. At ICTC, we follow the WPATH guidelines for transgender care. Because GCS is considered a major surgery, it is essential to select a knowledgeable and skilled surgeon.
We understand that each patient has his own unique needs and expectations, which is why we take an individualized, patient-centered approach to gender transition services. During the preoperative consultation, your surgeon will take the time to discuss and understand your goals for gender transition. Additionally, he’ll thoroughly explain each procedure and answer any questions you might have. We want you to feel comfortable and happy with your decision to pursue gender transition services with us. At ICTC, we follow the WPATH guidelines for transgender care. Because GCS is considered a major surgery, it is essential to select a knowledgeable and skilled surgeon. Read more on GCS surgery.
At the International Center for Transgender Care, we understand that surgery is a vital component of transman’s transition process. Because these procedures are so important, it is paramount to choose a surgeon with specialized knowledge and skill. Our board-certified surgeons have more than 20 years of experience treating transgender patients. We are proud to offer all of our services in a respectful, welcoming environment at our world-class surgical center in Dallas, Texas. We look forward to assisting you in achieving the very best possible results for all of your gender transition procedures. Contact us today to schedule a consultation at (972) 543-2477.
Ultimate Complete Male Anatomy 3D Model
Ultimate Complete Male Anatomy
Completely optimized for Maya 2018 / Arnold Render
The most complete Full Body Male Anatomy asset available. Over 600 muscles and all major systems. Includes full body skeletal system with connective tissue, muscular system, circulatory system, nervous system, lymphatic system, digestive system, respiratory system, and urogenital system. Includes OBJ for maximum compatibility.
For Female Version see ‘Ultimate Complete Female Anatomy: Product ID# 956915
-Transparency sliders allow custom levels of transparency per system.
-All systems can be toggle on or off.
-Can Isolate any muscle, including deep tissue muscle and see the correct origin and insertion onto the underlying skeleton
-Several x-Ray Body shaders can be toggled on or off to see how the skin is positioned over the muscles and bones.
-Built-in control sliders allow for model to be rotated 360 degrees without disrupting lighting.
*Please note that the character itself is not rigged, only the advanced controls to view and isolate the systems and their transparency.
-Native Maya File
-Real World Scale (H:190cm, W: 190cm, D:37cm) (6.25 ft tall)
-Every object is select-able and named / grouped properly for easy organization
-Displacement map for extreme detail
-Clean edge-loop based topology (no n-gons, minimal triangles)
-Light set up ready to Render
An OBJ file has been added to increase compatibility. Please note that the OBJ contains the entire model (hierarchy free) with all Color Maps assigned and a .mtl file. Advanced xRay shaders, control rigs, and displacement maps are not supported. On Combo packs, there will be 2 separate OBJ files, one for each character.
An FBX file has been added to increase compatibility. Please note that the FBX contains the entire model (with hyerarchy and layers in tack) with all Color Maps assigned. Advanced xRay shaders, control rigs, and displacement maps may not supported by all software.
90,000 Human Anatomy Fundamentals: Advanced Body Proportion Knowledge
This article assumes that you already have an idea of the basic proportions and arrangement of compounds in the human body, and you, since you probably did not disdain to practice in this matter, should already be ready to move on. The most obvious differences can be seen between a man and a woman, however the artist should also be familiar with how the body changes depending on age (while it is still growing) and size.
Male and female proportions
Male and female proportions are so different that even the skeleton (more precisely, some of its parts) can give out the gender of the wearer. Keep in mind, however, that the vertical axis placement does not change: the joints in the body do not move higher or lower. Their location varies almost completely on the horizontal axis, in other words, along the width of certain parts of the body. How can we make the original image more feminine or masculine? At the structural level at which we work, there is only one big difference to learn, and the rest is small supporting details.
Shoulder / Hip Ratio
The main difference is the shoulder to hip ratio. Women have a much wider pelvic bone than men, they need to somehow bear children and give birth. This fact has implications for the whole body. This means that the hip line in women is the widest part of the body, with which a narrower waist is compared, while in men the shoulder line is the widest part, and the waist is hardly different ( in width ) from the hips.In general, the female silhouette is an hourglass, as opposed to the male trapezoid, as shown below.
To make the idea of measurements clear (approach it with skepticism, because the impression of the silhouette as a whole always surpasses the exact calculations), on our basic figure below (in the middle) I dropped the index lines on both sides of the head, and after another, at a distance between the central axis and the width of one head. These lines define the two yellow areas where the person’s shoulders and the pelvic bone are located.
To make a woman out of a neutral figure, you need to expand her pelvis so that the hip joints are closer to the outer sides of the yellow areas. The position of the shoulders varies, but does not go beyond this area. (Note that this comes from the legs: the thighs take a more tapered position to connect the pelvis and knees, which have not changed their location. The man’s legs appear more vertical relative to the woman’s).
In order for a neutral figure to turn into a man, the pelvis must remain narrow, while the shoulder joints will be outside the yellow zone.Again, this factor can change, but they will always tend to the outside of the yellow area. This again translates into the way both genders hold their hands, as you can catch a glimpse of in the previous image and in everyday life: women keep their elbows mostly closer to the body, and their hands at rest usually follow the contours of the body. A woman needs to deliberately remove her hands from her body. Meanwhile, due to the fact that the shoulders of the man “stick out” more, the arms at rest hang freely away from the body and naturally are not located close to it.
Waist and elbows
The female waistline is level with the navel, but the male waistline is much lower. This makes the man’s torso look longer. This is worth remembering as In my early years, I drew torsos of the same length and a line of trousers of the same level for both genders, and for a long time wondered why men looked wrong. Also, make sure that your elbows are not below the waist! The navel is the indicator of the position of the elbow joint, so unlike a woman’s figure, if a man’s waist is at the level where his trousers begin, his elbows will be much higher.
Rounded or angular?
In anticipation of the detailed body we will be drawing shortly, it may be helpful to sketch women with rounded shapes and men with more angular trapezoidal shapes, as this reflects the overall impression of each physique.
