Medical term thr: eMedicineHealth Page Not Found
|THR||Total Hip Replacement+ 1 variantPhysical Therapy, Occupational Therapy, Surgery||Physical Therapy, Occupational Therapy, Surgery|
Surgery, Patient, Replacement
|Surgery, Patient, Replacement|
|THR||Target Heart Rate+ 1 variantMarine, Nuclear Medicine, Cardiology||Marine, Nuclear Medicine, Cardiology|
Targeted Heart Rate
Medicine, Healthcare, Science
|Medicine, Healthcare, Science|
|Thr||ThreonineProteins / Amino Acids, Biochemistry, Amino Acids||Proteins / Amino Acids, Biochemistry, Amino Acids|
Tobacco Harm Reduction
Tobacco, Cigarette, Harm
|Tobacco, Cigarette, Harm|
Total Hip Revision
Thyroid Hormone Receptor
Biology, Healthcare, Health
|Biology, Healthcare, Health|
Total Hip Arthroplasty
Traditional Herbal Registration
Herbal, Product, Business
|Herbal, Product, Business|
Training Heart Rate
Heart, Rate, Training
|Heart, Rate, Training|
|THR||Alpha-thrombinPhysiology, Biology||Physiology, Biology|
Texas Health Resources
Church, Health, Texas
|Church, Health, Texas|
|THR||TherapeuticTechnology, Pathology||Technology, Pathology|
Therapeutic Horseback Riding
Total Hip Replacement
Medical » Physiology — and more…
Texas Health Resources
Medical » Physiology — and more…
Target Heart Rate
Medical » Cardiology
Regional » Airport Codes
Training Heart Rate
Total Holocaust Records
Business » Companies & Firms
Thru Hole Reflow
Academic & Science » Physics
Three Rivers Financial Corporation
Business » AMEX Symbols
Tony Hawk Rocks
Miscellaneous » Funnies
Take Home Ration
Miscellaneous » Unclassified
Tobacco Harm Reduction
Miscellaneous » Unclassified
Total Health Record
Medical » Healthcare
The Hollywood Reporter
Tolerable Hazard Rate
Academic & Science » IEEE
tal Hip Replacement
Miscellaneous » Unclassified
Tempat Hangout Ramadhan
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The High Road
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Threshold Heart Rate
Miscellaneous » Unclassified
Tourism and Hospitality Research
Medical » Hospitals
Traditional Herbal Registration
Miscellaneous » Unclassified
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tal Heat of Rejection
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Texas Holdem Radio
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The Hedgehog Review
Miscellaneous » Unclassified
Thundermin Resources, Incorporated
Business » Toronto Stock Exchange
What Does it All Mean? Joint Replacement Acronyms and Definitions
Like most things medical, understanding all of the words and terms associated with “joint replacement” is confusing. Reading through medical forums or listening to your doctor can feel like riding a bus in foreign country: you’re only guessing what everyone is talking about. On a vacation nodding along is totally fine, but when it comes to an upcoming hip replacement or knee replacement, it’s critical that you become more involved in the conversation.
In this post, we’ll crack the code on the many short forms, acronyms, abbreviations and tough-to-understand concepts associated with a hip or knee replacement. Getting better acquainted with the basics will give you full access to understanding what your doctor and peers are really talking about, allow you to ask better questions, and let you confidently lend your newfound expertise to other joint replacement newbies.
Read on as we answer questions like: What is the meaning of arthroplasty? Is there a difference between a joint replacement and arthroplasty? What does THR mean? And more.
The Basics: The Different Types of Replacements
Total Knee Replacement (TKR) or Total Knee Arthroplasty (TKA)
First of all, to clear up any confusion, it must be known that a total knee replacement (TKR) and total knee arthroplasty (TKA) are the exact same thing. Basically, “knee arthroplasty” is just the fancy pants version of “knee replacement”. Got it? Okay, good. Now you can confidently use both terms interchangeably. In a total knee replacement all of the damaged bone and cartilage is removed and resurfaced. The healthy bone is left intact to support the new artificial joint. The artificial joint is made up of as many as three different parts. Read about the many different types of artificial knee replacement components now!
Partial Knee Replacement (PKR) or Unicompartmental Knee Arthroplasty (UKA)
Once again, a partial knee replacement (PKR) is just the more common “street name” for unicompartmental knee replacement (UKA). They’re one in the same. As the name suggests, a partial knee replacement (also known as a PKR or UKA) is when one or more parts of the knee joint are replaced. The difference between a total and partial is that in a partial, the healthy parts of the knee joint are left as-is. Only about 10% of joint replacements are partial, with the overall preference to just do the whole kit and kaboodle. Here’s what’s really involved in a total and partial knee replacement.
Minimally Invasive Knee Replacement
With any type of knee replacement, the surgeon will take either a traditional or minimally invasive approach. With a minimally invasive approach, the exact same components are introduced to form the knee replacement. The main difference is the length of tissue (or incision) cut by the surgeon. With a minimally invasive replacement, the incision mark is 4-6 inches along (about half the size of a traditional replacement). The aim of minimally invasive is to cut less tissue and leave the quadricep tendon and muscle intact. Minimally invasive is still a relatively new offering and is not suitable or recommended for all patients. Learn more here.
Total Hip Replacement(THR)
A total hip replacement is sometimes called a traditional hip replacement surgery (hence the THR). The most common approach to a THR is performed in the posterior approach. In a posterior hip replacement, the incision is cut with the patient lying on their side at the upper thigh/buttock area. The incision is generally 10-12 inches in length, but with a “mini” posterior, the incision can be much smaller at just 4 inches in length. Posterior is the original, “catch-all” hip replacement type, used in the majority of cases by most surgeons. Read on about what to expect during hip replacement surgery.
Direct Anterior Hip Replacement (DAA)
The anterior replacement is less common as it is newer and technically difficult to perform with lower visibility for the surgeon. It is sometimes referred to as a minimally invasive hip replacement. The main difference between posterior and anterior is the site of the incision. With anterior, a smaller cut is made to the front of the upper thigh, with the patient lying on his or her back. An anterior approach is sometimes done in a special table called a Hana table. Like a mini-posterior, this approach is more muscle and tissue-saving as the incision is made in a way that better preserves muscle. As a result, it’s suggested that some patients can have a smoother recovery. In saying this, anterior is not recommended for every patient as it can be riskier and is not performed by all surgeons.
Bilateral Hip & Knee Replacement (BTHR, BTKR) or a Double Hip Replacement & Double Knee Replacement
Bilateral means “having or relating to two sides”. As such, a bilateral hip or knee replacement simply means having both the left and right side replaced. With a simultaneous bilateral, both replacements are done on one surgery day, during a single operation. A simultaneous double replacement allows for a single spell of prehab and rehab–which in some cases, for some patients is preferred. With a staged bilateral replacements, two surgeries are performed during two operations that are usually spaced 1-2 months apart. This is generally a better choice for elderly patients and those with a history of heart problems.
Okay, we’ve covered the differences and commonalities between the main terms that you’ll need to know. Now, it’s time to bust out a glossary of some of the other important acronyms you may come across or hear in conversation with other hippies (hip replacement recipients) or knee-anderthals (we coined this one back in 2016).
Abbreviations and Acronyms Debunked
Here are the basic, most important terms. We explained these in greater detail above.
|TJR||Total Joint Replacement|
|TKR||Total Knee Replacement|
|TKA||Total Knee Arthroplasty (same as total knee replacement)|
|PKR||Partial Knee Replacement|
|UKA||Unicompartmental Knee Arthroplasty (same as partial knee replacement)|
|THR||Total Hip Replacement (same as posterior hip replacement)|
|DAA||Direct Anterior Hip replacement (same as minimally invasive hip replacement)|
|BTHR||Bilateral Hip Replacement (same as double hip replacement)|
|BTKR||Bilateral Knee Replacement (same as a double knee replacement)|
|R||Right Side (e.g. RTKR is a right total knee replacement)|
|L||Left Side (e.g. LTHR is a left total hip replacement)|
Other Key Terms You Outta Know
|PCP||Primary Care Physician|
|PT||Physical Therapist (or Physical Therapy)|
|DJD||Degenerative Joint Disease|
|TTT||Tibial Tubercle Transfer|
|NSAIDs||Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs|
|ROM||Range of Motion|
|BMI||Body Mass Index|
|ABD||Abduction (moving joint away from the centre line of the body)|
|ADD||Adduction (moving joint towards the centre line of the body)|
|PreHab||Actively mentally, physically and environmentally preparing for scheduled surgery.|
|ReHab||Actively participating in recovery, after surgery, with a physical therapist or at home.|
|HEP||Home Exercise Program|
|SNF||Skilled Nursing Facility|
|HHA||Home Health Agency|
|LTACH||Long-Term Acute Care Hospital|
|IRF||Inpatient Rehab Facility|
|CJR||Comprehensive Joint Replacement|
|CMS||Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services|
Okay, now you should be fluent in “hip and knee replacement”. With this knowledge, may the wind be always at your back and may the sun shine warm upon your face. Irish blessings aside, we hope that you can more confidently navigate conversations with your medical and online readings. We also hope that you can impress a few people with your newfound knowledge!
Are you getting a hip or knee replacement? Join PeerWell today and we’ll help you get set-up on our game-changing mobile PreHab app. We think you’ll love it.
Are we missing any acronyms or definitions? If so, comment below! (Rhyme intended).
THR Meaning in Medical – What does THR mean in Medical? THR Definition
The meaning of THR is Total Hip Replacement and other meanings are located at the bottom which take place within Medical terminology and THR has 23 different meaning. All meanings which belong to THR abbreviation are take part only within Medical terminology and other meanings are not found. If you want to see other meanings, please click the THR meaning link. Thus, you will be directed to page which indicates all meanings of THR.
