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THR Medical Abbreviation Meaning

32

THR Total Hip Replacement+ 1 variantPhysical Therapy, Occupational Therapy, Surgery Physical Therapy, Occupational Therapy, Surgery

6

THR Target Heart Rate+ 1 variantMarine, Nuclear Medicine, Cardiology Marine, Nuclear Medicine, Cardiology

6

Thr ThreonineProteins / Amino Acids, Biochemistry, Amino Acids Proteins / Amino Acids, Biochemistry, Amino Acids

3

Thr L-threonineEnzymology Enzymology

3

THR

Tobacco Harm Reduction

Tobacco, Cigarette, Harm

Tobacco, Cigarette, Harm

3

THR

Total Hip Revision

Dentistry

Dentistry

2

Thr ThrombinChemistry Chemistry

2

THR

Thyroid Hormone Receptor

Biology, Healthcare, Health

Biology, Healthcare, Health

2

THR

Total Hip Arthroplasty

Orthopaedic

Orthopaedic

2

THR

Traditional Herbal Registration

Herbal, Product, Business

Herbal, Product, Business

2

THR

Training Heart Rate

Heart, Rate, Training

Heart, Rate, Training

1

THR Alpha-thrombinPhysiology, Biology Physiology, Biology

1

THR

Target HR

Physiology, Biology

Physiology, Biology

1

THR

Texas Health Resources

Church, Health, Texas

Church, Health, Texas

1

Thr Theophylline-resistantCardiology Cardiology

1

THR TherapeuticTechnology, Pathology Technology, Pathology

1

THR

Therapeutic Horseback Riding

Pediatric

Pediatric

1

Thr

Thermophilus TRNA

Biochemistry

Biochemistry

What does THR stand for?

THR

Total Hip Replacement

Medical » Physiology — and more…

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THR

Texas Health Resources

Medical » Physiology — and more…

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THR

Target Heart Rate

Medical » Cardiology

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THR

Tehran, Iran

Regional » Airport Codes

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THR

Training Heart Rate

Sports

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THR

Total Holocaust Records

Business » Companies & Firms

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THR

Thru Hole Reflow

Academic & Science » Physics

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THR

Three Rivers Financial Corporation

Business » AMEX Symbols

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THR

Tony Hawk Rocks

Miscellaneous » Funnies

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THR

Take Home Ration

Miscellaneous » Unclassified

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THR

Tobacco Harm Reduction

Miscellaneous » Unclassified

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THR

Total Health Record

Medical » Healthcare

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THR

The Hollywood Reporter

Miscellaneous

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THR

Tolerable Hazard Rate

Academic & Science » IEEE

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THR

tal Hip Replacement

Miscellaneous » Unclassified

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THR

Tempat Hangout Ramadhan

Miscellaneous » Unclassified

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THR

The High Road

Miscellaneous » Unclassified

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THR

Threshold Heart Rate

Miscellaneous » Unclassified

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THR

Tourism and Hospitality Research

Medical » Hospitals

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THR

Traditional Herbal Registration

Miscellaneous » Unclassified

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THR

The Hollywood

Miscellaneous » Unclassified

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THR

tal Heat of Rejection

Miscellaneous » Unclassified

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THR

Texas Holdem Radio

Miscellaneous » Unclassified

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THR

The Hedgehog Review

Miscellaneous » Unclassified

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THR

Thundermin Resources, Incorporated

Business » Toronto Stock Exchange

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What Does it All Mean? Joint Replacement Acronyms and Definitions

Like most things medical, understanding all of the words and terms associated with “joint replacement” is confusing. Reading through medical forums or listening to your doctor can feel like riding a bus in foreign country: you’re only guessing what everyone is talking about. On a vacation nodding along is totally fine, but when it comes to an upcoming hip replacement or knee replacement, it’s critical that you become more involved in the conversation.

In this post, we’ll crack the code on the many short forms, acronyms, abbreviations and tough-to-understand concepts associated with a hip or knee replacement. Getting better acquainted with the basics will give you full access to understanding what your doctor and peers are really talking about, allow you to ask better questions, and let you confidently lend your newfound expertise to other joint replacement newbies.

Read on as we answer questions like: What is the meaning of arthroplasty? Is there a difference between a joint replacement and arthroplasty? What does THR mean? And more.

The Basics: The Different Types of Replacements

Total Knee Replacement (TKR) or Total Knee Arthroplasty (TKA)

First of all, to clear up any confusion, it must be known that a total knee replacement (TKR) and total knee arthroplasty (TKA) are the exact same thing. Basically, “knee arthroplasty” is just the fancy pants version of “knee replacement”. Got it? Okay, good. Now you can confidently use both terms interchangeably. In a total knee replacement all of the damaged bone and cartilage is removed and resurfaced. The healthy bone is left intact to support the new artificial joint. The artificial joint is made up of as many as three different parts. Read about the many different types of artificial knee replacement components now!

Partial Knee Replacement (PKR) or Unicompartmental Knee Arthroplasty (UKA)

Once again, a partial knee replacement (PKR) is just the more common “street name” for unicompartmental knee replacement (UKA). They’re one in the same. As the name suggests, a partial knee replacement (also known as a PKR or UKA) is when one or more parts of the knee joint are replaced. The difference between a total and partial is that in a partial, the healthy parts of the knee joint are left as-is. Only about 10% of joint replacements are partial, with the overall preference to just do the whole kit and kaboodle. Here’s what’s really involved in a total and partial knee replacement.

Minimally Invasive Knee Replacement

With any type of knee replacement, the surgeon will take either a traditional or minimally invasive approach. With a minimally invasive approach, the exact same components are introduced to form the knee replacement. The main difference is the length of tissue (or incision) cut by the surgeon. With a minimally invasive replacement, the incision mark is 4-6 inches along (about half the size of a traditional replacement). The aim of minimally invasive is to cut less tissue and leave the quadricep tendon and muscle intact. Minimally invasive is still a relatively new offering and is not suitable or recommended for all patients. Learn more here.

Total Hip Replacement(THR)

A total hip replacement is sometimes called a traditional hip replacement surgery (hence the THR). The most common approach to a THR is performed in the posterior approach. In a posterior hip replacement, the incision is cut with the patient lying on their side at the upper thigh/buttock area. The incision is generally 10-12 inches in length, but with a “mini” posterior, the incision can be much smaller at just 4 inches in length. Posterior is the original, “catch-all” hip replacement type, used in the majority of cases by most surgeons. Read on about what to expect during hip replacement surgery.

Direct Anterior Hip Replacement (DAA)

The anterior replacement is less common as it is newer and technically difficult to perform with lower visibility for the surgeon. It is sometimes referred to as a minimally invasive hip replacement. The main difference between posterior and anterior is the site of the incision. With anterior, a smaller cut is made to the front of the upper thigh, with the patient lying on his or her back. An anterior approach is sometimes done in a special table called a Hana table. Like a mini-posterior, this approach is more muscle and tissue-saving as the incision is made in a way that better preserves muscle. As a result, it’s suggested that some patients can have a smoother recovery. In saying this, anterior is not recommended for every patient as it can be riskier and is not performed by all surgeons.

Bilateral Hip & Knee Replacement (BTHR, BTKR) or a Double Hip Replacement & Double Knee Replacement

Bilateral means “having or relating to two sides”. As such, a bilateral hip or knee replacement simply means having both the left and right side replaced. With a simultaneous bilateral, both replacements are done on one surgery day, during a single operation. A simultaneous double replacement allows for a single spell of prehab and rehab–which in some cases, for some patients is preferred. With a staged bilateral replacements, two surgeries are performed during two operations that are usually spaced 1-2 months apart. This is generally a better choice for elderly patients and those with a history of heart problems.

Okay, we’ve covered the differences and commonalities between the main terms that you’ll need to know. Now, it’s time to bust out a glossary of some of the other important acronyms you may come across or hear in conversation with other hippies (hip replacement recipients) or knee-anderthals (we coined this one back in 2016).

Abbreviations and Acronyms Debunked

Here are the basic, most important terms. We explained these in greater detail above.

TJR Total Joint Replacement
TKR Total Knee Replacement
TKA Total Knee Arthroplasty (same as total knee replacement)
PKR Partial Knee Replacement
UKA Unicompartmental Knee Arthroplasty (same as partial knee replacement)
THR Total Hip Replacement (same as posterior hip replacement)
DAA Direct Anterior Hip replacement (same as minimally invasive hip replacement)
BTHR Bilateral Hip Replacement (same as double hip replacement)
BTKR Bilateral Knee Replacement (same as a double knee replacement)
R Right Side (e.g. RTKR is a right total knee replacement)
L Left Side (e.g. LTHR is a left total hip replacement)
Other Key Terms You Outta Know
OS Orthopedic Surgeon
PCP Primary Care Physician
GP General Practitioner
PA Physician’s Assistant
OT Occupational therapist
PT Physical Therapist (or Physical Therapy)
DJD Degenerative Joint Disease
OA Osteoarthritis
RA Rheumatoid Arthritis
TTT Tibial Tubercle Transfer
LR Lateral Release
GA General Anaesthetic
NSAIDs Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs
ROM Range of Motion
BMI Body Mass Index
ABD Abduction (moving joint away from the centre line of the body)
ADD Adduction (moving joint towards the centre line of the body)
PreHab Actively mentally, physically and environmentally preparing for scheduled surgery.
ReHab Actively participating in recovery, after surgery, with a physical therapist or at home.
HEP Home Exercise Program
SNF Skilled Nursing Facility
HHA Home Health Agency
LTACH Long-Term Acute Care Hospital
IRF Inpatient Rehab Facility
CJR Comprehensive Joint Replacement
CMS Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services

Okay, now you should be fluent in “hip and knee replacement”. With this knowledge, may the wind be always at your back and may the sun shine warm upon your face. Irish blessings aside, we hope that you can more confidently navigate conversations with your medical and online readings. We also hope that you can impress a few people with your newfound knowledge!

Are you getting a hip or knee replacement? Join PeerWell today and we’ll help you get set-up on our game-changing mobile PreHab app. We think you’ll love it.

Are we missing any acronyms or definitions? If so, comment below! (Rhyme intended).

THR Meaning in Medical – What does THR mean in Medical? THR Definition

The meaning of THR is Total Hip Replacement and other meanings are located at the bottom which take place within Medical terminology and THR has 23 different meaning. All meanings which belong to THR abbreviation are take part only within Medical terminology and other meanings are not found. If you want to see other meanings, please click the THR meaning link. Thus, you will be directed to page which indicates all meanings of THR.
Unless there are 23 different meanings THR abbreviation at the bottom, please search again by typing question structures such as “what does THR mean in Medical, the meaning of THR in Medical”. Besides, you can search by typing THR in the search box which is found our website.

