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Milk of magnesia as antacid: Milk Of Magnesia (Antacid) Oral: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions, Pictures, Warnings & Dosing

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Phillips’ Milk of Magnesia – Summary of Product Characteristics (SmPC)

This information is intended for use by health professionals

Phillips’ Milk of Magnesia

Magnesium Hydroxide BP 415 mg per 5 ml suspension.

For the full list of excipients, see section 6.1.

Milk of Magnesia is indicated as an antacid for the symptomatic relief of stomach discomfort, indigestion, hyperacidity, heartburn and flatulence; and as a laxative for constipation.

Use a 5 ml spoon or the dosing cup provided. Doses may be taken with milk or water if desired. Do not exceed the stated dose.

As an antacid:

Adults: 5-10 ml (one or two 5 ml spoonfuls or fill the dosing cup to the first or second line). Repeat as necessary to a maximum of 60 ml in 24 hours.

Children aged 3-12 years: 5 ml (one spoonful or first line in dosing cup). Repeat as necessary to a maximum of 30 ml in 24 hours.

As a laxative:

Adults: 30-45 ml at bedtime. Repeat nightly, reducing dose each night until constipation is relieved.

Children aged over 3 years: 5-10 ml at bedtime. Children aged under 3 years: to be given only on the advice of a doctor. Elderly: As adult dose.

Hypersensitivity to the active substance(s) or to any of the excipients listed in section 6.1. Acute gastrointestinal conditions.

Osmotic laxatives act by increasing osmotic pressure, thereby promoting retention of fluid within the bowel, which can in turn affect water / electrolyte balance. Adequate fluid intake should be maintained during use. If diarrhoea occurs especially in children or the elderly, discontinue use immediately. In case of renal impairment a doctor should be consulted as hypermagnesaemia may occur. If symptoms persist or worsen, a doctor or pharmacist should be consulted.

Do not use as a laxative for more than three consecutive days, or as an antacid for more than fourteen consecutive days.

If a laxative dose is needed every day or if there is a persistent abdominal pain further medical advice should be sought.

Users taking medicines either physician prescribed or self-prescribed should consult a doctor or pharmacist before use.

Keep out of the reach and sight of children.

Paediatric population

In young children, the use of magnesium hydroxide can produce a hypermagnesemia, especially if they present renal impairment or dehydration.

This medicinal product contains less than 1 mmol sodium (23 mg) per 45ml, that is to say essentially ‘sodium-free’.

Magnesium hydroxide may interfere locally with the absorption of other drugs taken orally by increasing gastric pH.

Magnesium salts reduce the absorption of a number of other drugs taken concomitantly. These include:

Interaction

Recommendation

Antibacterials and antifungals

(e. g. cefpodoxime, itraconazole, tetracyclines, ketoconazole and the quinolone group of antibacterials)

Antacids reduce the absorption of some antibacterials and antifungals. Administration should be separated by at least 2 hours.

quinolone antibacterials should be taken at least 2 hours before and not less than 4 to 6 hours after magnesium containing salts.

Antivirals

(e.g. atazanavir, tipranavir, rilpivirine#)

Antacids reduce the absorption of some antivirals. Administration should be separated by at least 2 hours.

#Antacids should only be taken at least 2 hours before and 4 hour after rilpivirine.

Antihistamines

(fexofenadine)

Antacids reduce the absorption of fexofenadine. Administration should be separated by 2 hours.

Bisphosphonates

(such as alendronate, clodronate, risedronate, ibandronic acid)

Oral magnesium decreases the absorption of bisphosphonates.

Alendronic acid should be taken at least 30 minutes before magnesium.

Oral magnesium should be avoided for at least 6 hours before and 1 hour after ibandronic acid.

Oral magnesium should be avoided for at least 2 hours with risedronate and sodium clodronate.

Corticosteroids

(deflazacort, dexamethasone)

Oral magnesium reduces the absorption of deflazacort and dexamethasone and it should be administered 2 hours before or after these medicinal products.

Digoxin

Antacids reduce the absorption of digoxin. The administration of digoxin should be separated by 2 hours.

Dipyridamole

Antacids possibly reduce the absorption of dipyridamole; concomitant administration should be avoided.

Antiepileptics (gabapentin and phenytoin)

Antacids reduce absorption of some antiepileptics (e.g. gabapentin, phenytoin). Antiepileptics should be taken 2 hours after antacids.

Levothyroxine

Antacids possibly reduce absorption of levothyroxine. The administration of levothyroxine should be separated by at least 4 hours.

Mycophenolate

Antacids decrease exposure to mycophenolate; concomitant administration should be avoided.

Iron preparations

Antacids decrease the absorption of oral iron. Iron should be taken 1 hour before or 2 hours after antacids.

Lipid regulating medicinal products

(rosuvastatin)

Antacids decrease the absorption of rosuvastatin. The administration should be separated by 2 hours.

Antipsychotics

(e. g. sulpiride, phenothiazines, chlorpromazine)

Antacids reduce the absorption of some antipsychotics (e.g. sulpiride, phenothiazines, chlorpromazine). The administration should be separated by 2 hours.

Antimalarials

(chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, proguanil)

Antacids reduce absorption of chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine (administration should be separated by at least 4 hours).

Oral magnesium salts (as magnesium trisilicate) reduce absorption of proguanil (administration should be separated by at least 2 hours).

Penicillamine

Antacids reduce absorption of Penicillamine. Administration should be separated by 2 hours.

Milk of Magnesia may interact with dicoumerol and cimetidine. Magnesium hydroxide may increase the absorption of ibuprofen.

Urine alkalinisation secondary to administration of magnesium hydroxide may modify excretion of some drugs; thus, increased excretion of salicylates has been seen.

Co-administration of sodium polystyrene sulphonate results in a relative excess of bicarbonate ions, which are absorbed, and may lead to metabolic alkylosis.

Pregnancy

For Magnesium hydroxide no clinical data on exposed pregnancies are available.

Animal studies do not indicate direct or indirect harmful effects with respect to pregnancy, embryonal/foetal development, parturition or postnatal development.

Breastfeeding

Magnesium crosses the placenta and is excreted in small amounts in breast milk. Use during pregnancy and lactation should be avoided unless on the advice of a doctor.

Fertility

There are no data available regarding the influence of Milk of Magnesia on fertility.

Magnesium hydroxide is unlikely to cause any effects on the ability to drive and use machines.

In patients with impaired renal function there may be sufficient accumulation of magnesium to produce toxic effects (see section 4.9).

Body System

Undesirable effect

Frequency

Gastrointestinal disorders

Abdominal pain (including colic)

Diarrhoea

Unknown

Metabolism and nutrition disorders

Hypermagnesemia – observed after prolonged administration of magnesium hydroxide to patients with renal impairment

Very rare

Reporting of suspected adverse reactions

Reporting suspected adverse reactions after authorisation of the medicinal product is important. It allows continued monitoring of the benefit/risk balance of the medicinal product. Healthcare professionals are asked to report any suspected adverse reactions via the Yellow Card Scheme at: www.mhra.gov.uk/yellowcard or search for MHRA Yellow Card in the Google Play or Apple App Store

Symptoms of overdose include gastrointestinal irritation and watery diarrhoea. Magnesium poisoning may produce hypermagnesaemia, symptoms of which include nausea, vomiting, flushing, thirst, hypotension, drowsiness, confusion, loss of tendon reflexes, muscle weakness, respiratory depression, cardiac arrhythmias, coma and cardiac arrest.