Unless there are 23 different meanings THR abbreviation at the bottom, please search again by typing question structures such as “what does THR mean in Medical, the meaning of THR in Medical”. Besides, you can search by typing THR in the search box which is found our website.
Meaning Astrology Queries
THR Meaning in Medical
- Total Hip ReplacementMedical
- TherapeuticRelating to therapeutics, the branch of medicine that is concerned specifically with the treatment of disease.Medical
- ThreonineThreonine is an α-amino acid with the chemical formula HO2CCH(Nh3)CH(OH)Ch4.Medical
- Target Heart MateMedical
- Three RowsMedical
- ThyroidectomyA thyroidectomy is an operation that involves the surgical removal of all or part of the thyroid gland.Medical
- Thyroid Hormone ReceptorMedical
- Thyroid Hormone ResistanceMedical
- Thyrotropin-Releasing HormoneMedical
- Total Hip ArthronlastyMedical
- Total Hip AythroplastiesMedical
- Total Hip ReplacementsMedical
- Total Hip Replacement SurgeryMedical
- ThrillA sudden feeling of excitement and pleasure.Medical
- ThrombinThrombin is a serine protease, an enzyme that, in humans, is encoded by the F2 gene.Medical
- ThyroidThe thyroid gland, or simply the thyroid, is an endocrine gland in the neck, consisting of two lobes connected by an isthmus. It is found at the front of the neck, below the Adam’s apple.Medical
- Traditional Hermal RemediesMedical
- Trbining Heart RateMedical
- Transhepatic ResistanceMedical
- Transient Hyperemic ResponseMedical
- Texas Health ResourcesMedical
- Targeted Heart RateMedical
- Target Heart RateMedical
Please also find THR meaning for Medical in other sources.
What does THR stand for Medical?
We have compiled queries on search engines about THR acronym and we gave place them in our website by selecting the most frequently asked questions. We think you asked a similar question to the search engine to find meaning of the THR abbreviation and we are sure the following list will take your attention.
What does THR meaning stand for Medical?
THR meaning stands for Total Hip Replacement.
What is the meaning of THR abbreviation in Medical?
The meaning of THR abbreviation is `Threonine` in Medical.
What is THR definition ?
THR definition is “Total Hip Arthronlasty”.
What does THR mean in Medical?
THR mean that “Transhepatic Resistance” for Medical.
What is THR acronym ?
THR acronym is “Transhepatic Resistance”.
What is shorthand of Total Hip Aythroplasties ?
The shorthand of “Total Hip Aythroplasties” is THR.
What is the definition of THR acronym in Medical?
Definitions of THR shorthand is “Thyroidectomy”.
What is the full form of THR abbreviation?
Full form of THR abbreviation is “Total Hip Replacements”.
What is the full meaning of THR in Medical?
Full meaning of THR is “Transhepatic Resistance”.
What is the explanation for THR in Medical?
Explanation for THR is “Total Hip Replacements”.
What is the meaning of THR Abbreviation in Astrology ?
We did not give any place only meanings of THR definitions. Yes, we know that your main purpose is the explanation of THR abbreviation. However, we thought, you can consider the astrological information of THR acronym in Astrology. Therefore, astrologic description of each word are available at the bottom.
THR Abbreviation in Astrology
- THR (letter T)
You are very sensitive, private, and sexually passive; you like a partner who takes the lead. Music, soft lights and romantic thoughts turn you on. You fantasize, but do not tend to fall in and out of love easily. When in love, you are romantic, idealistic, mushy, and extremely intense. You enjoy having your senses and your feelings stimulated, titillated, and teased. You are a great flirt. You can make your relationships fit your dreams, oftentimes all in your own head.
- THR (letter H)
You seek a mate who can enhance your reputation and earning ability. You will be very generous to your lover once you have attained a commitment. Your gifts are actually an investment in your partner. Before the commitment, though, you tend to be frugal in your spending and dating habits and equally cautious in your sexual involvement. You are a sensual and patient lover.
- THR (letter R)
You are a no-nonsense, action-oriented individual. You need someone who can keep pace with you and who is your intellectual equal the smarter the better. You are turned on more quickly by a great mind than by a great body. However, physical attractiveness is very important to you. You have to be proud of your partner. You are privately very sexy, but you do not brag, you are willing to serve as teacher. Sex is important; you can be a very demanding playmate.
Hip Replacement Surgery: Procedure, Types and Risks
Hip replacement is highly successful surgery in which portions of the hip joint are replaced with prostheses (implants). HSS performs more hip replacements than any other US hospital. Hospital for Special Surgery is ranked the #1 hospital for orthopedics in the United States by U.S. News and World Report.
What is hip replacement surgery?
Hip replacement is the removal and replacement of portions of the pelvis and femur (thighbone) that form your hip joint. It is performed primarily to relieve hip pain and stiffness caused by hip arthritis.
This procedure is also sometimes used to treat injuries such as a broken or improperly growing hip, and for other conditions.
How do you know if you need a hip replacement?
If you have these arthritis symptoms, you should consider a hip replacement:
- severe hip pain that is not relieved by medication and that interferes with your work, sleep or everyday activity
- hip stiffness that restricts motion and makes it difficult to walk
To learn more, read Here’s What to Know if You Think You Need a Hip Replacement.
The hip is a ball-and-socket joint. The ball, at the top of your femur (thighbone) is called the femoral head. The socket, called the acetabulum, is a part of your pelvis. The ball moves in the socket, allowing your leg to rotate and move forward, backward and sideways.
In a healthy hip, soft-tissue called cartilage covers the ball and the socket to help them glide together smoothly. If this cartilage gets worn down or damaged, the bones scrape together and become rough. This condition, osteoarthritis, causes pain and restricts motion. An arthritic hip can make it painful to walk or even to get in or out of a chair. If you have been diagnosed with hip arthritis, you may not need surgery. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and/or physical therapy may provide relief. But, if these efforts do not relieve symptoms, you should consult an orthopedic surgeon.
What are the different types of hip replacement surgery?
The three major types of hip replacement are:
- total hip replacement (most common)
- partial hip replacement
- hip resurfacing
The most common type of hip replacement surgery is called a total hip replacement (also called total hip arthroplasty). In this surgery, worn-out or damaged sections of your hip are replaced with artificial implants. The socket is replaced with a durable plastic cup, which may or may not also include a titanium metal shell. Your femoral head will be removed and replaced with a ball made from ceramic or a metal alloy. The new ball is attached to a metal stem that is inserted into the top of your femur. (Learn more about types of hip implants.)
Two other types of hip replacement surgeries are each generally appropriate for patients of specific age groups and activity levels:
- Partial hip replacement (also called hemiarthroplasty) involves replacing only one side of the hip joint – the femoral head – instead of both sides as in total hip replacement. This procedure is most commonly done in older patients who have fractured their hip.
- Hip resurfacing of the femoral head and socket is most commonly done in younger, active patients.
X-ray of a total hip replacement showing the ball, socket and stem implants
Hip replacement surgical methods
There are two major surgical approach methods for performing a total hip replacement:
- the posterior approach (more common)
- the anterior approach (sometimes called the “mini-anterior approach” or “muscle-sparing hip replacement”)
To begin the operation, the hip replacement surgeon will make incisions on either the back (posterior) or front (anterior) of the hip. Both approaches offer pain relief and improvement in walking and movement within weeks of surgery.
Total hip replacement animation: Posterior approach
How should I prepare for hip replacement surgery?
There are certain steps patients can take both before and after surgery to improve recovery time and results. It is important to follow the instructions and guidance provided by your orthopedic surgeon, medical team and rehabilitation therapist. Visit Preparing for Your Surgery to get information on preoperative hip replacement classes and patient education materials about joint replacement surgery.
Can hip replacement be done as an outpatient?
Most patients will stay in the hospital one or two nights after surgery. Some patients may be able have same-day hip replacement and return home after an outpatient procedure.
Learn more about same-day hip replacement by reading Outpatient Hip Replacement Surgery: Frequently Asked Questions.
How long does hip replacement surgery take?
Total hip replacement surgery takes about one and a half hours. Most patients also stay in the hospital for one or two days after the procedure.
What is hip replacement surgery recovery like?
Your rehabilitation will begin within 24 hours after surgery. Most hip replacement patients progress to walking with a cane, walker or crutches within day or two after surgery. As the days progress, you will increase the distance and frequency of walking.
If you have THR surgery at HSS:
- Your recovery will begin directly following surgery in the Post-Anesthesia Care Unit (PACU), where your medical team will manage your pain and monitor your vital signs.
- Once the anesthesiologist is satisfied with your condition, you will be moved to an inpatient recovery room to monitor your progress.
- You will most likely have a dressing and tube on your hip for drainage, which should be removed the day after surgery.
- The pain management team will assess your medication and use a multifaceted approach to ensure comfort and mobility during the rehabilitation process.
- You will begin rehabilitation with a physical therapist within 24 hours. Your therapist will help you sit up, get in and out of bed, and practice walking and climbing stairs using a walker, cane or sometimes crutches.
- You will then continue physical therapy outside the hospital for 6 to 8 weeks. After that period, most patients are able to do everyday activities and return to playing sports.
Can I have both hips replaced at the same time?
Yes, healthy patients younger than 75 years old who have no history of cardiopulmonary disease may be able to have both hips replaced at once. In some cases, however, it may be better to stage the surgeries.
What are the risks of hip replacement surgery?
The surgery is very safe, but every surgery has risks, and infection is the most serious. You should ask your surgeon what the surgical infection rate is for hip replacements at the hospital or facility where you will have your surgery.
HSS has one of the lowest rates of infection for hip replacement surgery, as well as a significantly lower rate of readmission compared to the national average. In 2015, The New York State Department of Health reported that out of more than 160 hospitals in New York that did hip replacements in 2014, only Hospital for Special Surgery had a hip replacement surgery site infection (SSI) rate that was “significantly lower than the state average” for that year, and that those infection rates at HSS had been significantly lower than the state average in each of the seven years between 2008-2014.
