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Measles interesting facts: 10 Essential Facts About Measles


10 Essential Facts About Measles

Last December, some visitors to “the happiest place on earth” left California’s Disneyland theme park with a souvenir they didn’t plan for — measles, also known as rubeola.

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has reported 166 cases of the airborne illness in 19 states and Washington D.C. this year, and that number continues to rise. But even before the theme-park outbreak, 2014 was a record year for measles cases in the United States with 644 cases recorded in 27 states.

During a recent CDC telebriefing on the outbreak, Anne Schuchat, MD, assistant surgeon general of the United States Public Health Service, said that each year about 20 million people get measles worldwide. Dr. Schuchat recommends that children, unless immunocompromised, get vaccinated and adults check with their doctor if they’re unsure about their status.

The increase in U.S. measles cases is alarming, not only because the disease is highly contagious, but also because it can have serious complications.  Here are 10 essential facts you need to know about measles:

1. Measles is highly contagious. The measles virus lives in the nose and throat mucus of an infected person, and can be spread through sneezing and coughing. The virus can remain active and contagious on a surface where the infected person sneezed or coughed for up to two hours. Transmission can begin four days before symptoms appear, and measles is so contagious that 90 percent of exposed people who are not immune will become infected, according to the CDC.

RELATED: Anti-Vaxers Feel the Heat as Measles Outbreak Spreads

2. Early measles symptoms look like flu symptoms. Seven to 14 days after the person is infected, her symptoms will begin to develop: high fever, cough, runny nose, and red, watery eyes. Two to three days after these symptoms appear, tiny white spots called Koplik might appear inside the mouth, according to the CDC. Three to five days after the initial symptoms, the red-spotted rash characteristic of measles breaks out, and the fever spikes. The rash and fever usually subside within a few days.

3. Measles can lead to severe complications. For every 1,000 people with measles, 1 to 3 will suffer from severe complications, some of which include pneumonia and swelling of the brain (encephalitis). These complications can lead to death.

4. There is no treatment for measles. Because measles is caused by a virus, there is no specific treatment. However, taking Vitamin A might make the illness milder, says Stephen Pelton, MD, chief of Pediatric Infectious Diseases at Boston Medical Center.

5. The measles vaccine is highly effective. The current measles vaccine has led to a 99 percent reduction in measles cases compared to the pre-vaccine era. Before the vaccine was licensed in 1963, the CDC estimated 3 to 4 million measles cases occurred each year in the United States, with 500 deaths. By the 21st century, the number shrunk to 86 cases with no deaths. The measles vaccine is included in MMR, a combination vaccine that protects against measles, mumps, and rubella (German measles).

6. You probably won’t get infected if you’ve been vaccinated, and the risk is even lower if you’ve received both recommended doses. The first dose of the measles vaccine is usually given to infants aged 12 to 15 months, but it’s never too late to get vaccinated, even as an adult, says Johanna Goldfarb, MD, at the Cleveland Clinic Children’s Hospital.

The second dose can be given four weeks after the first, but is usually administered between the ages of 4 and 6 years, which is before a child typically starts kindergarten. The vaccine is considered to be 99 percent effective for people who have received both doses, compared to 95 percent for one dose.

7. Because of a thoroughly discredited report, many parents are wary of vaccinating their children. In 1998, British medical researcher Andrew Wakefield published a study in The Lancet claiming that the MMR vaccination caused children to show signs of “regressive autism.” The Lancet retracted the study in 2010, but the stigma against the MMR shot remains. Only about half of Americans feel childhood vaccines are safe and effective, according to a poll by the Associated Press and GfK Public Affairs.

“For the children who can’t get this vaccine to be protected, everyone else has to get vaccinated,” Dr. Goldfarb says. “It’s selfish of parents not to vaccinate their children based on bogus information.”

8. The Disneyland measles outbreak is related to the anti-vaccination movement. “Individual cases are not a result of the anti-vaccine movement. However, large outbreaks are always due to having a population of undervaccinated children who are then exposed,” Dr. Pelton says. Of the 110 measles patients in California after the Disney theme park outbreak, 45 percent were unvaccinated, the CDC reported.

Children, many of whom are unvaccinated immigrants, as well as people who travel to infected areas and become exposed, often bring the disease into the United States. Secondary cases occur in people who have not been vaccinated or are among the estimated 5 percent of people who don’t respond to a single dose of MMR.

9. Measles isn’t the only disease that’s spreading due to decreased vaccination rates. The vaccine for mumps is less effective than for measles and rubella. In addition to measles outbreaks, Pelton says, there have been large mumps outbreaks, including one reported this winter in NHL players.

There are also pertussis (whooping cough) outbreaks nationwide due both to limited vaccine effectiveness and refusal to be vaccinated.

10. Measles could be eliminated completely. Since January 1, 2015, 19 states and Washington, D.C. reported measles cases. However, health officials worldwide believe measles can be completely eradicated. All six member states of the World Health Organization (WHO) are committed to eliminating measles worldwide by the year 2020.

“This is absolutely a realistic goal,” Goldfarb says. “This is a disease that could be eliminated worldwide if people vaccinated their children.”

Five facts to know about measles

While measles was declared eliminated in the United States in 2000, it is still common around the world, with approximately 134,200 deaths each year, according to the World Health Organization’s 2015 fact sheet. Measles can come into our country easily through visitors or returning Americans who have traveled abroad and brought it back. As a result, measles outbreaks still occur every year in the United States. Here are five facts to know about measles:

  1. Nine in 10 people who are not vaccinated and have close contact with a single person with measles will become infected.
  2. Measles spreads through the air when an infected person breathes coughs or sneezes. In fact, even if you’re not right next to someone with measles who’s sneezing or coughing, you can still be exposed since the live virus can linger in the air and also on surfaces two hours later.
  3. High vaccination rates in the United States virtually eliminated measles by the year 2000. However, in recent years, we have seen an increase in measles cases in the country.
  4. We had more cases in 2014 than we had previously seen in over two decades in the U.S.
  5. Although increased vaccine uptake has reduced the annual number of cases since 2014, in the first four months of 2017, there were still 61 cases of measles in the U. S,

How can parents protect children from the measles?

Measles is a viral infection that’s highly contagious and serious for small children, but it is also 97 percent preventable by a vaccine.

The Centers for Disease Control (CDC) recommends the MMR vaccine, which also includes protection against mumps and rubella, for all children at age 12–15 months, with a second dose before the start of kindergarten or at age 4–6 years old. Two doses are also recommended for healthcare providers and post-high school-aged young people or students headed off to college. Infants ages 6 through 11 months of age who are travelling internationally should receive one dose of MMR vaccine. Learn more about the CDC guidelines for the measles vaccination.

If you’re unsure if you or other family members are protected against measles, try to find your vaccination records or written documentation of measles immunity. If you cannot find records, receiving an extra dose of the MMR vaccine is not harmful and can be discussed with your child’s doctor.

Factsheet about measles

Measles is an acute, highly contagious viral disease capable of causing epidemics. Infectivity is close to 100% in susceptible individuals and in the pre-vaccine era measles would affect nearly every individual during childhood. Immunisation has dramatically reduced the incidence of measles in Europe but despite overall high immunisation coverage, measles continues to cause frequent outbreaks. Globally, measles remains a leading cause of childhood deaths and an estimated 160 000 children die each year from complications of the disease. 

The pathogen

  • The measles virus is a single-stranded RNA virus of the genus Morbillivirus and the family Paramyxoviridae
  • The virus is related to several viruses that infect animals, including the Canine Distemper Virus. Primates can be infected in vitro but humans are the only reservoir for the measles virus which, theoretically, could be eradicated from the world.
  • The entire measles virus genome has been sequenced which has allowed for identification of distinct wild-virus lineages with different geographical distribution. This makes it possible to confirm or suggest the source of an outbreak.
  • Vaccine induced immunity protects against all virus strains. Measles is considered a monotypic virus despite the genetic variations.

Clinical features and sequelae

  • The prodrome starts after a 10–12-day incubation period and is characterised by fever, conjunctivitis, coryza, cough and bronchiolitis. Nearly all infected susceptible individuals develop clinical disease.
  • Koplik’s spots, the enanthema believed to be pathognomic for measles, appear on the buccal mucosa 1–2 days before the onset of rash.
  • The measles rash, an erythematous maculopapular exanthema, develops 2–4 days after the onset of fever and spreads from the head to the body over the next 3–4 days.
  • The rash, which blanches on pressure early in the course, fades in the order of appearance during the next 3–4 days and assumes a nonblanching appearance.
  • Mortality from measles is predominantly caused by complicating bacterial infections.
  • Complications are likely to have developed if the fever does not drop within 1 or 2 days after the onset of the rash.
  • The most common complications of measles are: otitis media (7–9%), pneumonia (1–6%), diarrhoea (8%), post-infectious encephalitis (1 per 1000 to 2000 cases), and subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE), which affects 1 per 100 000 cases.
  • Case fatality is 1–3 per 1000 cases and highest in those younger than five years of age and among immunocompromised individuals. Pneumonia accounts for six out of ten measles associated deaths.
  • Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is a rare (1 per 100 000 cases) and fatal degenerative central nervous system disease caused by a persistent infection with a mutant measles virus. The onset is several years after the episode of measles (on average seven years) and most affected children had measles before two years of age.  
  • Infants are protected from birth against measles by maternal antibodies if the mother is immune to measles. This passive immunity gradually disappears over the second half of the first year of life. Infants with partial passive immunity may develop milder and shorter episodes of measles that still confers lasting immunity.


  • The EU measles case definition for the purpose of epidemiological surveillance can be reviewed here.
  • In the pre-vaccine era, measles was endemic in Europe and most people would be infected during childhood. Regular outbreaks occurred at 2–5 year intervals in most populations, and few people would remain susceptible beyond 20 years of age.
  • Immunisation against measles started in the 1960s and has dramatically changed the epidemiology of the disease. Measles is no longer endemic in most European countries but outbreaks resulting from imported index cases remain common in countries where subgroups of the population have low levels of immunity.  
  • The annual number of confirmed measles cases in Europe has been in the thousands since 2001 and several countries, including Austria, Bulgaria, France, Germany, Italy, Switzerland and the UK, experienced outbreaks in recent years.
  • Most measles outbreaks in Europe are the result of measles imported from another European country.
  • Routine measles immunisation in childhood leads to widening intervals between epidemics during which the group of susceptible individuals builds up. This results in a shift towards older children and young adults in the age distribution of cases during epidemics.
  • Humans are the only natural host of the virus and measles meets the following criteria for a disease that can be eradicated:
  1. No animal or environmental reservoir.
  2. Accurate diagnostic tests are available.
  3. The measles vaccine is highly effective and safe.
  4. Measles transmission in large geographic areas has been demonstrated. 
  • Global eradication of measles would occur when the last chain of transmission of measles virus is interrupted in every country.
  • European incidence figures of measles can be found on the EUVAC website. 
  • Annual updates on measles incidence are reported in ECDC’s Annual epidemiological report on communicable diseases in Europe. The 2010 report is available  here.


  • Measles is extremely communicable and it is estimated that 90% of non-immune people exposed to an infective individual will contract the disease. Mathematical models estimate the basic reproductive number at 12–18; that is the average number of secondary infections that follow a single introduction into a susceptible population.
  • The virus is transmitted from person to person via respiratory droplets produced when sick people cough and sneeze. Virus-containing droplets can remain in the air for several hours and the virus remains infectious on contaminated surfaces for up to two hours.
  • Infected people are considered contagious from about five days before the onset of rash to four days afterwards. Measles is maximally contagious during the prodromal phase which lasts for 2–4 days and is characterised by intense coughing.
  • Invasion is through the respiratory epithelium and 2–3 days after exposure there is a primary viremia with replication in the inoculation site as well as in distant reticuloendothelial tissue.  
  • On days 5–7, there is an intense secondary viremia of 4–7 days with replication in the skin, conjunctivae, respiratory tract and internal organs.
  • Individuals at increased risk of measles include infants who are too young to be immunised, people in whom the vaccine has failed to induce immunity (primary vaccine failure), and individuals who for medical, religious or other reasons have not been immunised.


  • Immunisation is the only effective preventive measure against acquiring measles.
  • The live attenuated measles vaccine induces an immune response that is similar to naturally acquired immunity and can be boosted by challenge from wild or vaccine virus.
  • Measles vaccine is at least 95% effective and seroconversion rates are close 100%. Primary vaccine failure of the first dose at 12 months of age or older occurs in up to 5% of people, but 95% of first dose failures will seroconvert from a second dose.
  • Maternal antibodies are the most common cause of primary vaccine failure. The age of first immunisation with measles vaccine must balance the chance of seroconversion with the risk of infection. This is why, in countries with endemic measles, the first dose of measles containing vaccine (MCV) is given as early as nine months, often complemented by another dose during the second year of life. 
  • Experience and modelling shows that two doses of measles vaccine is required to interrupt indigenous transmission and achieve herd immunity. A single dose in the second year of life will induce immunity in about 95% of immunised people. This means that 100% uptake would be required in order to achieve the desired 95% immunity level. However, about 95% of those who fail to respond to a first dose develop immunity from a second dose and hence the benefit of a second dose.
  • All European immunisation programmes today promote a two-dose measles immunisation schedule with the first dose given during the second year of life and the second dose at an older age that differs between countries.
  • Measles vaccine is most commonly administered as part of a combination of live attenuated vaccines that includes measles, mumps, rubella or measles, mumps, rubella and varicella (MMR or MMRV). 
  • Combination vaccines have been shown to elicit the same immune response as individual vaccines. Vaccinating individuals who are already immune to one or more of the antigens in the combination vaccine, either from previous immunisation or natural infection, are not associated with any increased risk of adverse events.
  • Regarding post-exposure prophylaxis, administration of an MCV is the intervention of choice within 72 hours of exposure as the incubation period for vaccine virus is shorter than that for wild virus.  
  • The immunisation schedule for measles containing vaccines (MMR or MMRV) in the European countries can be found on the website of the European Community Network for Vaccine Preventable Infectious Diseases (EUVAC).

Management and treatment

  • Measles should be suspected in anyone who presents with an acute erythematous rash and fever preceded by cough, coryza, conjunctivitis and photofobia. 
  • Measles is difficult to distinguish from other causes of febrile illnesses with rash, and infections with rubella, parvovirus B19, human herpes virus type 6 (HHV-6) and dengue can easily be mistaken for measles. 
  • Diagnosis relies on laboratory tests. All suspected measles cases should either be laboratory confirmed or epidemiologically linked to a confirmed case.
  • There is no specific antiviral therapy for measles and most cases will recover with supportive treatment including hydration and antipyretics.
  • Bacterial superinfections are common and should be treated with antibiotics but prophylactic treatment is not indicated. Continued fever beyond two days after the onset of rash is an indication of complications. 
  • Airborne transmission precautions are indicated for hospitalised patients for four days after the onset of rash. 
  • Management of exposed people should include immunisation with an MCV as it will provide protection in some cases if given within 72 hours of exposure.
  • All cases of suspected measles should be reported to the relevant national health authority without waiting for the results of diagnostic tests.
  • Active surveillance for measles is an important component of the measles elimination strategy for Europe and the WHO Regional Office for Europe has published Surveillance Guidelines for measles, Rubella and Congenital Rubella Syndrome in the WHO European Region which can be downloaded here. 