Treatment

Treatment consists of the intravenous administration of calcium gluconate injection 10% in a dose of 10-20ml to counteract respiratory depression or heart block. If renal function is normal, adequate fluids should be given to assist removal of magnesium from the body. Dialysis may be necessary in patients with renal impairment or severe hypermagnesaemia.

Magnesium hydroxide is practically insoluble in water and solution is not effected until the hydroxide reacts with hydrochloric acid in the stomach to form magnesium chloride. Its neutralising action is almost equal to that of sodium bicarbonate. When the dose is in excess of that required to neutralise the acid the intragastric pH may reach pH 8 or 9. Acid rebound following magnesium hydroxide is clinically insignificant.

Magnesium hydroxide has an indirect cathartic effect resulting from water retention in the intestinal lumen.

Magnesium hydroxide exerts its antacid therapeutic effect rapidly within the gastro-intestinal tract following oral administration and this action is therefore independent of pharmacokinetic properties. Following oral administration, about one third to half the magnesium is absorbed very slowly from the small intestine. Magnesium salts are excreted mainly in the urine with small amounts in the faeces and saliva.

Magnesium hydroxide has been used for many years and no further data are presented in this section.

Sodium Hydrogen Carbonate,

Oil of Peppermint,

Glycerol,

Sodium Saccharin,

Purified Water.

36 months;

After opening: 6 months.

Store below 25 °C. Do not freeze.

Shake bottle well before use

Blue HDPE bottles with white HDPE screw turn tamper evident inner cap and external click on dosing cap. Pack size 100ml and 200ml.

Any unused medicinal product or waste material should be disposed of in accordance with local requirements.

Omega Pharma Ltd. 1st Floor

32 Vauxhall Bridge Road LONDON,

SW1V 2SA

United Kingdom

magnesium hydroxide | Michigan Medicine

What is the most important information I should know about magnesium hydroxide?

Do not use magnesium hydroxide without a doctor’s advice if you have stomach pain, nausea, or vomiting.

What is magnesium hydroxide?

Magnesium is a naturally occurring mineral. Magnesium hydroxide reduces stomach acid, and increases water in the intestines which may induce bowel movements.

Magnesium hydroxide is used as a laxative to relieve occasional constipation.

Magnesium hydroxide is also used as an antacid to relieve indigestion, sour stomach, and heartburn.

Magnesium hydroxide may also be used for purposes not listed in this medication guide.

What should I discuss with my healthcare provider before taking magnesium hydroxide?

Do not use magnesium hydroxide without a doctor’s advice if you have stomach pain, nausea, or vomiting.

Ask a doctor or pharmacist if this medicine is safe to use if:

  • you have kidney disease;
  • you are on a low-magnesium diet; or
  • you have a sudden change in bowel habits that has been ongoing for longer than 2 weeks.

Ask a doctor before using this medicine if you are pregnant or breastfeeding.

How should I take magnesium hydroxide?

Use exactly as directed on the label, or as prescribed by your doctor.

Measure liquid medicine carefully. Use the dosing syringe provided, or use a medicine dose-measuring device (not a kitchen spoon).

You may need to shake the oral suspension before each use.

You must chew the chewable tablet before you swallow it.

Take this medicine with a full glass (8 ounces) of water.

When taken as a laxative, magnesium hydroxide should produce a bowel movement within 30 minutes to 6 hours.

Call your doctor if the condition you are treating with magnesium hydroxide does not improve, or if it gets worse while using this medicine.

Do not use magnesium hydroxide for longer than 7 days without medical advice.

Store at room temperature away from moisture and heat.

What happens if I miss a dose?

Since magnesium hydroxide is used when needed, you may not be on a dosing schedule. Skip any missed dose if it’s almost time for your next dose. Do not use two doses at one time.

What happens if I overdose?

Seek emergency medical attention or call the Poison Help line at 1-800-222-1222.

Overdose symptoms may include severe diarrhea, muscle weakness, shortness of breath, and little or no urination.

What should I avoid while taking magnesium hydroxide?

Follow your doctor’s instructions about any restrictions on food, beverages, or activity.

What are the possible side effects of magnesium hydroxide?

Get emergency medical help if you have signs of an allergic reaction: hives; difficult breathing; swelling of your face, lips, tongue, or throat.

Stop using magnesium hydroxide and call your doctor at once if you have:

  • severe nausea, vomiting, or diarrhea;
  • no bowel movement after using the medicine as a laxative;
  • rectal bleeding; or
  • worsening symptoms.

Common side effects may include:

  • diarrhea; or
  • a decreased sense of taste.

This is not a complete list of side effects and others may occur. Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088.

What other drugs will affect magnesium hydroxide?

Other drugs may affect magnesium hydroxide, including prescription and over-the-counter medicines, vitamins, and herbal products. Tell your doctor about all your current medicines and any medicine you start or stop using.

Where can I get more information?

Your pharmacist can provide more information about magnesium hydroxide.

Remember, keep this and all other medicines out of the reach of children, never share your medicines with others, and use this medication only for the indication prescribed.

Every effort has been made to ensure that the information provided by Cerner Multum, Inc. (‘Multum’) is accurate, up-to-date, and complete, but no guarantee is made to that effect. Drug information contained herein may be time sensitive. Multum information has been compiled for use by healthcare practitioners and consumers in the United States and therefore Multum does not warrant that uses outside of the United States are appropriate, unless specifically indicated otherwise. Multum’s drug information does not endorse drugs, diagnose patients or recommend therapy. Multum’s drug information is an informational resource designed to assist licensed healthcare practitioners in caring for their patients and/or to serve consumers viewing this service as a supplement to, and not a substitute for, the expertise, skill, knowledge and judgment of healthcare practitioners. The absence of a warning for a given drug or drug combination in no way should be construed to indicate that the drug or drug combination is safe, effective or appropriate for any given patient. Multum does not assume any responsibility for any aspect of healthcare administered with the aid of information Multum provides. The information contained herein is not intended to cover all possible uses, directions, precautions, warnings, drug interactions, allergic reactions, or adverse effects. If you have questions about the drugs you are taking, check with your doctor, nurse or pharmacist.

Copyright 1996-2021 Cerner Multum, Inc. Version: 5.01. Revision date: 11/21/2019.

Milk of Magnesia – wikidoc

Template:Cleanup
Milk of Magnesia is an aqueous suspension of magnesium hydroxide, Mg(OH)2 in water. Milk of Magnesia is a saline osmotic (hydrating) laxative. The name derives from the suspension’s milky white appearance and the magnesium in its composition.

History

The term “Milk of Magnesia” was first used a white aqueous, mildly alkaline suspension of magnesium hydroxide formulated at about 8%w/v by Charles Henry Phillips in 1880 and sold under the brand name Phillips’ Milk of Magnesia for medicinal usage. Although the name may at some point have been owned by GlaxoSmithKline, USPTO registrations show “Milk of Magnesia” to be registered to Bayer[1], and “Phillips’ Milk of Magnesia” is registered to Sterling Drug[2]. In the UK, the non-brand (generic) name of “Milk of Magnesia” and “Phillips’ Milk of Magnesia” is “Cream of Magnesia” (Magnesium Hydroxide Mixture, BP).