Generally speaking, a woman’s body is made of flexible, rounded shapes — breasts and buttocks, for example — and also, if not modified, contains more fat under the skin.Male bodies are more angular and have sharper lines when muscular. The fact in question, of course, can undergo various changes, and is extremely amenable to them – you can easily use angular forms for a thin woman, for example, or flexible ones for a well-fed man. However, note that with a naturally slender body, the female belly is slightly curved and the buttocks are rounded. The man, however, tends to be flat in both the buttocks and abdomen.
Small detail but important: Draw the female hip joints outside the hip bone.They are clearly protruding, which makes this feature noticeable. Conversely, leave the male hip joints inside.
- Both sexes have palms and soles about half the width of the face. But they are longer, relative to the face, in a man than in a woman.
- The female ridge tends to be more flexible and noticeably more curved than the male.
- And finally, on average, men are taller than women!
How important is ?
To make it clear, this is what happens if you draw a man with female proportions, and vice versa.
Even taking into account gender stereotypes about hair and breasts, the proportions and shoulder / hip ratios make the bodies look abnormal.
Male and female bodies can vary from the ones we just saw, and to androgynous (“bisexual”), that is, those who do not position themselves on the wrong side. But only a nasty artist draws exclusively androgynous bodies and relies only on superficial details for gender differences.
In a future article, we will look at the main body types (somatotypes), which are the result of the combination of structure and musculature, more closely.
Proportions and age
This section shows how the proportions change from birth to the end of physical growth, which marks the end of adolescence and the beginning of adulthood. In fact, here almost everything is at your discretion, since people do not grow at the same rate even within the same family, let alone the whole world.However, the model is very useful for anyone who has trouble specifying a specific age for a character, and we will come back to it for other body and face details in due course.
Newborn (0 to 1 month)
Notice how short the legs are at this age: in this position, an adult would reach his shoulders with his knees, but here the legs and arms are almost the same length, and the knee and elbow are just touching. Babies at this age are still in fetal position most of the time, so I’m not counting the legs when I say the total length is about 2.5 heads.Indeed, a newborn’s head looks disproportionately large compared to everything else in their body.
Infant (1 month to 1 year)
After three months, the proportions may not change much, but the body becomes noticeably more plump, and as the legs slowly assume a more erect posture, a feeling of rapid growth appears. Raised at 10 months old (he may be too small to stand on his own), he will look quite similar to a child who can already walk, but with certain characteristics.Such as the absence of a neck, for example.
Toddler toddler (1-4 yrs)
It appears that someone’s future growth can be roughly predicted by multiplying the height at age two by two. In any case, babies at this age are the smallest people who can stand upright, like the rest. The head is still very large for the body (close in size to what it will be when a child becomes an adult), the legs are short (just over a third of the total height, as opposed to half for an adult), and the beginning of the neck is present.
Child (5-11 years old)
Growth is continuous during childhood, and this image only illustrates what someone can be between 7 and 9 years old. Children of this age may look thin because the fat that was previously disappeared (even in cases where puberty later contributes to weight gain). Note that the thin neck grows out of the nearly horizontal line of the shoulder because the trapezius and neck muscles are not developed.I mention this detail because drawing a child with a fully developed shoulder line can look very strange!
Teen (12-17 years old)
Until this stage, we did not mention the difference between boys and girls, because sexual dimorphism has not really been particularly evident until now. If you think so, we know the gender of younger children only because we dress them appropriately and cut their hair, but at this age it is very easy to circle the observer.Puberty, by definition, is the time of life when hormones speak their own way and mature the body. Women reach puberty earlier, between 8 and 13 years of age. Men are between 9.5 and 14 years old. Structural level:
- The difference between waist and hip size increases. Fat can enlarge the belly, buttocks and legs, and this can be a sign that a woman has fully matured.
- The man’s shoulders get wider.
In both sexes, the head is still larger than in adulthood, and the limbs (palms, feet, even arms and legs) can grow faster than the rest of the body, resulting in a slightly awkward appearance.The same thing happens with animals, by the way!
The next stage of growth is the beginning of adulthood, where the final proportions are established, which are explained in the section on men and women. There is no need to consider other age categories at this time, because the human structure is no longer changing. I’ll just mention that in old age, bones begin to lose mass, so growth can become smaller, and the body may “settle”, as a result of which the neck will look shorter and the arms will sit lower.
Again, how important is this?
Here is a sketch of four people …
The first two people have proportions just for their age. The third illustrates what happens if you draw a child using “adult” proportions: tiny adult! This is what you need if you are drawing a fairy or ant-man, but it definitely does not represent a child.
The reverse is also true: the fourth figure shows what an adult would look like using “childish” proportions.An adult will look weird even if the skull could grow that way in reality.
Despite the inevitability of using the most diverse stylistics, there is a certain minimum height below which “adult” proportions will not be normal. Short women are only reduced to a certain extent; some childish characteristics will appear only if the considered, well, very low. The converse is also true: very tall people appear elongated, not just enlarged.
Despite the roughness of this sketch, we can make out a tall, robust man, a small adult woman, and a teenager (or possibly a girl). How do we determine this if there are no external features and the teenager is about as tall as the woman? Proportions provide a lot of information.
An interested artist who has probably studied all the diagrams above and realized them may have perceived it as hard work, but unconsciously, we all pay attention to the mass of proportional “clues” and their meanings.In this image, you cannot miss the clues in the form of a woman’s wide hips (a sign that she is an adult) and the undeveloped body of a teenager (neither shoulders nor hips are wide). This does not mean that you cannot draw adults with deliberately weak characteristics (such as narrow shoulders), but if they are incorrectly depicted, the whole drawing can be ruined. You, in principle, can notice that something is wrong with your drawing, but it will be rather difficult to realize what exactly.
The proportional “prompts” I mentioned earlier are culturally dependent in part.There are more of them if we travel or otherwise study ethnic diversity, but until we do this, their number does not increase. That is why there is a perception in the western lands that Japanese women look younger than they are: in most of the descriptions you may have heard, there is a mention that their hips remain narrow even in adulthood, unlike European women, thus , we are being misled visually. If we draw a Japanese woman with the same physique as the average European woman (including wider hips), we wonder why she looks more European than Asian.