Note: The information contained in this fact sheet is intended for the purpose of general information and should not be used as a substitute for the individual expertise and judgement of healthcare professionals.


Demicheli V, Jefferson T, Rivetti A, Price D. Vaccines for measles, mumps and rubella in children. Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online). 2005(4):CD004407
Hilleman MR. Current overview of the pathogenesis and prophylaxis of measles with focus on practical implications. Vaccine. 2001 Dec 12;20(5-6):651-65.
Plotkin S, Orenstein WA. Measles. Vaccines. 5th ed. WB Saunders Company; 2008.

7 Facts About the Measles

The measles used to be one of the world’s most common childhood diseases. Since the introduction of the measles vaccine, however, the disease is rarely seen in the U.S. But people still have reason for concern about symptoms like the telltale measles rash: In 2018, there were 349 reported cases of the measles across 26 states and Washington, D.C. The year before, 120 people contracted the disease. Here are seven things to know about measles symptoms and treatments.


Everyone used to get the measles.

There was a time not so long ago when exhibiting measles symptoms was a near-ubiquitous part of childhood. In the 4th century CE, Chinese alchemist Ko Hung wrote of the differences between smallpox and measles, and the disease was described in the 9th century by the famous Persian physician Rhazes. There were major epidemics of the disease in the 11th and 12th centuries [PDF].

In the years before the first licensed measles vaccine appeared in the U.S. in 1963, an estimated 90 percent of children caught the measles before they were 15. The disease was a leading cause of death for children—and in some places without access to vaccinations and medical care, it still is. Today, up to 5 percent of children in places without access to good medical care die of the measles annually.

The CDC estimates that prior to the existence of the measles vaccine, there were between 3 and 4 million measles cases in the U.S. per year, approximately 400 to 500 of them fatal—but vaccinations have reduced the prevalence of the disease by 99 percent. In some years, fewer than 100 people contract the disease in the U.S.

2. The measles virus is highly contagious.

The measles virus is considered one of the most contagious viruses around: Without vaccination, around 90 percent of people who are exposed to the virus will become infected.

The disease is caused by the spread of a type of virus called morbillivirus, which can be transmitted through the air via breathing, coughing, or sneezing. The virus can live in the air for up to two hours after an infected person coughed—meaning that you don’t necessarily need to be standing next to someone with the measles to get it from them.

3. It can cause more than just a measles rash.

A person exposed to measles will begin to show symptoms seven to 14 days after exposure. Common measles symptoms include coughing, congestion, fever, and most famously, a full-body skin rash. But a third of measles cases involve complications ranging from diarrhea to pneumonia, brain swelling, and coma. Pneumonia causes around 60 percent of fatalities when it comes to measles complications.

Children under 5 are particularly at risk of getting complications and dying from the disease. One in 10 will contract an ear infection, possibly leading to permanent hearing damage, and one in 20 will get pneumonia. One or two out of every 1000 kids who contract the measles will die, according to the CDC, many from pneumonia.

4. The measles vaccine is very effective.

The measles is combined with vaccines against two other diseases—mumps and rubella—and when administered as designed, it’s incredibly effective. Experts recommend that children get their first dose of the MMR vaccine on their first birthday (but not before). Then, they should get the second dose before they enter kindergarten. If a child doesn’t get vaccinated before they’re 12, they should still get the vaccine: two doses a month apart. In most cases, those two doses of the vaccine should be enough to give you immunity for life (although some experts are now cautioning booster shots may be a good idea for some adults).

If you’re exposed to the virus and haven’t been vaccinated, an immediate dose of the vaccine can provide some protection from the disease, as long as you get it within 72 hours of exposure.

5. Measles is considered eliminated in the U.S. …

Thanks to effective vaccinations, as of 2000, measles is no longer a threat in the U.S., according to the CDC’s standards. The disease is considered eliminated, which means that it hasn’t been continuously transmitted in a specific geographical location for at least a year. So even if there’s the occasional outbreak of cases, it’s considered eliminated because it’s not a constant threat anymore. In 2016, the World Health Organization declared the disease to be eliminated across the entirety of North and South America.

6. … But you should still get vaccinated.

Measles isn’t prevalent in the U.S., but that doesn’t mean you can skip your vaccinations: Though home-grown measles has been eliminated, people in the U. S. still come down with it. That’s because measles is still a major issue elsewhere in the world, and travelers can bring it home with them, spreading it to unvaccinated populations in the U.S.

That includes babies. Children under 5 are one of the most vulnerable populations when it comes to measles infections, but babies aren’t generally vaccinated until they’re 12 months old (the CDC recommends that before international travel, “infants 6 months through 11 months of age should receive one dose of MMR vaccine” and then get a shot again when they’re a little older). That makes it incredibly important for everyone around them to be vaccinated, so that the disease can’t spread.

In addition to inoculating individuals against diseases, the measles vaccine operates on the principle of herd immunity. When nearly an entire population is vaccinated, it’s very hard for the disease to spread. That protects people who aren’t inoculated, like babies, or people whose bodies didn’t respond to the vaccine for whatever reason.

7. People still get measles in America.

Since measles was declared eliminated in 2000, there have been relatively few cases reported here, but a significant number of people have caught the disease in the past few years. In 2004, there were just 37 cases of measles reported in the U.S. Ten years later, in 2014, there were 667—most of whom were people who weren’t vaccinated. (That number was unusually high, and went down to 188 cases the next year.)

The CDC blames recent measles outbreaks on low rates of vaccination. One 2016 review of measles studies found that out of 970 measles cases, almost 42 percent of patients had opted out of getting the vaccine for non-medical reasons.

Europe has also seen a surge in measles cases in the last few years. Between 2016 and 2017, measles cases in Europe quadrupled, from 5273 cases to more than 21,000, according to the World Health Organization. Thirty-five of those 21,000 people died from the disease. This is bad news for Americans, too, since most U. S. measles cases can be linked back to travelers coming into the U.S. from places like Europe. So get your vaccinations!


Measles is a highly contagious, serious disease caused by a virus. Before the introduction of measles vaccine in 1963 and widespread vaccination, major epidemics occurred approximately every 2–3 years and measles caused an estimated 2.6 million deaths each year.

More than 140 000 people died from measles in 2018 – mostly children under the age of 5 years, despite the availability of a safe and effective vaccine.

Measles is caused by a virus in the paramyxovirus family and it is normally passed through direct contact and through the air. The virus infects the respiratory tract, then spreads throughout the body. Measles is a human disease and is not known to occur in animals.

Accelerated immunization activities have had a major impact on reducing measles deaths. During 2000– 2018, measles vaccination prevented an estimated 23. 2 million deaths. Global measles deaths have decreased by  73% from an estimated   536 000 in 2000* to 142,000 in 2018.

Signs and symptoms

The first sign of measles is usually a high fever, which begins about 10 to 12 days after exposure to the virus, and lasts 4 to 7 days. A runny nose, a cough, red and watery eyes, and small white spots inside the cheeks can develop in the initial stage. After several days, a rash erupts, usually on the face and upper neck. Over about 3 days, the rash spreads, eventually reaching the hands and feet. The rash lasts for 5 to 6 days, and then fades. On average, the rash occurs 14 days after exposure to the virus (within a range of 7 to 18 days).

Most measles-related deaths are caused by complications associated with the disease. Serious complications are more common in children under the age of 5, or adults over the age of 30. The most serious complications include blindness, encephalitis (an infection that causes brain swelling), severe diarrhoea and related dehydration, ear infections, or severe respiratory infections such as pneumonia. Severe measles is more likely among poorly nourished young children, especially those with insufficient vitamin A, or whose immune systems have been weakened by HIV/AIDS or other diseases.

Who is at risk?

Unvaccinated young children are at highest risk of measles and its complications, including death. Unvaccinated pregnant women are also at risk. Any non-immune person (who has not been vaccinated or was vaccinated but did not develop immunity) can become infected.

Measles is still common in many developing countries – particularly in parts of Africa and Asia. The overwhelming majority (more than 95%) of measles deaths occur in countries with low per capita incomes and weak health infrastructures.

Measles outbreaks can be particularly deadly in countries experiencing or recovering from a natural disaster or conflict. Damage to health infrastructure and health services interrupts routine immunization, and overcrowding in residential camps greatly increases the risk of infection.


Measles is one of the world’s most contagious diseases. It is spread by coughing and sneezing, close personal contact or direct contact with infected nasal or throat secretions.

The virus remains active and contagious in the air or on infected surfaces for up to 2 hours. It can be transmitted by an infected person from 4 days prior to the onset of the rash to 4 days after the rash erupts.

Measles outbreaks can result in epidemics that cause many deaths, especially among young, malnourished children. In countries where measles has been largely eliminated, cases imported from other countries remain an important source of infection.


No specific antiviral treatment exists for measles virus.

Severe complications from measles can be reduced through supportive care that ensures good nutrition, adequate fluid intake and treatment of dehydration with WHO-recommended oral rehydration solution. This solution replaces fluids and other essential elements that are lost through diarrhoea or vomiting. Antibiotics should be prescribed to treat eye and ear infections, and pneumonia.

All children diagnosed with measles should receive two doses of vitamin A supplements, given 24 hours apart. This treatment restores low vitamin A levels during measles that occur even in well-nourished children and can help prevent eye damage and blindness. Vitamin A supplements have also been shown to reduce the number of measles deaths.


Routine measles vaccination for children, combined with mass immunization campaigns in countries with high case and death rates, are key public health strategies to reduce global measles deaths. The measles vaccine has been in use for  nearly 60 years. It is safe, effective and inexpensive. It costs approximately one US dollar to immunize a child against measles.

The measles vaccine is often incorporated with rubella and/or mumps vaccines. It is equally safe and effective in the single or combined form. Adding rubella to measles vaccine increases the cost only slightly, and allows for shared delivery and administration costs.

In 2018, about  86% of the world’s children received 1 dose of measles vaccine by their first birthday through routine health services – up from 72% in 2000. Two doses of the vaccine are recommended to ensure immunity and prevent outbreaks, as about 15% of vaccinated children fail to develop immunity from the first dose. In  2018,  69% of children received the second dose of the measles vaccine.

Of the estimated 19.2 million infants not vaccinated with at least one dose of measles vaccine through routine immunization in 2018, about  6.1 million were in 3 countries: India, Nigeria and Pakistan

WHO response

In 2010, the World Health Assembly established 3 milestones towards the future eradication of measles to be achieved by 2015:

  • increase routine coverage with the first dose of measles-containing vaccine (MCV1) by more than 90% nationally and more than 80% in every district;
  • reduce and maintain annual measles incidence to less than 5 cases per million; and
  • reduce estimated measles mortality by more than 95% from the 2000 estimate.  

In 2012, the Health Assembly endorsed the Global Vaccine Action Plan, with the objective of eliminating measles in four WHO regions by 2015 and in five regions by 2020.

By  2018, the global push to improve vaccine coverage resulted in a 73% reduction in deaths. During 2000–  2018, with support from the Measles & Rubella Initiative and Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance, measles vaccination prevented an estimated   23.2 million deaths; most of the deaths averted were in the African region and in countries supported by the Gavi Alliance.

But without sustained attention, hard fought gains can easily be lost. Where children are unvaccinated, outbreaks occur. Because of low coverage nationally or in pockets, multiple regions were hit with large measles outbreaks in  2018, causing many deaths. Based on current trends of measles vaccination coverage and incidence, the WHO Strategic Advisory Group of Experts on Immunization (SAGE) concluded that measles elimination is greatly under threat, and the disease has resurged in a number of countries that had achieved, or were close to achieving, elimination.

WHO continues to strengthen the global laboratory network to ensure timely diagnosis of measles and track international spread of the measles viruses to allow more coordinated country approach in targeting vaccination activities and reduce measles deaths from this vaccine-preventable disease.

The Measles & Rubella Initiative

Launched in 2001, the Measles & Rubella Initiative (M&R Initiative) is a global partnership led by the American Red Cross, United Nations Foundation, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), UNICEF and WHO. The Initiative is committed to ensuring that no child dies from measles or is born with congenital rubella syndrome. The Initiative helps countries to plan, fund and measure efforts to stop measles and rubella for good.

10 Common Myths About Measles—and the Real Facts

Measles cases in the U.S. climbed to a 25-year high in April, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The 704 confirmed cases of measles so far this year have affected 22 states, including Florida. Although the viral infection was declared “eliminated” from the U.S. in 2000, this year’s rapid spread of measles has become a serious public health concern. Increasing numbers of travelers catch the viral infection abroad and bring it into the U.S., spreading it among pockets of people who are unvaccinated.

Symptoms and Risks

Measles is a highly contagious, airborne disease that spreads through coughing and sneezing. Early symptoms include a fever, cough, runny nose, red eyes and a sore throat. As the infection progresses, tiny white spots may appear inside the mouth and a red rash starts on the face and works its way down to the feet. The condition can progress quickly.

As many as 1 in 20 children with measles will get pneumonia, which is the major cause of death from measles. One in 1,000 children with measles will develop encephalitis (inflammation of the brain), which can lead to brain damage. One or two children per 1,000 with measles will die from it. Finally, 7 to 10 years after contracting measles, one person per 100,000 will develop subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) and inevitably die of this devastating brain inflammation.

Separating Measles Facts from Fiction

Thanks to the measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccine, measles is highly preventable. Vaccinations are a critical tool for preventing the spread of measles, but some Americans still believe the vaccine is dangerous and the disease is not serious.

That’s why it’s important to separate what’s truth from fiction. Here are 10 myths about measles—and the real facts.

Myth # 1: Only children can get measles.

Fact: While adults have a significantly lower risk of contracting measles, in some cases they should still be vaccinated. First off, most adults born before 1957 are considered immune due to having had or been exposed to the measles. But if you were born between 1957 and 1989, and have not had the measles or received 2 doses of the measles vaccine, you should get vaccinated. Why? People born between 1957 and 1989 may only have had one dose of the measles vaccine and may have had one of the earlier, less effective vaccines.

In this case, especially if you are in an area where there are measles cases or are traveling to high-risk areas, you should get a second dose of the MMR. The risk of complications from measles is higher in adults, so older adults who feel they may be at risk should consult their physician.

Myth #2: Everyone should get the measles vaccine.