Pharmaceutical uses

Milk-of-magnesia products are sold over-the-counter. They come in chewable-tablet, capsule, and liquid forms, and also are available in different flavors. Physicians recommend taking milk of magnesia with a full glass of juice or water to help with absorption. There are potential reactions with antibiotics, and a physician should be consulted before ingestion if an individual is pregnant or nursing. Milk of magnesia is primarily used to alleviate constipation, but can also be used to relieve indigestion and heartburn. When taken internally by mouth as a laxative, the osmotic force of the magnesia suspension acts to draw fluids from the body and to retain those already within the lumen of the intestine, serving to distend the bowel, thus stimulating nerves within the colon wall, inducing peristalsis and resulting in evacuation of colonic contents. In years past it was advertised with the following slogan: “Take MOM in the PM, for BM (bowel movement) in the AM.” It is also used as an antacid, though more modern formulations combine the antimotility effects of equal concentrations of aluminum hydroxide to avoid unwanted laxative effects.

According to MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia, milk of magnesia is useful against canker sores (aphthous ulcer) when used topically.[3]

Milk of Magnesia is also used as a folk remedy, topically applied and massaged in (a few minutes before washing/shampooing), to relieve symptoms of seborrhea and dandruff. The mechanism for its effectiveness in this application, like the causes of seborrhea itself, are at present unknown.

Biological metabolism

When the patient uptakes the milk of magnesia (orally), the suspension enters the stomach. Depending on how much was taken during the uptake, one of two possible outcomes will happen.

As an antacid, milk of magnesia is dosed at approximate 500mg to 1. 5g in adults and works by simple neutralization, where the hydroxide ions from the Mg(OH)2 combine with acidic H+ions produced in the form of hydrochloric acid by parietal cells in the stomach.

As a laxative, milk of magnesia is dosed at 2-5g, and works in a number of ways. First, Mg2+ is poorly absorbed from the intestinal tract, so it draws water from the surrounding tissue by osmosis. Not only does this increase in water content soften the feces, it also increases the volume of feces in the intestine (intraluminal volume) which naturally stimulates intestinal motility. Furthermore, Mg2+ ions somehow cause the release of CCK, which causes intraluminal accumulation of water, electrolytes and intestinal motility. Although it has been stated in some sources, the hydroxide ions themselves do not play a significant role in the laxative effects of milk of magnesia, as basic solutions (i.e. solutions of hydroxide ions) are not strongly laxative, and non-basic Mg2+ solutions, like MgSO4, are equally strong laxatives mole for mole (Tedesco & Di Piro, 1985; Curry, 1983).

Care should be taken with the use of milk of magnesia for either of these purposes, as it can easily cause diarrhea.[4]

As already stated only a small amount of the magnesium from milk of magnesia is usually absorbed from a person’s intestine (unless the person is deficient in magnesium). However, magnesium is mainly excreted by the kidneys so longterm, daily consumption of milk of magnesia by someone suffering from renal failure could lead in theory to hypermagnesemia.

As with any other medication, some people may have adverse reactions to milk of magnesia. These can include include weakness, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. High doses increase the likelihood of these reactions. Patients with severe chronic kidney disease are advised to avoid overconsumption of milk of magnesia. Because the kidney functions to excrete magnesium, taking too much would wear out the kidney and lead to toxic levels of magnesium in the blood. Healthy individuals should not use this type of medication continuously for longer than one week, or an excessively harsh laxative effect may result.

References

  • 940 498 0909: Laxative products. In: Handbook of non-prescription drugs. 1983, 6th ed., pp. 69-92, American Pharmaceutical Association, Washington DC.
  • Tedesco FJ, DiPiro JT. Laxative use in constipation. American College of Gastroenterology’s Committee on FDA-Related Matters. Am J Gastroenterol. 1985 80(4):303-9.
  • http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-milk-of-magnesia.htm

it:Idrossido di magnesio
nl:Magnesiumhydroxide
Template:WikiDoc Sources

Magnesium Antacids, Oral – Tufts Medical Center Community Care

What are other names for this medicine?

Type of medicine: antacid

Generic and brand names: magnesium hydroxide, oral; Milk of Magnesia; Phillips’ Milk of Magnesia (There may be other brand names for this medicine.)

What is this medicine used for?

This medicine is an antacid that neutralizes stomach acid. It is taken by mouth to relieve heartburn, sour stomach, acid indigestion, and stomach upset. It may also be used to treat gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) or stomach and duodenal ulcers.

It may also be used to relieve constipation.

Some antacids contain simethicone, an ingredient that helps get rid of stomach gas.

This medicine may be used to treat other conditions as determined by your healthcare provider.

What should my healthcare provider know before I take this medicine?

Before taking this medicine, tell your healthcare provider if you have ever had:

  • An allergic reaction to any medicine
  • Edema (swelling of the legs and feet)
  • Heart disease
  • Intestinal or stomach problems such as colitis, diverticulitis, or rectal bleeding
  • Kidney or liver disease
  • Phenylketonuria (PKU). Some chewable tablets contain phenylalanine

Tell your healthcare provider if you are on a low sodium or low magnesium diet. Some antacids contain high amounts of sodium or magnesium.

Females of childbearing age: Talk with your healthcare provider if you are pregnant, plan to become pregnant, or are breast-feeding.

How do I take it?

Check the label on the medicine for directions about your specific dose. Take this medicine exactly as directed by your healthcare provider, or according to the manufacturer’s directions. Read all information carefully. For stomach or duodenal ulcers, take the medicine for as long as your healthcare provider tells you. Do not miss doses.

Check with your healthcare provider before using this medicine in children. Some brands should not be used in children at all and some should not be used in children under a specific age.

If you are using chewable tablets, chew them well before swallowing for faster relief.

If you are using fizzing tablets, let them dissolve in water and let most of the bubbling stop before you drink the mixture.

If are using a liquid, shake well before taking. Use a special dose measuring spoon or cup to measure out the correct dose.

Take antacids at least 2 hours before or after taking other medicines to avoid interference.

What if I overdose?

If you or anyone else has intentionally taken too much of this medicine, call 911 or go to the emergency room right away. If you pass out, have seizures, weakness or confusion, or have trouble breathing, call 911. If you think that you or anyone else may have taken too much of this medicine, call the poison control center. Do this even if there are no signs of discomfort or poisoning. The poison control center number is 800-222-1222.

Symptoms of an acute overdose may include: nausea, vomiting, flushing, diarrhea, dizziness, slow heartbeat, drowsiness, coma.

What should I watch out for?

Your healthcare provider may want to see you regularly for checkups if you are taking this medicine for ulcers or another medical condition.

Never take antacids if you have any symptoms of appendicitis or bowel inflammation (severe abdominal pain, vomiting, loose bowel movements, bloody stools). If you have these symptoms, contact your healthcare provider right away.

If you are using this medicine as a laxative, you should have a bowel movement within 30 minutes to 6 hours after taking the medicine. If you have rectal bleeding or do not have a bowel movement after taking this medicine, this could be a sign of a more serious condition. Stop taking the medicine and contact your healthcare provider.

Do not take this medicine as a laxative for more than 1 week unless your healthcare provider tells you to. Tell your healthcare provider if your symptoms do not improve or if they get worse.

Do not take this medicine as an antacid for more than 2 weeks unless your healthcare provider tells you to. Tell your healthcare provider if your symptoms do not improve or if they get worse.

Do not give this medicine to children younger than 12 years old without a healthcare provider’s approval.

If you need emergency care, surgery, or dental work, tell the healthcare provider or dentist you are taking this medicine. It may change certain lab test results.

What are the possible side effects?

Along with its needed effects, your medicine may cause some unwanted side effects. Some side effects may be very serious. Some side effects may go away as your body adjusts to the medicine. Tell your healthcare provider if you have any side effects that continue or get worse.