Meaning Astrology Queries

THR Meaning in Medical

  1. Total Hip ReplacementMedical
  2. TherapeuticRelating to therapeutics, the branch of medicine that is concerned specifically with the treatment of disease.Medical
  3. ThreonineThreonine is an α-amino acid with the chemical formula HO2CCH(Nh3)CH(OH)Ch4.Medical
  4. Target Heart MateMedical
  5. Three RowsMedical
  6. ThyroidectomyA thyroidectomy is an operation that involves the surgical removal of all or part of the thyroid gland.Medical
  7. Thyroid Hormone ReceptorMedical
  8. Thyroid Hormone ResistanceMedical
  9. Thyrotropin-Releasing HormoneMedical
  10. Total Hip ArthronlastyMedical
  11. Total Hip AythroplastiesMedical
  12. Total Hip ReplacementsMedical
  13. Total Hip Replacement SurgeryMedical
  14. ThrillA sudden feeling of excitement and pleasure.Medical
  15. ThrombinThrombin is a serine protease, an enzyme that, in humans, is encoded by the F2 gene.Medical
  16. ThyroidThe thyroid gland, or simply the thyroid, is an endocrine gland in the neck, consisting of two lobes connected by an isthmus. It is found at the front of the neck, below the Adam’s apple.Medical
  17. Traditional Hermal RemediesMedical
  18. Trbining Heart RateMedical
  19. Transhepatic ResistanceMedical
  20. Transient Hyperemic ResponseMedical
  21. Texas Health ResourcesMedical
  22. Targeted Heart RateMedical
  23. Target Heart RateMedical

Please also find THR meaning for Medical in other sources.

What does THR stand for Medical?

We have compiled queries on search engines about THR acronym and we gave place them in our website by selecting the most frequently asked questions. We think you asked a similar question to the search engine to find meaning of the THR abbreviation and we are sure the following list will take your attention.

  1. What does THR meaning stand for Medical?

    THR meaning stands for Total Hip Replacement.

  2. What is the meaning of THR abbreviation in Medical?

    The meaning of THR abbreviation is `Threonine` in Medical.

  3. What is THR definition ?

    THR definition is “Total Hip Arthronlasty”.

  4. What does THR mean in Medical?

    THR mean that “Transhepatic Resistance” for Medical.

  5. What is THR acronym ?

    THR acronym is “Transhepatic Resistance”.

  6. What is shorthand of Total Hip Aythroplasties ?

    The shorthand of “Total Hip Aythroplasties” is THR.

  7. What is the definition of THR acronym in Medical?

    Definitions of THR shorthand is “Thyroidectomy”.

  8. What is the full form of THR abbreviation?

    Full form of THR abbreviation is “Total Hip Replacements”.

  9. What is the full meaning of THR in Medical?

    Full meaning of THR is “Transhepatic Resistance”.

  10. What is the explanation for THR in Medical?

    Explanation for THR is “Total Hip Replacements”.

What is the meaning of THR Abbreviation in Astrology ?

We did not give any place only meanings of THR definitions. Yes, we know that your main purpose is the explanation of THR abbreviation. However, we thought, you can consider the astrological information of THR acronym in Astrology. Therefore, astrologic description of each word are available at the bottom.

THR Abbreviation in Astrology
  • THR (letter T)

    You are very sensitive, private, and sexually passive; you like a partner who takes the lead. Music, soft lights and romantic thoughts turn you on. You fantasize, but do not tend to fall in and out of love easily. When in love, you are romantic, idealistic, mushy, and extremely intense. You enjoy having your senses and your feelings stimulated, titillated, and teased. You are a great flirt. You can make your relationships fit your dreams, oftentimes all in your own head.

  • THR (letter H)

    You seek a mate who can enhance your reputation and earning ability. You will be very generous to your lover once you have attained a commitment. Your gifts are actually an investment in your partner. Before the commitment, though, you tend to be frugal in your spending and dating habits and equally cautious in your sexual involvement. You are a sensual and patient lover.

  • THR (letter R)

    You are a no-nonsense, action-oriented individual. You need someone who can keep pace with you and who is your intellectual equal the smarter the better. You are turned on more quickly by a great mind than by a great body. However, physical attractiveness is very important to you. You have to be proud of your partner. You are privately very sexy, but you do not brag, you are willing to serve as teacher. Sex is important; you can be a very demanding playmate.

Hip Replacement Surgery: Procedure, Types and Risks

Hip replacement is highly successful surgery in which portions of the hip joint are replaced with prostheses (implants). HSS performs more hip replacements than any other US hospital. Hospital for Special Surgery is ranked the #1 hospital for orthopedics in the United States by U.S. News and World Report.

 

What is hip replacement surgery?

Hip replacement is the removal and replacement of portions of the pelvis and femur (thighbone) that form your hip joint. It is performed primarily to relieve hip pain and stiffness caused by hip arthritis.

This procedure is also sometimes used to treat injuries such as a broken or improperly growing hip, and for other conditions.

How do you know if you need a hip replacement?

If you have these arthritis symptoms, you should consider a hip replacement:

  • severe hip pain that is not relieved by medication and that interferes with your work, sleep or everyday activity
  • hip stiffness that restricts motion and makes it difficult to walk

To learn more, read Here’s What to Know if You Think You Need a Hip Replacement.

Hip anatomy

The hip is a ball-and-socket joint. The ball, at the top of your femur (thighbone) is called the femoral head. The socket, called the acetabulum, is a part of your pelvis. The ball moves in the socket, allowing your leg to rotate and move forward, backward and sideways.

In a healthy hip, soft-tissue called cartilage covers the ball and the socket to help them glide together smoothly. If this cartilage gets worn down or damaged, the bones scrape together and become rough. This condition, osteoarthritis, causes pain and restricts motion. An arthritic hip can make it painful to walk or even to get in or out of a chair. If you have been diagnosed with hip arthritis, you may not need surgery. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and/or physical therapy may provide relief. But, if these efforts do not relieve symptoms, you should consult an orthopedic surgeon.

 

What are the different types of hip replacement surgery?

The three major types of hip replacement are:

  • total hip replacement (most common)
  • partial hip replacement
  • hip resurfacing

The most common type of hip replacement surgery is called a total hip replacement (also called total hip arthroplasty). In this surgery, worn-out or damaged sections of your hip are replaced with artificial implants. The socket is replaced with a durable plastic cup, which may or may not also include a titanium metal shell. Your femoral head will be removed and replaced with a ball made from ceramic or a metal alloy. The new ball is attached to a metal stem that is inserted into the top of your femur. (Learn more about types of hip implants.)

Two other types of hip replacement surgeries are each generally appropriate for patients of specific age groups and activity levels:

  • Partial hip replacement (also called hemiarthroplasty) involves replacing only one side of the hip joint – the femoral head – instead of both sides as in total hip replacement. This procedure is most commonly done in older patients who have fractured their hip.
  • Hip resurfacing of the femoral head and socket is most commonly done in younger, active patients.

X-ray of a total hip replacement showing the ball, socket and stem implants

Hip replacement surgical methods

There are two major surgical approach methods for performing a total hip replacement:

  • the posterior approach (more common)
  • the anterior approach (sometimes called the “mini-anterior approach” or “muscle-sparing hip replacement”)

To begin the operation, the hip replacement surgeon will make incisions on either the back (posterior) or front (anterior) of the hip. Both approaches offer pain relief and improvement in walking and movement within weeks of surgery.

Total hip replacement animation: Posterior approach

How should I prepare for hip replacement surgery?

There are certain steps patients can take both before and after surgery to improve recovery time and results. It is important to follow the instructions and guidance provided by your orthopedic surgeon, medical team and rehabilitation therapist. Visit Preparing for Your Surgery to get information on preoperative hip replacement classes and patient education materials about joint replacement surgery.

Can hip replacement be done as an outpatient?

Most patients will stay in the hospital one or two nights after surgery. Some patients may be able have same-day hip replacement and return home after an outpatient procedure.

Learn more about same-day hip replacement by reading Outpatient Hip Replacement Surgery: Frequently Asked Questions.

How long does hip replacement surgery take?

Total hip replacement surgery takes about one and a half hours. Most patients also stay in the hospital for one or two days after the procedure.

What is hip replacement surgery recovery like?

Your rehabilitation will begin within 24 hours after surgery. Most hip replacement patients progress to walking with a cane, walker or crutches within day or two after surgery. As the days progress, you will increase the distance and frequency of walking.

If you have THR surgery at HSS:

  • Your recovery will begin directly following surgery in the Post-Anesthesia Care Unit (PACU), where your medical team will manage your pain and monitor your vital signs.
  • Once the anesthesiologist is satisfied with your condition, you will be moved to an inpatient recovery room to monitor your progress.
  • You will most likely have a dressing and tube on your hip for drainage, which should be removed the day after surgery.
  • The pain management team will assess your medication and use a multifaceted approach to ensure comfort and mobility during the rehabilitation process.
  • You will begin rehabilitation with a physical therapist within 24 hours. Your therapist will help you sit up, get in and out of bed, and practice walking and climbing stairs using a walker, cane or sometimes crutches.
  • You will then continue physical therapy outside the hospital for 6 to 8 weeks. After that period, most patients are able to do everyday activities and return to playing sports.

Can I have both hips replaced at the same time?

Yes, healthy patients younger than 75 years old who have no history of cardiopulmonary disease may be able to have both hips replaced at once. In some cases, however, it may be better to stage the surgeries.

What are the risks of hip replacement surgery?

The surgery is very safe, but every surgery has risks, and infection is the most serious. You should ask your surgeon what the surgical infection rate is for hip replacements at the hospital or facility where you will have your surgery.

HSS has one of the lowest rates of infection for hip replacement surgery, as well as a significantly lower rate of readmission compared to the national average. In 2015, The New York State Department of Health reported that out of more than 160 hospitals in New York that did hip replacements in 2014, only Hospital for Special Surgery had a hip replacement surgery site infection (SSI) rate that was “significantly lower than the state average” for that year, and that those infection rates at HSS had been significantly lower than the state average in each of the seven years between 2008-2014.

Other risks include blood clots in the leg or pelvis, and accidental hip dislocation during or after recovery. Hospital for Special Surgery performs better than the national average in preventing blood clots after surgery.

What are hip implants made of?

There are three separate implants: the stem, the ball and the socket.

  1. The stem, made out of metal (usually titanium or cobalt-chrome) is inserted into your natural thighbone.
  2. The ball is usually made out of polished metal or ceramic, and fits on top of the stem.
  3. The socket is usually a combination of a plastic liner and a cobalt-chrome or titanium backing.