Fact: Not everyone should receive the MMR vaccine. Babies younger than 6 months cannot be vaccinated. People born before 1957 or who already have had the measles or the measles vaccine series do not need to be vaccinated. Furthermore, patients whose immune systems are not normal or who are on medications that suppress the immune system should not get live virus vaccines like the MMR. Instead, these patients depend upon others to be vaccinated to keep the diseases out of their communities.

Thanks to the measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccine, measles is highly preventable.

Myth #3: There are natural ways to prevent measles, so I don’t need the vaccine.

Fact: There are no natural preventive measures for measles. I can’t stress this enough—vaccinations are the single most effective way to prevent yourself from contracting measles. Some patients are concerned about the MMR vaccine, but that’s because it’s difficult to sift through all the conflicting information out there. The best thing patients can do is read about vaccines on accurate sites such as the CDC website and talk to their doctor.

Myth #4: The measles vaccine causes autism.

Fact: This is absolutely not true. This idea may have emerged from the fact that the MMR is given around the first birthday, which is about the same time that the signs of autism become much more obvious and autism is diagnosed. Numerous large studies have failed to show any connection between the MMR vaccine and autism. This allegation has become “old news” and is simply untrue. For a good recounting of the MMR-autism story, I recommend the book, The Panic Virus, by Seth Mnookin. It is a great read and an accurate account of what happened in the false medical science world to create this disinformation.

Myth #5: My child is only a year old, and that’s too young to be vaccinated.

Fact: Most children get their first measles vaccine when they are between 12 and 15 months old. With the current situation, we now recommend that these vaccinations begin at 12 months. If there’s a local outbreak, we even recommend that children as young as 6 months get vaccinated. The potential problem with early immunization is that many babies still have enough antibodies in their bodies from their mothers that the vaccine won’t work effectively. When we vaccinate early in the case of an outbreak, we re-vaccinate at 12 months and again at age 4 to make sure the child is protected.

Myth #6: You don’t need to get a “booster” shot if you’ve already received the measles vaccine.

Fact: A “booster” shot isn’t so much a “booster” as it is a fail-safe in case the first vaccine didn’t work. We used to give a second shot of the measles vaccine when a child was between 4 to 6 years old. Currently, due to the outbreak, we do this at age 4. The first dose immunizes about 93 percent of patients, and by the second dose we achieve immunity for more than 97 percent of patients. Meaning, this second dose protects most patients who for some reason didn’t respond to their first vaccine.

Myth #7: You can get the measles multiple times, even if you’ve already had it.

Fact: Not true. Unlike the chicken pox, measles do not come back once your system is cleared of the virus.

Myth #8: Getting the vaccine ensures I won’t get the measles.

Fact: Unfortunately, no vaccine is perfect. After one dose of the MMR, 7 out of 100 children are still not immune. After two doses, about 3 children in 100 still are not immune. This illustrates another reason why we depend upon one another to vaccinate all of our children (and ourselves) so that the disease never has a chance to spread within the community.

Myth #9: I’m at a higher risk of contracting measles if I visit a theme park in Orlando.

Fact: Right now, the biggest risk of contracting measles is living in a community with a high rate of unvaccinated people or traveling to an area of the world where measles rates are high due to low vaccination rates. Measles outbreaks in the U.S. typically start with exposure from an “imported” case. In other words, an infected patient travels to the U.S. with a case of the measles. Measles then works like the “canary in a coal mine” model, traveling easily through the community by infecting literally everyone who is not immune.

Since Orlando is a tourist destination for many international travelers from places with lower immunization rates, we are at risk. But people who already have had the measles vaccine series are personally at very low risk to contract the virus.

Myth # 10: Proper hand washing can prevent measles.

Fact: Good hand washing is very important for preventing illness. However, measles is so contagious that even tiny particles with live measles virus stay in the air after a contagious person has left a room. In medical situations, we close the room for at least several hours and sanitize surfaces to prevent the virus from spreading. 

The best way to prevent measles is to get vaccinated according to the immunization schedule recommended by the CDC. Remember, measles is a serious illness that could lead to serious complications. If you’re concerned about the vaccine, talk to your doctor, ask questions and get the right information so you can make the best decision to protect your health, your family’s health and that of everyone in our community.

Measles (for Parents) – Nemours KidsHealth

What Is Measles?

Measles is a very contagious respiratory infection. It causes a total-body skin rash and flu-like symptoms. Measles is rare in the United States thanks to widespread immunization. But millions of cases happen worldwide every year.

Measles (also called rubeola) is caused by a

virus, so there’s no specific medical treatment for it. The virus has to run its course. A child who is sick should drink plenty of liquids, get lots of rest, and stay home from school or daycare to prevent spreading the infection.

What Are the Signs & Symptoms of Measles?

The first symptoms of a measles infection are usually a hacking cough, runny nose, high fever, and red eyes. Kids also may have Koplik’s spots (small red spots with blue-white centers) inside the mouth before the rash starts.

The rash breaks out 3–5 days after symptoms start, sometimes along with a high fever up to 104°F (40°C). The red or reddish-brown rash usually begins as flat red spots on the forehead. It spreads to the rest of the face, then down the neck and torso to the arms, legs, and feet. The fever and rash slowly go away after a few days.

Is Measles Contagious?

Measles is very contagious. In fact, 9 out of 10 people who aren’t vaccinated for measles will get it if they are near an infected person.

How Do People Get Measles?

Measles spreads when people breathe in or have direct contact with virus-infected fluid. It can pass through droplets sprayed into the air when someone with measles sneezes or coughs. Someone exposed to the virus usually shows symptoms 7–14 days later.

People with measles can spread the disease from 4 days before the rash starts until about 4 days after that. They’re most contagious while they have a fever, runny nose, and cough. Those with weak immune systems due to other conditions (like HIV and AIDS) can spread the measles virus until they recover.

How Is Measles Treated?

There is no specific medical treatment for measles. To help manage symptoms:

  • give your child plenty of fluids
  • encourage extra rest
  • give a non-aspirin fever medicine, such as acetaminophen or ibuprofen if a fever makes your child uncomfortable. Never give aspirin to a child who has a viral illness, as such use is linked to Reye syndrome.

Kids with measles should be closely watched by a doctor. In some cases, measles can lead to other problems, such as:

Children with measles should be kept away from others for 4 days after their rash appears. For those with a weak immune system, this should continue until they make a full recovery and all symptoms are gone.

How Long Does Measles Last?

A measles infection can last for several weeks. Symptoms usually start 7–14 days after someone is exposed to the virus.

Can Measles Be Prevented?

The best way to protect your kids is to make sure they’re immunized against measles.

For most kids, measles protection is part of the measles-mumps-rubella vaccine (MMR) or measles-mumps-rubella-varicella vaccine (MMRV) given when they’re 12 to 15 months old and again when they’re 4 to 6 years old.

The vaccine can be given to babies as young as 6 months old if they will be traveling internationally. Talk to your doctor to see when the vaccine is needed.

Why Is Vaccination Important?

Widespread immunization has made measles rare in the U.S. But outbreaks do still happen. An outbreak is when a disease happens in greater numbers than expected in a particular area. Measles outbreaks have been increasing worldwide, mostly due to people not being vaccinated.

It’s important for all kids who can get the vaccine to get it on time. At-risk people (such as those with weak immune systems) can’t get the vaccine. But when a lot of other people are immunized against a disease, it protects them, prevents the disease from spreading, and helps prevent outbreaks.

At highest risk during a measles outbreak are:

  • infants who aren’t old enough to get the vaccine
  • pregnant women
  • people with poor nutrition or weak immune systems

Doctors can give an injection of measles antibodies (called immune globulin) to at-risk people who are exposed to measles. It’s most effective when given within 6 days of contact. These antibodies can either prevent measles or make symptoms less severe.

The measles vaccine also can help protect unvaccinated people from getting sick after exposure to measles if they get it within 3 days.

When Should I Call the Doctor?

Call the doctor right away if you think that your child has measles. Also call if your child was around someone who has measles, especially if your child:

  • is an infant
  • is taking medicines that suppress the immune system
  • has tuberculosis, cancer, or a disease that affects the immune system

90,000 Measles – 9 Things Every Parent Should Know

Measles – 9 Things Every Parent Should Know | SPb GBUZ “City Polyclinic No. 122”

Measles. 9 things every parent should know

Since the beginning of 2017, the number of people with measles has increased dramatically in Europe.

The main reason is the massive refusal of vaccinations.

From the 19th century to the beginning of the 20th century, measles was one of the most dangerous diseases , which claimed many lives.It was only possible to reduce the incidence when the vaccine appeared. There really is no alternative to vaccination. There are a lot of unvaccinated children now. The adult population also does not monitor their vaccinations (up to 35 years old, you need to check the blood for antibodies to measles, if they are not there, then the immunity is weakened, and you need to do a second revaccination). Therefore, the number of cases is increasing, and the situation in some regions is becoming critical.

Measles is an acute infectious viral disease. Transmitted by airborne droplets, when talking, coughing, sneezing.The virus spreads easily and quickly through the air and, entering the ventilation, infects a large number of people. As a rule, unvaccinated children are ill, less often adults. Adults carry the disease more severely. The incubation period is from 8 to 14 days. The patient is considered contagious in the last days of the incubation period and the first four days after the appearance of the rash.

The disease begins acutely with a high temperature up to 40 degrees and a cough. Runny nose, sore throat, conjunctivitis, photophobia – initially it looks like an acute respiratory viral infection (ARVI).Four to five days after the temperature rises on the mucous membrane of the inner surface of the cheeks in the molar area, you can see rashes in the form of white dots. At the same time, with each day of illness during treatment, the temperature does not drop, but remains. This is uncommon for a common ARVI. The rash gradually spreads from top to bottom – face, neck, body, arms and legs. The rash disappears from about the fourth day from the appearance, but not immediately, but within three to four days. After the rash, pigmentation remains on the skin, which gradually goes away.

No specific treatment for measles . Symptomatic treatment is usually prescribed (depending on the severity of the disease). These are bed rest, drinking plenty of fluids, lowering body temperature, antihistamines. It is necessary to observe hygiene of the eyes and mouth (rinsing the eyes, gargling), and antiviral therapy is also indicated. Antibiotic therapy is prescribed when there is a threat of secondary infection and complications. But therapy should be prescribed by a doctor depending on the development of the disease.The rash goes away with the course of the disease.

Measles is dangerous with complications : otitis media, pneumonia, convulsions, brain inflammation, lymphodenitis are possible. Fatalities are possible.

It is impossible to get measles a second time. A person who has had measles develops a strong immunity to this disease.

Vaccination is the only effective way to protect yourself against measles. Routine vaccination is carried out at 12 months, revaccination at six years.After the first vaccination, immunity may not fully develop and will disappear over time. After revaccination, long-term immunity is formed. The measles vaccine is compatible with others, so children are usually vaccinated immediately against rubella and mumps. If there was contact with a sick person, then vaccination is carried out urgently to all contact unvaccinated people.

Immunity is transmitted to a newborn child from a mother who has been ill or vaccinated before pregnancy and lasts up to about 3-6 months.

In the early stages of pregnancy, the virus can penetrate an incompletely formed placenta and cause multiple severe fetal malformations, spontaneous delivery, frozen pregnancy . In the late stages of pregnancy, premature birth is possible, infection of the newborn, which can cause many serious complications.

If the child does not need to be vaccinated, it is not recommended for him to travel to areas where the epidemic is declared. We vaccinate a child older than a year according to the vaccination calendar against the background of full health.If you plan to travel to an unfavorable area, then we do the vaccination 14 days before departure.

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90,000 Measles – interesting facts – World.korupciya

Everyone knows that there was an outbreak of measles that claimed lives. At the initial stage of the disease, a cough, a runny nose, and characteristic spots appear, this rash is very similar to grains of salt.The best way to identify them is to look into the mouth, especially the inner sides of the cheeks. Such spots occur only with measles.

In our article, we will tell you the most important facts about measles, such knowledge is important for all parents so that they start treatment on time, while minimally exposing other family members. Believe me, you will be a little surprised by these facts.

If you find such spots in your child, then in no case go with him to the clinic.It is better to call the doctor home, because at this stage the disease is too easily transmitted. Some of the first people who can become infected are young children, as well as adults who do not have vaccinations and people with weak immunity.

First fact: Measles can be treated with vitamin A. A long time ago, doctors determined that almost everyone who goes to the hospital with measles is people who are deficient in this vitamin. And until medicine began to use antibiotics for treatment, it was vitamin A that was used.

Second fact: Vaccination against measles protects a person only 60%, so even if you give your child a routine vaccination, this does not mean that he will not get sick.

The third fact: The problem with measles has existed for a long time, because once deaths from measles were not even recorded. And medicine did not look so responsible for the immunization of the population.

Fourth fact: It also applies to vaccinations. Even if your child has a measles vaccine, this does not mean that he will not go to the hospital, and you cannot be sure that the disease will not end in death, since doctors have long studied this problem.And they came to the conclusion that the measles vaccine has absolutely no effect on the death rate from the disease.

You should definitely know that the measles vaccine is quite dangerous, medicine is aware of the fairly high rates of consequences from this vaccination. Children who had a hard time undergoing vaccination most often fell ill with such ailments as: autism, epilepsy, diabetes, many cases when children began to complain of impaired vision and hearing. Deaths have also been reported.

But the problem is that medicine is silent about such data, simply hiding them in order to continue to vaccinate. And this happens even in fairly developed countries.

Another interesting fact is that doctors learned how to fight measles and eliminate deaths even before the invention of the vaccine. For example, in Germany, there is no measles vaccine among routine vaccinations, because doctors considered the rate of unwanted consequences too high. Indeed, according to statistics, every 2500th child can remain disabled for life, and measles may never affect the immunity of this child throughout life.Therefore, German doctors decided that the risk was too high and vaccinated only at the request of the parents, and before that they warn parents about the danger and inform them in detail.

For example, in America, they recorded the fact that in most cases it is not children who are sick, but adults, since they completely lack measles antibodies.

It is also important to know that even if a mother has a measles vaccine, she cannot pass on antibodies to her children. So women who try not only to treat their teeth before pregnancy, but also to get the necessary vaccinations are very mistaken. Thus, they protect themselves, but not their children.

But this fact will definitely confuse you: When there was an outbreak of measles in the United States (1991), in most cases the disease ended in death in people who had been vaccinated against measles. Also, in countries where vitamin A is not prescribed for the treatment of measles, the disease is not only more complicated, but also often fatal.

But African children, who have never even heard of such a vaccination, tolerate the disease much easier, while there are practically no consequences in the form of other serious illnesses.

Scientists have shown that children who suffer from psoriasis, after recovering from measles, almost completely forget about the existence of psoriasis. At the same time, it does not matter at what stage of development he was.

If you think that measles can be easily cured at home, then you are a little mistaken, since this is possible only with a mild form of the disease. And only a doctor can determine this, so do not give yourself and your family to danger and at the first symptoms, contact a specialist.

Another important fact about measles is that a second time a person cannot get sick, because after recovery, the body develops immunity to this virus.