Life-threatening (Report these to your healthcare provider right away. If you cannot reach your healthcare provider right away, get emergency medical care or call 911 for help.): Allergic reaction (hives; itching; rash; trouble breathing; chest pain or tightness in your chest; swelling of your lips, tongue, and throat).

Serious (report these to your healthcare provider right away): Irregular heartbeat, severe stomach pain, severe nausea and vomiting, extreme weakness or tiredness, mood changes, confusion, muscle pain.

Other side effects: Constipation, nausea, diarrhea, loss of appetite, headache, white or pale bowel movements, stomach cramps.

What products might interact with this medicine?

When you take this medicine with other medicines, it can change the way this or any of the other medicines work. Nonprescription medicines, vitamins, natural remedies, and certain foods may also interact. Using these products together might cause harmful side effects.

Antacids may interact with many prescription drugs. If you are taking any prescription medicine, do not take antacids without checking with your healthcare provider or pharmacist.

If you are not sure if your medicines might interact, ask your pharmacist or healthcare provider. Keep a list of all your medicines with you. List all the prescription medicines, nonprescription medicines, supplements, natural remedies, and vitamins that you take. Be sure that you tell all healthcare providers who treat you about all the products you are taking.

How should I store this medicine?

Store this medicine at room temperature. Keep the container tightly closed. Protect it from heat, high humidity, and bright light.


This advisory includes selected information only and may not include all side effects of this medicine or interactions with other medicines. Ask your healthcare provider or pharmacist for more information or if you have any questions.

Ask your pharmacist for the best way to dispose of outdated medicine or medicine you have not used. Do not throw medicine in the trash.

Keep all medicines out of the reach of children.

Do not share medicines with other people.

Developed by RelayHealth.

This content is reviewed periodically and is subject to change as new health information becomes available. The information is intended to inform and educate and is not a replacement for medical evaluation, advice, diagnosis or treatment by a healthcare professional.

Copyright ©1986-2015 McKesson Corporation and/or one of its subsidiaries. All rights reserved.

Reaction of a Suspension of Magnesium Hydroxide with a Weak Acid (Milk of Magnesia)

Reaction of a Suspension of Magnesium Hydroxide with a Weak Acid (Milk of Magnesia)

Brief Description:

A solution of milk of magnesia and universal indicator in water is stirred while acetic acid is added. The indicator changes color as the acid is neutralized. As the suspended solid is consumed, the solution becomes clear.

Purpose/Goal:

Procedure demonstrates the neutralizing effect of magnesium hydroxide on an acid, color change of indicators with pH, and vividly illustrates how a commercial antacid works.

Explanation of Experiment:

Magnesium hydroxide reacts with acid to form water and magnesium ions: Mg(OH)2 (s) + 2 H3O+ (aq) = 4 H2O (l) + Mg2+ (aq)

Indicators are substances which have distinctly different colors in acidic or basic media. An insoluble base in water dissolves in the presence of acid. Milk of Magnesia has a neutralizing effect on stomach acid – this experiment shows its effects.

Materials Preparation:

  1. Milk of Magnesia – any brand should work – primary ingredient should be magnesium hydroxide – Mg(0H)2.
  2. Universal Indicator – available from any chemical supplier.
  3. Vinegar (ca. 5% acetic acid)- available from any grocery store.
  4. Magnetic stirring bar and stirring plate, preferably lighted from below.
  5. Beaker – 500 or 1000 mL

Presentation:

Place about 100 mL of Milk of Magnesia in a 500 mL beaker and dilute with tap water until the beaker is about half full. Add about 10 mL of Universal Indicator. The Universal Indicator will turn red on the far acidic end of the scale and dark blue on the alkaline side. Use the lighted magnetic stirrer to create a steady mix of the liquids. Observe that the solution turns a light blue, indicating that it is slightly basic due to the small amount of dissolved Mg(OH)2. While stirring the solution, add 10-20 mL of vinegar (depending on your setup) and observe the rapid color change. The mixture quickly changes to red because the acid disperses throughout the beaker. The acid neutralizes the small amount of hydroxide ion from the Mg(0H)2 that has dissolved first, then turns the solution acidic. However, as more of the Mg(0H)2 from the suspension gradually dissolves into solution, the acid is neutralized and eventually the solution becomes basic. Add more vinegar and watch as the liquid goes from red to orange to yellow to green and eventually settles at the bluish-purple color. The mixture changes through the entire Universal Indicator color range. In time, all of the vinegar (acid) will react with the magnesium hydroxide and the solution will remain red and clear.

Hazards:

Vinegar can cause skin irritation. Avoid vigorous solution stirring to prevent spillage. As with all demonstrations, appropriate safety goggles, gloves and lab attire should be used.

Disposal:

Solutions produced may be flushed down the drain with copious amounts of water.

Video:

General Concept:

Type of Reaction:

Primary Reference:

  • Steve Spangler Science web site – Milk of Magnesia Experiment – Color Changing Liquid Teaches Science Behind Antacids.

Tags:

Magnesium Hydroxide | EquiMed – Horse Health Matters

EquiMed Staff – 06/17/2014
Drugs And Medications

Drugs and medications image
EquiMed


Description


Magnesium hydroxide is a compound of magnesium, which is a naturally occurring mineral, combined with hydroxide. As a suspension in water, it is known as Milk of Magnesia. Magnesium hydroxide is a common component of antacids and laxatives.


Usage


Magnesium hydroxide is used as an antacid to neutralize stomach acid and also as a laxative. In some cases, it is prescribed to help relieve mild colic.


Magnesium hydroxide will reduce stomach acidity for a short period of time, but needs to be given every two hours to be effective. For this reason, some veterinarians prefer using amitidine, ranitidine, or omeprazole because of their longer-acting effectiveness and better time compliance on the part of the person administering the drug.


Dosage and Administration






Magnesium Hydroxide
Method Dosage

(click row for calculator)
Concentration Period Duration
Oral 200-250 ml   3 times daily NA

Notes:


  • Extra-label use of drugs in treating animals is allowable only by licensed veterinarians within the context of a valid veterinarian-client-patient relationship, and does not include drug use in treating animals by the layman (except under the supervision of a licensed veterinarian).

 


Side Effects


None noted if used according to directions.


Precautions


Diarrhea caused by magnesium hydroxide carries away much of the body’s supply of potassium. With prolonged use, extra potassium should be given to prevent cramping of muscles.


Interactions


Allow at least two hours between other drugs and administration of magnesium hydroxide.


Overdose


More pronounced diarrhea occurs with overdose.


Images

Milk of Magnesia


Literature

Milk of Magnesia During Pregnancy

Ah, pregnancy — so many symptoms, so few pregnancy-approved medications. The good news is when it comes to easing constipation, there are some meds that are generally considered safe to use when you’re expecting — including milk of magnesia, a popular over-the-counter laxative.

But before you run out and buy a bottle, here’s what you should keep in mind about taking milk of magnesia during pregnancy.

What is milk of magnesia?

Milk of magnesia — i.e. magnesium hydroxide — is a laxative that’s used to treat the occasional bout of constipation.

The medication works by drawing water into the bowel, which helps soften and pass the stool, usually within 30 minutes to six hours after taking the recommended dose.

While you can buy milk of magnesia over-the-counter in liquid or tablet form, you should always talk to your doctor before trying it, since not all OTC meds are safe for pregnant women.

What is milk of magnesia used for during pregnancy?