Other risks include blood clots in the leg or pelvis, and accidental hip dislocation during or after recovery. Hospital for Special Surgery performs better than the national average in preventing blood clots after surgery.
What are hip implants made of?
There are three separate implants: the stem, the ball and the socket.
- The stem, made out of metal (usually titanium or cobalt-chrome) is inserted into your natural thighbone.
- The ball is usually made out of polished metal or ceramic, and fits on top of the stem.
- The socket is usually a combination of a plastic liner and a cobalt-chrome or titanium backing.
Learn more about joint replacement prostheses by reading Understanding Implants in hip and Hip Replacement.
Will my new hip set off the metal detector at the airport?
Today’s sensitive screening machines will detect the implant but can also effectively identify it. The machine operator will know that it is an implant rather than an unauthorized metal object contained outside the body.
It is still helpful to tell airport security that you have had a hip replacement before entering the screening machine. You may also ask your doctor’s office if they can provide a card that identifies that you have received a hip implant that contains metal.
How long do hip implants last?
Generally speaking, a hip replacement prosthesis should remain effective for between 10 and 20 years, and some can last even longer.
Results vary according to the type of implant and the age of the patient. In a 2008 study of more than 50,000 patients who had THR surgery at age 55 or older, between 71% and 94% still had well-working implants after 15 years.
When a hip implant does need to be replaced because it has loosened or worn out over time, this requires what is called hip revision surgery.
How soon after surgery can I resume driving?
Most patients can resume driving by six weeks after surgery.
What should I look for in a hip replacement surgeon?
When looking for an orthopedic surgeon to perform your hip replacement surgeon, it’s important to do your research and check the surgeon’s credentials, experience and reputation. It is also important to research the hospital or facility where you will have your operation, as well as its supporting staff, such as the anesthesiologists.
The success rate for hip replacement surgery at HSS is very high. In a study, HSS interviewed patients to learn about their progress. Two years after their surgeries, 99.4% of patients said they had relief from pain, 98.8% said their ability to move was improved, and 97.8% said their quality of life was better because of their surgery.
Below, explore detailed articles and other content on this topic, or find the best hip replacement surgeon at HSS to suit your specific condition, location and insurance.
Back in the Game patient stories
- NYSDOH SPARCS 2017 Public Use File. https://www.health.ny.gov/statistics/sparcs/access/.
- Koltsov JCB, Marx RG, Bachner E, McLawhorn AS, Lyman S. Risk-Based Hospital and Surgeon-Volume Categories for Total Hip Arthroplasty. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2018;100(14):1203-1208. doi:10.2106/JBJS.17.00967.
- Mäkelä KT, Eskelinen A, Pulkkinen P, Paavolainen P, Remes V. Total hip arthroplasty for primary osteoarthritis in patients fifty-five years of age or older. An analysis of the Finnish arthroplasty registry. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2008;90(10):2160-2170. doi:10.2106/JBJS.G.00870.
- HSS Arthroplasty Registry, 2007-2012. https://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00454506.
- Hospital-Acquired Infections, New York State. New York State Department of Health, Albany, NY. October 2015. https://www.health.ny.gov/statistics/facilities/hospital/hospital_acquired_infections/2014/docs/hospital_acquired_infection.pdf.
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FAQ: Total Hip Replacement | Veterinary Medical Center
Learn about Canine Total Hip Replacement
Many factors enter into the decision to have a total hip replacement performed on your pet. You may have questions about the procedure. The answers to the most commonly asked questions about total hip replacement follow. We hope you find this information helpful and would be happy to answer any other questions you might have.
Q: What is a total hip replacement (THR)?
Both the ball (head of the femur) and socket (acetabulum) of the hip joint are replaced with prosthetic implants. The new ball is made from a cobalt-chromium metal alloy and the new socket from high molecular weight polyethylene plastic. Special bone cement is used to hold these implants in place.
Q: Do you use a cementless or a cemented total hip replacement?
We have been doing cemented total hip replacements at The Ohio State University College of Veterinary Medicine since August of 1976. We have gained considerable experience with this procedure and have a high success rate. The prosthesis we use has many of the design features found in hip replacements used in people. It is commercially available and in wide use through out the world. Total hip replacements that do not use cement are commercially available for dogs. To date, these commercially available cementless implants confer no significant advantage to the patient in the short or long term. In future it is possible that technological advances in cementless THR will allow us to recommend such implants, or a hybrid combination such as a cementless cup and cemented stem.
Q: Can you tell from my dog’s x-rays (radiographs) if he/she is a good candidate for THR?
Radiographs show abnormalities in the hip joint and are used for choosing the proper sized prosthesis but they are only part of the picture. To decide what is best for your pet, the surgeon must evaluate your pet’s history, perform a complete physical examination, evaluate your pet’s radiographs and interpret laboratory data. Many factors must be evaluated before your pet is considered a good total hip candidate.
Q: How do you determine if my dog is a candidate for a THR?
A painful hip(s) that is affecting your dog’s comfort, locomotion and activity levels is the primary indication for a THR. Stiffness, lameness and reluctance to exercise are often signs of problems. Your pet must be in good general health. There must be no other joint of bone problems, no nerve disease, and no other medical illnesses. Your dog must be skeletally mature; that is, he/she must be finished growing. Generally this occurs by 9 to 12 months of age. This is determined by x-rays of the hips. The size of the bones as determined by x-rays must be large enough to fit the available sized of prosthesis. Total hips can generally be placed in dogs weighing 40 pounds or greater. A dog with arthritic hips that has pain-free, normal function is not a candidate for THR.
Q: What is the earliest age my dog can have this procedure done?
In most dogs 9 months old is the earliest the procedure will be done. There are only a few giant breeds where it will be necessary to delay surgery for 1 or 2 months while the dog’s skeleton reaches maturity.
Q: What can I expect from this surgery?
The goal of surgery is to return your pet to pain-free, mechanically sound, normal hip function. Generally, dogs are found to be more comfortable and have an improved quality of life. Many owners report that their pet can do things they have not done since they were a puppy. Increase in muscle mass, improved hip motion, and increased activity levels have been observed in most patients. Working dogs have returned to full activity. Some mean dogs have even developed a pleasant personality when the pain was eliminated from their hip(s). We have found that 95% of the hips that have been replace by surgeons at OSU return to normal function or near normal function. More than 95% of owners feel that their dog’s quality of life is improved or markedly improved.
Q: Since the expertise of the surgeon is very important, what experience do the surgeons at Ohio State have with the procedure?
In 1976 surgeons from Ohio State began evaluating the effectiveness of this procedure. This evaluation continues today. Since the first hip was put in, over 2,000 total hip replacements have been performed by surgeons from Ohio State. More canine total hips are done at Ohio State each year than at any other university or private practice in the world. Surgeons at Ohio State have been leaders in developing and writing about total hip replacement surgery. Owner and referring veterinarian cooperation in providing follow-up information has been invaluable in the effort to evaluate and continually improve this procedure.
Q: My dog is on medication. Should I stop giving this?
Medications for health conditions such as diabetes or low thyroid function should not be stopped. Medications for hip pain should be stopped prior to the initial examination. Oral steroids (even for skin conditions) should be stopped 1 week before the exam while other anti-inflammatory drugs including aspirin should be stopped 3 days before the exam.
Q: Is surgery performed the day of admission?
No. Your pet must be carefully screened before surgery. This entails a complete history and physical examination. X-rays of the hips will be taken pre-operatively. A complete blood count and chemistry profile (if indicated) will be obtained to screen your dog for evidence of infection, anemia or problems with internal organs before surgery is performed. Your pet’s skin will be carefully examined for signs of infection. Abnormalities noted on these examinations may indicate that your dog is not a good candidate for a THR. If the pre-operative evaluations reveal no abnormalities, surgery is usually scheduled for the next day.
Q: How long will my pet stay in the hospital?
The routine length of hospitalization for patients with THR is 3 to 5 days including the day of the initial examination. If it is determined that your pet is a good candidate for the procedure and you agree to have the procedure done, he/she will be admitted to the hospital at the initial examination for surgery the next day.
Q: What is the success rate of THR?
In reviewing the records of patients that have had THR, a little over 95% of dogs have had good to excellent function with this procedure. These patients have normal pain-free function, increased muscle mass, no limping and increased activity.
Q: What are the complications with this surgery?
As with any surgery, total hip replacements have their own set of complications. The complications that have occurred since 1976 when the first THR was done at Ohio State include dislocations, fractures of the femur, infections, loosening of the implants and nerve damage. Because surgeons at Ohio State have been continually evaluating and improving this procedure, the risk of a complication occurring is low. Some complications seen in the early stages of development of the technique have been totally eliminated, while the risk for other complications has been greatly reduced. Methods of treating the few complications that do occur are also being developed and evaluated. Most complications can now be successfully resolved, preserving the THR. Thus, in the unlikely event your dog does have a complication, it is best to have it dealt with by a surgeon at The Ohio State University.
Q: What is the post-operative care for my dog?
The postoperative care for your dog is critical. The surgical incision must be monitored daily for redness, swelling or discharge. Your dog must be discouraged from licking the incision. This sometimes requires placement of a special collar to prevent your pet from reaching the incision. Your dog’s attitude and appetite should be monitored daily while the incision heals. The sutures may be removed 10 to 14 days after the surgery. This may be done by your local veterinarian or at Ohio State. An appointment for suture removal is required at Ohio State.
The activity level of your pet must be strictly controlled. For the first month after surgery your dog should only be allowed outside, on a leash, to urinate and defecate and for a short walk. Your pet should be immediately returned to the house afterwards. Inside the house your pet should avoid stairs and slippery floors. If your pet must go up and down some stairs, you should go with the pet using a leash or your hand on the collar to control the speed of your pet on the stairs. Good footing is important. Absolutely no running, jumping or playing is allowed in the first 2 months after surgery. When your dog is not under your direct control, he/she should be kept confined to a small room. Some owners find that a large cage or airline crate is an ideal place to confine their pet when they are not at home.