Learn more about joint replacement prostheses by reading Understanding Implants in hip and Hip Replacement.

Will my new hip set off the metal detector at the airport?

Today’s sensitive screening machines will detect the implant but can also effectively identify it. The machine operator will know that it is an implant rather than an unauthorized metal object contained outside the body.

It is still helpful to tell airport security that you have had a hip replacement before entering the screening machine. You may also ask your doctor’s office if they can provide a card that identifies that you have received a hip implant that contains metal.

How long do hip implants last?

Generally speaking, a hip replacement prosthesis should remain effective for between 10 and 20 years, and some can last even longer.

Results vary according to the type of implant and the age of the patient. In a 2008 study of more than 50,000 patients who had THR surgery at age 55 or older, between 71% and 94% still had well-working implants after 15 years.

When a hip implant does need to be replaced because it has loosened or worn out over time, this requires what is called hip revision surgery.

How soon after surgery can I resume driving?

Most patients can resume driving by six weeks after surgery.

What should I look for in a hip replacement surgeon?

When looking for an orthopedic surgeon to perform your hip replacement surgeon, it’s important to do your research and check the surgeon’s credentials, experience and reputation. It is also important to research the hospital or facility where you will have your operation, as well as its supporting staff, such as the anesthesiologists.

The success rate for hip replacement surgery at HSS is very high. In a study, HSS interviewed patients to learn about their progress. Two years after their surgeries, 99.4% of patients said they had relief from pain, 98.8% said their ability to move was improved, and 97.8% said their quality of life was better because of their surgery.

Below, explore detailed articles and other content on this topic, or find the best hip replacement surgeon at HSS to suit your specific condition, location and insurance.

References

Back in the Game patient stories

References
  • NYSDOH SPARCS 2017 Public Use File. https://www.health.ny.gov/statistics/sparcs/access/.
  • Koltsov JCB, Marx RG, Bachner E, McLawhorn AS, Lyman S. Risk-Based Hospital and Surgeon-Volume Categories for Total Hip Arthroplasty. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2018;100(14):1203-1208. doi:10.2106/JBJS.17.00967.
  • https://journals.lww.com/jbjsjournal/Fulltext/2018/07180/Risk_Based_Hospital_and_Surgeon_Volume_Categories.5.aspx.
  • Mäkelä KT, Eskelinen A, Pulkkinen P, Paavolainen P, Remes V. Total hip arthroplasty for primary osteoarthritis in patients fifty-five years of age or older. An analysis of the Finnish arthroplasty registry. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2008;90(10):2160-2170. doi:10.2106/JBJS.G.00870.
  • https://journals.lww.com/jbjsjournal/Fulltext/2008/10000/Total_Hip_Arthroplasty_for_Primary_Osteoarthritis.14.aspx.
  • HSS Arthroplasty Registry, 2007-2012. https://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00454506. 
  • Hospital-Acquired Infections, New York State. New York State Department of Health, Albany, NY. October 2015. https://www.health.ny.gov/statistics/facilities/hospital/hospital_acquired_infections/2014/docs/hospital_acquired_infection.pdf.

(Return to top.)

 

FAQ: Total Hip Replacement | Veterinary Medical Center

Learn about Canine Total Hip Replacement

Many factors enter into the decision to have a total hip replacement performed on your pet. You may have questions about the procedure. The answers to the most commonly asked questions about total hip replacement follow. We hope you find this information helpful and would be happy to answer any other questions you might have.

Q: What is a total hip replacement (THR)?

Both the ball (head of the femur) and socket (acetabulum) of the hip joint are replaced with prosthetic implants. The new ball is made from a cobalt-chromium metal alloy and the new socket from high molecular weight polyethylene plastic. Special bone cement is used to hold these implants in place.

Q: Do you use a cementless or a cemented total hip replacement?

We have been doing cemented total hip replacements at The Ohio State University College of Veterinary Medicine since August of 1976. We have gained considerable experience with this procedure and have a high success rate. The prosthesis we use has many of the design features found in hip replacements used in people. It is commercially available and in wide use through out the world. Total hip replacements that do not use cement are commercially available for dogs. To date, these commercially available cementless implants confer no significant advantage to the patient in the short or long term. In future it is possible that technological advances in cementless THR will allow us to recommend such implants, or a hybrid combination such as a cementless cup and cemented stem.

Q: Can you tell from my dog’s x-rays (radiographs) if he/she is a good candidate for THR?

Radiographs show abnormalities in the hip joint and are used for choosing the proper sized prosthesis but they are only part of the picture. To decide what is best for your pet, the surgeon must evaluate your pet’s history, perform a complete physical examination, evaluate your pet’s radiographs and interpret laboratory data. Many factors must be evaluated before your pet is considered a good total hip candidate.

Q: How do you determine if my dog is a candidate for a THR?

A painful hip(s) that is affecting your dog’s comfort, locomotion and activity levels is the primary indication for a THR. Stiffness, lameness and reluctance to exercise are often signs of problems. Your pet must be in good general health. There must be no other joint of bone problems, no nerve disease, and no other medical illnesses. Your dog must be skeletally mature; that is, he/she must be finished growing. Generally this occurs by 9 to 12 months of age. This is determined by x-rays of the hips. The size of the bones as determined by x-rays must be large enough to fit the available sized of prosthesis. Total hips can generally be placed in dogs weighing 40 pounds or greater. A dog with arthritic hips that has pain-free, normal function is not a candidate for THR.

Q: What is the earliest age my dog can have this procedure done?

In most dogs 9 months old is the earliest the procedure will be done. There are only a few giant breeds where it will be necessary to delay surgery for 1 or 2 months while the dog’s skeleton reaches maturity.

Q: What can I expect from this surgery?

The goal of surgery is to return your pet to pain-free, mechanically sound, normal hip function. Generally, dogs are found to be more comfortable and have an improved quality of life. Many owners report that their pet can do things they have not done since they were a puppy. Increase in muscle mass, improved hip motion, and increased activity levels have been observed in most patients. Working dogs have returned to full activity. Some mean dogs have even developed a pleasant personality when the pain was eliminated from their hip(s). We have found that 95% of the hips that have been replace by surgeons at OSU return to normal function or near normal function. More than 95% of owners feel that their dog’s quality of life is improved or markedly improved.

Q: Since the expertise of the surgeon is very important, what experience do the surgeons at Ohio State have with the procedure?

In 1976 surgeons from Ohio State began evaluating the effectiveness of this procedure. This evaluation continues today. Since the first hip was put in, over 2,000 total hip replacements have been performed by surgeons from Ohio State. More canine total hips are done at Ohio State each year than at any other university or private practice in the world. Surgeons at Ohio State have been leaders in developing and writing about total hip replacement surgery. Owner and referring veterinarian cooperation in providing follow-up information has been invaluable in the effort to evaluate and continually improve this procedure.

Q: My dog is on medication. Should I stop giving this?

Medications for health conditions such as diabetes or low thyroid function should not be stopped. Medications for hip pain should be stopped prior to the initial examination. Oral steroids (even for skin conditions) should be stopped 1 week before the exam while other anti-inflammatory drugs including aspirin should be stopped 3 days before the exam.

Q: Is surgery performed the day of admission?

No. Your pet must be carefully screened before surgery. This entails a complete history and physical examination. X-rays of the hips will be taken pre-operatively. A complete blood count and chemistry profile (if indicated) will be obtained to screen your dog for evidence of infection, anemia or problems with internal organs before surgery is performed. Your pet’s skin will be carefully examined for signs of infection. Abnormalities noted on these examinations may indicate that your dog is not a good candidate for a THR. If the pre-operative evaluations reveal no abnormalities, surgery is usually scheduled for the next day.

Q: How long will my pet stay in the hospital?

The routine length of hospitalization for patients with THR is 3 to 5 days including the day of the initial examination. If it is determined that your pet is a good candidate for the procedure and you agree to have the procedure done, he/she will be admitted to the hospital at the initial examination for surgery the next day.

Q: What is the success rate of THR?

In reviewing the records of patients that have had THR, a little over 95% of dogs have had good to excellent function with this procedure. These patients have normal pain-free function, increased muscle mass, no limping and increased activity.

Q: What are the complications with this surgery?

As with any surgery, total hip replacements have their own set of complications. The complications that have occurred since 1976 when the first THR was done at Ohio State include dislocations, fractures of the femur, infections, loosening of the implants and nerve damage. Because surgeons at Ohio State have been continually evaluating and improving this procedure, the risk of a complication occurring is low. Some complications seen in the early stages of development of the technique have been totally eliminated, while the risk for other complications has been greatly reduced. Methods of treating the few complications that do occur are also being developed and evaluated. Most complications can now be successfully resolved, preserving the THR. Thus, in the unlikely event your dog does have a complication, it is best to have it dealt with by a surgeon at The Ohio State University.

Q: What is the post-operative care for my dog?

The postoperative care for your dog is critical. The surgical incision must be monitored daily for redness, swelling or discharge. Your dog must be discouraged from licking the incision. This sometimes requires placement of a special collar to prevent your pet from reaching the incision. Your dog’s attitude and appetite should be monitored daily while the incision heals. The sutures may be removed 10 to 14 days after the surgery. This may be done by your local veterinarian or at Ohio State. An appointment for suture removal is required at Ohio State.

The activity level of your pet must be strictly controlled. For the first month after surgery your dog should only be allowed outside, on a leash, to urinate and defecate and for a short walk. Your pet should be immediately returned to the house afterwards. Inside the house your pet should avoid stairs and slippery floors. If your pet must go up and down some stairs, you should go with the pet using a leash or your hand on the collar to control the speed of your pet on the stairs. Good footing is important. Absolutely no running, jumping or playing is allowed in the first 2 months after surgery. When your dog is not under your direct control, he/she should be kept confined to a small room. Some owners find that a large cage or airline crate is an ideal place to confine their pet when they are not at home.
For the second post-operative month, similar restrictions apply but you may begin to take your pet on longer leash walks. The length of the walk will depend on your dog’s abilities. After the end of the second month, you may return your pet to full activity.

Q: Do I have to bring my animal back to Ohio State for a check up?

If possible we would like to reevaluate our patients at OSU. We understand that people come to us from all over the United States, so if it is not convenient for you to return to OSU, we ask that you have your veterinarian x-ray your dog at 3 months after surgery and annually thereafter. We also ask that those x-rays and a report on your pet’s function be sent to us so that we may record that information in your pet’s medical record. We have been able to follow some dogs for more than 12 years. We will only be able to evaluate long-term results of THR if we have the cooperation of owners and referring veterinarians.

Q: Both of my dog’s hips are affected. Will both need to be replaced? How do you decide which hip to replace?