Milk of magnesia is often used to treat short-term constipation, which is a fairly typical pregnancy symptom. Blame pregnancy hormones like progesterone, which can slow down the passage of food and cause a build-up of waste in the GI tract. Iron supplements are another cause of constipation in pregnant women.

In some cases, magnesium hydroxide can be paired with other medications and used as an antacid, which helps relieve symptoms like heartburn and indigestion.

Is taking milk of magnesia during pregnancy safe?

In general, milk of magnesia is considered safe to use during pregnancy, but you should always double-check with your doctor before taking it.

It’s possible for the laxative to interact with medications you’re currently using. It can also cause complications for people on magnesium-restricted diets and for those who have kidney disease.

Be sure to take milk of magnesia exactly as directed. Using too much of a laxative can cause side effects like abdominal pain, vomiting and diarrhea, or, in very rare cases, coma or death.

And no one — pregnant or not — should take milk of magnesia for longer than a week unless they’ve been told to do so by their doctor.

What dosage of milk of magnesia is safe during pregnancy?

Milk of magnesia is usually taken as a single dose at bedtime, though it can also be split into two or more doses and taken throughout the day.

Some brands recommend taking 1 to 4 tablespoons of the liquid version of milk of magnesia along with an 8-ounce glass of water per dose.

Regardless of how you divvy up the doses, don’t take more than the maximum daily amount in any 24 hour-period.

And remember, if you’re pregnant, talk to your doctor before taking any dose, and follow your provider’s instructions as well as the directions on the label.

What constipation remedies are okay to use during pregnancy?

There’s no such thing as a medication that’s 100 percent safe for pregnant women — which is why it’s a good idea to try to treat your constipation by changing up your diet or exercise routine first.

If that doesn’t work, however, there are a few other laxatives available on the market that are generally considered safe to use during pregnancy. Talk to your practitioner before taking any of them.

In the meantime, here’s what you can do to try to regulate your bowel movements while you’re pregnant:

  • Fill up on fiber. Adding roughage to your diet in the form of whole grains, fruit, vegetables and legumes can help bulk up your stool and move it faster through your intestines. Women should aim for at least 25 grams of fiber a day. Be sure to consume both soluble and insoluble sources of fiber, though, as too much insoluble fiber (especially on an empty stomach) may cause tummy trouble in some people.
  • Drink up. Upping your fluid intake can help usher food through the digestive tract and soften your stools, making them easier to pass. Try to drink 10 8-ounce glasses of fluids a day.
  • Get up and go. Exercise can increase the muscle activity in your intestine, which can then help move waste out of your GI tract.
  • Talk to your doctor about taking a bulk-forming laxative. Fiber supplements like Citrucel and Metamucil work by absorbing water, prompting your body to naturally pass stool.
  • Ask your provider if you should take a stool softener. Meds like Colace and Surfak work by adding moisture to the stool, making the waste easier to pass.

Avoid stimulant laxatives like Dulcolax or Senokot, which trigger the intestinal muscles to contract and can be harmful to pregnant women.

Side effects of milk of magnesia during pregnancy

The side effects of milk of magnesia during pregnancy can be the same as those for the non-pregnant population. These can include:

  • Bloating
  • Cramping
  • Nausea
  • Gas
  • Increased thirst
  • Loose or watery stools
  • Diarrhea or more frequent bowel movements

Some of the more serious side effects that warrant a call to your doctor right away include:

  • Blood in the stool
  • An inability to have a bowel movement six hours after taking the medication

Benefits of taking milk of magnesia during pregnancy

Milk of magnesia is known to ease constipation — an all-too-familiar symptom that can crop up starting in the second and third month of pregnancy. And unlike the stimulant laxatives, saline laxatives like milk of magnesia are generally considered safe to use during pregnancy.

Here are some of the benefits of milk of magnesia during pregnancy:

  • Relieves constipation, usually within 30 minutes to six hours
  • Eases heartburn symptoms when used as an antacid
  • Soothes an upset stomach when used as an antacid

Risks of taking milk of magnesia during pregnancy

It’s not known for certain whether taking milk of magnesia can harm a developing fetus — after all, pregnant women don’t make ideal research subjects — but doctors generally believe that the medication is safe to use during pregnancy. Just make sure you get the green light from your health care provider before trying it.

While it’s possible for milk of magnesia to trigger side effects like bloating and diarrhea, there are a few more serious issues that could arise, including:

  • Electrolyte imbalances when taken for long periods of time
  • Heart rhythm disturbances in people who have kidney problems
  • Trouble controlling your bowel movements, including an inability to go to the bathroom without using laxatives

When to call the doctor

If you’re experiencing loose, watery stools that don’t go away, blood in your stools, or an inability to have a bowel movement six or more hours after taking the medication, call your doctor right away.

And remember: When you’re pregnant, there’s really no such thing as being too careful. If any unusual symptoms appear after using the laxative, make the call.

In general, milk of magnesia is considered safe to take during pregnancy. Still, you should always talk to your practitioner before using it or any other type of laxative.

If your doctor gives you the thumbs-up, make sure you follow the directions on the label as well as your provider’s marching orders.90,000 ANTACIDES: careful, aluminum | Weekly PHARMACY

Before the emergence of the group of blockers H 2 -histamine receptors, antacids were the first line of treatment for peptic ulcer disease. Today, these over-the-counter heartburn medications are inexpensive, affordable, highly effective, and well-tolerated by most patients.

However, antacids do more than just reduce the acidity of gastric contents: does pH neutralization have another effect? a decrease in the proteolytic activity of the enzyme pepsin, which is active in an acidic environment and is capable of aggressively affecting the gastric mucosa and causing esophagitis. In addition, bile acids can also be involved in the pathogenesis of the development of esophagitis, which can be thrown into the stomach cavity. Antacids based on compounds of aluminum, calcium and magnesium are able to adsorb and remove bile acids; At the same time, the results of a number of studies have shown that calcium / magnesium- and aluminum-containing antacids most actively adsorb on themselves just the largest part of lipophilic and toxic bile acids (Torres VE, Velosa JA, Holley KE et al., 1991; H nsel W., Herzog T., 1998). Thus, antacids provide rational treatment and effective relief for the majority of patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease, without the need to resort to systemic agents.

It is hardly worth dwelling on what is the mechanism of action of drugs that save us from sour belching and heartburn. We all also know the classification of antacids, which divides them according to their composition (magnesium preparations, aluminum preparations, calcium preparations and combinations of aluminum, calcium and / or magnesium preparations), as well as absorbed and non-absorbed.

Antacids: Terra Incognita?

However, despite the long experience of use and the seemingly comprehensive study of antacids, do we really know everything about this group of drugs? This is especially true for the safety profile of these drugs. Moreover, it should be borne in mind that most patients with the appearance of gastrointestinal disorders do not go to the doctor, but use OTC drugs. According to a survey of 500 Russian patients who experienced heartburn, a feeling of heaviness and fullness in the stomach, as well as pain in the epigastric region, only 44% of them had previously consulted a doctor.To relieve symptoms, 78% of the respondents took antacids on their own (Moiseev S.V., 2006). The continuing popularity of antacids is also confirmed by the growing volumes of pharmacy sales of drugs in this group.

All this prompted us to investigate in more detail the market of antacids, the features of their effectiveness and safety.

Aluminum-containing antacids

As noted above, aluminum compounds are one of the components of antacids. The ingredient most commonly used in such antacids is aluminum hydroxide; among other widely used aluminum compounds? aluminum oxide, aluminum hydroxide hydrate, aluminum phosphate, dihydroxyaluminium sodium carbonate, aluminum acetoacetate, aloglutamol, aluminum glycinate.