For the second post-operative month, similar restrictions apply but you may begin to take your pet on longer leash walks. The length of the walk will depend on your dog’s abilities. After the end of the second month, you may return your pet to full activity.
Q: Do I have to bring my animal back to Ohio State for a check up?
If possible we would like to reevaluate our patients at OSU. We understand that people come to us from all over the United States, so if it is not convenient for you to return to OSU, we ask that you have your veterinarian x-ray your dog at 3 months after surgery and annually thereafter. We also ask that those x-rays and a report on your pet’s function be sent to us so that we may record that information in your pet’s medical record. We have been able to follow some dogs for more than 12 years. We will only be able to evaluate long-term results of THR if we have the cooperation of owners and referring veterinarians.
Q: Both of my dog’s hips are affected. Will both need to be replaced? How do you decide which hip to replace?
Four out of five dogs or 80% of the patients with arthritis in both hips only require one side be operated upon to return them to a satisfactory and comfortable life. The decision on which hip to replace is based on the owner’s observations, the physical examination findings and the hip x-rays. Your knowledge of your pet’s disability is important in making this decision.
Q: How much does the procedure cost?
At present (2017), the average cost ranges from $5,600 to $6,000. This includes the examination, laboratory work, x-rays, hospitalization fees, antibiotics, anesthesia, surgical fees, special surgical drapes and the cost of the implants (which accounts for about 35% of the fee). Charges for follow up evaluations range from $200-$300. These costs vary, depending on what needs to be done. We at Ohio State are doing everything we can to keep the costs of this procedure low. However, as the costs of the implants and materials we use in the procedure increase, we may have to raise our fees, thus the price range given above is subject to change without notification.
Q: How do I make an appointment for THR?
In many cases, your veterinarian will have recommended a THR. Your veterinarian may have already consulted with Ohio State about your pet. An appointment is made with an orthopedic surgery service at The Ohio State University Veterinary Medical Center. These can be made by calling the small animal appointment desk at 1-614-292-3551. Appointments are for mornings only, Monday through Thursday. These appointments may take 2 to 6 hours. The day of the week for your appointment will vary depending on the surgeon’s clinic schedule.
Q: Is THR the only treatment available for my pet?
No, besides THR, other possibilities for treatment of your pet include non-surgical therapy and several other surgical options. Which treatment should be used on your pet depends on many factors. The best treatment option will be discussed with you after we have taken a history, evaluated x-rays, and completed an orthopedic examination of your pet.
We hope we’ve answered your questions about total hip replacement. If you do have other questions, please be sure to ask them at the time of your appointment. Your veterinarian is welcome to call OSU to discuss case management with an orthopedic surgeon.
Hip Replacement | Texas A&M Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital
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What is total hip replacement?
A total hip replacement is a procedure in which the orthopedic surgeon replaces a painful or damaged hip joint with an artificial one. The hip joint is a “ball and socket” joint made of two bones. These bones are partially removed and a metal and plastic artificial implant, or “prosthesis,” is placed to function like a normal hip. Removal of the affected hip joint eliminates the source of pain and lameness, thus allowing the patient to return to a normal level of activity. The new artificial hip provides a pain free joint substitute, and as such, limb function and activity level return to normal.
LEGEND: A) arrows – diseased femoral head, asterisk – disease acetabulum. B-D) closed arrows – femoral component of THR, open arrows – bone cement; thin arrows – acetabular component of THR, asterisk – remaining acetabulum.
Total hip replacement radiographs (x-rays) A) Pre-op view of an arthritic hip. B) Post-op view of a completely cemented THR. C) Post-op view of a completely cementless THR. D) Post-op view of a hybrid THR, in which a cemented femoral component and cementless acetabular component were used.
Why is total hip replacement necessary?
The most frequent indication for total hip replacement in dogs is the relief of pain and lameness caused by severe arthritis secondary to hip dysplasia, or fractures (breaks) and dislocation of the bones that make up the hip joint. Many dogs with arthritic and painful hips function fairly well with pain medication and exercise restriction, but when a painful joint is removed and replaced with an artificial hip, there is often a dramatic change in the patient’s activity, lameness, muscle mass, and personality.
How do I know if my dog needs a total hip replacement?
A complete physical, orthopedic, and neurologic examination will be performed by an orthopedic surgeon. A complete history of how and what your dog has been doing at home will be an important part of the decision making process. Common clues that a total hip replacement might be needed include hind limb lameness, reluctance to rise or jump, inability to exercise, pain after exercise, decreased activity, and loss of muscle mass.
Radiographs (x-rays) of a dog with hip arthritis, secondary to hip dysplasia, before and after hip replacement.
Are there reasons why my dog shouldn’t have a total hip replacement?
Yes. If your dog suffers from skin, ear, dental, or urinary infections, or shows evidence of other potential sources of weakness or lameness, total hip replacement will not be performed. Other common causes of hind limb problems in dogs include rupture of the cranial cruciate ligament and neurologic problems such as intervertebral disk disease. Once these underlying problems are addressed and resolved, total hip replacement may again be considered. If a femoral head ostectomy (FHO) has already been performed, total hip replacement is extremely challenging and the chances of success are much lower. Finally, your dog must be finished growing (skeletally mature), so most dogs must be at least 10 months old before a hip replacement can be performed.
How does the total hip replacement procedure work?
Under general anesthesia, the surgeon removes the cartilage and bone that make up the hip joint. The diseased femoral head (the ball) is replaced with a metal implant on a stem that fits inside the femur (thigh bone). The diseased part of the pelvis (socket) is replaced with a plastic or combination metal and plastic cup. The new hip is designed to allow the joint to move in an identical manner to a normal hip. The implants are very durable, and are anchored in place using either bone cement (cemented hip replacement) or by the dog’s own bone actually growing into the implants (cementless hip replacement). For more information on veterinary total hip implants, please visit www.biomedtrix.com .
Biomedtrix cementless (BFX) total hip replacement implants. Long-term implant stability is achieved as the patient’s bone grows into the porous portion of the implants. Photo courtesy of Biomedtrix.
Biomedtrix cemented (CFX) total hip replacement implants. Long-term implant stability is achieved by placing bone cement inside the bones, then securing the implants into this bed of bone cement. Photo courtesy of Biomedtrix.
Should I stop all of my dog’s medications before surgery?
Medications prescribed to treat systemic problems such as hypothyroidism should not be stopped. Medications for hip pain (aspirin or other non-steroidal anti-inflammatories, like Rimadyl®) should be stopped 3-5 days before the initial exam. If your dog is taking corticosteroids, or antibiotics, these medications should be stopped for a minimum of 2 weeks prior to surgery.
Will surgery be performed the same day as the initial exam?
No. Dogs undergoing evaluation for hip replacement must be carefully screened. A thorough physical exam, labwork (complete blood count, serum chemistry, urinalysis and urine culture), and specialized x-rays must be completed before surgery is considered. If problems are detected it might indicate that your dog is not a good candidate for the surgery. If the initial tests reveal no abnormalities, surgery is usually scheduled for 1-2 days after the initial exam.
What about my dog’s recovery and care after surgery?
Most dogs can stand and walk on the new hip implants the day after surgery and are able to go home after 3-5 days of total hospitalization. However, total hip replacement patients must be confined to a crate and allowed outside only on a leash to eliminate for 3 months after surgery. While at home, care should be taken to avoid walking on slippery surfaces, and long flights of stairs are not allowed. After the first 4 weeks of crate confinement, SLOW, 5 minute leash walks are started 2-3 times a day. These leash walks are increased by 5 minutes each week, until leash walks are 20 minutes long. These 20 minute leash walks are continued for 4 additional weeks, at which time the dog is returned to Texas A&M for re-examination and x-rays.
What are the benefits of a total hip replacement?
The main benefit of total hip replacement is the total relief of a painful hip joint. Dogs are very good at concealing pain, so once the affected hip joint is replaced, the dog’s activity and attitude improve dramatically. Once the pain and inflammation associated with surgery resolve, many dogs can discontinue the daily pain medications that were previously required to control the signs of hip pain and arthritis. Total hip replacement is the best surgical option for an arthritic, painful hip, but it does carry some risk.
An orthopedic surgery team performing a total hip replacement at Texas A&M University’s Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital.
What are the risks of total hip replacement?
There are risks associated with any anesthesia and surgery. Your veterinarian or orthopedic surgeon will discuss these risks with you. The reported complication rate following total hip replacement in dogs is between 7 and 12%. With total hip replacement, it is critical that complications are identified and treated early. Complications can be minor, such as swelling at the incision site (seroma) or a low-grade infection of the skin surrounding the incision. However, there are three major complications that can lead to failure of the hip replacement and more surgery. These include:
Dislocation of the implants (luxation).
Implant luxation occurs in approximately 2-4% of cases and usually occurs in the first 3 months after surgery. Dislocation of the implants may be corrected manually under anesthesia, but often a second surgery is required.
Infection of the implants.
Infection of the new hip is a serious and catastrophic problem. If the infection is limited to the skin and surgical wound, long-term antibiotics may control the problem. If the implants themselves become infected, removal of the entire hip replacement is required.
Loosening of the implants.
Loosening can occur either due to low-grade infection or due to “aseptic loosening”, a condition in which the dog’s own body decides to reject the implant. Aseptic loosening occurs in 5-15% of cemented total hip replacements. If aseptic loosening develops, the hip implants may have to be removed or replaced.
Is total hip replacement permanent?
In most dogs, the replaced hip will last for the dog’s life. In fact, studies have shown that 90-95% of dogs have good to excellent function with this procedure. Hip replacement provides years of pain-free activity that would otherwise not have been possible. With the arrival and use of newer implants such as the cementless total hip (also known as press-fit or BFX), the future looks promising for dogs of all ages and sizes that need total hip replacement.