Four out of five dogs or 80% of the patients with arthritis in both hips only require one side be operated upon to return them to a satisfactory and comfortable life. The decision on which hip to replace is based on the owner’s observations, the physical examination findings and the hip x-rays. Your knowledge of your pet’s disability is important in making this decision.

Q: How much does the procedure cost?

At present (2017), the average cost ranges from $5,600 to $6,000. This includes the examination, laboratory work, x-rays, hospitalization fees, antibiotics, anesthesia, surgical fees, special surgical drapes and the cost of the implants (which accounts for about 35% of the fee). Charges for follow up evaluations range from $200-$300. These costs vary, depending on what needs to be done. We at Ohio State are doing everything we can to keep the costs of this procedure low. However, as the costs of the implants and materials we use in the procedure increase, we may have to raise our fees, thus the price range given above is subject to change without notification.

Q: How do I make an appointment for THR?

In many cases, your veterinarian will have recommended a THR. Your veterinarian may have already consulted with Ohio State about your pet. An appointment is made with an orthopedic surgery service at The Ohio State University Veterinary Medical Center. These can be made by calling the small animal appointment desk at 1-614-292-3551. Appointments are for mornings only, Monday through Thursday. These appointments may take 2 to 6 hours. The day of the week for your appointment will vary depending on the surgeon’s clinic schedule.

Q: Is THR the only treatment available for my pet?

No, besides THR, other possibilities for treatment of your pet include non-surgical therapy and several other surgical options. Which treatment should be used on your pet depends on many factors. The best treatment option will be discussed with you after we have taken a history, evaluated x-rays, and completed an orthopedic examination of your pet.

We hope we’ve answered your questions about total hip replacement. If you do have other questions, please be sure to ask them at the time of your appointment. Your veterinarian is welcome to call OSU to discuss case management with an orthopedic surgeon.

Hip Replacement | Texas A&M Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital

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What is total hip replacement?

A total hip replacement is a procedure in which the orthopedic surgeon replaces a painful or damaged hip joint with an artificial one. The hip joint is a “ball and socket” joint made of two bones. These bones are partially removed and a metal and plastic artificial implant, or “prosthesis,” is placed to function like a normal hip. Removal of the affected hip joint eliminates the source of pain and lameness, thus allowing the patient to return to a normal level of activity. The new artificial hip provides a pain free joint substitute, and as such, limb function and activity level return to normal.

 

LEGEND: A) arrows – diseased femoral head, asterisk – disease acetabulum. B-D) closed arrows – femoral component of THR, open arrows – bone cement; thin arrows – acetabular component of THR, asterisk – remaining acetabulum.

Total hip replacement radiographs (x-rays) A) Pre-op view of an arthritic hip. B) Post-op view of a completely cemented THR. C) Post-op view of a completely cementless THR. D) Post-op view of a hybrid THR, in which a cemented femoral component and cementless acetabular component were used.

 

Why is total hip replacement necessary?

The most frequent indication for total hip replacement in dogs is the relief of pain and lameness caused by severe arthritis secondary to hip dysplasia, or fractures (breaks) and dislocation of the bones that make up the hip joint. Many dogs with arthritic and painful hips function fairly well with pain medication and exercise restriction, but when a painful joint is removed and replaced with an artificial hip, there is often a dramatic change in the patient’s activity, lameness, muscle mass, and personality.

 

How do I know if my dog needs a total hip replacement?

A complete physical, orthopedic, and neurologic examination will be performed by an orthopedic surgeon. A complete history of how and what your dog has been doing at home will be an important part of the decision making process. Common clues that a total hip replacement might be needed include hind limb lameness, reluctance to rise or jump, inability to exercise, pain after exercise, decreased activity, and loss of muscle mass.

Radiographs (x-rays) of a dog with hip arthritis, secondary to hip dysplasia, before and after hip replacement.

 

Are there reasons why my dog shouldn’t have a total hip replacement?

Yes. If your dog suffers from skin, ear, dental, or urinary infections, or shows evidence of other potential sources of weakness or lameness, total hip replacement will not be performed. Other common causes of hind limb problems in dogs include rupture of the cranial cruciate ligament and neurologic problems such as intervertebral disk disease. Once these underlying problems are addressed and resolved, total hip replacement may again be considered. If a femoral head ostectomy (FHO) has already been performed, total hip replacement is extremely challenging and the chances of success are much lower. Finally, your dog must be finished growing (skeletally mature), so most dogs must be at least 10 months old before a hip replacement can be performed.

 

How does the total hip replacement procedure work?

Under general anesthesia, the surgeon removes the cartilage and bone that make up the hip joint. The diseased femoral head (the ball) is replaced with a metal implant on a stem that fits inside the femur (thigh bone). The diseased part of the pelvis (socket) is replaced with a plastic or combination metal and plastic cup. The new hip is designed to allow the joint to move in an identical manner to a normal hip. The implants are very durable, and are anchored in place using either bone cement (cemented hip replacement) or by the dog’s own bone actually growing into the implants (cementless hip replacement). For more information on veterinary total hip implants, please visit www.biomedtrix.com .

Biomedtrix cementless (BFX) total hip replacement implants. Long-term implant stability is achieved as the patient’s bone grows into the porous portion of the implants. Photo courtesy of Biomedtrix.

Biomedtrix cemented (CFX) total hip replacement implants. Long-term implant stability is achieved by placing bone cement inside the bones, then securing the implants into this bed of bone cement. Photo courtesy of Biomedtrix.

Should I stop all of my dog’s medications before surgery?

Medications prescribed to treat systemic problems such as hypothyroidism should not be stopped. Medications for hip pain (aspirin or other non-steroidal anti-inflammatories, like Rimadyl®) should be stopped 3-5 days before the initial exam. If your dog is taking corticosteroids, or antibiotics, these medications should be stopped for a minimum of 2 weeks prior to surgery.

Will surgery be performed the same day as the initial exam?

No. Dogs undergoing evaluation for hip replacement must be carefully screened. A thorough physical exam, labwork (complete blood count, serum chemistry, urinalysis and urine culture), and specialized x-rays must be completed before surgery is considered. If problems are detected it might indicate that your dog is not a good candidate for the surgery. If the initial tests reveal no abnormalities, surgery is usually scheduled for 1-2 days after the initial exam.

What about my dog’s recovery and care after surgery?

Most dogs can stand and walk on the new hip implants the day after surgery and are able to go home after 3-5 days of total hospitalization. However, total hip replacement patients must be confined to a crate and allowed outside only on a leash to eliminate for 3 months after surgery. While at home, care should be taken to avoid walking on slippery surfaces, and long flights of stairs are not allowed. After the first 4 weeks of crate confinement, SLOW, 5 minute leash walks are started 2-3 times a day. These leash walks are increased by 5 minutes each week, until leash walks are 20 minutes long. These 20 minute leash walks are continued for 4 additional weeks, at which time the dog is returned to Texas A&M for re-examination and x-rays.

What are the benefits of a total hip replacement?

The main benefit of total hip replacement is the total relief of a painful hip joint. Dogs are very good at concealing pain, so once the affected hip joint is replaced, the dog’s activity and attitude improve dramatically. Once the pain and inflammation associated with surgery resolve, many dogs can discontinue the daily pain medications that were previously required to control the signs of hip pain and arthritis. Total hip replacement is the best surgical option for an arthritic, painful hip, but it does carry some risk.

An orthopedic surgery team performing a total hip replacement at Texas A&M University’s Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital.

What are the risks of total hip replacement?

There are risks associated with any anesthesia and surgery. Your veterinarian or orthopedic surgeon will discuss these risks with you. The reported complication rate following total hip replacement in dogs is between 7 and 12%. With total hip replacement, it is critical that complications are identified and treated early. Complications can be minor, such as swelling at the incision site (seroma) or a low-grade infection of the skin surrounding the incision. However, there are three major complications that can lead to failure of the hip replacement and more surgery. These include:

Dislocation of the implants (luxation).

Implant luxation occurs in approximately 2-4% of cases and usually occurs in the first 3 months after surgery. Dislocation of the implants may be corrected manually under anesthesia, but often a second surgery is required.

Infection of the implants.

Infection of the new hip is a serious and catastrophic problem. If the infection is limited to the skin and surgical wound, long-term antibiotics may control the problem. If the implants themselves become infected, removal of the entire hip replacement is required.

Loosening of the implants.

Loosening can occur either due to low-grade infection or due to “aseptic loosening”, a condition in which the dog’s own body decides to reject the implant. Aseptic loosening occurs in 5-15% of cemented total hip replacements. If aseptic loosening develops, the hip implants may have to be removed or replaced.

Is total hip replacement permanent?

In most dogs, the replaced hip will last for the dog’s life. In fact, studies have shown that 90-95% of dogs have good to excellent function with this procedure. Hip replacement provides years of pain-free activity that would otherwise not have been possible. With the arrival and use of newer implants such as the cementless total hip (also known as press-fit or BFX), the future looks promising for dogs of all ages and sizes that need total hip replacement.

A PDF document of this information is available for printing.


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90,000 Medical truentism as an important problem of culture and development of society :: Petrozavodsk State University

What is truentism , is it necessary to fight it or, perhaps, to support and encourage it, and where did this word come from, clearly not of Russian origin?

It appeared in 1936, when the famous British surgeon Lord Burkeley Moynigan, in his Linacrow lecture at Cambridge University, spoke about 61 doctors who became famous outside of medicine – in politics, literature, art, philosophy, sports, etc.and called them (obviously jokingly) truents , i.e. in English truants .

The head of the department A.P. Zilber began to study this phenomenon in 1949, as a second year student of the 1st Leningrad Medical Institute. It turned out that this phenomenon in itself is not so rare, that hundreds and even thousands of doctors became famous for their non-medical activities, and many of them never stopped practicing medicine, although mankind either did not know about it, or has completely forgotten.This is how the term medical truentism arose, by which Professor A.P. Zilber understands the fruitful aspiration of doctors to useful creative activity outside medicine . The search for more and more new physicians-truents led the professor to completely unexpected results and even discoveries. Now his original collection contains about 4,000 files of doctors who were engaged in “not their own business.” These are very different people, primarily in their human qualities, but they are united by one thing – for self-expression, it is not enough for them to do one thing, i.e.e. by healing. They are literally torn apart by the desire to do something else in some other area, and to do it at a highly professional level, and not at the level of a hobby.

At present, the book “Doctors-Truents” has already been published (St. Petersburg, Arka publishing house). We hope that readers who have become acquainted with the contents of the fifteen chapters of this book will be imbued with respect for people who became famous not only in medicine, and for the author who glorified them.