Aluminum is found not only in many antacids, but in general is widespread in the environment, we often encounter it in everyday life. This is ? one of the most common elements of the earth’s crust; is it a metal used in a wide variety of industries? from aircraft construction to simple beverage cans and kitchen foil.And yet, despite its high prevalence, this element does not perform any important biological functions, unlike other metals such as iron or copper. The daily consumption of aluminum is negligible. However, taking aluminum-containing antacids, the patient can consume up to several grams of aluminum per day.

The use of aluminum in antacids has a long history and dates back to the 1920s, when it was believed that this element was not absorbed in our body. However, the results obtained not so long ago indicate the opposite? aluminum can be adsorbed. So, the use of certain drinks, such as wine, orange juice, coffee or soda, against the background of the use of antacids containing aluminum compounds, increases the intake of this element several times. When taking antacids based on aluminum compounds in high doses or with enviable regularity, this element gradually accumulates in bone and brain tissues, which leads to fragility of bones and neurological disorders characterized by impairment of memory and speech functions (Lauwerys R.R., Hoet P., 2001; Friesen M.S., Purssell R.A., Gair R. D., 2006).

Also, be aware that constipation is the main side effect of aluminum antacids. This is particularly important for patients at risk, such as pregnant women, opioid users, and elderly patients with limited fluid intake or dehydration.

Aluminum-containing antacids: Handle with care!

However, aluminum can harm not only those who directly take drugs containing this metal, but also future generations, many scientists believe.

Heartburn often accompanies a condition such as pregnancy. That is why pregnant women are often forced to take antacids regularly; thus, pregnancy is a typical example where antacids can be used regularly and for a long time, especially given the fact that heartburn tends to worsen with the course of pregnancy. At the same time, animal experiments indicate that aluminum crosses the placenta and accumulates in fetal tissues, causing various developmental disorders, including death in utero , defects, delayed skeletal ossification, growth retardation, etc.(Bennet R., Persaud T., Moore K., 1975; Domingo J., Gomez M., Colomina M., 2000). The possibility of aluminum intoxication with its oral administration largely depends on the bioavailability of the drug used and the presence in food of other substances that enhance the absorption of aluminum. These facts are important from a practical point of view. On the one hand, the incidence of heartburn associated with gastroesophageal reflux in pregnant women reaches 85%, and about 30-50% of them use antacids (Broussard C. , Riechter J., 1998). On the other hand, the fetus and newborn may be more sensitive to the toxic effects of aluminum. A case of the development of a severe neurodegenerative disease in a girl is described, whose mother during pregnancy took antacids in extremely high doses (up to 15 g of aluminum per day) (Gibert-Barnes E., Barness L., Wolff J. et al., 1998). Of course, this example cannot be extrapolated to common practice, but it is worth considering the fact that for a developing fetus, significant and significantly smaller doses of aluminum may turn out to be significant.

Some researchers have found aluminum in breast milk in women, which indicates the possibility of its entry into the body of breastfed newborns (Mandic M., Grgic J., Grgic Z. et al., 1995).

In many European countries, there are certain restrictions on the use of aluminum-containing antacids in pregnant and lactating women. For example, in Austria, France, Italy, Spain and Switzerland, package leaflets indicate that antacids containing aluminum should be used during pregnancy and lactation only on the advice of a doctor or pharmacist (Maton P. , Burto V., 1999).

The most complete information on the possible adverse effects of aluminum-containing antacids is presented in the instructions for use and promotional materials in Germany. So, they clearly indicate that the simultaneous use of these drugs with drinks containing acids, for example, fruit juice or wine, leads to an undesirable increase in the absorption of aluminum in the intestine, and in order to avoid aluminum intoxication in a child, during pregnancy, the drug can be taken only during short term, it is also especially noted that aluminum compounds penetrate into breast milk (Maton P., Burto V., 1999).

Continuation of the story about antacids

drugs? in the next rooms

“Weekly Pharmacy”

The mystery of her youth Recipe for your success

Information for you:

Milk of magnesia – description of the preparation, indications, contraindications

Milk of magnesia – a natural preparation from the group of non-absorbable antacids, an osmotic laxative. The product contains a large amount of magnesium hydroxide.

Pharmacological action of the drug

Milk of magnesia neutralizes the acidity of the stomach

Milk of magnesia, when it enters the stomach, partially neutralizes hydrochloric acid, reduces the activity of gastric juice.This does not interfere with digestion, does not reduce the protective antimicrobial effect of hydrochloric acid.

The agent promotes the synthesis of prostaglandins, reducing intracavitary pressure in the stomach and duodenum 12. Milk of magnesia accumulates liquid in the intestines and liquefies its contents. Due to this, there is an increase in intestinal motility and its speedy emptying.

Indications for use

For the use of the remedy, the indications are problems with digestion:

Contraindications for the use of Magnesia Milk

Contraindications to the use of Magnesia Milk can be individual sensitivity to magnesium, allergic reactions to the drug, as well as hypermagnesemia (accumulation of magnesium in blood). It can occur in those with a history of kidney disease. There is evidence of psychological dependence on the drug and the emergence of the phenomenon of addiction. In such cases, it is necessary to strive for an episodic reception.

Benefits of the product Magnesia milk

Natural laxative: Magnesia milk

Since this preparation is a natural laxative, it has many advantages that distinguish it among other laxatives:

  • Magnesia milk magnesium sulfate covers the entire intestine with its action.
  • The laxative is completely harmless and does not damage the intestinal mucosa.
  • No addiction occurs with prolonged use.
  • The action of the milk of magnesia is not accompanied by spasms, pains, the intestines are cleaned without additional efforts.
  • Has no contraindications for pregnant women, for patients suffering from diseases such as hemorrhoids and diabetes.
  • Can be used as a remedy for heartburn and, if necessary, as a source of magnesium.

Special instructions for use

To achieve the desired effect, it is advisable to use milk of magnesia 5-6 hours before the expected increase in peristalsis. That is, when planning a morning chair, the drug is taken before bedtime. Recommended dose:

  • Adults – 1 tbsp. l. 3-4 times a day
  • Children over 12 years old – 1 tsp. 3 times a day
  • Children under 12 years old – half tsp. 3-4 times a day

If the desired effect is not achieved after the indicated dose, for children over 12 years old and for adults, the dose can be increased by one and a half times.It is recommended to shake the product before use.

Milk of magnesia before a diet for weight loss

Milk of magnesia should be used strictly according to the instructions!

In order not to disturb digestion and not to deteriorate well-being during the transition to a diet for weight loss, you can first use Milk of magnesia magnesium sulfate. This tactic helps the body to smoothly transition to a new diet. The drug will help remove toxins, that is, it is used for cleansing.

Magnesium sulfate, together with food residues, will help to remove cholesterol and excess fats entering the intestines. The process of burning your own fat reserves is started. To cleanse the body before a diet, you should take 25 g of the product dissolved in half a glass of water in the evening for 5 days.

Milk of magnesia magnesium sulfate is positioned as an osmotic laxative that has practically no contraindications and is not absorbed into the body through the intestinal wall.

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2. Drug therapy

A. Symptomatic
therapy

appointed

from the moment the patient applied for
medical assistance, before receiving
convincing evidence in favor of one or
other etiology of the process.