If a pregnant woman falls ill with measles, the risk is too high that the disease will cross the placenta to the baby and he will be born with some deviations, and the fetus often freezes.

90,000 9 myths about measles and important facts about a dangerous disease | Dankor online

9 myths about measles and important facts about the dangerous disease

In connection with the current measles outbreak in Ukraine, journalists have collected important facts to know about the disease and debunked common myths about the disease.

In Ukraine, at the end of 2017, 4782 cases of measles were recorded. In less than 2 weeks of 2018, 66 people fell ill in Kiev alone, 54 of them were children. This is the first serious outbreak of measles in Ukraine since 2012, although it must be admitted that epidemic rises in the disease are recorded cyclically every 5-6 years.

Informing the population during the period of “calm” is insufficient, therefore, there are many myths around the disease. Therefore, 9 myths about measles and the main facts about the disease are selected to clarify the situation.

Myth # 1: there can be no measles epidemics, the disease was successfully overcome in the last century

Not true. Measles outbreaks are still recorded in different countries, mainly in those regions where the percentage of vaccination coverage is low.

Indeed, before the mass vaccination in 1980, there were 2.6 million measles deaths.

But already in 2017, WHO noted a decrease in the number of vaccinated in Europe, which caused an outbreak of the disease in Romania and Italy. The epidemic threshold in some European countries has increased by 4-5 times.

Myth number 2: measles is not dangerous

Not true. Measles is one of the main causes of death in young children.

According to the WHO, more than 134 thousand people died from measles in 2015. Most of them are children under five years old.

The level of danger depends on the course of the disease. With a mild form, complications are not observed. Weakened immunity is the cause of severe complications in the work of the central nervous system, respiratory system and gastrointestinal tract.

Myth number 3: it is better to get sick than to get vaccinated

Not true. Many people confuse measles with chickenpox, which is also not always harmless, and believe that it is better to get sick and get lifelong immunity. According to the WHO, as of 2015, more than 130 thousand people died from measles in the world, which is more than 360 cases per day or 15 deaths per hour.

Myth # 4: only children need measles vaccine

Not true. If a person, for any reason, was not vaccinated in childhood, then it must be done at any age.At risk are employees of medical and educational institutions, people who travel frequently.

In adults, the risk of infection is lower, but the likelihood of complications is higher.

Many believe that the reason for the development of infectious diseases is unsanitary conditions. Therefore, as a preventive measure, you can count on hygiene. This is erroneous, since the measles pathogen remains in the air for up to 2 hours.

Myth 5: one vaccination is enough and revaccination is not necessary

Not true.Measles vaccination is given to children at the age of 12 months. Children are vaccinated with a combined live vaccine against measles, rubella, mumps and haemophilus influenzae. At the age of six, revaccination is carried out.

After vaccination, immunity is guaranteed for 75% of children, after revaccination – 95%. Using a second dose of the vaccine protects children who have not yet been vaccinated, as well as those who have not developed sufficient immunity after the first dose.

Vaccination against measles in Ukraine (photo: kiev.informator.ua)

Myth number 6: people born in 1957 do not need vaccination

Partially true, because in 1957 there was a measles epidemic in the USSR. That is why most of those born that year have a strong immunity to the disease and it is almost impossible to get infected again.

But those who do not have proof of immunity (the presence of antibodies) should receive at least one dose of the vaccine.

Myth # 7: Measles vaccines are dangerous by allergic reactions, cause seizures and autism

Partially true.Vaccination can cause an allergic reaction in a child who is allergic to chicken protein.

In one case out of a million vaccinated children, encephalitis may develop as a reaction to the vaccine. When infected with measles, encephalitis is recorded in one person in a thousand.

To prevent complications from measles vaccination, you should know that:

• Not vaccinated for 3 months after blood transfusion;

• Children who are in the acute stage of any disease, with immunodeficiencies, active tuberculosis, oncological diseases and exacerbations of chronic pathologies are not vaccinated.

• Do not vaccinate children who are allergic to chicken eggs and aminoglycoside antibiotics.

The connection between measles vaccination and autism was first discussed 20 years ago. Dr. Andrew Wakefield published the results of his research in The Lancet, which showed that children developed autism and intestinal infections after measles vaccinations. But the scientific community questioned the doctor’s conclusions, because only 12 children took part in the study. Subsequently, a causal relationship has not been proven.

Myth number 8: measles is treated with vitamin A

Not true. Such a myth is a consequence of WHO’s twisted information. The World Organization made recommendations to poorly developing countries where measles is a common disease and vaccination coverage is very low.

Vaccination in poor countries and with war zones (photo: EPA / UPG)

The information said that sick children should be given two doses of vitamin A per day.This measure helps prevent the development of blindness and other damage to the eyes. The WHO guidelines also note that vitamin A intake reduces the risk of death from measles by 50%.

A vitamin A has a positive effect during measles disease on people with a lack of this element in the body. Its replenishment contributes to the better functioning of the immune system.

Myth # 9: Measles vaccines are absolutely safe

Partially true. No vaccine is 100% safe.In the process of vaccination, live microbes of foreign origin are introduced into the human body. How the body of a particular person will react to vaccination, no doctor can predict.

At the same time, measles vaccination has been carried out for a long time and the quality of vaccines is under constant control. Therefore, the safety of the measles vaccine is higher than that of other vaccines.

Essential facts to know about measles

In order not to succumb to the influence of rumors and myths around the disease, you need to know what it is.

Measles is a highly contagious viral infectious disease. This means that the disease is classified as extremely contagious.

It is characterized by the appearance of a rash on the body in the form of red spots. But she appears on the 4th-5th day of illness. Early symptoms are small rashes of pink or whitish color on the palate, cheeks, gums and lips (Belsky-Filatov-Koplik spots).

Symptoms may appear within days of infection. But the incubation period of the disease is from 7 to 17 days.

A patient with measles suddenly rises in body temperature, it can rise to 40 degrees. The mucous membranes of the eyes, mouth and respiratory tract become inflamed, a runny nose and severe cough appear, and cervical lymph nodes increase. The patient suffers from general malaise, lack of appetite and muscle weakness. Conjunctivitis is common.

Measles symptoms (photo: Instagram @ doctor_komarovskiy)

If complications are avoided, the patient’s condition improves as early as 4 days after the onset of the rash.

The infection is caused by an RNA virus. It enters the body by airborne droplets through the mucous membranes of the upper respiratory tract.

Adults get measles much less frequently than children. The disease mainly affects children between the ages of 2 and 6.

Measles can be treated at home if the course of the disease is not complicated. Symptomatic treatment is used: paracetamol or ibuprofen bring down the temperature, take vitamins to maintain the body’s immune forces, take cough medicines, etc. d.

Antibiotics are used only after the development of complications, preferably in a stationary setting.

Interesting and useful about the disease

Photophobia is observed in measles, so it is better to close the windows with curtains in the patient’s room.

Children under 6 months of age who are breastfed practically do not get measles.

Measles is dangerous during pregnancy, you cannot get vaccinated during pregnancy.

At the moment when the patient has Belsky-Filatov-Koplik spots, he is most contagious.

The measles vaccine was first developed in 1966.

Since 2001, the American Red Cross, the United Nations Foundation, the United States Center for Disease Control and Prevention, UNICEF and WHO have partnered with the Measles and Rubella Initiative.

There is a Global Strategic Plan for Measles and Rubella Control for 2012–2020. The goal by the end of 2020 is to eliminate the disease in at least 5 regions covered by WHO.

WHO initiative to eliminate measles worldwide (photo: euro.who.in)

A measles outbreak in Ukraine has been warned in the United States.

Source: “Correspondent”

90,000 Measles: how is it dangerous and how to protect yourself from it | Right | Society

In Russia and in many other countries of the world, the incidence of measles is growing. Anyone who has not been vaccinated and who does not have natural immunity can get sick.

As the head of Rospotrebnadzor Gennady Onishchenko said, if last year there were 600 cases of the disease in 11 regions of the Russian Federation, then the beginning of 2012 was marked by a serious outbreak of measles.

The first reports of a measles epidemic came from St. Petersburg. The outbreak of the disease began in Children’s Hospital No. 1, where a 15-year-old teenager was admitted in mid-January with suspected viral pneumonia. Later it turned out that he had measles, which he could have contracted during the holidays spent in the North Caucasus.

At the moment, 145 cases of measles have been registered in the northern capital, and 92 of the cases are children. Also, measles cases were recorded in preschool institutions and several colleges in St. Petersburg.

223 measles cases have been registered in Moscow since the beginning of the year. For comparison, we note that last year this figure did not exceed 140 cases.

Photo by: globallookpress.com

Also, the head of Rospotrebnadzor reported that an unfavorable situation with measles is developing in other countries. So, in France – 15 thousand patients, 3 thousand – in Ukraine, there are also many patients in Italy, Spain, Germany and Romania.

Where does this epidemic come from?

Previously, the incidence of measles in Russia was variable and was mainly due to imported cases.The current increase in the incidence, according to the head of Rospotrebnadzor, is largely due to the lack of immunity against this infection.

Regarding the measles outbreak in St. Petersburg, Onishchenko said that it was the wrong organization of the work of the infectious diseases department of the hospital. “The hospital doctor has created an infectious disease department with multiple disorders,” said the head of Rospotrebnadzor. Now a criminal case is being brought up against the head physician of the hospital.

According to the chief state sanitary doctor of the capital, Nikolai Filatov, the main reason for the complication of the epidemic situation with measles in Moscow was also the refusal of preventive vaccinations.At the moment, vaccination coverage of the adult population against this infection does not exceed 80%.

Despite the unusually large number of measles cases, the Moscow authorities assure that there is no epidemic in the capital. According to Leonid Pechatnikov, the head of the Moscow health department, “the epidemic threshold is very far away.”

However, in order to prevent the epidemic, Nikolai Filatov signed a decree that introduces special preventive measures against measles. In particular, the heads of enterprises, organizations and institutions in Moscow are ordered to organize immunization against measles for persons under 35 years of age with coverage of at least 90%. Also, immunization is carried out in educational institutions and in pediatric areas.

Note that experts expect to cope with the disease by the May holidays. However, Gennady Onishchenko strongly recommended that everyone who is not vaccinated against measles be vaccinated.

Symptoms, treatment and prevention

Photo by: globallookpress.com

Measles is a highly contagious disease that is transmitted from person to person by airborne droplets. It is believed that measles is a childhood infection, since it is relatively easy in children aged two to six years, but adults suffer the disease much more severely.

First signs. Measles is characterized by fever, intoxication, inflammation of the mucous membranes of the upper respiratory tract, and skin rashes. In the absence of vaccination, this disease affects almost everyone, regardless of age.The diagnosis of measles is made by a doctor on the basis of examination and information about contact with previously sick people.

The course of the disease. The incubation period lasts 9-11 days. In the first days of the illness, the patient’s temperature rises to 38-39 ° C, the general condition is characterized by weakness, malaise, and decreased appetite. The runny nose intensifies, a “barking” cough appears, the mucous membrane of the eye becomes inflamed. Small red spots appear on the mucous membrane of the cheeks, which in appearance resemble semolina or bran.The rash appears literally from the first day of illness and covers the body gradually – the first spots form on the face and neck, then go down to the arms and thighs. On the 3rd day of illness, the rash covers the legs and feet.

On the 3-4th day of illness, the elements of the rash turn pale, brownish spots remain in their place.

Also, the disease is characterized by conjunctivitis, sometimes with purulent discharge, sticking together the eyelashes in the morning. Some patients have abdominal pain and loose stools.

Treatment. In mild cases, measles is treated at home. Hospitalization is indicated for the development of complications.

During a febrile period, bed rest, dim lighting, plenty of fluids, antihistamines (antiallergic) drugs and mouthwash are recommended. Anti-inflammatory drops are instilled into the eyes, with a persistent dry cough, expectorants are taken.

Complications. With measles, complications associated with the work of the central nervous system, respiratory system and gastrointestinal tract are possible.

Among the possible complications: laryngitis, croup, tracheobronchitis, otitis media, hepatitis and some other diseases. The most common complication of measles is pneumonia. In rare cases, measles can cause life-long disability due to brain damage.

Immunity. After a naturally borne illness, a person develops the most stable immunity. Recurrent measles infections are extremely rare. Immunity after vaccination is more short-lived, approximately 10 years after vaccination, only 36% of vaccinated people retain protective antibody titers.

Prevention. Immunization with a live vaccine is a reliable method of preventing measles. The vaccine provides a protective effect for about 10-15 years. The live vaccine is not prescribed for pregnant women, patients with tuberculosis, leukemia, lymphoma and HIV. The first vaccination is given to children aged about 1 year, the second vaccination is given to children aged 15-18 months.

INFECTIOUS INCIDENCE – Regional budgetary health care institution “City Clinical Hospital No. 4”



Diphtheria is an infectious disease, known for a very long time, caused by the bacterium Corynebacterium diphtheriae (Loeffler’s bacillus).

Diphtheria most often affects the oropharynx, but often affects the larynx, bronchi, skin and other organs. The infection is transmitted by airborne droplets from a sick person to a healthy one. A contact-household route of transmission of the disease is possible, especially in hot countries, where cutaneous forms of manifestation are frequent.

The severity of the course of diphtheria is due to the extremely poisonous toxin that the diphtheria bacillus secretes. It is the diphtheria toxin that affects the nervous, cardiovascular and excretory systems that poses the main danger to health and life.If diphtheria affects the oropharynx, then in addition to severe intoxication, it is possible to develop croup – suffocation, which develops with obstruction of the airways due to the developing edema and mechanical obstruction (blockage) of their diphtheria film. Modern medicine distinguishes several types of diphtheria. This is diphtheria of the nose, eyes, pharynx, larynx, skin, wounds, and also genitals. There are cases when this infectious disease captures several zones of the human body at once. The most dangerous for those around them are people suffering from diphtheria of the pharynx, nose and larynx, intensively releasing infection into the environment with exhaled air.

Probability of getting sick

Devastating epidemics of diphtheria, predominantly children, have been described in many countries throughout history. In countries with low immunization coverage, diphtheria remains a significant health problem for children. Where vaccination coverage is high and the natural booster effect is low (as is seen in most industrialized countries), a significant proportion of the adult population is gradually becoming susceptible to diphtheria as a result of decreased immunity.


The most common form of diphtheria (90-95% of all cases) is oropharyngeal diphtheria. With a localized form, plaque is formed only on the tonsils. Symptoms of diphtheria are expressed in the form of mild intoxication, fever up to 38-39 0 C, headache, malaise, minor pain when swallowing. The most typical is the filmy (continuous) form of diphtheria, in which a film with outlined edges covers the entire amygdala, it is difficult to remove with a spatula; when trying to remove it, the surface of the tonsil bleeds; the film is dense; lymph nodes are a little painful, mobile.