There are dozens of ethnotypes and each has its own characteristics, but even at the most basic level of the skeleton, we can see a general difference between the three largest ethnic groups of humanity. Since this subject area is beyond the scope of these articles, I am writing this just for information: you need to be aware of the extreme diversity in the depiction of the human figure, and, paradoxically, you need to start drawing already having a complete idea of the general features of the human body in order not to lose it structural characteristics.
Time to practice
Until next article, try to catch theory in practice. Here are some things you can do to be ready for the next lesson:
- Watch, watch, watch! Look at the people around you, men and women, this time, noting what is structurally different. Look at children of different ages, people of different nationalities, online or in real life.
- Dig up your baby photos (or photos of your children) at different times and sketch on them.Just don’t try to circle – use a combination of impression and knowledge about the proportion model that we have considered. This can be especially interesting if you can find photographs with the same poses, but at a different age, because you can see how the proportions have changed.
- Draw a crowd of people yourself, without using any references or sources. Does anything look wrong? If so, can you determine what the problem is?
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Anatomical models | 3B Smart Anatomy Models
“NEW PRODUCT: 3B Smart Anatomy is the most significant innovation in anatomy education and is offered exclusively to all original 3B Scientific® anatomical models.
Medical anatomical models are an effective tool for studying and explaining human anatomy and an optimal educational solution for medical students, teachers and healthcare professionals. 3B Scientific is now exclusively offering customers the option to further enhance the human anatomy learning experience with 3B Smart Anatomy, which also includes an extension of the warranty from 3 to 5 years.
3B Smart Anatomy combines a realistic anatomical model of the human body and its internal and external structures with a tool for your smartphone, tablet or computer that allows you to access interactive anatomy training courses, tests and virtual models anywhere.
All original 3B Scientific® anatomy models now come with a label that unlocks 3B Smart Anatomy training courses and tests in the award-winning Complete Anatomy app, as well as activates a free 3 to 5 year warranty extension, an unprecedented offer in the industry. After registering your anatomical model by simply scanning the label, you will also have access to a free 3-day trial of the complete Complete Anatomy app.At the end of the trial period, 3B Scientific customers will of course continue to enjoy 3B Smart Anatomy training courses for free and be able to install the full version of the Complete Anatomy app with a 10% discount.
Medical anatomical models will always play an important role in medical education, providing a visual and highly detailed view of the structure of the human body. 3B Scientific offers a wide range of anatomical models made from high quality materials with exceptional attention to detail.3B Smart Anatomy now comes complete with all of the following 3B Scientific Human Anatomy Models:
Anatomical model sets
These cost-effective anatomical model kits have been tailored to the needs of our clients. You will find professional combinations for a variety of topics covered in patient education and education, such as pregnancy and childbirth (obstetrics), cardiology, laryngotorhinology (ear, throat and nose), pulmonology and much more.
View all anatomical models here
Human Brain Models
3B Scientific offers a variety of human brain models to choose from, as well as anatomical diagrams of the human brain and brain pathologies. Whether you’re looking for an affordable basic brain model cast from a real specimen, or a detailed medical brain model with arteries or neuroanatomical markings – all of our original 3B Scientific® Brains now come with 3B Smart Anatomy and a 5-year warranty.
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Human breast anatomical models are used for student education, patient education and self-examination techniques for early detection. All original 3B Scientific® breast models now come with 3B Smart Anatomy and a 5-year warranty.
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Anatomical models of teeth, jaw and tongue are an impressive tool for patient education (dental care, caries and other dental diseases) and student education.All original 3B Scientific® dental models now come with 3B Smart Anatomy and a 5-year warranty.
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Understanding the anatomy of the human digestive system and the ability to teach it is made realistic with anatomical models that detail every part of the human digestive system. 3B Scientific offers realistic medical anatomical models of the stomach, organs, esophagus, intestinal diseases, as well as surgical procedures such as gastric band, microanatomical models and more.All original 3B Scientific® Digestive System models now come with 3B Smart Anatomy and a 5-year warranty.
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3B Scientific offers life-size to 15x enlarged anatomical models of the human ear, nose and throat to aid student education and patient education. Realism and anatomical accuracy are ensured in every anatomical model manufactured by 3B Scientific.In addition to models of the auditory bone, organ of Corti or models of the outer, inner and middle ear, you will also find anatomical model kits for laryngotorinology, as well as larynx and anatomical models of the human nose and olfactory organ. All original 3B Scientific® ear, nose and throat models now come with 3B Smart Anatomy and a 5-year warranty.
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In this category, you will find eye models that can be disassembled to teach or study the anatomy of the human eye, as well as eye pathology models and anatomical model kits available for ophthalmology.3B Scientific also offers the 3B MICROanatomy ™ Eye, a microscopic anatomical model of the retina with choroid and sclera. All original 3B Scientific® eye models now come with 3B Smart Anatomy and a 5-year warranty.
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Human genital and pelvic models offered by 3B Scientific are manufactured with high anatomical precision.In this category you will find male and female reproductive organs, as well as pelvic skeletal models with (and without) ligaments, vessels, nerves, muscles and organs, which can be easily disassembled for detailed medical examination. You can also purchase movable pelvic models with femoral heads or choose a profitable set of human pelvic bone models. All original 3B Scientific® Genital and Pelvis Models now come with 3B Smart Anatomy and a 5-year warranty.
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In this category you will find medical anatomical models of the human head and neck.Some of these skull models can be disassembled for closer examination. 3B Scientific offers head and neck models with a variety of functions for you to choose from: full head or mid-incision, with muscles, nerves and blood vessels. All of these anatomical models are manufactured with high anatomical precision and are a valuable teaching aid for anatomy classes. All original 3B Scientific® Head and Neck Models now come with 3B Smart Anatomy and a 5-year warranty.