  1. Antacids

Healing effects

  1. Neutralization
    hydrochloric acid
    .
    HCI level
    may increase with antral or
    superficial chronic gastritis,
    when drinking coffee, irritating
    food, stress, medication.Inflamed coolant reacts to normal
    or even a reduced salt content
    acid spasm. Antacid, binding
    hydrochloric acid, antispastic
    effect on the musculature of the gatekeeper.
    However, it should be noted that
    the analgesic effect of antacid can
    be more pronounced than powerful
    antisecretory drugs: (N -blockers
    or omeprazole).

Reactions
neutralization of combination drugs
proceed as follows:

Mg (OH)
+ 2HCI
= MgCI
+ 2H O

2Al (OH)
3

+ 3HCI = Al CI 3
+ 3H O

  1. Absorbent,
    enveloping, astringent effects.

    They play a bigger role than neutralization
    HCI,
    although chemical and biochemical
    enveloping and binding mechanisms
    the effect of antacids is not fully understood.
    The adsorbent effect includes
    adsorption of bile acids, lysolecithin,
    cytotoxins, gases, hydrochloric acid,
    aggressive effects of gastric
    juice, medicines, and has
    anti-inflammatory effect. He is
    has an adsorbing effect.

  2. Decrease
    pain

    carried out through the implementation
    first two effects

  3. Cytoprotective
    effect
    .IN
    recent years emphasis in explanation
    the action of antacids is shifted from their
    a good pain reliever and
    acid-neutralizing effect on their
    the ability to improve the metabolism of cutting fluid.
    The cytoprotective effect is associated with
    activation of the synthesis of prostaglandins,
    increased secretion of hydrocarbons,
    increased synthesis of glycoproteins
    gastric mucus, development
    microvasculature, stimulation
    secretion of mucopolysaccharides mucus.
    Regenerative processes are enhanced
    and blood supply to the mucosa. Goes
    proliferation of mucus-forming cells,
    increased blood flow, prevented
    vasoconstriction, micro-fracture of the coolant.The adsorbing properties of antacids
    are sometimes seen as one of
    mechanisms of cytoprotection.

  4. Gain
    salivary secretion

    (sucking tablets) and thus
    synthesis of epidermal growth factor.
    This factor is the most powerful
    stimulator of epithelial regeneration.
    Released epidermal factor
    growth and antacid bond at the edges
    mucosal defect, stimulating healing.

  5. Braking
    impact on growth HP

    and the binding of toxic products them
    life activity.

  6. Safety .
    In the mode of using antacids with
    chronic gastritis (3 times a day 7-14
    days), they are free of side effects and
    do not cause acid-base shifts
    and mineral balance, which was feared
    with their frequent use (8-16 times in
    day) for a long time.

At
lack of data on etiology
chronic gastritis 90 140 antacids
together with drugs that affect
on motor skills – actually the main one
method of treating chronic hepatitis.

Composition of antacids:

Oxide
or magnesium hydroxide,

like other absorbable antacids –
bicarbonate
sodium and calcium carbonate

act quickly, energetically, but
briefly. Magnesium oxide practically
the only soluble absorbable
antacid, which is used for
treatment. Sodium bicarbonate and carbonate
calcium is rarely used. Magnesium oxide
may contribute to diarrhea. This is
makes patients with constipation choose
antacids containing maximum
the amount of magnesium oxide.Sometimes it
magnesium oxide as such 0.8×3 times
day, or milk of magnesia in an equivalent
dose. Magnesium-free antacids
tend to cause constipation.

Magnesium
carbonate

less effective, its purpose is less
desirable.

Non-absorbable
antacids provide lengthening
therapeutic effect, have great
adsorption capabilities.

Magnesium
and / or aluminum trisilicate

react with hydrochloric acid, slowly
interact with a secret
intestinal glands, forming carbonate and
releasing chloride, which is reabsorbed.Due to this, there is no shift
acid-base balance. Drugs
have good adsorption
ability. Magnesium salts are absorbed
in small quantities, but delay
them with renal failure can
cause bradycardia.

Hydroxide
aluminum.

Reacts with hydrochloric acid to form
aluminum chloride reacting
with intestinal secretion education
insoluble salts, in particular phosphates.
The released chlorine is reabsorbed,
but the acid-base balance is not
is violated.Aluminum hydroxide has
good adsorption properties.
It inhibits gastric evacuation and
motor skills, as a result of which
a tendency to constipation. When combining
with magnesium preparations this effect
leveled out. For aluminum preparations
especially pronounced cytoprotective
action. Aluminum hydroxide treatment
when consumed in large quantities
accompanied by hypophosphatemia and
hypophosphaturia as a result of binding
phosphates in the intestine, in connection with which they
not absorbed.Long-term decrease
phosphorus intake into the body causes
anorexia, muscle weakness and
osteomalacia. Because of this complication
the use of the drug should be limited
in individuals with a reduced phosphate content
in food, for example, with chronic
alcoholism or other conditions, with
which the patient consumes food
low in protein.

Jonah
calcium

stimulate the release of gastrin and
cause increased secretion after their
cancellation. Large doses can provoke
hypercalcemia or lactic alkaline
syndrome for which headache is typical
pain, weakness, anorexia, nausea,
vomiting, abdominal pain, constipation, thirst,
polyuria.

Many
antacids contain sodium ,
therefore can be dangerous
for patients with cardiac and renal
failure.

Soda
(sodium bicarbonate)

called “stomach nitroglycerin” for
speed of action. But increase
the frequency of using baking soda is not recommended
due to the significant receipt
sodium in the body and systemic alkalosis,
due to the absorption of HCO 3 .
Speed ​​of action and availability of soda
are forced to resort to it in those cases
when a complex antacid is taken, but
the pain did not stop as a result.

Magaldrat
is a complex of hydroxides
magnesium and aluminum, dissociating in
acidic stomach contents. To quickly
dissociating complex antacids
include alexitol, hydrotalcite,
almazilate.

Almazilat
is hydrated
Al,
Mg
silicate (corresponding to AI
oxide, Mg
oxide) has an antacid, enveloping
and adsorptive action. Prevents
the influence of aggressive factors on the coolant and
enhances her own defenses
mechanisms.The combination is especially effective
with oxetacaine.

IN
antacids often include 90 140 alginic
acid . She
enhances the adhesiveness of drugs to
Coolant and increases clinical efficacy
antacids.

Simethicone
include in some mixtures of antacids
means to reduce foaming
and flatulence. It is a silicone polymer,
reducing surface tension
and promoting the movement of gases along
intestines. Simethicone – substance
biologically inert, non-absorbable
in the digestive tract.He is able to eliminate some
symptoms of irritation in postoperative
sick or after eating. Mechanism
protective effect on coolant finally
not installed.

Oxetacaine
may increase the pain relieving effect
antacid. Neutralizing ability
antacids, measured in grams,
required to neutralize 50 mmol
per hour of hydrochloric acid with duodenal ulcer in
men; and up to 26 mmol / h with duodenal ulcer in
women or stomach ulcers in men.

Gelatinous
antacids (almagel, phosphalugel,
gastrogel, etc. ) act faster than
tableted, but the last more
convenient for use at work, during
travel time, in transport (vikalin,
vikair, roter), etc. Efficiency
tableted antacids significantly
increases with their resorption or
thoroughly chewing. Swallow them not
follows. Standard receive mode
antacid: 1 ton x 3-4 times a day for 30-60 minutes
before or 1-2 hours after meals and at night 7-14
days. If the pain syndrome is predominantly
fasting – it is possible to take the drug
30-60 minutes before meals 3 times a day, but the effect
antacid will be shorter than in
if it is accepted after
food in 1-2 hours.In this case, the action
lasts for 2-3 hours. Due
with this, more often in the recommendations appears
indication: accept
antacid 1-1.5 hours after eating, carefully
chewing or sucking in the mouth,
if it is a tablet preparation.