A PDF document of this information is available for printing.
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90,000 Medical truentism as an important problem of culture and development of society :: Petrozavodsk State University
What is truentism , is it necessary to fight it or, perhaps, to support and encourage it, and where did this word come from, clearly not of Russian origin?
It appeared in 1936, when the famous British surgeon Lord Burkeley Moynigan, in his Linacrow lecture at Cambridge University, spoke about 61 doctors who became famous outside of medicine – in politics, literature, art, philosophy, sports, etc.and called them (obviously jokingly) truents , i.e. in English truants .
The head of the department A.P. Zilber began to study this phenomenon in 1949, as a second year student of the 1st Leningrad Medical Institute. It turned out that this phenomenon in itself is not so rare, that hundreds and even thousands of doctors became famous for their non-medical activities, and many of them never stopped practicing medicine, although mankind either did not know about it, or has completely forgotten.This is how the term medical truentism arose, by which Professor A.P. Zilber understands the fruitful aspiration of doctors to useful creative activity outside medicine . The search for more and more new physicians-truents led the professor to completely unexpected results and even discoveries. Now his original collection contains about 4,000 files of doctors who were engaged in “not their own business.” These are very different people, primarily in their human qualities, but they are united by one thing – for self-expression, it is not enough for them to do one thing, i.e.e. by healing. They are literally torn apart by the desire to do something else in some other area, and to do it at a highly professional level, and not at the level of a hobby.
At present, the book “Doctors-Truents” has already been published (St. Petersburg, Arka publishing house). We hope that readers who have become acquainted with the contents of the fifteen chapters of this book will be imbued with respect for people who became famous not only in medicine, and for the author who glorified them.
Every month you have the opportunity to read here on our website information about four doctors-truents, who were born in a particular month – only four out of many hundreds of births or deaths in the same month of the year.The choice, as a rule, falls on the most outstanding people, of particular interest to the professor.
“July” doctors-truents from prof. A.P. Zilber
Sergei Vasilievich Levasho (e) in (1857-1919), born on July 5, , 1857 in the Tula province into a noble family.
Received medical education at the Moscow Imperial University and at the St. Petersburg Medical-Surgical Academy. At the Moscow Art Academy, his teachers were such luminaries as I.M. Sechenov, I. P. Pavlov, S. P. Botkin. SV Levashov graduated from the Moscow Art Academy with honors, and his name was entered on the marble plaque of honor of the Academy.
He received his doctorate in medicine in 1880, and, as was customary at that time, went on probation to Europe – to the leading universities in Germany, Austria and France.
Upon returning to Russia, he headed the faculty therapeutic clinic (the so-called department) of Kazan University. Thanks to his efforts, this clinic tried to use the most modern medical technology at that time.For example, an X-ray machine was actively used. Let me remind you that V.K.Rentgen discovered his X-rays only in 1895. The area of scientific interests of Sergei Vasilyevich is the etiology of croupous pneumonia, typhus, treatment of cholelithiasis, diabetes, liver and pancreas diseases, and in recent years infectious diseases …
In 1894, he made a presentation on the causative agents of typhus at the XI International Medical Congress in Rome.
Department in Kazan S.V. Levashov took 16 years.In the same period of his life, he got married. His wife was Olga Vasilievna Florinskaya (in the photo she is with her husband), the daughter of Vasily Markovich Florinsky, a doctor-truent, one of the initiators of the opening of the Siberian University in Tomsk (see about him “February doctors-trients”, 2019).
Since 1903, the “Odessa” period of SV Levashov’s life begins: he was transferred to Odessa by the head of the Department of Faculty Therapy of Novorossiysk University, and a few years later became the rector of this university.
In Odessa, Professor S.V. Levashov was the initiator of the creation of the Higher Women’s Medical Courses, the level of teaching at which was close to the university.
He was an active social activist and politician: an honorary magistrate of the Odessa City Duma, a member of the Russian national-monarchist movement, a member of the Central Council of the Union of the Russian People, a State Duma deputy from Odessa, a member of the Board of the All-Russian Filaretov Society of Public Education.
After the February Revolution of 1917Professor S.V. Levashov withdrew from political activity, and was soon fired from Novorossiysk University, arrested and, according to some information, shot by the Odessa Cheka.
* * *
Moritz Arnoldovich Goldenblum (1862-1919), doctor of medicine and music figure, born July 11, 1862 in Odessa.
A graduate (1887) of the Faculty of Medicine of the University of Dorpat Moritz Goldenblum began his medical practice in the famous Obukhov hospital, one of the oldest hospitals in St. Petersburg, which was founded in the late 1770s.near Obukhov Bridge on the Fontanka. NI Pirogov worked as a consultant in this hospital for many years.
Subsequently, for several years, Moritz Arnoldovich worked at the Clinical Institute of the Grand Duchess Elena Pavlovna (Eleninsky Institute), which had just opened (May 1885) in St. Petersburg, the world’s first institution for advanced training of doctors.
In parallel with medicine M.A. Goldenblum took up music seriously. He studied at the St. Petersburg Conservatory. Among his teachers is the professor of music theory K.K. Zike (1850–1890), professor of composition NF Solovyov (1846–1916, by the way, a native of Petrozavodsk, who studied for 2 years at the Medical and Surgical Academy).
While still in Dorpat, Mikhail Goldenblum conducted symphony concerts.
During 1904-1909. he participated as a conductor in the famous “Pavlovsky Seasons” – summer music concerts, which from 1838 were held in the suburb of St. Petersburg – Pavlovsk, where a special hall, the so-called “Pavlovsky Voksal”, was built.The name “Voksal” (exactly like that – in the English manner) was not given by chance. The fact is that a branch of the railway was specially built from St. Petersburg to Pavlovsk, so that after the trip there would be an opportunity to listen to famous European and Russian musicians at the “music station”.
MA Goldenblum also took part in the concerts of Count Alexander Dmitrievich Sheremetev, a philanthropist and amateur musician. In his estate in Ulyanovka, near the Ligovo station, the count had his own full concert orchestra.This orchestra gave public, or, as they were called, “folk” symphony concerts.
Moritz Arnoldovich has works in the field of music criticism, he was the editor of the musical anthology “Golden Lyre”.
His son – Anatoly Moritsovich Goldenblum (1898-1972) – art critic, teacher, talented art propagandist and experienced museum worker. In 1936-1940. was director of the Bolshoi Theater Museum, and from 1947 for twenty years headed the Omsk Museum of Fine Arts.Studied at the Faculty of History and Philology of St. Petersburg University and at the Military Medical Academy.
* * *
Thomas Walkley (Th. Wakley, 1795-1862), founder of the Lancet magazine, MP, coroner, was born 11 July 1795 in the English county of Devonshire in a large family where he was the eleventh child.
In 1817, T. Walkley became a member of the Royal College of Surgeons, tried to practice in his homeland, Devonshire, but was unsuccessful.I had to return to London.
In August 1820, Thomas Walkley’s family suffered a misfortune: his 15-room house at 5 Argyll Street in London burned down (most likely set on fire). In this case, his medical practice also suffered – after all, he received patients in his home.
As his contemporaries wrote about him, “the spirit of reformism always lived in Thomas Walkley.” He decided to take up journalism without losing his interest in medical problems, which led to the establishment of the journal The Lancet . His friends and relatives helped to sort out financial issues. T. Walkley actively fought against nepotism, incompetence, charlatanism.
The first issue of The Lancet was published on October 5, 1823 (in the photo – the cover and title page of the first edition). The name of the magazine is associated with the surgical instrument of the same name, as well as with the Gothic lancet windows, as a symbol of light in the literal and figurative sense. The magazine was very successful: by 1830, the circulation was 4,000 copies.Interestingly, in the early years of its existence, the journal published not only medical information. It had a chess column, printed materials on topics of politics, news of theatrical life, etc. In the future, this was abandoned, and the journal became strictly medical.
Three sons of Thomas Walkley, who were also related to medicine, also participated in publishing.
True, the Walkley publishing dynasty ended in 1909 with the death of Thomas Walkley Jr.
Since 1835until 1852 Thomas Walkley was a member of parliament – a conscientious member of the House of Commons, an active and correct participant in debates.
He was also elected to the office of Coroner, an elected official in England who is responsible for conducting an investigation into every death in which there is reason to suspect an unnatural cause or violence. As coroner, T. Walkley conducted over 25,000 such investigations.
He died on about. Madeira May 16, 1862as a result of pulmonary hemorrhage caused by falling from a boat. Signs of lung disease were observed in him and before this accident for 10 years.
In London, a memorial plaque was installed on the house where Thomas Walkley lived (Bedford Square, 35, Bloomsbury ) .
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Archibald Joseph Cronin (A. J. Cronin, 1896-1981), world famous writer, born July 19, 1896in the Scottish Cardross (Cardross, pictured – “family nest”).
Archibald lost his father early – he was only 7 years old when his father died of tuberculosis, and he and his mother were forced to move to her parents in Dumbarton.
Soon after the move, the mother of the future writer, Jesse Cronin, became the first female health inspector in Scotland.
From childhood, Archibald Cronin loved sports. He perfectly played football, golf, was involved in track and field athletics and received many prizes for his sporting success.He carried his love for sports throughout his life.
Received medical education in Scotland – at the University of Glasgow. He entered the university in 1914, but during the First World War, his studies had to be interrupted. During this period, he served as a surgeon in the Navy, then worked in various hospitals. In 1919 he received a bachelor’s degree in surgery, and only in 1925 a doctor of medicine.
Moved to London where he practiced private medicine.
In 1931was published his first big novel “Hatter`s Castle” (“Brody Castle”, translated into Russian in 1938), which immediately brought him recognition and success, although it was written in just three months. (Photo of the first editions of the novel).
During the same period, he left medical practice to devote himself entirely to literary creativity.