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Human Heart Models
All 3B Scientific Heart Models exhibit ventricles, atria, valves, veins and aorta and are ideal complements for student education and patient education. The Classic Heart is the perfect base model with great detail and affordable price. Other heart models include medical conditions such as LVH (left ventricular hypertrophy) or even bypass surgery.They are offered in a variety of sizes and most heart models can be disassembled for detailed study. The heart model is also an excellent addition to the doctor’s office, providing a vivid and highly impressive demonstration of human anatomy. If you are looking for a budget model of the heart, you may be interested in the Human Heart Anatomical Model Kit. If you want to truly impress visitors and students in your lecture or showroom, check out the world’s largest heart model here.All original 3B Scientific® heart models now come with 3B Smart Anatomy and a 5-year warranty.
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Human Skeleton Models
Human Skeleton Models offered by 3B Scientific are the products of choice in anatomy departments, medical universities and healthcare professionals around the world. 3B Scientific Human Skeleton Models are world renowned for their anatomical precision, German workmanship and attention to detail.Clients can choose from a wide range of skeletal models with anatomical structures that suit their educational goals. From the full-size Classic Skeleton Stan to our Super Skeleton Max with over 600 hand-painted elements of medical interest, you are sure to find a skeleton that fits your needs and fits your budget. Explore the skeletal system and individual bones of a person using 3B Scientific Dissected Skeletons, or choose a Miniature Skeleton for your desktop.All original 3B Scientific® skeletons now come with 3B Smart Anatomy and a 5-year warranty.
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Human Skull Models
In this category you will find affordable Classic Skull Models, Temporomandibular Joint Models, Transparent Skull Models, Fetal Skull Models, Painted Skull Models, and Anthropological Skull Models. Whichever anatomical human skull model you choose, 3B Scientific has a model to suit your requirements and your budget.Our skulls are molded from real or scientific specimens; then manually assembled and supplied with parts to provide years of reliable service. 3B Scientific Skull Models have beautifully shaped and dispersed teeth, and most of them can be disassembled into at least 3 parts: the skull cap, the base of the skull and the lower jaw.
Classic Skulls 3B Classic Skulls are based on the basic skull model, which is ideal for studying anatomy. For more information, select the Classic Numbered Skull, which shows all the important anatomical structures.Choose one of the world’s most elaborate skulls from the BONElike ™ range. You can also find skulls with hand-drawn muscle entry and attachment points, with an open mandible, with masticatory muscles, anchored to the cervical spine, and a skull with a 5-piece removable brain.
Special Skull Models include a 22-piece didactic skull with natural bone color or color-coded bony plates, a half-skull, fetal skull and a skull with retrievable teeth.Our anthropological skull models are unlike anything you’ve seen before. From a replica of a Neanderthal skull (La Chapelle-aux-Seine 1) to a replica of a Homo sapiens (Cro-Magnon) skull, we promise that you will be impressed with the quality and value you get with every 3B Scientific skull model. All original 3B Scientific® Skull Models now come with 3B Smart Anatomy and a 5-year warranty.
View all models of the human skeleton here
Human Spine Models
Spine anatomy is one of 3B Scientific’s specialties! In this category, you will find a wide range of spine models, complete spine models, color-coded didactic spine models, and spine models with and without femoral heads, painted muscles, vertebral nerve exits, cervical vertebral artery, cauda equina and even ribs.
A special model is the BONElike ™ Child’s Vertebral Column Model, which is a realistic replica of a child’s spine. 3B Scientific also offers a miniature version of the Human Spine Model that fits perfectly on any desk or doctor’s office. All original 3B Scientific® spine models now come with 3B Smart Anatomy and a 5-year warranty.
View all models of the human spine here
Human Torso Models
3B Scientific torso models are designed and molded by experienced craftsmen using high quality plastics.Each torso model is hand-painted to provide a high level of anatomical detail. In this category, you will find a torso model for any educational task. Models can be disassembled (12 to 33 elements) to show organs and even the spinal cord. 3B Scientific anatomical torso models are available in half or full life size and are available in a variety of features and skin tones. A miniature torso model is also available.
A special product in this category is the Human MRI Torso for MRI, which has an unusual design.It provides a unique view of the human body that cannot be obtained with any other torso model. Designed using state-of-the-art imaging techniques, it exhibits 15 horizontal sections of the human body that can be viewed and studied from virtually any angle.
Torso Models are an impressive teaching tool for the study of human anatomy. All original 3B Scientific® torso models now come with 3B Smart Anatomy and a 5-year warranty.
View all models of the human torso here
Human Joint Models
3B Scientific Joint Models are available with a variety of functions in both full and miniature sizes. You can choose between fully functional ligament and / or muscle joint models to provide a visual demonstration of the anatomy and mechanics of major joints, allowing for realistic display of abduction, anteversion, retroversion, internal / external rotation, and more.Some joint models can be disassembled to reveal internal structures, such as a hand skeleton with ligaments and muscles, or a knee joint with removable muscles.
Miniature joint models are supplied with a cutaway image on the base of the model, as well as a demonstration model of hip fracture and hip osteoarthritis.
3B Scientific also offers advantageous joint model kits at a great price (joint model kits: buy together and save).All original 3B Scientific® Joint Models now come with 3B Smart Anatomy and a 5-year warranty.
View all models of human joints here
Human Lung Models
Lung models are invaluable tools for studying human lung anatomy. 3B Scientific offers a variety of medical anatomical lung models, and you also have the option to purchase a bargain set of lung models at a discounted price. In this category, you will find a segmented lung model that can be disassembled into 20 elements with color-coded segments for teaching purposes, a lung model with a larynx, a bronchial tree model for CT, as well as a pathological lung model and a COPD model.
All original 3B Scientific® lung models now come with 3B Smart Anatomy and a 5-year warranty.
View all models of human lungs here
Microanatomical models of human structures MICROanatomy ™
Microanatomical models provide a clear view of the smallest anatomical structures magnified 10,000 times (eg muscle fiber model).