Complications after a previous illness

The severity of diphtheria is determined by dangerous complications. The toxin can cause infectious toxic shock (a complex pathological shift in the activity of all vital systems of the body), myocarditis (inflammation of the heart muscle), multiple lesions of the nerve trunks, inflammation and degeneration of the renal tubules, etc.

Most often, diphtheria proceeds with complications in the form of paralysis of the soft palate, vocal cords, neck muscles, respiratory tract and limbs.Due to paralysis of the respiratory tract, asphyxia (with croup) can occur, causing death.

With a localized form of pharyngeal diphtheria, complications occur in 5-20% of cases; with more serious forms of the disease, the percentage of complications increases significantly. The more complex the clinical form of diphtheria, the faster the complications appear in the patient.

The heart suffers first of all: at the end of the 1st – 2nd week of the disease, myocarditis (inflammation of the heart muscle) occurs, which is the most common cause of death.Inflammation of the kidneys occurs during the most acute period of the disease. The nervous system is affected both with clinical manifestations of diphtheria and 2-3 months after recovery.

A typical complication of diphtheria is peripheral paralysis, which can be early or late. Early paralysis appears in the acute period of the disease, mainly the cranial nerves are involved in the process. In this case, the voice becomes nasal, the patient chokes while eating, liquid food pours out through the nose, the palatine curtain hangs motionlessly.With accommodation paralysis, the patient cannot distinguish between small objects at close range, read, becomes farsighted. Possible strabismus, ptosis, facial paralysis.


Before receiving anti-diphtheria antitoxic serum lethality from diphtheria reached 50-60%. After the appearance of antitoxic serum, a progressive sequential decrease in mortality began: 20% in adults and 10% in children. Following the introduction of active immunization, the incidence began to decline rapidly, diphtheria almost ceased to play a role in the mortality of the child population.


Treatment of diphtheria is carried out only in a hospital setting. Hospitalization is compulsory for all patients, as well as for patients with suspected diphtheria and bacterial carriers. Antibiotics (penicillin or erythromycin) do not affect lesions caused by exotoxin, but limit further bacterial growth and the duration of carriage of the causative agent of diphtheria, which often continues even after clinical recovery. The main thing in the treatment of all forms of diphtheria (except for the carrier of bacteria) is the introduction of antitoxic antidiphtheria serum (PDS), which suppresses diphtheria toxin.The dose of antidiphtheria serum is determined by the severity of the disease. If a localized form is suspected, serum administration can be delayed until the diagnosis is clarified. If the doctor suspects a toxic form of diphtheria, then serum treatment should be started immediately.

Unfortunately, diphtheria disease does not always create protective immunity. Therefore, persons recovering from diphtheria should complete active immunization with diphtheria toxoid during the course of the recovery process.

Vaccination efficiency

Diphtheria toxoid in combination with tetanus and pertussis vaccines (ACP) has been used in the WHO Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) since its inception in 1974.During the period 1980-2000. the total number of reported cases of diphtheria has been reduced by more than 90%. Introduction in 1994 of mass immunization of the population of Russia against diphtheria with repeated revaccination of adults in 2003-2004. allowed to provide sufficient specific protection of the population from this infection. This, together with long-term surveillance, led to a decrease in the incidence of diphtheria in Russia from 26.8 in 1994 to 0.01 per 100 thousand population in 2009-2011. The effectiveness of modern vaccines is 95%.The World Health Organization recommended vaccination in all countries of the world without exception.


Active routine vaccination of the population with vaccinations containing adsorbed diphtheria toxoid (combined vaccines: DPT, Bubo-Kok, Bubo-M, Tetraksim, Pentaxim, Infanrix, Infanrix Hexa; toxoids : ADS, ADS-M, AD-M). Vaccination is carried out in accordance with the vaccination calendar . This allows you to create long-term and anti-toxic immunity.

Historical information and interesting facts

Already in the first century AD, you can find mention of diphtheria, then called “strangled loop” or “fatal ulcer of the pharynx.” The very first vaccination was made and applied on a person by Emil Bering. On December 26, 1891, he saved the life of a sick child by giving him the first diphtheria vaccine. By the way, the first vaccination was made from the serum of a guinea pig who had had diphtheria.And all the previous studies were carried out on these animals. After that, Emile Roux began to vaccinate for large-scale use, using the blood of immunized horses. Thanks to this vaccine, the lethality from diphtheria dropped to 1%. The now used diphtheria toxoid was discovered only in 1923 by Gaston Ramon, who was a biologist and veterinarian by training.


Tetanus is an infectious disease caused by toxic strains of the rod-shaped bacterium Clostridium tetani , often fatal.The disease is still a major public health problem in many parts of the world, in particular in the poorest parts of developing countries in the tropics. This is an acute infectious disease. Clostridium tetani enters the body through a wound or cut, often infection occurs with burns and frostbite. Bacteria can enter the body even through small scratches (but deep stab wounds and skin lesions are especially dangerous), as well as in some inflammatory diseases (gangrene, abscesses, ulcers, bedsores, etc.).etc.). Newborns can be infected through the umbilical cord.

Probability of getting sick

80% of cases of tetanus occur in newborns (with infection through the umbilical cord), as well as in boys under 15 years of age due to their increased injury rate. Among adults, about 60% of tetanus cases occur in the elderly. The largest percentage of cases and deaths is observed in rural areas.

Symptoms and nature of the course of the disease

The incubation period is from 2 to 40, usually 4-14 days.The shortest incubation period is with a wound to the head or neck. The shorter the incubation period, the more severe the disease.

In most patients, tetanus begins suddenly – with spasms and difficulty opening the mouth (trismus), which is associated with tonic tension of the masticatory muscles. Further, the pathological process quickly captures the muscles of the back, abdomen, limbs. Sometimes there is complete stiffness of the trunk and limbs, with the exception of the hands and feet. Painful cramps occur, initially limited, and then spreading to large muscle groups, which last from a few seconds to several minutes.In mild cases, convulsions occur several times a day, in severe cases, they last almost continuously. Convulsions appear spontaneously or with minor irritations (touch, light, voice). Depending on the tension of a particular muscle group, the patient’s body can take on the most bizarre poses. All muscles are so tense that you can see their contours.

Complications after a previous illness

The prognosis of the onset of the disease is unfavorable. Despite the achievements of modern medicine, even in developed countries, up to 17-25% of cases die.In developing countries, the mortality rate reaches 80%, the mortality rate of newborns is 95%.

During the height of the disease, against the background of muscle spasm and congestion, bronchitis, pneumonia, myocardial infarction, sepsis, bone and spinal fractures, dislocations, muscle and tendon ruptures, muscle tearing from bones, venous thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, pulmonary edema may occur.

Later complications include weakness, tachycardia, deformity of the spine, contractures of muscles and joints, temporary paralysis of the cranial nerves.

Death rate

Mortality in tetanus is very high (higher only in rabies and pneumonic plague). It is currently not possible to reduce mortality rates due to the development of complications such as pneumonia, sepsis and heart paralysis caused by bacterial toxin.

In the world, the total death rate from tetanus can be estimated at 350-400 thousand people annually.

Features of treatment

The patient is subject to immediate hospitalization in a specialized hospital.He is placed in a separate darkened room, where the possibility of exposure to external stimuli (noise, light, etc.) is excluded. Round-the-clock medical supervision is being established. The patient should not leave the bed. Nutrition of patients during the height of the disease is very difficult, since strong muscle tension prevents the introduction of food through a tube and intravenously. The period of inpatient treatment is 1 to 3 months.

Effectiveness of vaccination

The efficacy and efficacy of tetanus toxoid has been documented.In recent years, an average of 30-35 cases of human tetanus have been recorded in Russia per year, of which 12-14 end in the death of the patient, the rest – in recovery. The probability of death is thus 39%. Most of the cases are people over 65 years of age (70% of cases) who have not been vaccinated against tetanus.


The only preventive measure is vaccination, the effectiveness of which is 95-100%.

Historical information and interesting facts

The doctors of the most ancient civilizations of Egypt, Greece, India and China drew attention to the connection between injuries and the development of tetanus.For the first time, the clinical picture of this disease was described by Hippocrates, whose son died of tetanus. Galen, Avicenna, Ambroise Paré and other famous doctors of antiquity and the Middle Ages were engaged in the study of this disease.

The scientific study of tetanus began in the second half of the 19th century. The causative agent of the disease was discovered almost simultaneously by the Russian surgeon ND Monastyrsky (in 1883) and the German scientist A. Nikolayer (in 1884).

Hepatitis B


Hepatitis B (HVB) is a viral infection of the liver that can cause both acute and chronic illness.

The virus is transmitted by contact with the blood or other body fluids of an infected person. The hepatitis B virus can survive outside the body for at least 7 days. During this time, the virus is still able to cause infection if it enters the body of a person who is not protected by the vaccine.

Hepatitis B is a global health problem. The virus can lead to the development of chronic liver disease and pose a high risk of death from cirrhosis and liver cancer.According to WHO estimates, about 2 billion people worldwide have been infected with this virus, more than 350 million people are sick.

Approximately 780,000 people die each year from this infection – 650,000 from cirrhosis and liver cancer due to chronic hepatitis B, and another 130,000 from acute hepatitis B.

Hepatitis B is a serious occupational risk for healthcare workers.

However, the disease can be prevented with a currently available safe and effective vaccine, which has been successfully used since 1982.Its effectiveness in preventing infection and the development of cirrhosis, as well as primary liver cancer due to hepatitis B, is 95%, which is why it was once called the “first vaccine against cancer.”

Probability of getting sick

In areas with high HBV prevalence, the virus is most commonly transmitted from mother to child during childbirth or from person to person in early childhood.

Hepatitis B is also spread by cutaneous or mucosal exposure to infected blood or various body fluids, as well as saliva, menstrual, vaginal and seminal fluid.Sexual transmission of hepatitis B can occur.

Transmission of the virus can also occur through the reuse of syringes and needles, either in health facilities or among injecting drug users. In addition, infection can occur during medical, surgical or dental procedures, tattooing, or the use of razor blades or similar items that have been contaminated with infected blood.

Despite the fact that Russia belongs to the countries with a moderate rate of infection with hepatitis B, the risk of contracting this virus throughout life for each of us is 20-60%.


The incubation period for hepatitis B lasts an average of 75 days, but can increase to 180 days. The virus can be detected 30-60 days after infection.

During the acute or chronic stage of infection, most people do not experience any symptoms. However, in some people, acute hepatitis B infection can have symptoms that last for several weeks, including yellowing of the skin and eyes (jaundice), dark urine, excessive fatigue, nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain.A relatively small number of people with acute hepatitis may develop acute liver failure, often leading to death (fulminant hepatitis).

Complications after a previous illness

Hepatitis B is dangerous in its consequences: it is one of the main causes of liver cirrhosis and the main cause of hepatocellular liver cancer. The likelihood that hepatitis B viral infection will become chronic depends on the age at which the person acquires the infection.Chronic infections are most likely to develop in children infected before the age of six:

  • chronic infections develop in 80-90% of children infected during the first year of life;
  • Chronic infections develop in 30-50% of children infected before the age of six.
  • 15-25% of adults who become chronically infected during childhood die from liver cancer or cirrhosis.

Among adults:

  • Chronic infections develop in <5% of otherwise healthy infected adults;
  • 20% –30% of chronically infected adults develop cirrhosis and / or liver cancer.

The probability of complete recovery from chronic hepatitis B is low – about 10%. But the state of relative health (remission), in which the patient is practically not bothered by the virus, can be achieved in more than 80% of cases.


People with chronic hepatitis B who need treatment can be treated with drugs, including oral antiviral drugs (such as tenofovir and entecavir) and interferon injections.Treatment of hepatitis B can slow the progression of cirrhosis, reduce the incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma, and improve long-term survival. However, in many resource-limited areas, access to such treatment is difficult.

Liver cancer is almost always fatal and often develops in people of the most productive age who support their families. In developing countries, most people with liver cancer die within a few months of being diagnosed.In high-income countries, surgery and chemotherapy can prolong life by several years. Liver transplants are sometimes performed in patients with cirrhosis, with varying success.

In many countries, where typically 8% to 15% of children have had chronic hepatitis B virus infection, vaccination has reduced chronic infection rates among immunized children to less than 1%.

Vaccines and vaccination efficacy

Preventive vaccination is the basis for the prevention of hepatitis B.WHO recommends that all infants receive the hepatitis B vaccine as soon as possible after birth, preferably within 24 hours. If a child does not receive this vaccine at the hospital, the risk of infection increases significantly, and if a newborn is infected in the neonatal period, cirrhosis of the liver develops already in adolescence.

The dose given at birth must be followed by two or three subsequent doses to complete the vaccination series.In most cases, one of the following two options is considered optimal:

  • 3-dose hepatitis B vaccine regimen, in which the first dose (monovalent vaccine) is given at birth and the second at 1 month of age, which is also very important as this dose minimizes the risk of infection of the baby from infected family members. The third dose (monovalent or combination vaccine) is administered at 6 months, simultaneously with the DPT vaccine, which determines the duration of the immunity against hepatitis B.
  • A four-dose regimen where the first dose of monovalent vaccine given at birth is followed by 3 doses of monovalent or combination vaccine, usually given with other vaccines as part of routine childhood immunization, is indicated for children born to mothers infected with or with hepatitis B.

After a full series of vaccinations, more than 95% of infants, children of other age groups and young adults develop protective antibody levels.Protection lasts for at least 20 years, and possibly a lifetime. In many countries, where typically 8% to 15% of children have had chronic hepatitis B virus infection, vaccination has reduced chronic infection rates among immunized children to less than 1%.

Historical information and interesting facts

The likelihood of contracting hepatitis B is significantly higher than the likelihood of contracting HIV or the hepatitis C virus. If you drop a drop of contaminated blood into a bucket of water, wet a needle in it and inject yourself, the probability of infection will be 100%.

Measles is an extremely contagious severe disease of viral origin (the contagiousness index is close to 100%).

Measles is one of the leading causes of death among young children, despite the availability of a safe vaccine, in the pre-vaccination era, measles was called “childhood plague.”

The virus is transmitted by airborne droplets through coughing and sneezing and through close personal contact. The virus remains active in the air or on infected surfaces for 2 hours.It can be transmitted by an infected person about 4 days before the rash appears and up to 4 days after the rash appears. From the 5th day of the rash, the patient is considered non-infectious.

Measles outbreaks can take the form of epidemics that are fatal, especially among malnourished young children.

Probability of getting sick

If a person who has not previously had measles and has not been vaccinated, comes into contact with a patient with measles – the probability of getting sick is extremely high.This infection is almost 100% susceptible.

Unvaccinated young children are at the highest risk of developing measles and developing complications, including death. Unvaccinated pregnant women are also at risk.