Every month you have the opportunity to read here on our website information about four doctors-truents, who were born in a particular month – only four out of many hundreds of births or deaths in the same month of the year.The choice, as a rule, falls on the most outstanding people, of particular interest to the professor.

July 2021

“July” doctors-truents from prof. A.P. Zilber

Sergei Vasilievich Levasho (e) in (1857-1919), born on July 5, , 1857 in the Tula province into a noble family.

Received medical education at the Moscow Imperial University and at the St. Petersburg Medical-Surgical Academy. At the Moscow Art Academy, his teachers were such luminaries as I.M. Sechenov, I. P. Pavlov, S. P. Botkin. SV Levashov graduated from the Moscow Art Academy with honors, and his name was entered on the marble plaque of honor of the Academy.

He received his doctorate in medicine in 1880, and, as was customary at that time, went on probation to Europe – to the leading universities in Germany, Austria and France.

Upon returning to Russia, he headed the faculty therapeutic clinic (the so-called department) of Kazan University. Thanks to his efforts, this clinic tried to use the most modern medical technology at that time.For example, an X-ray machine was actively used. Let me remind you that V.K.Rentgen discovered his X-rays only in 1895. The area of ​​scientific interests of Sergei Vasilyevich is the etiology of croupous pneumonia, typhus, treatment of cholelithiasis, diabetes, liver and pancreas diseases, and in recent years infectious diseases …

In 1894, he made a presentation on the causative agents of typhus at the XI International Medical Congress in Rome.

Department in Kazan S.V. Levashov took 16 years.In the same period of his life, he got married. His wife was Olga Vasilievna Florinskaya (in the photo she is with her husband), the daughter of Vasily Markovich Florinsky, a doctor-truent, one of the initiators of the opening of the Siberian University in Tomsk (see about him “February doctors-trients”, 2019).

Since 1903, the “Odessa” period of SV Levashov’s life begins: he was transferred to Odessa by the head of the Department of Faculty Therapy of Novorossiysk University, and a few years later became the rector of this university.

In Odessa, Professor S.V. Levashov was the initiator of the creation of the Higher Women’s Medical Courses, the level of teaching at which was close to the university.

He was an active social activist and politician: an honorary magistrate of the Odessa City Duma, a member of the Russian national-monarchist movement, a member of the Central Council of the Union of the Russian People, a State Duma deputy from Odessa, a member of the Board of the All-Russian Filaretov Society of Public Education.

After the February Revolution of 1917Professor S.V. Levashov withdrew from political activity, and was soon fired from Novorossiysk University, arrested and, according to some information, shot by the Odessa Cheka.

* * *

Moritz Arnoldovich Goldenblum (1862-1919), doctor of medicine and music figure, born July 11, 1862 in Odessa.

A graduate (1887) of the Faculty of Medicine of the University of Dorpat Moritz Goldenblum began his medical practice in the famous Obukhov hospital, one of the oldest hospitals in St. Petersburg, which was founded in the late 1770s.near Obukhov Bridge on the Fontanka. NI Pirogov worked as a consultant in this hospital for many years.

Subsequently, for several years, Moritz Arnoldovich worked at the Clinical Institute of the Grand Duchess Elena Pavlovna (Eleninsky Institute), which had just opened (May 1885) in St. Petersburg, the world’s first institution for advanced training of doctors.

In parallel with medicine M.A. Goldenblum took up music seriously. He studied at the St. Petersburg Conservatory. Among his teachers is the professor of music theory K.K. Zike (1850–1890), professor of composition NF Solovyov (1846–1916, by the way, a native of Petrozavodsk, who studied for 2 years at the Medical and Surgical Academy).

While still in Dorpat, Mikhail Goldenblum conducted symphony concerts.

During 1904-1909. he participated as a conductor in the famous “Pavlovsky Seasons” – summer music concerts, which from 1838 were held in the suburb of St. Petersburg – Pavlovsk, where a special hall, the so-called “Pavlovsky Voksal”, was built.The name “Voksal” (exactly like that – in the English manner) was not given by chance. The fact is that a branch of the railway was specially built from St. Petersburg to Pavlovsk, so that after the trip there would be an opportunity to listen to famous European and Russian musicians at the “music station”.

MA Goldenblum also took part in the concerts of Count Alexander Dmitrievich Sheremetev, a philanthropist and amateur musician. In his estate in Ulyanovka, near the Ligovo station, the count had his own full concert orchestra.This orchestra gave public, or, as they were called, “folk” symphony concerts.

Moritz Arnoldovich has works in the field of music criticism, he was the editor of the musical anthology “Golden Lyre”.

His son – Anatoly Moritsovich Goldenblum (1898-1972) – art critic, teacher, talented art propagandist and experienced museum worker. In 1936-1940. was director of the Bolshoi Theater Museum, and from 1947 for twenty years headed the Omsk Museum of Fine Arts.Studied at the Faculty of History and Philology of St. Petersburg University and at the Military Medical Academy.

* * *

Thomas Walkley (Th. Wakley, 1795-1862), founder of the Lancet magazine, MP, coroner, was born 11 July 1795 in the English county of Devonshire in a large family where he was the eleventh child.

In 1817, T. Walkley became a member of the Royal College of Surgeons, tried to practice in his homeland, Devonshire, but was unsuccessful.I had to return to London.

In August 1820, Thomas Walkley’s family suffered a misfortune: his 15-room house at 5 Argyll Street in London burned down (most likely set on fire). In this case, his medical practice also suffered – after all, he received patients in his home.

As his contemporaries wrote about him, “the spirit of reformism always lived in Thomas Walkley.” He decided to take up journalism without losing his interest in medical problems, which led to the establishment of the journal The Lancet . His friends and relatives helped to sort out financial issues. T. Walkley actively fought against nepotism, incompetence, charlatanism.

The first issue of The Lancet was published on October 5, 1823 (in the photo – the cover and title page of the first edition). The name of the magazine is associated with the surgical instrument of the same name, as well as with the Gothic lancet windows, as a symbol of light in the literal and figurative sense. The magazine was very successful: by 1830, the circulation was 4,000 copies.Interestingly, in the early years of its existence, the journal published not only medical information. It had a chess column, printed materials on topics of politics, news of theatrical life, etc. In the future, this was abandoned, and the journal became strictly medical.

Three sons of Thomas Walkley, who were also related to medicine, also participated in publishing.

True, the Walkley publishing dynasty ended in 1909 with the death of Thomas Walkley Jr.

Since 1835until 1852 Thomas Walkley was a member of parliament – a conscientious member of the House of Commons, an active and correct participant in debates.

He was also elected to the office of Coroner, an elected official in England who is responsible for conducting an investigation into every death in which there is reason to suspect an unnatural cause or violence. As coroner, T. Walkley conducted over 25,000 such investigations.

He died on about. Madeira May 16, 1862as a result of pulmonary hemorrhage caused by falling from a boat. Signs of lung disease were observed in him and before this accident for 10 years.

In London, a memorial plaque was installed on the house where Thomas Walkley lived (Bedford Square, 35, Bloomsbury ) .

* * *

Archibald Joseph Cronin (A. J. Cronin, 1896-1981), world famous writer, born July 19, 1896in the Scottish Cardross (Cardross, pictured – “family nest”).

Archibald lost his father early – he was only 7 years old when his father died of tuberculosis, and he and his mother were forced to move to her parents in Dumbarton.

Soon after the move, the mother of the future writer, Jesse Cronin, became the first female health inspector in Scotland.

From childhood, Archibald Cronin loved sports. He perfectly played football, golf, was involved in track and field athletics and received many prizes for his sporting success.He carried his love for sports throughout his life.

Received medical education in Scotland – at the University of Glasgow. He entered the university in 1914, but during the First World War, his studies had to be interrupted. During this period, he served as a surgeon in the Navy, then worked in various hospitals. In 1919 he received a bachelor’s degree in surgery, and only in 1925 a doctor of medicine.

Moved to London where he practiced private medicine.

In 1931was published his first big novel “Hatter`s Castle” (“Brody Castle”, translated into Russian in 1938), which immediately brought him recognition and success, although it was written in just three months. (Photo of the first editions of the novel).

During the same period, he left medical practice to devote himself entirely to literary creativity.

Most of the works (novels, essays, short stories) by A. Kronin became bestsellers (Three Loves (1932), The Stars Look Down (1935), The Citadel (1937), Keys to the Kingdom (1941), “Young Years” (1944), “Shannon’s Way” (1948), “Monument to the Crusader” (1956), “Song of Sixpence and a Pocket of Wheat” (1964) and have been translated into many languages, several novels have been filmed, and the television series Doctor Finley’s Journal was one of the most popular series on British television in the 1960s.

In 1939 A. Cronin with his wife and children (pictured) moved to the USA, where by 1958 the circulation of his books reached seven million.

A. Kronin’s books were very popular in the USSR.

The last 35 years of his life A. Cronin lived in Switzerland in the town of Montreux.

* * *

We remind you that the department is interested in the responses of visitors to the materials published on our website. Send them to the phones and other details indicated at the beginning of the cathedral page.All the best!

90,000 Gastroscopy.

Gastroscopy.

Gastroscopy is a medical term consisting of two words: “gastro”, which means abdomen and “scopy” – to look for. Gastroscopy is a diagnostic technique that allows the doctor to look inside the stomach using an instrument called a gastroscope. It is a long, thin, flexible fiber optic tube. At the end of this tube is a miniature camcorder with a wide-angle lens that produces a color image.By advancing this tube through the stomach, the doctor can directly examine the walls of the upper digestive system. Diagnosis is quick, painless and does not require tissue cutting.

Colonoscopy

Colonoscopy allows the doctor to examine the entire large intestine, from the lowest part of it, the rectum, to the lower part of the small intestine. This procedure is used to detect early signs of colon and rectal cancer. In addition, it can be used to diagnose the causes of changes in the intestines.A colonoscopy allows the doctor to detect inflamed tissue, abnormal growths, ulcers, and bleeding.

Virtual Colonoscopy (VC)

Virtual colonoscopy is a procedure that uses X-rays to obtain an image. A two- and three-dimensional image of the large intestine is created on a computer screen, from the bottom of the rectum to the bottom of the small intestine. Virtual colonoscopy provides a clearer and more detailed image than conventional barium enema fluoroscopy, also called irrigoscopy.In addition, a virtual colonoscopy takes less time than any conventional colonoscopy or irrigoscopy. Virtual colonoscopy does not use a probe, after the procedure, the patient does not need help and can immediately go home and return to daily life.

Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography

Diagnosis of ERCP (endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography):

This is a diagnosis of diseases of the bile ducts of the pancreas or the presence of gallstones, such as cancer of the bile ducts or chronological pancreatitis.