In this category, 3B Scientific offers a complete line of MICROanatomy ™ models, each representing a different body system.You will find enlarged anatomical models of human bones, a model of bone structure that has been magnified 80 times, as well as micro-anatomical models of the eye, tongue, arteries and veins, kidneys, liver and digestive system. All original 3B Scientific® MICROanatomy ™ models now come with 3B Smart Anatomy and a 5-year warranty.
View all MICROanatomy ™ models here
Human Muscle Models
3B Scientific offers a wide range of high quality muscle models for teaching and learning human anatomy.In this category you will find life-size drawings of muscles and models of the muscles of the trunk, as well as individual models of muscles of the legs or arms. 3B Scientific Muscle Models come with removable elements to expose underlying muscles and tissues for detailed examination.
The most popular trunk muscle model consists of 27 elements and is sure to meet the most stringent requirements for anatomical details. This model is life-size and is a valuable addition to any anatomy course.
All original 3B Scientific® Muscle, Torso and Drawings now come with 3B Smart Anatomy and a 5-year warranty.
View all models of human muscles here
Models of the human nervous system
Models of the human nervous system, offered by 3B Scientific, demonstrate the physiology of the central (CNS) and peripheral (PNS) nervous systems, as well as their individual elements, such as the neuron body, myelin sheaths, Schwann cells, synapse or the end plate of the motor nerve.All original 3B Scientific® nervous system models now come with 3B Smart Anatomy and a 5-year warranty.
View all models of the human nervous system here
Human pregnancy models
Pregnancy models are a unique tool for studying the anatomy and stages of fertilization, pregnancy and childbirth. 3B Scientific offers pregnancy models that tell you about all the different stages of pregnancy. Fetal models show the size corresponding to the developmental stage of the fetus inside the uterus (also available as a series showing all stages of development), the pelvic model in pregnancy shows anatomy in the midline section through the female pelvis at 40 weeks of gestation, and the stages of labor show the process of delivery. …
All original 3B Scientific® pregnancy models now come with 3B Smart Anatomy and a 5-year warranty.
View all models of human pregnancy here
Human Skin Models
In the study of the anatomy of the human skin, anatomical models are a valuable tool for teaching the structure of the various layers of the skin. 3B Scientific offers skin models with various magnifications (up to 70x life size), specializing in various structures and details, as well as a skin cancer model showing 5 different stages of malignant melanoma.All original 3B Scientific® skin models now come with 3B Smart Anatomy and a 5-year warranty.
View all human skin models here
Models of the human urological system
Medical anatomical models of the human urological system are ideal tools for patient education and student education of the anatomy of the male and female urinary tract and male reproductive organs. Models in this category help you understand the physiology of organs such as the kidney or gallbladder, and the entire urinary system (including blood vessels), and some models can be disassembled for detailed study to reveal more anatomical details.All original 3B Scientific® Urology System models now come with 3B Smart Anatomy and a 5-year warranty.
View all models of the human urological system here
Human Vertebra Model
Human vertebra anatomical models are an effective teaching tool for both patients and students. Studying the physiology of the human spine is made easier with affordable models of the thoracic, lumbar and cervical spine (with and without skull).In this category, you will also find degenerative vertebrae explaining the effects of osteoporosis, vertebrae with intervertebral disc entrapment, models of the sacrum and coccyx bones, as well as C1 and C2 cervical vertebrae. If you are looking for a complete set of anatomical models, then the life-size medical anatomical model set is ideal for you. All original 3B Scientific® vertebra models now come with 3B Smart Anatomy and a 5-year warranty.
View all models of human vertebrae here
Human Bone Models
Human bone models offered by 3B Scientific are molded from real specimens and manufactured with high anatomical precision.In this category you will find single bone and hand and upper limb skeletons as well as hand and foot skeletons. Hand and foot models are supplied mounted either on a wire or on an elastic suspension. Choose the performance that best suits your educational needs. All original 3B Scientific® bone models now come with 3B Smart Anatomy and a 5-year warranty.
View all models of human bones here
Miniature Anatomical Models
Miniature anatomical models are the perfect addition to any class or doctor’s office.They can be positioned on any table to be used regularly for patient education or simply as an expensive decorative accessory and make a great gift for anyone interested in human anatomy. Miniature anatomical models showcase anatomical details at a very affordable price. All original 3B Scientific® Miniature Anatomy Models now come with 3B Smart Anatomy and a 5-year warranty.
View all miniature anatomical models here
3B Scientific Human Anatomy Models are molded from real specimens and manufactured by professionals with high anatomical precision.The anatomical models are hand-painted by skilled craftsmen and are constantly subjected to quality control to ensure a long service life of these products. For more information on our warranty, click here. ”
90,000 Human Image – INTRODUCTORY CONVERSATION
INTRODUCTORY CONVERSATION TO THE HUMAN PAINTING COURSE
The image of a person is one of the most important forms of art in higher education, where it is one of the main disciplines . courses of human painting as part of an art school where they try to present the techniques of drawing a person from a nude nature are not lagging behind the HIGHER.
Man in his being is the most interesting or, better to say, a complex figure, an object of realistic or abstract painting because his deeds, his body and character are very diverse. Any artist, working on a portrait or subject composition, seeks to truthfully show not only the external, physical appearance of the people depicted, but also to reveal their inner world.However, in order to approach the creation of a portrait and subject paintings reflecting the life of people in the courses of painting a person , it is necessary first of all to study the structure of the head and figure of a person in work from nature, to understand the connection and interaction of “large” forms and details, to understand the main anatomical signs, in the features inherent in people of different ages, etc.