Symptoms and nature of the course of the disease

The first sign of measles is usually a significant increase in temperature, which occurs approximately 8-14 (rarely up to 17 days) days after infection and lasts from 4 to 7 days.At this initial stage, a runny nose, cough, redness of the eyes and watery eyes may appear, as well as small white spots on the inner surface of the cheeks. A rash appears after a few days, usually on the face and upper neck. After about 3 days, the rash spreads throughout the body and eventually appears on the arms and legs. It lasts 5-6 days and then disappears. On average, the rash appears 14 days (7 to 18 days) after exposure to the virus. The rash consists of small papules surrounded by a spot and prone to fusion (this is its characteristic difference from rubella, the rash in which does not merge).

The reverse development of the elements of the rash begins from the 4th day of the rash: the temperature normalizes, the rash darkens, turns brown, pigments, flakes (in the same sequence as the rash). Pigmentation lasts 1-1.5 weeks.

Complications after a previous illness

In 30% of cases, measles leads to complications. Most often, complications develop in children under the age of five or in adults over 20 years of age. The most serious complications include blindness, encephalitis (inflammatory changes due to measles infection, leading to swelling of the brain substance), severe diarrhea and associated dehydration, otitis media, primary measles, secondary bacterial pneumonia.

Infected women during pregnancy are also at risk of developing severe complications; the pregnancy itself may end in spontaneous abortion or premature birth.


An estimated 2.6 million deaths from measles occurred in 1980, prior to widespread vaccination.

Currently, in populations with high levels of malnutrition and in the absence of adequate medical care, up to 10% of measles cases are fatal.

Peculiarities of treatment

Serious complications of measles can be avoided with supportive care that ensures good nutrition, adequate fluid intake, and treatment of dehydration with WHO-recommended rehydration solutions. These solutions replace fluid and other important micronutrients that are lost through diarrhea and vomiting.

There are no specific antiviral drugs for the treatment of measles!

Antibiotics should be given to treat eye and ear infections.All children in developing countries diagnosed with measles should receive 2 doses of vitamin A supplements 24 hours apart. This treatment can restore the low vitamin A levels seen during measles, even in well-nourished children, and may help prevent eye damage and blindness. Experience has shown that vitamin A supplementation has been shown to reduce measles deaths by 50%.

Symptomatic treatment includes mucolytics, anti-inflammatory aerosols to relieve airway inflammation.In the case of pneumonia or other bacterial complications in measles, antibiotics are indicated, in severe cases of croup, corticosteroids are used.

Children with measles are not recommended to take aspirin, aspirin can lead to the development of Reye’s syndrome (hepatic encephalopathy up to the development of deep coma due to the intake of acetylsalicylic acid against the background of a viral infection). Ibuprofen and paracetamol can be used to combat fever and pain.

Vaccination efficiency

Accelerated immunization activities have had a significant impact on reducing measles deaths.In 2000-2016. measles vaccination has prevented an estimated 17.1 million deaths. Global measles deaths fell by 75%, from 544,200 deaths in 2000 to 116,900 in 2017, making the measles vaccine one of the most beneficial public health gains.


The measles vaccine was first developed in 1966. Measles vaccine is often combined with rubella and / or mumps vaccines in countries where rubella is a problem.It is equally effective as a monovaccine or as a combined preparation.

Historical information and interesting facts

The disease has been known for two millennia. The first description of the disease was made by the Arab physician Razes. In the 17th century, the Englishman Sydenham and the Frenchman Morton, however, only in the 18th century was measles isolated as an independent disease. The virus was first isolated in 1967, and in 1969 it was possible to prove that it is measles that is the cause of sclerosing panencephalitis.In 1919, a serum for the treatment of measles was first produced.



Rubella is a contagious and usually mild infection. Rubella virus is transmitted by airborne droplets when an infected person sneezes or coughs. Man is the only known carrier of the rubella virus. In children, the disease is usually mild, but in pregnant women it is

can have serious consequences, causing fetal death or congenital malformations known as congenital rubella syndrome (CRS), otherwise known as Gregg’s syndrome (triad), which includes damage to the cardiovascular system, eyes and hearing aids.Since primary maternal infection goes unnoticed in 50 percent of cases, it is estimated that 110,000 children with CRS are born worldwide every year!

Probability of getting sick

Rubella most commonly affects children and young people, but adults can also get sick. If a woman is infected with rubella virus early in her pregnancy, there is a 90% chance that she will transmit the virus to her fetus. In addition, babies with CRS can shed the virus for a year or more after birth.

Symptoms and nature of the course of the disease

In children, the disease is usually mild, with symptoms including a mild fever (<37.5 0 C), vomiting and mild conjunctivitis, a rash that appears in 50-80% of cases, usually first on the face and neck , then descends lower in the body and lasts 1-3 days. In adults, rubella is much more severe than in children – with fever, malaise, intoxication of the body, eye damage and body aches.Infected adults, more commonly women, may develop arthritis with joint pain, usually lasting 3-10 days. After infection, the virus spreads in the human body within 5-7 days. Symptoms usually appear after 2 to 3 weeks.

Complications after a previous illness

Children with CRS can suffer from hearing impairment, eye defects, heart defects, and other lifelong disabilities, including autism, diabetes mellitus, and thyroid dysfunction.

Among other things, the disease can cause complications in the form of damage to the small joints of the hands. The most formidable complication is rubella (measles-like) encephalitis (inflammation of the brain), its frequency is 1: 5000-1: 6000 cases.

In 15% of cases, rubella in pregnant women leads to miscarriage, stillbirth. When rubella is detected, an artificial termination of pregnancy is always carried out.


No data.

Peculiarities of treatment

There is no specific treatment for rubella.For symptomatic therapy, paracetamol preparations are used.

After a disease, lifelong immunity develops, but its tension with age and under the influence of various circumstances may decrease. Thus, a childhood rubella disease cannot serve as a 100% guarantee against recurrence.

Vaccination efficiency

Like any disease, rubella is easier to prevent than to cure. The main methods of preventing this disease include vaccination.The rubella vaccine, a live attenuated strain, has been in use for over 40 years. A single dose provides over 95% of lasting immunity.

In Russia, which began mass vaccination only in 2002–2003, great success has been achieved: in 2012, the incidence fell to 0.67 per 100 thousand.


Rubella vaccines are either monovalent (a vaccine directed only against rubella) or, most often, combined with other vaccines such as measles (CM), measles and mumps (CSK) or measles, mumps and chickenpox vaccines ( KSKV).Adverse reactions to vaccinations are usually mild. These can include pain and redness at the injection site, mild fever, rashes, and muscle aches.

Historical information and interesting facts

Rubella was first described in 1740 by the German physician F. Hoffmann. About 150 years ago, it was considered mild measles. In 1938, Japanese researchers proved the viral nature of the infection by infecting volunteers with nasopharyngeal filtrate. The causative agent of rubella was isolated in 1961.several scientists almost simultaneously – P. D. Parkman, T. X. Weller and F. A. Neva.



Influenza is an acute respiratory viral infection that mainly affects the nose, throat, bronchi and sometimes the lungs. The flu spreads easily from person to person. It periodically spreads in the form of epidemics and pandemics. The causative agents of this disease are influenza viruses of three types: A, B, C. These viruses have the ability to change rapidly, as they constantly circulate among people and exchange genetic material.Among the many subtypes of influenza A viruses, the subtypes A (h2N1) and A (h4N2) are currently mainly circulating. Influenza epidemics caused by serotype A occur approximately every 2-3 years, and those caused by serotype B occur every 4-6 years. There are flu cases in all parts of the world. Cases of influenza type C are much less common than types A and B. For this reason, seasonal influenza vaccines contain only type A and B viruses.

Probability of getting sick

Influenza is common throughout the world and can affect anyone in any age group.Influenza is globally prevalent and annual prevalence rates are estimated at 5% -10% in adults and 20% -30% in children. The influenza virus can lead to hospitalization and death, mainly in high-risk groups (young children, pregnant women, the elderly or chronically ill people). According to WHO estimates, from all variants of the influenza virus during seasonal epidemics in the world annually die from 250 to 500 thousand people (most of them are over 65 years old), in some years the number of deaths can reach a million.


Seasonal influenza is easily transmitted and can spread rapidly in schools, nursing homes, businesses and cities. When an infected person coughs, the virus-infected droplets are released into the air. They can be inhaled by another person and exposed to the virus. The flu can also be spread through hands that are infected with the virus. The period between infection and illness, known as the incubation period, lasts about two days. Seasonal flu is characterized by symptoms in the form of a sudden onset of high fever (38 C – 40 C), cough (usually dry, tense, accompanied by pain behind the breastbone), headache and muscle pain, joint pain, severe malaise (feeling unwell), pain in throat.As a rule, there is no runny nose.

Complications after a previous illness

Annual influenza epidemics can have a serious impact on all age groups. The risk of complications from influenza is highest – in children under 2 years of age, adults aged 65 and over, and people of any age with certain medical conditions (chronic heart, lung, kidney, blood and metabolic disease (such as diabetes) or with a weakened immune system, as well as in women during pregnancy.The disease can lead to hospitalization and death, mainly among these high-risk groups. The influenza virus suppresses the body’s immune responses, so a person’s ability to resist disease is significantly reduced.

There are several main types of complications in influenza:

Pulmonary: bacterial pneumonia, hemorrhagic pneumonia, the formation of a lung abscess, the formation of pleural empyema (inflammation of the pleural sheets, accompanied by the formation of purulent exudate in the pleural cavity), acute respiratory distress syndrome.

Extrapulmonary: bacterial rhinitis, sinusitis, otitis media, tracheobronchitis, viral encephalitis, meningitis, neuritis, radiculoneuritis, liver damage (Reye’s syndrome), toxic-allergic shock.

Death rate

From complications caused by influenza, according to WHO, from 250 to 500 thousand people die

annually. At the same time, the main mortality occurs in the elderly (most of whom have some kind of chronic disease), as well as in people of any age with chronic diseases.

Influenza during pregnancy

  • Influenza is incredibly dangerous for pregnant women and newborn babies!
  • Pandemic caused by the virus A / h3N2 / 1957 – mortality among women at different stages of pregnancy was more than 50%;
  • Pandemic caused by the A / h2N1 / 2009 virus – according to various sources, mortality among pregnant women was 6,% in the UK, up to 16% in the USA and Australia, and 42.8% in Russia (for example, the Ulyanovsk region);
  • Perinatal mortality among infants born to pregnant women with influenza – 39: 1000 compared with the same indicator in children from mothers uninfected with influenza – 7: 1000.


Until recently, the treatment of influenza was usually symptomatic, in the form of antipyretic, expectorant and antitussive agents, as well as vitamins. Now, with the help of modern antiviral drugs for influenza, it is possible to effectively prevent and treat the disease. They should be taken as early as possible (within 48 hours of symptom onset). However, some influenza viruses develop antiviral drug resistance, limiting the effectiveness of treatment.

Uncomplicated influenza is not treated with antibiotics, since antibiotics are indicated only for the treatment of bacterial infections (to which influenza does not apply).

It should also be noted that most medicines for the treatment of influenza are initially taken by people on their own, and not as prescribed by a doctor. Self-medication in case of influenza is unacceptable and leads to the loss of precious time!

Effectiveness of vaccination

Vaccination is an effective way to prevent disease or its severe consequences.Safe and effective vaccines have been available and used for over 60 years. In healthy people, the influenza vaccine may provide moderate protection. However, among older people, the influenza vaccine may be less effective at preventing illness, but it can reduce the severity of the flu and reduce the incidence of complications and death.

The effectiveness of immunization with modern influenza vaccines is 70-90% and depends both on the specific vaccine, the condition of its storage and transportation, and on the epidemiological situation at a particular time, on the characteristics of the human body and other factors.

Influenza vaccination during pregnancy reduces the likelihood of illness and the severity of infection in children under 6 months of age, for whom there are no flu vaccines and specific antiviral therapy, since: the risk of infection of the mother after childbirth, and, accordingly, of the child in the first months of life; passive immunity is formed in the child due to the transfer of antibodies against influenza from the mother to the fetus.


For many years, WHO has updated twice a year its recommendations for a vaccine that targets the 3 (trivalent) most common circulating types of virus (two subtypes A and one subtype B influenza viruses).Beginning with the 2013-2014 influenza season in the northern hemisphere, a quadrivalent vaccine formulation is recommended that includes a second influenza B virus in addition to the viruses found in conventional trivalent vaccines. Quadrivalent vaccines are expected to provide broader protection against influenza B virus infections.

Historical information and interesting facts

The most severe is the 1918 flu pandemic, which is popularly nicknamed “the Spanish flu”.Ultimately, 40% of the world’s population suffered from it. The prevention and early treatment of colds with high doses of vitamin C (ascorbic acid) was promoted by Linus Pauling, because of his authority this method became widespread. A recent detailed study showed that taking 1-4 g of ascorbic acid per day does not lead to a decrease in the number of colds, although it somewhat facilitates their course.


Tuberculosis (consumption) is one of the most common diseases that has been known since antiquity.The causative agent of tuberculosis is the bacterium (Mycobacterium tuberculosis) , which most often affects the lungs.

Tuberculosis (TB) is the second leading cause of death from any one infectious agent, second only to HIV / AIDS. Tuberculosis spreads from person to person through the air. People with pulmonary tuberculosis release bacteria into the air when they cough, sneeze, or cough up. For a person to become infected, it is enough to inhale only a small amount of such bacteria.

Probability of getting sick

Tuberculosis is widespread. According to the WHO, about 2 billion people, almost a third of the world’s population, are infected (people are infected with the tuberculosis bacteria, but have not yet contracted the disease). The risk that infected people will develop tuberculosis in their lifetime is 10%. However, people with weakened immune systems (with HIV, malnutrition, diabetes or tobacco use) are at a much higher risk of the disease, and the incidence of tuberculosis in this category increases 21-34 times.

For a year, a person with tuberculosis can infect up to 10-15 other people with whom he has close contacts.

Symptoms and nature of the course of the disease


Common symptoms of active pulmonary tuberculosis are cough (sometimes with phlegm and blood), chest pain, weakness, weight loss, fever, and night sweats. Many countries still rely on a long-used technique called sputum smear microscopy to diagnose tuberculosis.With three such tests, a diagnosis can be made within one day, but this test does not detect numerous cases of less infectious forms of tuberculosis. The main method for diagnosing tuberculosis is a mandatory annual fluorographic examination.

It is especially difficult to diagnose tuberculosis in children. In 2016, about 550,000 children contracted tuberculosis and 80,000 HIV-negative children died from it. The causative agent of tuberculosis can live in the human body for years.When a person develops active tuberculosis, symptoms (cough, fever, night sweats, weight loss, etc.) may be mild for many months. This can lead to delays in seeking medical attention and the transmission of bacteria to other people.