Most of the works (novels, essays, short stories) by A. Kronin became bestsellers (Three Loves (1932), The Stars Look Down (1935), The Citadel (1937), Keys to the Kingdom (1941), “Young Years” (1944), “Shannon’s Way” (1948), “Monument to the Crusader” (1956), “Song of Sixpence and a Pocket of Wheat” (1964) and have been translated into many languages, several novels have been filmed, and the television series Doctor Finley’s Journal was one of the most popular series on British television in the 1960s.
In 1939 A. Cronin with his wife and children (pictured) moved to the USA, where by 1958 the circulation of his books reached seven million.
A. Kronin’s books were very popular in the USSR.
The last 35 years of his life A. Cronin lived in Switzerland in the town of Montreux.
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We remind you that the department is interested in the responses of visitors to the materials published on our website. Send them to the phones and other details indicated at the beginning of the cathedral page.All the best!
Gastroscopy is a medical term consisting of two words: “gastro”, which means abdomen and “scopy” – to look for. Gastroscopy is a diagnostic technique that allows the doctor to look inside the stomach using an instrument called a gastroscope. It is a long, thin, flexible fiber optic tube. At the end of this tube is a miniature camcorder with a wide-angle lens that produces a color image.By advancing this tube through the stomach, the doctor can directly examine the walls of the upper digestive system. Diagnosis is quick, painless and does not require tissue cutting.
Colonoscopy allows the doctor to examine the entire large intestine, from the lowest part of it, the rectum, to the lower part of the small intestine. This procedure is used to detect early signs of colon and rectal cancer. In addition, it can be used to diagnose the causes of changes in the intestines.A colonoscopy allows the doctor to detect inflamed tissue, abnormal growths, ulcers, and bleeding.
Virtual Colonoscopy (VC)
Virtual colonoscopy is a procedure that uses X-rays to obtain an image. A two- and three-dimensional image of the large intestine is created on a computer screen, from the bottom of the rectum to the bottom of the small intestine. Virtual colonoscopy provides a clearer and more detailed image than conventional barium enema fluoroscopy, also called irrigoscopy.In addition, a virtual colonoscopy takes less time than any conventional colonoscopy or irrigoscopy. Virtual colonoscopy does not use a probe, after the procedure, the patient does not need help and can immediately go home and return to daily life.
Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography
Diagnosis of ERCP (endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography):
This is a diagnosis of diseases of the bile ducts of the pancreas or the presence of gallstones, such as cancer of the bile ducts or chronological pancreatitis.
Early detection of gastrointestinal cancer
Spectral endoscopy is the latest technique for the early detection of gastrointestinal cancer. It is a new optical image enhancement technology that allows capillaries, vessels and other surface structures to be visualized much more clearly by optimizing light absorption and scattering characteristics. This method is used to diagnose the condition of the upper and lower digestive tract at the cellular level and allows doctors to identify abnormal areas without waiting for test results.
Capsule endoscopy of the gastrointestinal tract is a new method for diagnosing neoplasms of the small intestine in patients with polyps. Diagnostics is carried out with high accuracy, quickly, painlessly, without incisions, while the risk of complications is very low. This method is one of the most convenient, safe and effective methods for diagnosing non-extensive bowel diseases. This technology is already in use in many countries, including the US, UK, Germany, Italy, Israel and Hong Kong.
The gastrointestinal tract is an environment in which various diseases easily arise and develop.
Thyrotropin or thyroid stimulating hormone (S-TSH) – SYNLAB Eesti
TSH (thyroid stimulating hormone) or thyrotropin, is a glycoprotein hormone of the anterior pituitary gland, which stimulates the synthesis and release of thyroid hormones thyroxine T4 and triiodothyronine T3. TSH synthesis stimulates the thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) synthesized in the hypothalamus and inhibits T4 and T3 through a negative connection.Determination of serum TSH is the first test prescribed for suspected hypo- and hyperthyroidism.
- Diagnosis of hypothyroidism
- Diagnosis of hyperthyroidism
- Evaluation of the effectiveness of hormone replacement therapy with thyroid hormones
Analysis method: Chemiluminescence method
|Standard||0.4 – 4.0 mIU / L|
|Warning||2.5 – 4.0 mIU / L|
Interpretation of the result:
TSH secretion is very sensitive to serum thyroxine concentration.A twofold change in serum T4 causes a hundredfold change in TSH concentration. If the TSH concentration is outside the reference range, then it is necessary to determine the free T4.
This survey tactic is not suitable for the following persons:
- Patients with central hypothyroidism
- Hospitalized patients receiving TSH suppressive therapy (dopamine, glucocorticoids)
- Patients undergoing replacement therapy or suppressive therapy
- Patients with acute psychiatric illness
95% of healthy people have serum TSH values from 0.4 to 2.5 mU / L.
High TSH values:
- Primary hypothyroidism – TSH content may increase already in the subclinical stage, although the content of thyroid hormones is still within the reference interval.
- Autoimmune thyroiditis
- Secondary hyperthyroidism – hyperstimulation of the thyroid gland caused by damage to the hypothalamus or pituitary gland
- Acute inflammation or disease
- For persons over 65 years old
- Antibodies to TSH receptors (TRAK) – resistance of the pituitary gland to thyroid hormones
- Heterophilic antibodies – thyroxine therapy does not work
Low TSH values:
- Primary hyperthyroidism – TSH concentration is reduced (<0.03 mIU / L) due to excess production of T3 and T4
- Secondary or tertiary hypothyroidism – hypothyroidism caused by the pituitary gland or hypothalamus.Thyroid hormone production is also low.
- Nodal struma
- Treated Graves’ disease
- Toxic thyroid adenoma
Patients with a TSH concentration greater than 2.0 mU / L have an increased risk of thyroid disease over the next 20 years. Therefore, TSH values falling within the range of 2.5 – 4.0 mU / L should be taken as a warning and the analysis should be repeated six months later.
In patients regularly taking thyroxine, at least 4 hours should elapse between taking a blood test and taking a tablet.
|Abbreviation||Decryption on (eng)||Decryption to (rus)|
||before meals||before meals [on prescribing medications]|
||angiotension-converting enzyme||angiotensin converting enzyme|
||anticardiolipin (antibody)||anticardiolipin (antibodies to cardiolipin)|
||activated clotting time||activated blood clotting time|
||adrenocorticotropic hormone||adrenocorticotropic hormone|
||American Dental Association||American Dental Association|
||antidiuretic hormone||antidiuretic hormone|
| ad lib (lat.)
||as desired, freely||freely, at will [on the prescription of drugs]|
||admission||hospitalization, admission to hospital|
||atrial fibrillation||atrial fibrillation (atrial fibrillation), atrial fibrillation|
| A / G
||albumin / globulin ratio||albumin-globulin index|
||Acute Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyradiculopathy||Acute inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (Guillain-Barré disease)|
||acquired immune deficiency syndrome||acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)|
||arterial line||intra-arterial catheter (cannula)|
| alk phos
||alkaline phosphatase||alkaline phosphatase|
||acute lymphoblastic leukemia||acute lymphoblastic leukemia|
||amyotrophic lateral sclerosis||amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS, Charcot’s disease)|
||alanine aminotransferase||alanine aminotransferase|
||morning||morning, morning [on prescribing drugs]|
||American Medical Association||American Medical Association (USA)|
||acute myocardial infarction||acute myocardial infarction|
||acute myelogenous leukemia||acute myeloid leukemia|
||adenosine monophosphate||adenosine monophosphate (AMP)|
||antinuclear antibody||antinuclear antibodies|
||antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody||antineutrophilic cytoplasmic antibodies|
||acute nonlymphocytic leukemia||acute non-lymphocytic leukemia|
||Anti-Smooth Muscle Antibody||antibodies to smooth muscle|
||aortic pressure||[blood] pressure in the aorta|
||auscultation and percussion||auscultation and percussion|
||anteroposterior||anteroposterior [size, measurement]|
||antipseudomonal aminoglycosidic penicillin||antipseudomonal aminoglycoside penicillin|
||appointment||lit.: appointment [time of doctor visit, for example: your next appointment – monday at 12:30]|
||anisoylated plasminogen / streptokinase activator complex||Anisoylated activator of streptokinase-plasminogen complex|
||Anti-Phospholipid Syndrome||antiphospholipid syndrome|
||activated partial thromboplastin time||activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT)|
||aortic regurgitation||aortic regurgitation, aortic valve insufficiency|
||AIDS-related complex||AIDS-associated complex|
||acute respiratory distress syndrome||acute respiratory distress syndrome [adults]|
||acute renal failure||acute renal failure|
||artificial rupture of memhranes||artificial damage to membranes|
||aortic stenosis||aortic stenosis|
||American Society of Anesthesiologists||American Society of Anesthesiologists|
||asymmetric septal hypertrophy||asymmetric septal hypertrophy [heart]|
||arteriosclerotic heart disease||arteriosclerotic heart disease (CHD)|
||anti-streptolysin 0||antistreptolysin O (ASL-O)|
||aspartate aminotransferase||aspartate aminotransferase|
| at fib
||atrial fibrillation||atrial fibrillation (atrial fibrillation), atrial fibrillation|
||around the clock||around the clock [on observation, on the prescription of drugs]|
||acute tubular necrosis||acute tubular necrosis|
||arteriovenous malformation||arteriovenous malformation|
||2 hours (after meals) plasma glucose||Plasma glucose level 2 hours after eating|
||American Heart Association||American Heart Association (USA)|
||bundle branch block||bundle branch block|
||blood culture||blood culture [in microbiology]|
||bacillus Calmette-Guerin||Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG)|
||birth control pill||oral contraceptive|
| BID, b.i.d., bid
||bis in die (Latin)||twice a day|
||blood sugar||blood sugar|
||bowel movement||intestinal peristalsis|