Through constant exercises in drawing and painting from life, it is necessary to master professional skills. This will require a lot of thoughtful work in the sequential execution of a series of tasks that will present you with painting lessons.This path of careful study of nature has been and continues to be passed by all artists – great and small, professional and amateur. This can be seen by examining the reproductions in this book. See: Surikov, “The Model”
Surikov – Model wrestler
Surikov-girl in a bandage
Practical courses of painting people from nature are one of the fundamental training in depicting a person. But practical work alone without additional auxiliary knowledge is not enough.The laws of perspective, familiar to you from previous assignments, remain completely valid for the depiction of a person. In addition, it is necessary to familiarize yourself with the basics of anatomy – the science of the structure of the human body. If the artist knows the human anatomy and the shape of the head and figure, the nature of these forms, the mechanics of movements, the connection and interaction of individual parts of the body, a realistic depiction of a person is subservient to him.All artists have always shown great interest in anatomy and, working from nature, closely followed the anatomical structure of the body person.See reproductions: Raphael, drawings of male figures; Serov, “Anatomy”; Bryullov, “The Model”
Bryulov – sitter
When drawing a person in courses of drawing and painting , you should try to use the information you have on anatomy to study the model and check the correctness of your drawing. At the same time, one must understand that an exceptional knowledge of human anatomy cannot guarantee his skillful depiction by an artist without practical skills and training in painting lessons.It follows from this that plastic anatomy should be studied not abstractly – theoretically, but in works on depicting a person from nature in painting courses.
Usually, the image of the head or figure of a person, in which the main task is not to create a portrait image, but to study the structure, movements, volume and nature of forms, etc., is called not a portrait, but a drawing, if the work is done in a monochrome material, a sketch – if the image is resolved by color.
Of course, one should not think that in a sketch or educational drawing it is impossible to touch upon the disclosure of the content of the inner world of a person, his character, his mood.On the contrary, a competent sketch or drawing is only enriched by the expression of the internal properties of the model. Sometimes a masterful sketch from nature develops into a portrait of deep, large content, the illustrations sufficiently confirm this. See Surikov’s self-portrait of 1879
However, it should be borne in mind that such mastery does not come immediately. We must not forget that the solution of complex psychological problems can only be achieved through mastering professional literacy, on the basis of experience that is achieved by consistent educational work.
Transfer of knowledge of human drawing to students attending painting courses is the task of this section.
Could you imagine some more complex drawing object with its many lines of shapes and light and shade like the head and body of a person. It is a well-known fact that by the face and appearance of a person, one can determine his state of health, character, profession, habits, even about mood and emotional experiences. The inner life of a person, his physical and mental state, his mood is externally expressed by various movements of the muscles and bones of the head, neck, the shoulder girdle and the whole body.
Among the works of fine art, you can find many examples of a wonderful expression of the inner state of a person through external, visible movements. Suffice it to recall Repin’s painting “They Didn’t Expect”. Take a look at the first-plan figure of the exiled mother, bewildered by unexpected joy, frozen in a bent position; the delighted boy on the right; the figure of a girl next to him, puzzled, frightened; on the exiled himself and other characters in the picture.
Look at the impetuous pose of Peter in the painting by V.A. Serov “Peter G, on the powerful figure of a deeply thoughtful old man from the painting of the plafond
Serov – Peter G
Sistine Chapel by Michelangelo. You can already see from these examples how expressively the state of a person can be conveyed by gesture and movement. The movements of the muscles of the face (facial expressions) express all the richness of human feelings, full of the finest shades. In A. Ivanov’s study for the painting “The Appearance of Christ to the People” we see a very expressive head chilled, trembling and agitated man
Ivanov the appearance of Christ to the people
.From the painting by Frans Hals “The Gypsy” exudes cheerfulness, the joy of life expresses the whole appearance of this young cheerful woman with a sly look. And here is the tense face of Judas in the preparatory drawing by Leonardo da Vinci for his famous work “The Last Supper.”
The endless variety of these movements, the extraordinary flexibility and purposefulness of the design of the human body, which make it possible to convey in visible features the external beauty of a person, the richness of his inner life, attracted many artists of all times and peoples to work on the image of a person.
Typical, characteristic features of modern people, their life, their labor exploits are embodied in the artistic images of our art. However, in order to create a realistic image of a person in all the fullness of his physical and spiritual properties, you must first master professional means of expression through constant studies or painting courses or in the form of private lessons. In other words, you should master the basics of figurative literacy, drawing and painting.
The deeper you master your professional knowledge, the more faithfully you convey the structure of the head and human figure, proportions, movement, shape in tone and color, the closer you will come to solving complex portrait problems and the full expression of a person’s image in composition.The mastery of visual literacy by students is the main task of the educational work of all art educational institutions in our country.
The painting courses offered to you and conversations are aimed at helping you acquire initial knowledge and practical skills in drawing and painting the head and figure of a person from nature and to acquaint you with the basic principles of working on a portrait.
If you have any questions about our online drawing and painting lessons, if something does not work out for you, we are always glad to see you at our drawing and painting courses at Artacademia /
To record, call 223-7490
90,000 11 applications of human anatomy for students and schoolchildren
Human anatomy is an extremely complex branch of biology.If you study it deeper, you will learn things about your body that you never knew existed. This knowledge will be especially useful for medical students.
You no longer need thick books to study anatomy. We’ve compiled a list of the best apps in the field, including free ones, that you can find for Android and iPhone. They will become indispensable helpers for medical students, doctors and all those who are interested in improving their knowledge. So let’s take a look at them.
With the 3D Atlas, you can easily view any anatomical structure at the desired angle. 3D models are distinguished by a high level of detail, with a resolution of up to 4000 pixels. The application contains models of all human systems: musculoskeletal, cardiovascular, nervous (including the senses – the eye and ear), respiratory, digestive, urogenital, endocrine and lymphatic.
You can rotate and scale each model, make certain parts transparent, view muscles at different levels, from superficial to deep.In addition, there is a search function and a filter to hide or show each of the systems.
There is also a description of the muscles, but it is only available in English. It contains information about the place of attachment, innervation and its functions. There is support for 11 languages, including Latin, English, Russian. Terms can be displayed in two languages at the same time.
You can download the application for free, however, to use all the features, you need to purchase a paid version.The free version only allows you to evaluate the functionality, most of the information in it is not available.
Human Body Educational VR
Human Body Educational VR contains all information about the body for aspiring doctors and students. The developers position it for ages from 8 to 18 years old, although the knowledge available here can be useful for everyone. There are separate versions with a female body and a male.
The application contains three-dimensional figures, can enlarge organs, the skeletal system, is compatible with virtual reality glasses and is equipped with a special button to enable this function.The app is free, no ads or purchases.