Complications after a previous illness

Complications of tuberculosis are extremely dangerous. The most common complications of pulmonary tuberculosis include pulmonary hemorrhage, tuberculous pleurisy, tuberculous pneumonia, miliary tuberculosis (spread of tuberculosis infection to other organs and systems), and the development of pulmonary decompensated heart.Pulmonary hemorrhage may have the appearance of hemoptysis. Prolonged pulmonary hemorrhage without timely assistance can lead to a sharp weakening of the body, acute anemia and, in especially severe cases, the death of the patient.

The most severe complication of pulmonary tuberculosis is the spread of tuberculosis infection to other organs and systems. With miliary tuberculosis, there is a lesion of the membranes of the brain, the so-called meningeal form. In these cases, severe headaches, impaired consciousness, high body temperature, slow pulse, paralysis are observed.For a rapidly growing organism, tuberculosis can have serious consequences, including brain damage, and this entails a delay in mental and physical development. HIV and tuberculosis are a deadly combination, the components of which accelerate each other’s development. Approximately 25% of deaths among people with HIV are caused by tuberculosis.

480,000 people worldwide have developed multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). Disease caused by resistant bacteria does not respond to conventional first-line treatment.MDR-TB can be treated and cured with second-line drugs. However, the choice of second-line drugs is limited and recommended drugs are not readily available. The extensive chemotherapy required (treatment lasting up to 2 years) is more expensive and can cause severe adverse reactions in patients.

Death rate

In the absence of proper treatment, up to two thirds of people with tuberculosis die. In 2015, 9 million people fell ill with tuberculosis and 1.5 million people died from the disease.

Features of treatment

Treatment of tuberculosis, especially of its extrapulmonary forms, is a complex matter that requires a lot of time and patience, as well as an integrated approach.

In fact, from the very beginning of the use of antibiotic therapy, the phenomenon of drug resistance arose. Therefore, today the basis of tuberculosis treatment is multicomponent anti-tuberculosis chemotherapy. Thanks to this, tuberculosis can be treated and cured. In the case of active, drug-sensitive tuberculosis, a standard 6-month course of treatment with 4 antimicrobial drugs is given.

Effectiveness of vaccination

BCG vaccination is mandatory in 64 states and officially recommended in 118 countries and territories (a total of 270 countries and territories in the world). Over the past 70 years, hundreds of millions of people have been immunized around the world. In highly developed countries, where the incidence is low, only risk groups are vaccinated (immigrants from countries with high incidence in areas of their dense residence, people who have contacts with sick people, etc.).


BCG vaccine, the only TB vaccine currently available, provides protection against TB meningitis and disseminated TB in infants and young children.However, it does not prevent primary infection or reactivation of latent tuberculosis, which is the main source of the spread of mycobacteria among the population. Both of these conditions are usually fatal if left untreated.

Historical information and interesting facts

Doctors of ancient Greece and Rome, in particular Hippocrates, described the clinical picture of pulmonary consumption. The causative agent of tuberculosis – mycobacterium tuberculosis (MBT) – was discovered in 1882 by R. Koch.Tuberculosis is a terrible disease that has claimed millions of lives, and an insidious disease. The day of the discovery of mycobacterium tuberculosis by Robert Koch March 20 is declared by WHO as the world day against tuberculosis.

Pneumococcal infection

Diseases caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae ( S. Pneumoniae or pneumococci) and pneumotropic infections are a major public health problem worldwide.

There are invasive and non-invasive forms of pneumococcal diseases. Invasive pneumococcal infection (IPI) includes a number of serious and life-threatening diseases: bacteremia without a visible focus of infection, meningitis, pneumonia, sepsis, pericarditis, arthritis. Non-invasive forms of pneumococcal infection are bronchitis, community-acquired pneumonia, otitis media, sinusitis, conjunctivitis.

According to statistics, up to 70% of all pneumonia, about 25% of otitis media, 5-15% of purulent meningitis, about 3% of endocarditis are caused by pneumococcus S.Pneumoniae.

Pneumococcal infection is usually a complication of other infections. Examples are pneumococcal pneumonia, otitis media (otitis media) in children after or against the background of the flu, or measles, or any other respiratory viral infection.

Pneumococcal infection is spread by airborne droplets, for example, by coughing (especially with close contact). The source of infection can be a person without any clinical manifestations. Seasonality data for diseases caused by S.Pneumoniae are quite controversial. However, a number of authors note an increase in morbidity in the autumn-winter period, which is characteristic of a number of other pneumotropic infections.

Children in the first years of life are the main carriers of pneumococci, infecting adults. With the usual frequency of carriage in adults of 5–7% among adults living with children, it reaches 30%.

Probability of getting sick

The highest incidence of severe pneumococcal infections is recorded in children under the age of 5 and among the elderly (over 65).Especially defenseless against pneumococcus are young children under 2 years old, whose body is not able to resist infection. For this age group, this is infection No. 1 and the most common cause of severe forms of pneumonia, otitis media, meningitis. Among the elderly, the most vulnerable are those who are constantly in special institutions for the care of the elderly.

In addition, the risk groups for the incidence of pneumococcal infection include children and adults with chronic diseases of the cardiovascular, respiratory systems, diabetes mellitus, liver cirrhosis, chronic renal failure, Hodgkin’s disease; children and adults with oncohematological diseases; HIV-infected; children and adults with cerebrospinal fluid leakage; children and adults after cochlear implantation; children and adults with sickle cell disease; with anatomical asplenia, or planning or already undergoing spleen removal.This should also include the so-called “organized” contingents (children attending preschool institutions, students living in dormitories, military personnel, residents of disabled homes, prisoners and other adults and children in overcrowded conditions). The presence of bad habits (alcohol, smoking) is also a risk factor.


Symptoms of a pneumococcal infection causing pneumonia include fever, cough, shortness of breath, and chest pain. Symptoms of pneumococcal purulent meningitis are stiff neck, severe headache, fever, confusion and disorientation, photophobia.The initial manifestations of pneumococcal bacteremia (blood poisoning, the most severe form with a mortality rate of up to 50%) may be similar to some of the symptoms of pneumonia and meningitis, and may include joint pain and chills.

In this regard, doctors again and again warn about the danger of self-medication! You cannot try to cope with the disease on your own, guided as a methodological guide by commercials of various drugs and their availability in pharmacy chains.

Complications after a previous illness

Pneumococcal meningitis is particularly severe, the frequency of which is about 8 per 100 thousand children under 5 years of age. Complications in the form of mental retardation, impaired motor activity, epilepsy and deafness occur significantly more often than in the outcome of bacterial meningitis of a different etiology.

Pneumonia caused by pneumococcus S. pneumoniae , more often than others, is complicated by pulmonary empyema (accumulation of pus in the pleural cavity, causing a decrease in the respiratory surface of the lung tissue), which leads to death (up to 2/3 of cases for empyema).

Pneumococcal bacteremia in most cases (up to 80%) proceeds with symptoms of fever without a focus of infection.

According to world statistics, the proportion of pneumococcal otitis media is from 28 to 55% of all registered cases. Pneumococcal acute otitis media are characterized by a more severe course and a high risk of otogenic complications, including a tendency to perforation of the tympanic membrane. Pneumococcal otitis media is the most common cause of hearing loss in children.


According to WHO, pneumococcal infection is recognized as the most dangerous of all diseases preventable by vaccine prophylaxis and, before the introduction of universal vaccination, annually led to the death of 1.6 million people, of which from 0.7 to 1 million are children, which is 40% of child mortality the first 5 years of life.


A global problem in the world is the growth of resistance (resistance) of pneumococcus to antibiotics – this means that antibiotic treatment of pneumococcal infection is often ineffective.The main factor in the development of antibiotic resistance of pneumococcus is the irrational use of antibacterial drugs. According to the latest data, up to 10% of strains of pneumococcal infection have acquired resistance to combinations of broad-spectrum penicillin with β-lactamase inhibitors, which is prognostically extremely unfavorable, since due to the rapid development of the disease (2-3 days) the time for determining the sensitivity to antibiotics , as a rule, not, and patients with severe pneumococcal infection often die, despite the introduction of standard antibacterial drugs.

Vaccination efficiency

According to WHO, world experience has shown that mass vaccination reduces the incidence of pneumococcal meningitis and severe pneumonia in children by more than 80%, and the incidence of all pneumonia and otitis media by more than a third. The carriage of pneumococci in children is reduced, respectively, and unvaccinated children and adults are less ill. The World Health Organization predicts that the global use of pneumococcal vaccination will prevent 5.4 to 7.7 million child deaths by 2030.

Vaccination is the only highly effective way to significantly affect the morbidity and mortality from pneumococcal infections and to reduce the level of antibiotic resistance S. pneumoniae . With evidence of the safety and efficacy of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines, WHO and UNICEF consider it necessary to include these vaccines for children in all national immunization programs. At the same time, it should be noted that the maximum protective effect is achieved with routine vaccination of all children under 2 years of age, and not only patients at risk.


Vaccination has been used to combat pneumococcal infections for over 30 years. Since 2000, pneumococcal conjugate vaccines have been used in international practice for the immunization of pneumococcal infection in young children.

To date, the following vaccines have been registered in Russia: two pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (10-valent and 13-valent – PCV10 and PCV 13) and one – polysaccharide 23-valent (PPV23).The latter is used in children over 2 years old and in adults. While conjugate vaccines are recommended for immunizing children from 2 months of age and adults aged 50 and over. PCV13 is also registered in the United States and the European Union for use in wider age groups (for children aged 6 weeks – 17 years old and for adults aged 18 years and older). In the near future, Russia is also expected to expand age indications for PCV13.

In 2013, the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine Prevenar13 was awarded the Galen Prize for Best Biotechnological Product of the Year.

Abu Ali Hussein ibn Abdallah ibn Sina

Avicenna – brilliant medieval scientist, physician, philosopher, poet, musician

What made Avicenna famous in history:

His name is Abu Ali Hussein ibn Abdallah ibn Sina (980-1037), but in Europe his name is Avicenna.

Avicenna is one of the people who left a bright mark in the history of mankind.He is known as a doctor, philosopher, mathematician, musician, poet, great scientist, whose works were left in 29 fields of science.

It is difficult to list all his talents. Sometimes nature manifests its miracles so as not to forget about its power, and then such geniuses as Avicenna are born.

He is a great physician who can be compared with Galen and Hippocrates, an outstanding natural scientist of the level of Galileo, mathematician, physicist, chemist, specialist in animal physiology. He also studied music theory, and his knowledge of this came in handy during the Renaissance.

The most ingenious of his books is The Canon of Medicine. But other works also went down in history, became classics – “The Book of Salvation”, “The Book of Knowledge”, “The Book of Instructions and Notes”, “The Book of Fair Trial” …

He was a harbinger of humanism, for his teaching about man is a teaching about the unity of body and soul. And when – in the XI century. Avicenna wrote, as a rule, in Arabic. But this does not mean at all that he is a part of Arab culture. Probably, from his very birth, he belonged to the whole world, his works became the property of all civilizations.

And, nevertheless, to this day they argue whose it is. Turkestan, on whose territory he was born, Uzbekistan, Turkey – all these countries consider Avicenna their property. In Turkey, the monograph “Ibn Sina – the great Turkish scientist” was published relatively recently. The Persians declare in response: “He is ours. He is buried with us. He was at the courts of the emirs. ” His presence is also felt in European culture – already from the 12th century there was a rumor about him. He was a man of world renown. And so it remains today. When the millennium of his birth was celebrated in the 1950s, the whole world took part in the celebration.Huge volumes have been written about him, scientists still use his thoughts, and ordinary people learn wisdom from him.

Ibn Sina had a tremendous influence on classical Iranian, Uzbek, Arabic and Jewish medieval literature. His most famous story was the story “Alive, son of the awake.” Some researchers claim that she influenced the creation of Dante’s Divine Comedy.

How do we know about a person who lived more than 1000 years ago? From himself and his beloved student.The story of Avicenna himself, about his childhood, has survived to this day. The rest was completed by Ubayd al-Jurjani, his favorite student, who spent more than 20 years of his life with him.

From the biography of Avicenna:

Ibn Sina was born in 980 in the small village of Afshana (Central Asia) near Bukhara, the capital of the Samanid state.

Avicenna is born into a wealthy family. Father, Adallah ibn-Hasan, was a tax collector.Not the most respected profession, so to speak, a tax collector. But at the same time he is rich, educated, apparently not stupid. It is known that Avicenna’s father died a natural death, no one killed him or stabbed him for atrocities. Mother Sitara (which means “star”) hails from a small village near Bukhara Afshan. Avicenna was born in this village. So a star gave birth to a star.

When the family moved to the capital, the gifted boy had access to wide knowledge, because at that time Bukhara was an educational center, where various philosophers, doctors, and poets actively gathered to visit the palace library.

Avicenna, in his early childhood, was distinguished by his incredible curiosity, surprising adults with constant questions. The little know-it-all was initially sent to a regular Muslim school, which he attended for 10 years.

In parallel to the school curriculum, Avicena additionally studied grammar, Arabic language, stylistics. When the boy was 10 years old, he already knew the entire Koran by heart, which, according to Muslims, was considered the most venerable sign.

He received his first education by studying theology. Later, the future scientist became interested in secular sciences – mathematics, medicine and philosophy. Already at the age of 20, Avicenna was known as a famous scientist.

After the Sasnids fell in his native country, Ibn Sina traveled to the courts of the Persian princes, serving as a court doctor. He enjoyed authority among his European colleagues in medicine. The result of his medical activity was a fundamental work, an encyclopedia of medicine in 5 volumes – “The Canon of Medicine”.It instantly became popular and was translated into foreign languages, in Latin it was reprinted as many as 30 times.

Fearing the rapidly developing popularity of Avicenna, Muslim theologians all the time tried to convict him of atheism and heresy. In addition to medical work, he wrote natural-scientific and philosophical treatises, poems in Farsi and in Arabic. The main theme of his work was a hymn to enlightenment, the eternity of matter, a hymn to science.

From the age of 18, Avicenna absolutely consciously devoted his life to pursuing science.He wrote a lot, and his fame grew stronger. At the age of 20 he was invited to permanent service to the Khorezm Shah Mamun II in Khorezm. Mamun II was one of the best representatives of the mighty of this world and, of course, the best of those whom Avicenna met on his way. This ruler can be compared, perhaps, with Lorenzo the Magnificent. He also collected outstanding people at court, invited them from everywhere and did not skimp on money, considering the development of culture and science to be of paramount importance.

He, like Lorenzo, created a circle, which was called the Academy of Mamun.There were constant disputes, in which many took part, including Biruni, but Avicenna, as a rule, won. His fame grew, he worked hard, he was revered, recognizing his authority in everything. He was happy.

And here on his life horizon a fatal figure appeared – Sultan Mahmud Gaznevi, the creator of the Gaznevian Sultanate. By origin, he was from among the ghulams, this was the name of the slaves-warriors of Turkic origin. That’s really really from slave filth – to big riches! Such people are distinguished by special arrogance, heightened ambition, self-will, and licentiousness.Having learned that the flower of culture was collected in Bukhara, Mahmud wished that this entire scientific circle was given to him. The ruler of Khorezm received the order: “Immediately all scientists to me” – there, to Persia, to present-day Iran – it was impossible to disobey.