Early detection of gastrointestinal cancer

Spectral endoscopy is the latest technique for the early detection of gastrointestinal cancer. It is a new optical image enhancement technology that allows capillaries, vessels and other surface structures to be visualized much more clearly by optimizing light absorption and scattering characteristics. This method is used to diagnose the condition of the upper and lower digestive tract at the cellular level and allows doctors to identify abnormal areas without waiting for test results.

Capsule endoscopy of the gastrointestinal tract is a new method for diagnosing neoplasms of the small intestine in patients with polyps. Diagnostics is carried out with high accuracy, quickly, painlessly, without incisions, while the risk of complications is very low. This method is one of the most convenient, safe and effective methods for diagnosing non-extensive bowel diseases. This technology is already in use in many countries, including the US, UK, Germany, Italy, Israel and Hong Kong.

The gastrointestinal tract is an environment in which various diseases easily arise and develop.

Thyrotropin or thyroid stimulating hormone (S-TSH) – SYNLAB Eesti

TSH (thyroid stimulating hormone) or thyrotropin, is a glycoprotein hormone of the anterior pituitary gland, which stimulates the synthesis and release of thyroid hormones thyroxine T4 and triiodothyronine T3. TSH synthesis stimulates the thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) synthesized in the hypothalamus and inhibits T4 and T3 through a negative connection.Determination of serum TSH is the first test prescribed for suspected hypo- and hyperthyroidism.

Readings:

  • Diagnosis of hypothyroidism
  • Diagnosis of hyperthyroidism
  • Evaluation of the effectiveness of hormone replacement therapy with thyroid hormones

Analysis method: Chemiluminescence method

Reference values:

Standard 0.4 – 4.0 mIU / L
Warning 2.5 – 4.0 mIU / L

Interpretation of the result:

TSH secretion is very sensitive to serum thyroxine concentration.A twofold change in serum T4 causes a hundredfold change in TSH concentration. If the TSH concentration is outside the reference range, then it is necessary to determine the free T4.

This survey tactic is not suitable for the following persons:

  • Patients with central hypothyroidism
  • Hospitalized patients receiving TSH suppressive therapy (dopamine, glucocorticoids)
  • Patients undergoing replacement therapy or suppressive therapy
  • Patients with acute psychiatric illness

95% of healthy people have serum TSH values ​​from 0.4 to 2.5 mU / L.

High TSH values:

  • Primary hypothyroidism – TSH content may increase already in the subclinical stage, although the content of thyroid hormones is still within the reference interval.
  • Autoimmune thyroiditis
  • Secondary hyperthyroidism – hyperstimulation of the thyroid gland caused by damage to the hypothalamus or pituitary gland
  • Acute inflammation or disease
  • For persons over 65 years old
  • Antibodies to TSH receptors (TRAK) – resistance of the pituitary gland to thyroid hormones
  • Heterophilic antibodies – thyroxine therapy does not work

Low TSH values:

  • Primary hyperthyroidism – TSH concentration is reduced (<0.03 mIU / L) due to excess production of T3 and T4
  • Secondary or tertiary hypothyroidism – hypothyroidism caused by the pituitary gland or hypothalamus.Thyroid hormone production is also low.
  • Nodal struma
  • Treated Graves’ disease
  • Toxic thyroid adenoma

Patients with a TSH concentration greater than 2.0 mU / L have an increased risk of thyroid disease over the next 20 years. Therefore, TSH values ​​falling within the range of 2.5 – 4.0 mU / L should be taken as a warning and the analysis should be repeated six months later.

In patients regularly taking thyroxine, at least 4 hours should elapse between taking a blood test and taking a tablet.