The application with the self-explanatory name “Internal organs” shows three-dimensional models of internal organs with their brief description. However, the displayed information is more useful for schoolchildren – the descriptions are not detailed enough for people professionally involved in medicine.
Any model can be rotated and enlarged, hidden or shown information, as well as the choice of displaying female or male organs.Animation is available, allowing you to see the work of the selected organ.
Anatomy Learning is a versatile application that details every part of the human body using 3D images. Although still under development, the image quality is excellent.
The application works only with Internet access. There is a good reason for this: each image contains a lot of details and pointers, which could take up a lot of space on your phone’s memory.It is for this reason that the developers decided not to make 3D images available offline. To view 3D images on a large screen, you can visit AnatomyLearning.com from your computer.
BioDigital Human allows you to highlight and focus on specific body parts, making it an ideal tool for students. It contains over 1,000 interactive 3D models and over 300 flash cards, each containing an image that provides detailed information about a specific body part.
Flash cards also contain links to popular sites to provide additional information if the standard description is not enough. In addition to this, each flash drive can lead to other connective parts of the body to improve understanding of anatomy.
Each organ is analyzed separately, its functions are disclosed in detail. There are no restrictions on taking screenshots or annotating each image.
The application is available for Android and iPhone.
The Complete Anatomy app, developed by a team of scientists and researchers, provides a complete virtual dissection of the entire human body to give students a real understanding of the operation or autopsy process.It is ideal for medical training. Considering Complete Anatomy’s large database, the app takes up about 1.5 GB of space at the time of download. So make sure you have enough free space to avoid any unpleasant surprises.
Presentation mode has been introduced recently. All controls in the lecture are now centralized at the bottom of the screen, and the interface has been minimized and optimized for screen sharing. And also a new tool has appeared – a pointer.With it, you can highlight important areas in any lecture.
Once installed, you have access to 17,000 interactive models that will help you better understand the human body. In addition, there are courses from experts in various fields: anatomy, ultrasound, cadaver examination, clinical correlates. In addition, Complete Anatomy offers over 1,500 animations for cardiology, dentistry, fitness, ophthalmology, orthopedics and more.
Available for Android and iPhone.
Essential Anatomy 5
Essential Anatomy 5 contains a very detailed description of the human body.In total, there are more than 8,200 different structures for self-study.
Instead of flipping through hundreds of pages to find organs and structures, Essential Anatomy 5 makes it easy to find the information you need. The images are supplemented with descriptions in great detail.
Human Anatomy Atlas
Human Anatomy Atlas provides an excellent understanding of the inner workings of the human body. Instead of information about individual body parts that are difficult to piece together without proper knowledge, the app makes broader topics easier to understand.
There is a medical reference book with a 3D atlas of the male and female body, over 4,600 detailed structures. A feature of the application is the ability to edit and share models with colleagues. This is a detailed tutorial rather than a simple reference guide.
Teach Me Anatomy
The Teach Me Anatomy app contains over 250 in-depth articles in English on almost every aspect of human anatomy. In addition, there is access to 800+ high definition illustrations as well as clinical images for reference.
All data can be saved to your phone for offline viewing, but a lot of free space is required. There is access to tests that consist of 800 multiple choice questions. They are also in English.
The IMAIOS application presents information in a very structured manner. For better understanding, the entire body is divided into separate topics. Additional features include the ability to turn labels on or off, search the index, create notes, and enlarge illustrations.IMAIOS is ideal for in-depth study of anatomy, rather than disparate definitions.
3D Bones and Organs
3D Bones and Organs is a great alternative to conventional textbooks: in addition to studying basic human anatomy, you can view bones and organs. This can be very helpful for students who are just starting their medical careers. The developers claim that all information is taken from Wikipedia and anatomy textbook. There is even a quiz here to test knowledge, but it is in English.
To make it easier to navigate the information, the developers have created a bookmark function that allows you to quickly return to the desired page. And also there is the ability to rotate 3D models, zoom in or out of the desired organ.
LEONARDO500 – Where to go
The practical implementation of Leonardo’s ideas in the military, economic or artistic interests of the customers was, among other things, due to the need to find work for himself and for his assistants.
During his stay in Milan, Leonardo created some of the greatest masterpieces.
In the painting “ Madonna of the Rocks ” (currently kept in the Louvre Museum), the artist demonstrated his deep knowledge of geology and botany.
An interesting fact is that Leonardo was one of the first to understand the nature and origin of marine fossils, which were found in the crevices between the hills and in the inner valleys.
Milan is home to one of Leonardo’s most marvelous works, The Last Supper (which was inscribed on the UNESCO World Heritage List in 1980 with the Church and Dominican Monastery of Santa Maria delle Grazie).
“The Last Supper” – Church and Dominican Monastery of Santa Maria delle Grazie, Milan – Lombardy
Leonardo long thought about the composition of the work in which he wanted to depict the last meeting of Christ with his disciples.
Contrary to the seeming impression, the approach of the master to the creation of his works was a long and intermittent process.
The writer Matteo Tambello, nephew of the abbot of the monastery, said that sometimes Leonardo worked without a break, on other days he would appear at noon and again leave after literally a few strokes of the brush.
Only at the end of the work does Leonardo realize the limitations and shortcomings of the technique he used to create the painting, leading to the inevitable process of its destruction.
The damage began almost immediately, due to the materials used by the artist: instead of the canonical “ painting on wet plaster “, which was not to Leonardo’s taste, since it required to work too quickly on the piece , he applied several layers of oily tempera on two differently prepared surfaces: the first one, in contact with the wall, was rough, and the second, gypsum, was painted.This experiment allowed the artist to repeatedly resume work, changing and adjusting the details of the image, but did a disservice to the preservation of the painting, leading to almost instantaneous flaking and tarnishing of the paint.
The restoration work, which lasted 17 years (from 1982 to 1999), returned to us one of the largest masterpieces in the history of art.