And then the ruler of Khorezm said to the poets and scientists: “Go away, run with the caravan, nothing else I can help you …” Avicenna and his friend secretly fled from Khorezm at night, deciding to cross the Karakum desert. What courage, what despair! For what? In order not to go into the service of Mahmoud, so as not to humiliate himself and show that scientists do not jump on command like trained monkeys.

In the desert, his friend dies of thirst – unable to endure the passage. Avicenna was able to survive. Now he again found himself in Western Iran. A certain emir Qaboos, himself a brilliant poet, who gathered around him a wonderful literary constellation, happily accepted Avicenna. How similar are the figures of the Renaissance, whether in Italy or in the East! For them, the main thing is the life of the spirit, creativity, the search for truth. In a new place, Avicenna began to write his greatest work “The Canon of Medicine.” He lived in a house bought for him – it would seem that this is it, happiness!

However, the thirst for a change of place, a passion for travel, for novelty drove him all his life from places of habitation and tranquility.Eternal wanderer! He left again, again began to wander through the lands of present-day Central Iran. Why didn’t you stay with Qaboos? Among your circle of people, in your home, not knowing need and persecution?

Around 1023 he stops at Hamadan (Central Iran). Having cured the next emir from a gastric disease, he received a good “fee” – he was appointed vizier, minister-adviser. It seems that what else can you dream of! But nothing good came of it.The fact is that he treated the service honestly, thoroughly delved into the details and, as an extremely intelligent and educated person, began to make real proposals regarding the transformation of the system of government and even the army – that’s what is amazing! But Avicenna’s proposals turned out to be absolutely unnecessary for the emir’s entourage. There were their defense ministers! Intrigues began to weave among the courtiers. Envy and anger appeared – after all, the doctor is always so close to the ruler! Things began to take a bad turn, it became clear that he was in danger.For some time he was hiding with friends, but he could not avoid arrest. And then the ruler changed, and the son of the new ruler wanted to have Avicenna by his side – his fame was very great, and his practical medical skills are well known. He spent four months in prison. His imprisonment was not hopelessly difficult, he was allowed to write. When he was released, he set off again with his brother and his devoted disciple. And he ended up in the depths of Persia, Isfahan.

Isfahan – the largest city of that time with a population of about 100,000 people, noisy, beautiful and vibrant.Avicenna spent many years there, becoming a close associate of Emir Alla Addaul. Again he is surrounded by a cultural environment, debates are held again, a relatively calm life flows again. Here he works a lot, writes a lot, in terms of volume, most of all is written in Isfahan. The disciples say that he could work the night away, occasionally refreshing himself with a glass of wine. The Muslim who invigorates his brain with a glass of wine …

Avicenna was in a hurry. As a doctor and sage, he knew that he had little time left to live, and therefore he was in a hurry.What he comprehended then, in those ancient times, seems incredible. For example, he wrote about the role of the retina in the visual process, about the functions of the brain as a center where nerve filaments converge, about the influence of geographic and meteorological conditions on human health. Avicenna was convinced that there were invisible vectors of disease. But with what vision could he see them? How? He spoke about the possibility of spreading infectious diseases through the air, made a description of diabetes, and for the first time distinguished smallpox from measles.Even a simple listing of what he did is astonishing. At the same time, Avicenna wrote poetry, wrote several philosophical works, where he posed the problem of the relationship between material and bodily. In Avicenna’s poetry, his desire to see the world as a single, integral one is very succinctly expressed. Here is his quatrain translated from Farsi: “The earth is the body of the universe, the soul of which is the Lord. And people with angels together give sensual flesh. Particles match the bricks, the world of which is created entirely. Unity, that is perfection.Everything else in the world is a lie. ” What amazing, deep and serious thoughts!

After Avicenna managed to escape through the desert, he hid for a long time from Sultan Mahmud. The ruler stubbornly searched for the fugitive and even sent out in 40 copies something like a leaflet or prescription with a drawing depicting Avicenna. And judging by what was reconstructed from his skull, he was a handsome man, without any particularly pronounced Eastern, Asian or European features.Mahmud was never able to return Avicenna (Ibn Sina). The successor of Sultan Mahmud Masud Ghaznevi in ​​1030 sent his army to Isfahan, where Avicenna was, and made a complete pogrom there. Avicenna experienced a real tragedy: his house was destroyed, many of his works disappeared. In particular, the work in 20 parts of the “Book of Justice” has disappeared forever. This was one of his last books. Perhaps it was in it that his final, deepest thoughts were contained. But we, as you can see, will never know about them.

The circumstances of his personal life are not known either – there is no mention of this in the memoirs of students or simply contemporaries.He wrote poems about women praising beauty, harmony and perfection. And it’s all.

The number of all works of the philosopher in different sources varies. Some historians claim that he created about 453 books of various scientific directions. In Arabic literature, there are about ten works of the philosopher (astronomy, chemistry, alchemy, etc.) in a preserved incomplete manuscript form. Now they are in libraries around the world.

Avicenna lived an interesting life full of ups and downs.After long wanderings, the Muslim scientist could not return to his homeland, he died in a foreign land in 1037.

Avicenna (Ibn Sina) died in a military campaign, accompanying the emir and his benefactor Alla Addaul. As a doctor, he knew that his body had exhausted itself, even though he was only 57 years old. In the past, he has repeatedly healed himself and healed himself. This time Avicenna knew that he was dying, and therefore told his disciples: “It is useless to treat.” He was buried in Hamadan, where his tomb was preserved. In the 50s of the XX century, it was rebuilt anew.Here are the words of Avicenna before death, transmitted to us, descendants, by his disciples: “We die in full consciousness and we take away only one thing: the consciousness that we have not learned anything.” And this was said by a man who enthusiastically devoted his whole life, energy, youth and health to knowledge.

Interesting facts from the life of Avicenna:

1. The native language of Ibn Sina is Farsi-Dari. This is the language of the local inhabitants of Central Asia. On it, the philosopher and scientist wrote gazelles – oriental quatrains.He said that he wrote them for himself, for the soul.

2. At the age of 10, the boy knew the holy book of the Koran by heart.

3. The people surrounding Avicenna were amazed at the success of the talented teenager. A teacher (a visiting elder) came to his house, teaching physics, astronomy, philosophy, geography, and other subjects. Soon, an incredibly intelligent student reached the same level of knowledge of his home teacher, which became the reason for his independent knowledge of various sciences.

4. Avicenna himself said very accurately about the years of his studies: “I was the best of those who asked questions”.

5. At the age of fourteen, an advanced young man became interested in medicine, studied all the treatises available in the city and even began to visit the most difficult patients in order to better understand the truths of science.

6. Abu Sahl Masihi, a famous physician and author of the main medical textbook of that time, attracted Ibn Sina to practice medicine.

7. After Avicenna cured the emir, the seventeen-year-old boy was appointed the personal physician of the ruler.

8. Gaining deep knowledge from the new books of the palace library, Avicenna began to have her own students.

9. Before Avicenna explained in detail the structure of the human eye, it was believed that the eye was like a flashlight with rays of a special origin. In a short period of time, the “Canon of Medicine” has become an encyclopedia of world importance, used in various countries, including the territory of Ancient Russia.

10. Avicenna preferred to talk about serious topics in poetry. In this form he wrote such works as “Treatise on Love”, “Hay ibn Yakzan”, “Bird”, etc.

11.Avicenna became the first doctor to define such complex diseases as plague, jaundice, cholera, etc.

12. When Ibn Sina turned 20, he was already the author of several books: An extensive encyclopedia. Ethics publications. Medical Dictionary.

13. At the age of 18, a literate young man allowed himself to discuss with outstanding scientists of the East and Central Asia by correspondence.

14. At the age of 10, Avicenna realized that he had nothing to do at school. Avicenna completely mastered the Arabic and Farsi languages, grammar, stylistics, poetics.

15. And when he started studying mathematics and medicine, he realized that medicine is an easy science and that he will master it completely by the age of 16.

16. Ibn Sina revealed that viruses are invisible pathogens of infectious diseases, but this hypothesis was confirmed only 800 years later by Pasteur (French scientist).

17. According to Avicenna’s convictions, science is divided into three categories: Higher. Average. The lowest.

18. Ibn Sina is the creator of the circle, which he called the Academy of Mamun.

19. Avicenna discovered the process of distillation of essential oils.

20. Avicenna was the court physician of the Samanid emirs and Dilemit sultans, for some time he was the vizier in Hamadan.

21. During his life he wrote more than 450 books. Of these, 29 are about science, and the rest are about philosophy and medicine. But only 274 of his works have survived to this day.

22. The scientist made a significant contribution to psychology, having developed his own teaching in matters of human temperament (division into hot, cold, wet and dry characters).

23. The philosopher’s knowledge of the pulse is impressive. He described in the book all its possible types and states.

24. His works in mechanics (theory of the applied force), in music (works on the theory of vocal art) are noted.

25. Years of residence in Hamadan allowed the scientist to finish the first volume of his main work – the book “The Canon of Medicine”. This work consists of only five volumes of the following content: 1 volume: medical science – a description of acute chronic diseases, their diagnosis, treatment, surgery.Volume 2: stories about simple medicines of natural origin. 3 and 4 volumes: recommendations for the treatment of diseases of human organs, body fractures. Volume 5: a description of the properties of Avicenna’s self-prepared complex medicines, as well as with references to the ancient doctors of Europe and Asia.

Wise sayings and quotes of Avicenna:

* The doctor has three weapons: a word, a plant, a knife.

* The soul of the Universe is truth.

* I avoided treachery, unraveled all the knots, Only the knot of death I could not unravel.

* He who did not value happiness is approaching misfortune.

* Laziness and indolence not only give rise to ignorance, they are at the same time the cause of illness.

* I have solved the secrets of the wisest words and deeds. From black dust to heavenly bodies.

* Be moderate in your food – this is one commandment, the second commandment – drink less wine.

* There are no hopeless patients. There are only hopeless doctors.

* He who is old cannot burn with young fire.

* Wisdom is what prepares us for the greatest happiness in the higher life.

* The soul is like a glass lamp, knowledge is light that gives fire, and the wisdom of God is oil. If the lamp is on, you are alive; if it goes out, you are dead.

* A fool and boasting cannot keep secrets, Caution is truly beyond praise, A secret is a prisoner, if you keep it, You are a prisoner of a secret, you just blabbed it.

* The physician must have the gaze of a falcon, the hands of a girl, the wisdom of a snake, and the heart of a lion.

* Tell the sick man that you have a stomach ache – the healthy one will not understand.

* Constant drunkenness is harmful, it spoils the nature of the liver and brain, weakens the nerves, causes nerve disease, sudden death.

* If you engage in physical exercises, there is no need to use medicines taken for various diseases, if at the same time all other prescriptions are followed.

* If I do not lay a path to the heart of people, they will not communicate with me, although they will neither be for nor against me.

* A person who exercises in a reasonable and timely manner does not need any treatment, he is healthy.

* Those who quit exercising often wither away, because the strength of their organs is weakened by the refusal to move.

* Man could not survive alone. All that he needs, he receives only thanks to society.


Measles is a highly contagious viral disease.The risk of infection of an unvaccinated person upon contact with a sick person is almost 100%. Therefore, there is a mass vaccination against measles. Such measures made it possible to reduce the incidence of measles to almost zero and the world was practically already on the way to its complete elimination. Unfortunately, vaccine denials created a herd immunity gap, leading to the return of infection. Now measles is parading the world. Belarus was also among the countries with an increased incidence. Measles is especially dangerous for children.Children have a hard time tolerating this infection, which often causes serious complications.

How do you know if a child has measles?

There are three periods in the clinical picture of measles in children:

1. Catarrhal . The disease manifests itself 7-12 days after contact with a patient with measles and is very similar to SARS or influenza. There is an increase in temperature to 38.5 – 39.0 degrees, hyperemia of the pharynx appears with a sore throat, discharge from the nose, dry cough. Photophobia, lacrimation, and often conjunctivitis may develop.Diarrhea and vomiting are possible. After a few days, whitish spots with a red rim appear in the mouth, which is a characteristic sign of measles.

2. Period of rashes . On the 3-5th day from the onset of the disease, a rash appears. First on the face, behind the ears, then it spreads over the body, then appears on the limbs. The color of the rash is pink, it can be draining in nature. On 3-4 days from the appearance of the rash, the temperature normalizes. The child’s well-being is accompanied by poor sleep, tearfulness and rapid fatigability, with a complicated course of measles, the condition progressively worsens.

3. Pigmentation period . On the 5-6th day, the rash turns brown. The temperature drops, the symptoms of the disease are residual. The rash disappears completely within 7-10 days. The patient’s condition is normalized

What should a parent do if a child has measles?

Consult a doctor! The doctor will find out if the child has had contact with a patient with measles, and will prescribe a special examination and treatment. With an uncomplicated course of measles, treatment is carried out at home.By the way, there is no specific measles therapy. Treatment, as a rule, corresponds to the presence of certain symptoms: fever control is required, care is provided for the sore throat, eyes, and oral mucosa. Recommended: bed rest, regular ventilation, daily wet cleaning, good nutrition and rest. A child with measles must be isolated from other children with an uncomplicated course of the disease until the 5th day, with complications – up to the 10th day after the onset of the rash.The institution that the child attends (kindergarten, school) must be informed. All children who have not been vaccinated against measles who have been in contact with a sick measles are not allowed into the collective for 18 days.

Measles is dangerous because of its complications.

They are twofold:

  1. Directly caused by the measles virus. Their distinctive feature is the synchronicity of development at the peak of intoxication, catarrhal changes, and the appearance of a rash. These include: measles pneumonia, false croup.One of the most serious complications is encephalitis. As a rule, the development of encephalitis occurs during the period when the rash becomes brown, on the decline of intoxication. This complication is observed quite rarely, more inherent in older children. The course of the disease becomes severe, with a danger of possible disability of the patient due to paralysis, epilepsy or mental disorder. Even a fatal outcome is possible.
  2. Complications caused by the stratification of microbial infection.Such complications are most often observed in children weakened by the disease and can occur at any stage of the disease. They complicate the timely diagnosis of measles and aggravate the course of the disease. These include: bacterial pneumonia, otitis and sinusitis, blepharitis and conjunctivitis, stomatitis, enteritis and enterocolitis.

How not to get measles?

The only salvation, a panacea for measles is immunization: routine and emergency. The planned child is vaccinated at 12-15 months, then revaccination is carried out at 6-7 years.Emergency immunization is recommended for a child who, for some reason, has not received the vaccine, but has been in contact with a patient with measles. It consists in the introduction of the vaccine within 3 days after contact with the patient. If time is missed, then within 6 days after contact, measles immunoglobulin can be administered.