||body mass index|
||basal metabolic rate||basal metabolic rate|
||blood pressure||blood [arterial] pressure|
||benign prostatic hypertrophy||benign prostatic hypertrophy|
||beats per minute||beats per minute|
||bed rest||bed rest|
| BS, bs
||breath sounds||breath sounds|
||body surface area||body surface area|
||bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy||bilateral [bilateral] salpingo-oophorectomy|
||blood urea nitrogen||residual nitrogen of urea [blood]|
||body weight||body weight|
| C3, C4…C9
||protein components of complement system||protein components of the complement system|
||coronary artery bypass||coronary artery bypass graft|
||coronary artery bypass graft||coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG)|
||coronary artery disease||coronary artery disease (IHD)|
||computerized axial tomography||Axial computed tomography|
||complete blood cell count||complete blood count [clinical] (usually includes leukocytes, hemoglobin, hematocrit, platelets)|
||common bile duct||common bile duct|
||chief complaint||main complaint|
||creatine clearance||creatinine clearance|
||coronary care unit||intensive care cardiology unit|
||helper-inducer T cells||T-helpers|
||suppressor-cytotoxic T cells||T-suppressor|
||carcinoembryonic antigen||Embryonic tumor angigen|
||complement fixation||fixation of complement|
||congenital heart disease||congenital heart disease|
||congestive heart failure||congestive heart failure|
||continuous hyperthermic peritoneal perfusion||prolonged hyperthermic perfusion of the abdominal cavity [with cytostatic solutions]|
||cardiac index||cardiac index (SI)|
||creatine kinase||creatine kinase (CPK)|
||creatine kinase, myocardial band||creatine kinase, myocardial isoenzyme (MB-CPK)|
||chronic lymphocytic leukernia||chronic lymphocytic leukemia|
||chronic myelogenous leukemia||chronic myeloid leukemia|
||central nervous system||central nervous system (CNS)|
||cardiac output||cardiac output|
| c / o
||complains of||complaints about, complains about|
||coenzyme A||coenzyme A|
||chronic obstructive pulmonary disease||chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)|
||creatine phosphokinase||creatine phosphokinase (CPK)|
||cardiopulmonary resuscitation||cardiopulmonary resuscitation|
||cerebrospinal fluid||cerebrospinal fluid|
| C / sec
||cesarean section||Caesarean section|
||computer tomography||computed tomography|
||Carpal Tunnel Syndrome||carpal tunnel syndrome|
||costovertebral angle||cost-vertebral angle|
||central venous pressure||central venous pressure|
||chest x-ray||chest x-ray|
| D / C
||direct bilirubin||direct bilirubin|
||diastolic blood pressure||diastolic blood pressure|
||disseminated gonococcal infection||disseminated gonococcal infection|
||disseminated intravascular coagulation||Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC syndrome)|
||diabetic ketoacidosis||Diabetic ketoacidosis|
||drug related lupus erythematosus||medicated lupus erythematosus|
||diabetes mellitus||diabetes mellitus|
||deoxyribonucleic acid||deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)|
||delivery room||birthing hall (birthing block)|
||dry sterile dressing||dry sterile dressing|
||deep tendon reflex||deep tendon reflex|
||delirium tremens||alcoholic delirium (delirium tremens)|
||duodenal ulcer||duodenal ulcer|
||dysfunctional uterine bleeding||dysfunctional uterine bleeding|
||deep venous thrombosis||deep venous thrombosis|
||estimated blood loss||expected blood loss|
||Epstein-Barr virus||Epstein-Barr virus|
||ethylene diamine tetraacetate||Ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA)|
||ejection fraction||ejection fraction|
||electrocardiogram||electrocardiogram (at present, this abbreviation has almost completely replaced the abbreviation ECG due to the fact that when written by hand, the latter can be easily confused with EEG due to the similar spelling of “c” and “e”)|
||enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay||Fixed enzyme immunosorbent assay|
||electromechanical dissociation||electromechanical dissociation [heart]|
||endoscopic mucosal resection||endoscopic mucosal resection|
||European Organization for the Research and Treatment of Cancer||European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer|
||extrapyramidal symptoms||extrapyramidal symptoms|
||emergency room||emergency room [ward] (analogous to the emergency room)|
||endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography||Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (RCPG)|
||erythrocyte sedimentation rate||erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR)|
| et al
||and others||and others [about authorship, in lists of literature]|
||endoscopic ultrasonography||endoscopic ultrasound|
||cortisol||cortisol (Reichstein’s “F” compound)|
||forced expiratory volume||forced expiratory volume (FEV)|
||fresh frozen plasma||fresh frozen plasma|
||family history||family history|
||fasting plasma glucose||fasting glucose|
||general anesthesia||general anesthesia (general anesthesia)|
||gastroesophageal reflux disease||gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) (obsolete.: reflux esophagitis)|
||glomerular filtration rate||glomerular filtration level|
||glycosylated hemoglobin (= HbA1)||glycosylated hemoglobin|
||gastrointestinal therapeutic system||gastrointestinal therapeutic system (specially designed dosage form providing prolonged action of the drug due to its slow gradual release from the system while it is in the gastrointestinal tract)|
||glucose tolerance test||glucose tolerance test|
| H / A
||hepatitis A virus||hepatitis A virus|
||glycosylated hemoglobin (= Ghb)||glycosylated hemoglobin|
||high blood pressure||high blood [arterial] pressure|
||hepatitis B virus||hepatitis B virus|
||human chorionic gonadotropin||Human Chorionic Gonadotropin|
||hepatitis C virus||hepatitis C virus|
||Healthcare Workers||Health care workers|
||high density lipoprotein||high density lipoprotein (HDL)|
||hepatitis D virus||hepatitis D virus|
||human follicle stimulating hormone||human follicle-stimulating hormone|
||human immunodeficiency virus||human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)|
||heart and lungs||heart and lungs|
||human leukocyte antigen||human leukocyte antigen|
||human menopausal gonadotropin||human menopausal gonadotropin|
||hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy||Hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy|
||history of present illness||history of present illness (anamnesis morbi)|
||heart rate||heart rate (HR)|
||hepatorenaI syndrome||hepatorenal syndrome|
||herpes simplex virus||herpes simplex virus|
||intraaortic balloon pump||intra-aortic balloon counterpulsation|
||iron-binding capacity||Iron binding capacity of serum [blood]|
||irritable bowel syndrorne||irritable bowel syndrome|
||intracranial pressure||intracranial pressure|
||intensive care unit||block (department) of intensive care (BIT)|
||incision and drajnage||opening (incision) and drainage|
||insulin dependent diabetes mellitus||insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus|
||immunofluorescent assay||immunofluorescence assay|
||idiopathic hypertrophic subaortic stenosis||Idiopathic hypertrophic subaortic stenosis (IHSS)|
||impaired glucose tolerance||impaired glucose tolerance|
||impression||impression (one of the sections of the protocol on instrumental examination, more often X-ray.In this section, the radiologist expresses his opinion about the existing pathological process (in fact, makes a conclusion), while in other sections of the protocol objective criteria and indicators are described, but not their interpretation.)|
||intraocular pressure||intraocular pressure|
||impedance plethysmography||impedance plethysmography|
||insulin resistance syndrome||insulin resistance syndrome (metabolic syndrome, syndrome X)|
||intrathecal||into the cavity of the spinal canal|
||idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura||idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura|
||intrauterine insemination||intrauterine insemination|
||International Union Against Cancer||International Union Against Cancer|
||inferior vena cava||inferior vena cava|
||in vitro fertilization||in vitro fertilization (IVF)|
||intravenous pyelogram||intravenous pyelography (intravenous urography)|
||jugular venous distention||swelling of the cervical veins|
||jugular vein pulse||venous pulse|
||kidney, ureter, and bladder||kidney, ureter and bladder|
||left atrium||left atrium|
||left axis deviation||deviation of the electrical axis of the heart (EOS) to the left [ECG]|
||left anterior hemiblock||blockade of the anterior branch of the left bundle branch [ECG]|
||leukocyte alkaline phosphatase||leukocyte alkaline phosphatase|
||lymphadenopathy-associated virus||lymphadenopathy-associated virus|
||low back pain||lower back pain (lumbago)|
||left bundle branch block||Left bundle branch block [ECG]|
||lactate dehydrogenase||lactate dehydrogenase|
||low density lipoprotein||low density lipoprotein (LDL)|
||lower esophageal sphincter||lower esophageal sphincter|
| LFT, LFTs
||liver function tests||Liver function tests|
||lymphogranuloma venereum||lymphogranuloma venereum|
||luteinizing hormone||luteinizing hormone|
||left lower lobe||left lower lobe [of the lung]|
||left lower quadrant||left lower quadrant|
||last menstrual period||last menstrual cycle|
||lymph node (s)||lymph node (lymph nodes)|
||last normal menstrual period||last normal menstrual cycle|
||level of consciousness||level of consciousness|
||lumbar puncture||lumbar puncture|
||left posterior hemiblock||Posterior branch block of the left bundle branch [ECG]|
||left sternal border||left edge of the sternum|
||left upper lobe||upper left lobe of [lung]|
||left upper quadrant||left upper quadrant|
||left ventricular end diastolic pressure||end diastolic pressure (KDP) in the left ventricle|
||left ventricular hypertrophy||left ventricular hypertrophy [heart]|
||monoamine oxidase||monoamine oxidase (MAO)|
||mean arterial pressure||mean arterial pressure|
||multi-focal atrial tachycardia||Multifocal atrial tachycardia|
||minimum bactericidal concentration||minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC)|
||middle cerebral artery||middle cerebral artery|
||midclavicular line||midclavicular line|
||mixed connective tissue disease||mixed connective tissue disease|
||mean cell volume||average cell volume|
| MERSA, MRSA
||methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus||Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin-resistant [strain]|
||malignant hyperthermia||tumor hyperthermia|
||myocardial infarction||myocardial infarction|
||minimum inhibitory concentration||minimum inhibitory concentration|
||malignant lymphoma||malignant lymphoma|