MANTUA, VENICE AND ROMANIA
After the conquest of Milan by the French, Leonardo, in 1500, decides to leave the city and goes to Mantua, to the court of Isabella d’Este Gonzago, whose palace was painted by the most famous artists who created magnificent works: just mention Bridal Chamber (Chamber degli Spozi) – a room painted with frescoes Mantegna .
Isabella was a highly educated woman, a connoisseur of art and a great admirer of Leonardo’s talent. She orders him a portrait, but the maestro manages to complete only a preparatory sketch on cardboard. Isabella’s fears of compromising herself in the eyes of the French, providing patronage to Leonardo, one of the most active assistants of Lodovico Moreau, were too great, so she removes him from the court.
“Isabella d’Este” – Sketch on cardboard
Leonardo travels to Venice , where he develops a plan to protect the city from the Turks, providing for the construction of a series of dams on the Isonzo, which would flood the valley of this river, blocking access to the city.This brilliant and grandiose project was never implemented, nevertheless, Leonardo left his mark on the Venetian Republic. So, in the Gallery of the Academy one of the most famous works of the master is kept: “ Vitruvian Man “.
This invaluable drawing was created on the basis of the model proposed by the ancient mathematician Vitruvius , who considered the human body and its individual parts as a unit of measurement in architectural design.
Leonardo writes in his notes that he solved the mathematical problem of finding the squaring of a circle, finding more effective solutions compared to those proposed by Archimedes (whose great admirer he was).But not a trace remained of this work.
“Vitruvian Man” – Accademia Gallery, Venice – Veneto
After Venice, the maestro returns to Florence for a short time, and in 1502 he moves to Romagna, accompanying Caesar Borgia (a commander and power-lover who was a controversial figure in the Renaissance and inspiration of Makielli for the creation of the treatise “Prince”).
Leonardo starts full of adventures side by side with Duke Valentino, who appointed him as his military adviser and general architect and engineer .Borgia hatched ambitious plans: to create a strong and modern state, which would initiate the unification of Italy, incorporating Romagna, part of the Marche region and Tuscany.
Leonardo disliked Cesare Borgia’s unscrupulousness, but he admired his firmness. The master’s feverish journeys begin between the fortresses of the duchy to strengthen its defenses. Leonardo visited Urbino , Rimini , Cesene , Pesaro , Cesenatico and other cities Marches and Romagna .He studies hydraulics even more in depth and designs defenses, but decides to leave after the Borgia deceived him and ordered to strangle four of his opponents, one of whom was a friend of the maestro.
Codex Atlanticus, sheet 117, reverse side, Leonardo da Vinci – Ambrosian Pinacoteca, Milan – Lombardy
There are few traces of Leonardo’s stay in Emilia-Romagna, but since 1839 in the National Gallery Parma houses one of his most sophisticated pieces: Head of a Girl, also known as “ Girl with Disheveled Hair “.
“Girl with disheveled hair” – National Gallery of Parma – Emilia-Romagna
Leonardo did not like the war and called it “the most atrocious madness”, but, along with this, he is the author of numerous military inventions. As a result of this strange paradox, Leonardo was forced to keep secret the projects of some types of weapons (for example, underwater) for fear that they could be used for “murders at the bottom of the seas.” Along with this, acting as a genius military engineer, he considered it permissible to use deadly military weapons to defend against enemies and repel enemy attacks.
Codex Atlanticus, sheet 33, reverse side, Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519) – Ambrosian Pinakothek, Milan – Lombardy
Leonardo invented many military machines, and today we can admire copies and exact models of his inventions in the Milan National Museum of Science and Technology named after Leonardo da Vinci.
From ram-ship to eight- and even thirty-barreled guns , ogival shells , tanks , corkscrew torpedo for sea battles and much more.The museum also houses an excellent collection of models that were made based on Leonardo’s research on 90,781 flights of .
He developed machines that could mimic the movements of birds’ wings and believed that they required mechanisms and levers that could increase the range of motion of the arms and legs.
National Museum of Science and Technology. Leonardo da Vinci, Milan – Lombardy
Leonardo designed many models, but we do not know if all of his ideas were realized.Among them was the “screw tool that finds support in the air”, that is, is the prototype of the modern helicopter .
Tattoos for men – photos, sketches
The art of tattooing is one of the most ancient. And if earlier wearable drawings were often made as amulets, then modern men have much more reasons to give the body individuality:
- the desire to stand out among other people;
- the presence of scars and other imperfections on the skin;
- an important event that you want to always remember;
- Demonstration of life principles, belonging to some kind of religious movement, subculture;
- for enhancing masculinity.
Popular tattoo styles
In our “Gallery” you will find photos of different men’s tattoos. However, there are several of the most popular styles:
- Realism. Naturalistic images of tigers, lions, eagles, wolves emphasize masculinity, strength, self-confidence.
- Old School Images on the marine theme are popular, which refers us to the origins of the style when sailors made tattoos in old school.
- Biomechanics. A very original style: it is as if various parts, chips, wires are built into the body.This style is preferred by fans of cyberpunk, as well as followers of the philosophy “everything is not the same inside as outside”.
- Calligraphy. Meaningful words and inscriptions in different languages.
- Horror. Bright, expressive, aggressive designs that emphasize the decisive and uncompromising character of their owner.
- Blackwork. Ethnic, graphic and other tattoos in black. The meaning in them differs depending on the chosen technique and motive.
- Symbolism, amulets from the evil eye, failures, signs of success and wealth, etc.
Where do men get tattoos most often?
A part of the body is selected based on the size of the sketch – you can see photos of men’s tattoos on arms, legs and even on the face. Especially popular among men are the so-called “sleeves”, when the arm is covered with a dense pattern from the shoulder to the wrist. Young people often get tattoos on the back of their heads, hands, “bracelets”. Large images look good on the back, chest, medium – on the shoulder blades, shoulders.
Where can I order sketches and see photos of tattoos for men?
A sketch can be made for you by a non-tattooist.However, it is more correct to turn to the master who will subsequently embody the drawing. Study the portfolio carefully and be sure to express all your wishes, down to the smallest details. You can even come with a picture from the Internet, which will be corrected “for you”.