Medical abbreviations and terms

Body mass index

Abbreviation Decryption on (eng) Decryption to (rus)
a
arterial arterial
abd
abdomen belly
ac
before meals before meals [on prescribing medications]
ACE
angiotension-converting enzyme angiotensin converting enzyme
acet
acetone acetone
aCL
anticardiolipin (antibody) anticardiolipin (antibodies to cardiolipin)
ACT
activated clotting time activated blood clotting time
ACTH
adrenocorticotropic hormone adrenocorticotropic hormone
A.D.A.
American Dental Association American Dental Association
ADH
antidiuretic hormone antidiuretic hormone
ad lib (lat.)
as desired, freely freely, at will [on the prescription of drugs]
adm
admission hospitalization, admission to hospital
AF
atrial fibrillation atrial fibrillation (atrial fibrillation), atrial fibrillation
A / G
albumin / globulin ratio albumin-globulin index
AIDP
Acute Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyradiculopathy Acute inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (Guillain-Barré disease)
AIDS
acquired immune deficiency syndrome acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)
AL
arterial line intra-arterial catheter (cannula)
alb
albumin albumin
alk phos
alkaline phosphatase alkaline phosphatase
ALL
acute lymphoblastic leukemia acute lymphoblastic leukemia
ALS
amyotrophic lateral sclerosis amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS, Charcot’s disease)
ALT
alanine aminotransferase alanine aminotransferase
aM
morning morning, morning [on prescribing drugs]
AMA
American Medical Association American Medical Association (USA)
AMI
acute myocardial infarction acute myocardial infarction
AML
acute myelogenous leukemia acute myeloid leukemia
amp
ampule ampoule
AMP
adenosine monophosphate adenosine monophosphate (AMP)
amt
amount quantity
amy
amylase amylase
ANA
antinuclear antibody antinuclear antibodies
ANCA
antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody antineutrophilic cytoplasmic antibodies
ANLL
acute nonlymphocytic leukemia acute non-lymphocytic leukemia
Anti-SMA
Anti-Smooth Muscle Antibody antibodies to smooth muscle
AOP
aortic pressure [blood] pressure in the aorta
A&P
auscultation and percussion auscultation and percussion
AP
anteroposterior anteroposterior [size, measurement]
APAG
antipseudomonal aminoglycosidic penicillin antipseudomonal aminoglycoside penicillin
appt
appointment lit.: appointment [time of doctor visit, for example: your next appointment – monday at 12:30]
APSAC
anisoylated plasminogen / streptokinase activator complex Anisoylated activator of streptokinase-plasminogen complex
APS
Anti-Phospholipid Syndrome antiphospholipid syndrome
APTT
activated partial thromboplastin time activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT)
aq
water water
AR
aortic regurgitation aortic regurgitation, aortic valve insufficiency
ARC
AIDS-related complex AIDS-associated complex
ARDS
acute respiratory distress syndrome acute respiratory distress syndrome [adults]
ARF
acute renal failure acute renal failure
ARM
artificial rupture of memhranes artificial damage to membranes
AS
aortic stenosis aortic stenosis
asa
aspirin aspirin
A.S.A.
American Society of Anesthesiologists American Society of Anesthesiologists
ASH
asymmetric septal hypertrophy asymmetric septal hypertrophy [heart]
ASHD
arteriosclerotic heart disease arteriosclerotic heart disease (CHD)
ASLO
anti-streptolysin 0 antistreptolysin O (ASL-O)
AST
aspartate aminotransferase aspartate aminotransferase
at fib
atrial fibrillation atrial fibrillation (atrial fibrillation), atrial fibrillation
ATC
around the clock around the clock [on observation, on the prescription of drugs]
ATN
acute tubular necrosis acute tubular necrosis
AV
arteriovenous arteriovenous
AVM
arteriovenous malformation arteriovenous malformation
AZT
zidovudine azidothymidine (zidovudine)
2HPG
2 hours (after meals) plasma glucose Plasma glucose level 2 hours after eating
5-FU
5-fluorouracil 5-fluorouracil
AHA
American Heart Association American Heart Association (USA)
B
black black
ba
barium barium
BBB
bundle branch block bundle branch block
BC
blood culture blood culture [in microbiology]
BCG
bacillus Calmette-Guerin Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG)
BCP
birth control pill oral contraceptive
BID, b.i.d., bid
bis in die (Latin) twice a day
bilat
bilateral bilateral
bili
bilirubin bilirubin
Bls
blood sugar blood sugar
BM
bowel movement intestinal peristalsis
BMI
body mass index
BMR
basal metabolic rate basal metabolic rate
BP
blood pressure blood [arterial] pressure
BPH
benign prostatic hypertrophy benign prostatic hypertrophy
bpm
beats per minute beats per minute
BR
bed rest bed rest
BS, bs
breath sounds breath sounds
BSA
body surface area body surface area
BSO
bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy bilateral [bilateral] salpingo-oophorectomy
BUN
blood urea nitrogen residual nitrogen of urea [blood]
BW
body weight body weight
Bx
biopsy biopsy
C3, C4…C9
protein components of complement system protein components of the complement system
Ca
cancer cancer
CAB
coronary artery bypass coronary artery bypass graft
CABG
coronary artery bypass graft coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG)
CAD
coronary artery disease coronary artery disease (IHD)
cal
calorie calorie
cap
capsule capsule
CAT
computerized axial tomography Axial computed tomography
cath
catheterization catheterization
CBC
complete blood cell count complete blood count [clinical] (usually includes leukocytes, hemoglobin, hematocrit, platelets)
CBD
common bile duct common bile duct
CC
chief complaint main complaint
Ccr
creatine clearance creatinine clearance
CCU
coronary care unit intensive care cardiology unit
CD4
helper-inducer T cells T-helpers
CD8
suppressor-cytotoxic T cells T-suppressor
CEA
carcinoembryonic antigen Embryonic tumor angigen
CF
complement fixation fixation of complement
CHD
congenital heart disease congenital heart disease
CHF
congestive heart failure congestive heart failure
CHPP
continuous hyperthermic peritoneal perfusion prolonged hyperthermic perfusion of the abdominal cavity [with cytostatic solutions]
CI
cardiac index cardiac index (SI)
CK
creatine kinase creatine kinase (CPK)
CK-MB
creatine kinase, myocardial band creatine kinase, myocardial isoenzyme (MB-CPK)
cl
clear clean
Cl
chloride chlorine
CLL
chronic lymphocytic leukernia chronic lymphocytic leukemia
CML
chronic myelogenous leukemia chronic myeloid leukemia
CMV
cytomegalovirus cytomegalovirus
CNS
central nervous system central nervous system (CNS)
CO
cardiac output cardiac output
c / o
complains of complaints about, complains about
CoA
coenzyme A coenzyme A
COPD
chronic obstructive pulmonary disease chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
CPK
creatine phosphokinase creatine phosphokinase (CPK)
CPR
cardiopulmonary resuscitation cardiopulmonary resuscitation
Cr
creatinine creatinine
CSF
cerebrospinal fluid cerebrospinal fluid
C / sec
cesarean section Caesarean section
CT
computer tomography computed tomography
CTS
Carpal Tunnel Syndrome carpal tunnel syndrome
CVM
cardiovascular cardiovascular
cva
costovertebral angle cost-vertebral angle
CVP
central venous pressure central venous pressure
CXR
chest x-ray chest x-ray
cysto
cystoscopy cystoscopy
D / C
discontinue cancel [medication]
DBIL
direct bilirubin direct bilirubin
dBP
diastolic blood pressure diastolic blood pressure
DGI
disseminated gonococcal infection disseminated gonococcal infection
Dial
dialysis dialysis
DIC
disseminated intravascular coagulation Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC syndrome)
DKA
diabetic ketoacidosis Diabetic ketoacidosis
DLE
drug related lupus erythematosus medicated lupus erythematosus
DM
diabetes mellitus diabetes mellitus
DNA
deoxyribonucleic acid deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)
DR
delivery room birthing hall (birthing block)
DSD
dry sterile dressing dry sterile dressing
DTR
deep tendon reflex deep tendon reflex
DTs
delirium tremens alcoholic delirium (delirium tremens)
DU
duodenal ulcer duodenal ulcer
DUB
dysfunctional uterine bleeding dysfunctional uterine bleeding
DVT
deep venous thrombosis deep venous thrombosis
Dx
diagnosis diagnosis
E2
estradiol estradiol
EBL
estimated blood loss expected blood loss
EBV
Epstein-Barr virus Epstein-Barr virus
EDTA
ethylene diamine tetraacetate Ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA)
EEG
electroencephalogram electroencephalogram
EF
ejection fraction ejection fraction
EKG
electrocardiogram electrocardiogram (at present, this abbreviation has almost completely replaced the abbreviation ECG due to the fact that when written by hand, the latter can be easily confused with EEG due to the similar spelling of “c” and “e”)
elect
electrolyte electrolyte
ELISA
enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay Fixed enzyme immunosorbent assay
elix
elixir elixir
EMD
electromechanical dissociation electromechanical dissociation [heart]
EMG
electromyogram electromyogram
EMR
endoscopic mucosal resection endoscopic mucosal resection
EORTC
European Organization for the Research and Treatment of Cancer European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer
EPO
erythropoietin erythropoietin
EPS
extrapyramidal symptoms extrapyramidal symptoms
ER
emergency room emergency room [ward] (analogous to the emergency room)
ERCP
endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (RCPG)
ESR
erythrocyte sedimentation rate erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR)
et al
and others and others [about authorship, in lists of literature]
EUS
endoscopic ultrasonography endoscopic ultrasound
ext
extremities limb
F
cortisol cortisol (Reichstein’s “F” compound)
FEV
forced expiratory volume forced expiratory volume (FEV)
FFP
fresh frozen plasma fresh frozen plasma
FH
family history family history
FPG
fasting plasma glucose fasting glucose
fx
fracture fracture
Ga
gallium Galium
GA
general anesthesia general anesthesia (general anesthesia)
GB
gallbladder gallbladder
Gc
gonococcus gonococcus
GERD
gastroesophageal reflux disease gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) (obsolete.: reflux esophagitis)
GFR
glomerular filtration rate glomerular filtration level
Ghb
glycosylated hemoglobin (= HbA1) glycosylated hemoglobin
GI
gastrointestinal gastrointestinal
GITS
gastrointestinal therapeutic system gastrointestinal therapeutic system (specially designed dosage form providing prolonged action of the drug due to its slow gradual release from the system while it is in the gastrointestinal tract)
glu
glucose glucose
GN
glomerulonephritis glomerulonephritis
GTT
glucose tolerance test glucose tolerance test
Gyn
gynecology gynecology
H / A
headache headache
HAV
hepatitis A virus hepatitis A virus
HbA1
glycosylated hemoglobin (= Ghb) glycosylated hemoglobin
Hb
hemoglohin hemoglobin
HBP
high blood pressure high blood [arterial] pressure
HBV
hepatitis B virus hepatitis B virus
hCG
human chorionic gonadotropin Human Chorionic Gonadotropin
hct
hematocrit hematocpit
HCV
hepatitis C virus hepatitis C virus
HCWs
Healthcare Workers Health care workers
HDL
high density lipoprotein high density lipoprotein (HDL)
HDV
hepatitis D virus hepatitis D virus
hFSH
human follicle stimulating hormone human follicle-stimulating hormone
Hg
hemoglobin hemoglobin
HIV
human immunodeficiency virus human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)
H&L
heart and lungs heart and lungs
HLA
human leukocyte antigen human leukocyte antigen
hMG
human menopausal gonadotropin human menopausal gonadotropin
HOCM
hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy Hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy
HPI
history of present illness history of present illness (anamnesis morbi)
HR
heart rate heart rate (HR)
HRS
hepatorenaI syndrome hepatorenal syndrome
HSV
herpes simplex virus herpes simplex virus
ht
height weight
HTN
hypertension hypertension, hypertension
IABP
intraaortic balloon pump intra-aortic balloon counterpulsation
IBC
iron-binding capacity Iron binding capacity of serum [blood]
IBS
irritable bowel syndrorne irritable bowel syndrome
ICP
intracranial pressure intracranial pressure
ICU
intensive care unit block (department) of intensive care (BIT)
ID
intradermal intradermal
I&D
incision and drajnage opening (incision) and drainage
IDDM
insulin dependent diabetes mellitus insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus
IFA
immunofluorescent assay immunofluorescence assay
IHSS
idiopathic hypertrophic subaortic stenosis Idiopathic hypertrophic subaortic stenosis (IHSS)
Ig
immunoglobulin immunoglobulin
IGT
impaired glucose tolerance impaired glucose tolerance
IL
interleukin interleukin
IM
intramuscular intramuscular
Imp
impression impression (one of the sections of the protocol on instrumental examination, more often X-ray.In this section, the radiologist expresses his opinion about the existing pathological process (in fact, makes a conclusion), while in other sections of the protocol objective criteria and indicators are described, but not their interpretation.)
inf
infusion infusion
inh
inhalation inhalation
inj
Injection injection
IOP
intraocular pressure intraocular pressure
IP
intraperitoneal intraperitoneal
IPG
impedance plethysmography impedance plethysmography
IRS
insulin resistance syndrome insulin resistance syndrome (metabolic syndrome, syndrome X)
IT
intrathecal into the cavity of the spinal canal
ITP
idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura
IUI
intrauterine insemination intrauterine insemination
IUCC
International Union Against Cancer International Union Against Cancer
IV
intravenous intravenous
IVC
inferior vena cava inferior vena cava
IVF
in vitro fertilization in vitro fertilization (IVF)
IVP
intravenous pyelogram intravenous pyelography (intravenous urography)
JG
juxtaglomerular juxtaglomerular
JVD
jugular venous distention swelling of the cervical veins
JVP
jugular vein pulse venous pulse
KUB
kidney, ureter, and bladder kidney, ureter and bladder
l
left left
LA
left atrium left atrium
lab
laboratory laboratory
LAD
left axis deviation deviation of the electrical axis of the heart (EOS) to the left [ECG]
LAHB
left anterior hemiblock blockade of the anterior branch of the left bundle branch [ECG]