||membrane proliferative glomerulonephritis||membranous proliferative glomerulonephritis|
||analog of meperidine (used by drug addicts)||Meperidine analog used by drug addicts|
||mitral regurgitation||mitral regurgitation, mitral valve insufficiency|
||magnetic resonance imaging||magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)|
| MRSA, MERSA
||methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus||Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin-resistant [strain]|
||multiple sclerosis||multiple sclerosis|
| MUGA scan
||MUltiGAted radionuclide scan (of heart)||multispectral radioisotope examination of the heart|
||mitral valve prolapse||mitral valve prolapse|
||no added sodium||Sodium Free, Sodium Free|
||National Cancer Institute||National Cancer Institute (USA)|
||nongonococcal urethritis||non-gonococcal (non-gonorrheal) urethritis|
||non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma||non-Hodgkin lymphoma|
||National Heart Blood Lung Institute||National Heart, Blood and Lung Institute (USA)|
||non insulin dependent diabetes mellitus||non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus|
||National Institutes of Health||National Institutes of Health (USA)|
||National Medicine Library||National Library of Medicine (USA)|
||normal saline||saline solution|
||nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug||non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID)|
||nonsuppressable insulin-like activity||unsuppressed isulin-like activity|
||normal sinus rhythm||Normal sinus rhythm [ECG]|
||New York Heart Association||New York Heart Association|
||osteoclast activating factor||osteoclast activating factor|
||oral glucose tolerance test||oral glucose tolerance test (OTTG)|
||Ovarian HyperStimulation Syndrome||ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome|
||operating room||operating room|
| Orth, ortho
||oculus sinistra (Latin)||left eye|
||occupational therapy||type of medical care in the United States, roughly corresponding to physiotherapy or rehabilitative medicine.Combines physical exercise, massage, kinesis and psychotherapy. Conducted by dedicated staff (not doctors or nurses).|
||each eye||each eye|
||pulmonary artery diastolic pressure||Diastolic pulmonary artery pressure|
||pulmonary artery pressure||pulmonary artery pressure|
||paraaminosalicylic acid||para-aminosalicylic acid (PASK)|
||pulmonary artery systolic pressure||systolic pulmonary artery pressure|
||paroxysmal atrial tachycardia||paroxysmal atrial tachycardia|
||pulmonary artery wedge pressure||pulmonary artery wedge pressure (PAWP)|
||primary biliary cirrhosis||primary biliary cirrhosis|
||polycystic ovaries||polycystic ovary|
||polycystic ovarian syndrome||polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)|
||Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia||Pneumocystis pneumonia|
||polymerase chain reaction||polymerase chain reaction|
||pulmonary capillary wedge pressure||pulmonary artery capillary wedge pressure|
||physical exam||physical examination|
||pupils equal and reactive to light||Pupils equal and responsive to light|
||percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy||percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy|
||pupils equal, round, reactive to light and accommodation||Pupils equal, round, responsive to light and accommodation|
||pulmonary function test||study of the function of external respiration (FVD)|
||prostaglandin E||prostaglandin E|
||present illness||present disease|
||proximal interphalangeal||proximal interphalangeal|
||plasminogen activator||plasminogen activator|
||polymorphonuclear leukocyte||polynuclear leukocyte|
||previous menstrual period||previous (previous) menstrual cycle|
||polymyalgia rheumatica||polymyalgia rheumatica|
||paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea||paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea, sleep apnea syndrome|
||paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria||paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria|
||by mouth||through the mouth (per os)|
||penicillinase-producing Neisseria gonorrhoeae||Penicillin-producing Neisseria gonorrhea|
||penicillinase-resistant synthetic penicillin||penicillinase-resistant synthetic penicillin|
||pulmonic stenosis||pulmonary valve stenosis|
||prostatic specific antigen||prostate specific antigen|
||primary sclerosing cholangitis||primary sclerosing cholangitis|
||post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis||post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis|
||paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia||paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia|
| Psych, psych
||prothrombin time||prothrombin time|
||prior to admission||before admission [to the hospital]|
||percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography||percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography|
||percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty||percutaneous transluminal (translucent) coronary angioplasty|
||percutaneous transluminal renal angioplasty||percutaneous transluminal (translucent) renal angioplasty|
||partial thromboplastin time||partial thromboplastin time (PTT)|
||peptic ulcer disease||peptic ulcer [duodenal ulcer, stomach]|
||premature ventricular contraction||ventricular premature beats|
||pulmonary vascular resistance||pulmonary vascular resistance|
||pulmonary wedge pressure||pulmonary artery wedge pressure (PWP)|
||Quality adjusted life year||[saved] year of life taking into account its quality|
||quaque die (Latin)||Daily|
||quaque hora (Latin)||Every hour|
||quater in die (Latin)||Four times a day|
||quaque [other] die (Latin)||Every other day|
||Quality of life||Quality of life|
||quaque post meridium (Latin)||Every evening (every day at night)|
| R, RR
||respiratory rate (per min)||respiratory rate (in minutes)|
||rheumatoid arthritis||rheumatoid arthritis|
||right atrial pressure||Right atrial pressure|
||right bundle branch block||Right bundle branch block [ECG]|
||red blood cells||erythrocytes|
||respiratory distress syndrome||respiratory distress syndrome|
||rheumatoid factor||rheumatoid factor|
||Rhesus blood factor||Rh factor|
||Ringer’s lactate||Ringer’s lactate|
||reversible ischemic neurologic deficit||reversible ischemic neurological deficit|
||right lower lobe||right lower lobe [of the lung]|
||right lower quadrant||right lower quadrant|
||right middle lobe||right middle lobe [lung]|
||ribonucleic acid||ribonucleic acid|
| R / 0, r / o
||rule out||delete [disease, condition]|
||rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis||Rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis|
||reticulocyte production index||reticulocyte production index|
||regular sinus rhythm||regular sinus rhythm [ECG]|
||renal tubular acidosis||renal tubular acidosis|
||return to clinic||return to clinic|
||right upper lobe||right upper lobe [lung]|
||right upper quadrant||right upper quadrant|
||right ventricle||right ventricle [heart]|
||renovascular hypertension||renovascular hypertension|
| S / A
||sugar and acetone||sugar and acetone|
||subarachnoid hernorrhage||Subarachnoid hemorrhage|
||subacute bacterial (intfective) endocarditis||subacute bacterial (infectious) endocarditis|
||spontancous bacterial peritonitis||spontaneous bacterial peritonitis|
||systolic blood pressure||systolic blood pressure|
| SC, SQ, subcu
||soluble liver antigens||soluble hepatic antigens|
||systemic lupus erythematosus||systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)|
||oxvgen saturation||oxygen saturation|
||short of breath, shortness of breath||shortness of breath, difficulty breathing|
||state of consciousness||level (state) of consciousness|
| S / P, s / p
||status post||condition after [disease, surgery]|
| SQ, SC, subcu
||slow release||slow-release [in the name of the medicinal product]|
||Sjogren’s syndrome||Sjogren’s syndrome|
||sick sinus syndrome||sick sinus syndrome (SSS)|
||sexually transmitted disease||sexually transmitted diseases (sexually transmitted diseases)|
||serologic test for syphilis||serological test for syphilis|
| subcu, SC, SQ
||superior vena cava||superior vena cava|
||systemic vascular resistance||systemic vascular resistance|
||supraventricular tachycardia||supraventricular tachycardia|
||tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy||tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy|
||thyroxine binding globulin||thyroxine-binding globulin|
||total bilirubin||total bilirubin|
||transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation||transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation|
||transient ischemic attack||Transient ischemic attack (TIA), dynamic cerebrovascular accident|
||three times daily||three times a day|
||trimethoprim / sulfamethoxazole||trimethoprim + sulfametaxozole (bactrim, biseptol)|
||tumor necrosis factor||tumor necrosis factor|
||tissue plasminogen activator||tissue plasminogen activator|
||total protein||total protein|
||Treponema pallidum immobilization||immobilization of pale treponemas (RIBT)|
||temperature, pulse, and respiration||temperature, pulse and respiratory rate|
||tricuspid regurgitation||tricuspid (tricuspid) valve insufficiency|
||tricuspid stenosis||tricuspid (tricuspid) valve stenosis|
||thrombin time||trombin time|
||transurethral resection||transurethral resection (TUR)|
| U / A
||upper gastrointestinal||upper gastrointestinal tract|
||uric acid||uric acid|
||upper respiratory tract infection||upper respiratory tract infection|
||United States Pharmacopeia||United States Pharmacopoeia|
||urinary tract infection||urinary infection|
||veneral disease||venereal disease|
||vital capacity||vital capacity [lungs]|
||ventricular fibrillation||ventricular fibrillation [heart]|
||vasoactive intestinal polypeptide||vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP)|
||very low density lipoprotein||very low density lipoprotein (VLDL)|
||vanillylmandelic acid||vanillyl mandelic acid (VMC)|
||ventricular premature contraction||ventricular premature beats|
||vital signs||vital signs (usually include heart rate, respiration rate, blood pressure, body temperature, oxygen saturation.In most cases, they are measured by nursing staff and entered into special forms (similar to temperature sheets))|
||ventricular septal defect||ventricular septal defect [heart]|
| VT / VF
||ventricular tachycardia / fibrillation||ventricular tachycardia / fibrillation|
||white blood (cell) count||blood leukocyte count|
| w / c
||wheel chair||sit trolley, wheelchair|
||white female||White Woman|
||World Health Organization||World Health Organization (WHO)|
||Wolff Parkinson White||Wolff-Parkinson-White (syndrome)|
| y / o
||years old||age (years)|
||Zollinger-Ellison (syndrome)||Solinger-Ellison (syndrome)|