lap
laparotomy laparotomy
LAP
leukocyte alkaline phosphatase leukocyte alkaline phosphatase
LAV
lymphadenopathy-associated virus lymphadenopathy-associated virus
LBP
low back pain lower back pain (lumbago)
LBBB
left bundle branch block Left bundle branch block [ECG]
LDH
lactate dehydrogenase lactate dehydrogenase
LDL
low density lipoprotein low density lipoprotein (LDL)
LES
lower esophageal sphincter lower esophageal sphincter
LFT, LFTs
liver function tests Liver function tests
LGV
lymphogranuloma venereum lymphogranuloma venereum
LH
luteinizing hormone luteinizing hormone
Lip
lipid lipid
liq
liquid liquid
LLL
left lower lobe left lower lobe [of the lung]
LLQ
left lower quadrant left lower quadrant
LMP
last menstrual period last menstrual cycle
LN
lymph node (s) lymph node (lymph nodes)
LNMP
last normal menstrual period last normal menstrual cycle
LOC
level of consciousness level of consciousness
LP
lumbar puncture lumbar puncture
LPHB
left posterior hemiblock Posterior branch block of the left bundle branch [ECG]
LSB
left sternal border left edge of the sternum
LUL
left upper lobe upper left lobe of [lung]
LUQ
left upper quadrant left upper quadrant
LVEDP
left ventricular end diastolic pressure end diastolic pressure (KDP) in the left ventricle
LVH
left ventricular hypertrophy left ventricular hypertrophy [heart]
m
murmur noise
M
midnight midnight
MAO
monoamine oxidase monoamine oxidase (MAO)
MAP
mean arterial pressure mean arterial pressure
MAT
multi-focal atrial tachycardia Multifocal atrial tachycardia
max
maximum maximum, maximum
MBC
minimum bactericidal concentration minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC)
MCA
middle cerebral artery middle cerebral artery
MCL
midclavicular line midclavicular line
MCTD
mixed connective tissue disease mixed connective tissue disease
MCV
mean cell volume average cell volume
MERSA, MRSA
methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin-resistant [strain]
mets
metastases metastases
MH
malignant hyperthermia tumor hyperthermia
MI
myocardial infarction myocardial infarction
MIBG
meta-iodobenzyl guanidine meta-iodobenzylguanidine
MIC
minimum inhibitory concentration minimum inhibitory concentration
mixt
mixture mix
ML
malignant lymphoma malignant lymphoma
MPGN
membrane proliferative glomerulonephritis membranous proliferative glomerulonephritis
MPTP
analog of meperidine (used by drug addicts) Meperidine analog used by drug addicts
MR
mitral regurgitation mitral regurgitation, mitral valve insufficiency
MRI
magnetic resonance imaging magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
MRSA, MERSA
methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin-resistant [strain]
MS
multiple sclerosis multiple sclerosis
MUGA scan
MUltiGAted radionuclide scan (of heart) multispectral radioisotope examination of the heart
MVP
mitral valve prolapse mitral valve prolapse
NAPA
N-acetyl-procainamide N-acetylprocainamide
NAS
no added sodium Sodium Free, Sodium Free
NB
newborn newborn
NCI
National Cancer Institute National Cancer Institute (USA)
neg
negative negative
Neuro
neurology neurology
NG
nasogastric nasogastric
NGU
nongonococcal urethritis non-gonococcal (non-gonorrheal) urethritis
NHL
non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma non-Hodgkin lymphoma
NHLBI
National Heart Blood Lung Institute National Heart, Blood and Lung Institute (USA)
NIDDM
non insulin dependent diabetes mellitus non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus
NIH
National Institutes of Health National Institutes of Health (USA)
NLM
National Medicine Library National Library of Medicine (USA)
NM
neuromuscular neuromuscular
no
number number
noc
night night
NS
normal saline saline solution
NSAID
nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID)
NSILA
nonsuppressable insulin-like activity unsuppressed isulin-like activity
NSR
normal sinus rhythm Normal sinus rhythm [ECG]
NTG
nitroglycerin nitroglycerin
NYHA
New York Heart Association New York Heart Association
OAF
osteoclast activating factor osteoclast activating factor
OB
obstetrics obstetrics
OD
overdose overdose
OGTT
oral glucose tolerance test oral glucose tolerance test (OTTG)
17-OHCS
17-hydroxycorticosteroid 17-hydroxycorticosteroid
OHSS
Ovarian HyperStimulation Syndrome ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome
ophth
ophthalmology ophthalmology
OR
operating room operating room
Orth, ortho
orthopedics orthopedics
OS
oculus sinistra (Latin) left eye
osm
osmolality osmolality
OT
occupational therapy type of medical care in the United States, roughly corresponding to physiotherapy or rehabilitative medicine.Combines physical exercise, massage, kinesis and psychotherapy. Conducted by dedicated staff (not doctors or nurses).
OU
each eye each eye
p
pulse pulse
PA
posteroanterior rear-front
PADP
pulmonary artery diastolic pressure Diastolic pulmonary artery pressure
PAP
pulmonary artery pressure pulmonary artery pressure
PAS
paraaminosalicylic acid para-aminosalicylic acid (PASK)
PASP
pulmonary artery systolic pressure systolic pulmonary artery pressure
PAT
paroxysmal atrial tachycardia paroxysmal atrial tachycardia
PAWP
pulmonary artery wedge pressure pulmonary artery wedge pressure (PAWP)
PBC
primary biliary cirrhosis primary biliary cirrhosis
PCO
polycystic ovaries polycystic ovary
PCOS
polycystic ovarian syndrome polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)
PCP
Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia Pneumocystis pneumonia
PCR
polymerase chain reaction polymerase chain reaction
PCWP
pulmonary capillary wedge pressure pulmonary artery capillary wedge pressure
PE
physical exam physical examination
PEARL
pupils equal and reactive to light Pupils equal and responsive to light
ped
pediatric pediatric
PEG
percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy
PERRLA
pupils equal, round, reactive to light and accommodation Pupils equal, round, responsive to light and accommodation
PFT
pulmonary function test study of the function of external respiration (FVD)
PGE
prostaglandin E prostaglandin E
phos
phosphorus phosphorus
PHP
pseudohypoparathyroidism pseudohypoparathyroidism
PI
present illness present disease
PIP
proximal interphalangeal proximal interphalangeal
PKU
phenylketonuria phenylketonuria
PLA
plasminogen activator plasminogen activator
PML
polymorphonuclear leukocyte polynuclear leukocyte
PMP
previous menstrual period previous (previous) menstrual cycle
PMR
polymyalgia rheumatica polymyalgia rheumatica
PND
paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea, sleep apnea syndrome
PNH
paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria
PO
by mouth through the mouth (per os)
postop
postoperative postoperative
PPNG
penicillinase-producing Neisseria gonorrhoeae Penicillin-producing Neisseria gonorrhea
PR
per rectum rectal
preop
preoperative preoperative
PRSP
penicillinase-resistant synthetic penicillin penicillinase-resistant synthetic penicillin
PS
pulmonic stenosis pulmonary valve stenosis
PSA
prostatic specific antigen prostate specific antigen
PSC
primary sclerosing cholangitis primary sclerosing cholangitis
PSGN
post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis
PSVT
paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia
Psych, psych
psychiatry psychiatry
pt
patient patient
PT
prothrombin time prothrombin time
PTA
prior to admission before admission [to the hospital]
PTC
percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography
PTCA
percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty percutaneous transluminal (translucent) coronary angioplasty
Pth
pathology pathology
PTH
parathormone parathyroid hormone
PTRA
percutaneous transluminal renal angioplasty percutaneous transluminal (translucent) renal angioplasty
PTT
partial thromboplastin time partial thromboplastin time (PTT)
PTU
propylthiouracil propylthiouracil
PUD
peptic ulcer disease peptic ulcer [duodenal ulcer, stomach]
PVC
premature ventricular contraction ventricular premature beats
PVR
pulmonary vascular resistance pulmonary vascular resistance
PWP
pulmonary wedge pressure pulmonary artery wedge pressure (PWP)
QALY
Quality adjusted life year [saved] year of life taking into account its quality
qd
quaque die (Latin) Daily
qh
quaque hora (Latin) Every hour
qid
quater in die (Latin) Four times a day
qod
quaque [other] die (Latin) Every other day
QOL
Quality of life Quality of life
qpm
quaque post meridium (Latin) Every evening (every day at night)
r
right right
R, RR
respiratory rate (per min) respiratory rate (in minutes)
RA
rheumatoid arthritis rheumatoid arthritis
RAP
right atrial pressure Right atrial pressure
RBBB
right bundle branch block Right bundle branch block [ECG]
RBC
red blood cells erythrocytes
RDS
respiratory distress syndrome respiratory distress syndrome
readm
readmission readmission
RF
rheumatoid factor rheumatoid factor
Rh
Rhesus blood factor Rh factor
RL
Ringer’s lactate Ringer’s lactate
RIND
reversible ischemic neurologic deficit reversible ischemic neurological deficit
RLL
right lower lobe right lower lobe [of the lung]
RLQ
right lower quadrant right lower quadrant
RML
right middle lobe right middle lobe [lung]
RNA
ribonucleic acid ribonucleic acid
R / 0, r / o
rule out delete [disease, condition]
RPGN
rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis Rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis
RPI
reticulocyte production index reticulocyte production index
RSR
regular sinus rhythm regular sinus rhythm [ECG]
RTA
renal tubular acidosis renal tubular acidosis
RTC
return to clinic return to clinic
RUL
right upper lobe right upper lobe [lung]
RUQ
right upper quadrant right upper quadrant
RV
right ventricle right ventricle [heart]
RVH
renovascular hypertension renovascular hypertension
Rx
therapy therapy [treatment]
S / A
sugar and acetone sugar and acetone
SA
sinoatrial sinoatrial [node]
SAH
subarachnoid hernorrhage Subarachnoid hemorrhage
sat
saturated saturated
SBE
subacute bacterial (intfective) endocarditis subacute bacterial (infectious) endocarditis
SBP
spontancous bacterial peritonitis spontaneous bacterial peritonitis
sBP
systolic blood pressure systolic blood pressure
SC, SQ, subcu
subcutaneous subcutaneous
SL
sublingual sublingual
SLA
soluble liver antigens soluble hepatic antigens
SLE
systemic lupus erythematosus systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)
SMS
somatostatin somatostatin
SO2
oxvgen saturation oxygen saturation
SOB
short of breath, shortness of breath shortness of breath, difficulty breathing
SOC
state of consciousness level (state) of consciousness
S / P, s / p
status post condition after [disease, surgery]
SQ, SC, subcu
subcutaneous subcutaneous
SR
slow release slow-release [in the name of the medicinal product]
SS
Sjogren’s syndrome Sjogren’s syndrome
SSS
sick sinus syndrome sick sinus syndrome (SSS)
STD
sexually transmitted disease sexually transmitted diseases (sexually transmitted diseases)
STS
serologic test for syphilis serological test for syphilis
subcu, SC, SQ
subcutaneous subcutaneous
supp
suppository suppository
Surg
surgery surgery
susp
suspension suspension
SVC
superior vena cava superior vena cava
SVR
systemic vascular resistance systemic vascular resistance
SVT
supraventricular tachycardia supraventricular tachycardia
Sx
symptoms symptoms
syr
syrup syrup
T4
thyroxine thyroxine
T&A
tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy
tab
tablet tablet
TB
tuberculosis tuberculosis
TBG
thyroxine binding globulin thyroxine-binding globulin
TBIL
total bilirubin total bilirubin
Tbsp
tablespoon tablespoon
temp
temperature temperature
TENS
transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation
Tg
thyroglobulin thyroglobulin
TIA
transient ischemic attack Transient ischemic attack (TIA), dynamic cerebrovascular accident
tid
three times daily three times a day
tinc
tincture tincture
TMP-SMX
trimethoprim / sulfamethoxazole trimethoprim + sulfametaxozole (bactrim, biseptol)
TNF
tumor necrosis factor tumor necrosis factor
tPA
tissue plasminogen activator tissue plasminogen activator
TP
total protein total protein
TPI
Treponema pallidum immobilization immobilization of pale treponemas (RIBT)
TPR
temperature, pulse, and respiration temperature, pulse and respiratory rate
TR
tricuspid regurgitation tricuspid (tricuspid) valve insufficiency
TRIG
triglycerides triglycerides
TS
tricuspid stenosis tricuspid (tricuspid) valve stenosis
tsp
teaspoon teaspoon
TT
thrombin time trombin time
TUR
transurethral resection transurethral resection (TUR)
Tx
therapy therapy
U / A
urinalysis urinalysis
UGI
upper gastrointestinal upper gastrointestinal tract
URAC
uric acid uric acid
URI
upper respiratory tract infection upper respiratory tract infection
USP
United States Pharmacopeia United States Pharmacopoeia
UTI
urinary tract infection urinary infection
UV
ultraviolet ultraviolet
V
volume volume
VD
veneral disease venereal disease
VC
vital capacity vital capacity [lungs]
VF
ventricular fibrillation ventricular fibrillation [heart]
VIP
vasoactive intestinal polypeptide vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP)
VLDL
very low density lipoprotein very low density lipoprotein (VLDL)
VMA
vanillylmandelic acid vanillyl mandelic acid (VMC)
VPC
ventricular premature contraction ventricular premature beats
VP-16
epipodophyllotoxin epidophyllotoxin
vs
visit visit
VS
vital signs vital signs (usually include heart rate, respiration rate, blood pressure, body temperature, oxygen saturation.In most cases, they are measured by nursing staff and entered into special forms (similar to temperature sheets))
VSD
ventricular septal defect ventricular septal defect [heart]
VT / VF
ventricular tachycardia / fibrillation ventricular tachycardia / fibrillation
W
white white [race]
WBC
white blood (cell) count blood leukocyte count
w / c
wheel chair sit trolley, wheelchair
WF
white female White Woman
WHO
World Health Organization World Health Organization (WHO)
WPW
Wolff Parkinson White Wolff-Parkinson-White (syndrome)
wt
weight weight
y / o
years old age (years)
ZDV
zidovudine zidovudine
Z-E
Zollinger-Ellison (syndrome) Solinger-Ellison (syndrome)

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