It is not bad if the patient himself picks up
the most acceptable mode for him
taking an antacid.

To many
patients need to be stipulated that
within 30 minutes after taking antacid,
he did not take any liquid, but food
– not earlier than after 1 hour. Can be found
recommendations to lie down and every 1-2 minutes
roll over on the side several times
on the side after taking an antacid. but
they are performed very rarely even
disciplined patients. Hardly
it is worth insisting on their implementation like this
strictly as separation requires
taking an antacid and food (or liquid) and
chewing tablets.

Symptomatic
treatment of chronic gastritis and
gastric dyspepsia:

Maalox 1-2
tab or

Gestid 1-2 tab 3
once a day, 1 hour after meals 7-14 days

Sodium
and CaCO 3
impair the taste of antacids,
in this regard, as a rule, the majority
antacids on the market
preparations containing hydroxide
aluminum (acts slowly, but also on
longer period) and magnesium oxide,
which, as already mentioned, acts
quickly and energetically.

Proceeding
of these parcels, antacid Gestid
is a good combination
fast acting magnesium hydroxide
(With 25 mg) or more slowly, but for a long time
active aluminum hydroxide. Dose
aluminum hydroxide is sufficient for
neutralizing HCI
and cytoprotective action against
to coolant. Colloid resulting from
interaction of magnesium trisilicate and
HCI,
possesses high adsorptive
capabilities and protects the coolant from
aggressive influences.

Preparations,
in which the content of aluminum hydroxide
significantly exceeds the oxide content
magnesium, can provide anchoring
action.

Change
the nature of the chair when used
antacids containing hydroxide
aluminum and magnesium oxide in equal
proportions or in a ratio of 2: 1, is
an individual characteristic of the patient.
In the presence of such a reaction in the future
it is necessary to look for antacids with a large,
what was prescribed, the content of hydroxide
aluminum and a minimum amount
magnesium oxide for loosening of the stool.
For constipation, antacids should be chosen.
with the maximum amount of magnesium oxide.
In patients with gastritis, it is shown
use of “pure” magnesium oxide
(milk of magnesia – “milk of magnesia”,
or May-magnesia) at a dose of 0. 5-1.0 x 2-4 times
day.

Chronic
gastritis with constipation
:

Oxide
magnesium (may-magnesia 5-10 ml or milk of
magnesia 0.5-1.0 g)

take 2-4 times
per day

Sick
with severe diarrhea of ​​any origin
(celiac disease, chronic enteritis, ulcerative
colitis, with irritable syndrome
intestines, infectious diarrhea), CaCO 3
still irreplaceable, because it possesses
excellent astringent effect. Carbonate
calcium (antacid tablets or
gastrivil) reduces the urge to stool,
reduces the amount of emitted
feces, bloating.Average dose from 1
up to 2g 2-4 times a day. Soft fixing
aluminum hydroxide acts
or algeldrate.

Chronic
gastritis with severe diarrhea
:

CaCO 3
(antacid tablets or Gastrivil)
0.5-1.5g or

Al (OH)
3
(Rockzhel
or Aluminum hydroxide) 0.5-1.5 g take
3-4 times in

day 7-14 days.

Chronic
gastritis with slight loosening of the stool,
daily mushy stools:

Gestide
1-2 t or phosphalugel 1 bag

or
remagel 5-10 ml or almagel 5-10 ml
take 3-4 times a day for 7-14 days.

At
insufficient analgesic effect
with chronic gastritis drugs,
containing only an antacid component
(aluminum hydroxide, magnesium, phosphate
aluminum, calcium carbonate, simaldrate,
megaldrate, etc.) go to the appointment
preparations containing anesthetics:
oxetacaine (megalac or anacid compositum
1 ton x 3 times a day 1 hour after
food 7-14 days). Possible appointment
Almagel A. It is useful in combination
symptoms of gastritis with dyskinesia
biliary tract or chronic
cholecystitis.Pain relieving effect
antacids containing alginic
acid (topalkan) may be higher in
some patients. As a rule, the statement
the fact of increasing the effectiveness of the action
the drug due to the introduction into its composition
anesthetic, – speaks of a high
sensitivity (susceptibility) of the patient.

Patients
chronic gastritis bright and colorful
describing pain or stomach
dyspepsia, and with insufficient effect
Maalox or Gestida:

Megalak
or Anacid compositum 1t x 3 times
day or Topalkan 2t x 3 times a day
1 hour after eating 7-14 days.

At
the simultaneous use of antacids and
other drugs may change
their adsorption. For warning
disorders of adsorption these drugs
it is recommended to take 2 hours before or
2 hours after taking antacids.

90,000 Hepatitis C Treatment. Information on Hepatitis C Treatment

There are many things you can do to improve your health and feel better while being treated for hepatitis C. And if you take good care of yourself, you will increase your chances of being able to take your medications as prescribed.


THE IMPORTANCE OF DIET AND FOOD

Contrary to some claims that you can read on the Internet, there is no specific “Hepatitis C Diet”. However, a healthy diet can improve liver health in someone with hepatitis C.

A well-balanced diet can improve liver function and reduce the risk of cirrhosis (severe scarring) of the liver. It can also help your immune system fight disease. People with hepatitis C are generally more likely to have diabetes, but a good diet can help control blood sugar and reduce body fat, thereby lowering the risk of diabetes.

Numerous studies have demonstrated the benefits of drinking coffee for improving liver health in hepatitis C. Studies show that you need to drink more than two cups a day to achieve these benefits. However, the research is not strong enough to make a recommendation to start drinking coffee, and some people do not tolerate it well. But for those who currently drink coffee – enjoy!

It is important to eat right, not be overweight and avoid alcohol during treatment.On the contrary, a poor diet can sometimes lead to liver problems. Being overweight, drinking too much alcohol, diabetes, or high cholesterol or high blood fats are associated with an accumulation of fat in the liver called “ fatty liver ” (or steatosis). Over time, having fatty liver in addition to hepatitis C will increase the likelihood of developing cirrhosis. The most effective way to lose weight is to combine calorie reduction with increased physical activity.

While following a generally healthy diet and maintaining a normal body weight may not seem like a viable treatment for hepatitis C, it is a good way to protect your liver.All that is needed is to follow dietary guidelines based on the Diet Guidelines for Americans, unless you have cirrhosis or another medical condition, such as diabetes or kidney disease, that may warrant certain dietary restrictions.

General dietary guidelines include the following:

  • Maintain a healthy calorie intake
  • Eat whole grain breads and cereals
  • Get enough protein (add protein drinks if needed)
  • Eat at least 5 servings of fruits and vegetables per day; Eating foods of different colors can provide a range of nutrients.
  • Limit your intake of salty, sugary, and fatty foods.
  • Drink plenty of fluids (usually 6-8 glasses a day). In addition to water, you can add juice, tea, milk, soup, and frozen fruit bars.

BE CAREFUL ABOUT FOOD ADDITIVES

Certain vitamins and minerals, such as vitamins A and D, iron and niacin, in high doses can harm your liver. It is best to consult with your doctor, dietitian, or nutritionist before taking a vitamin or supplement.


ALCOHOL

It is a liver toxin even in people without hepatitis C. Excessive alcohol consumption can lead to cirrhosis and serious liver disease. It is best to avoid alcohol entirely.


IMPORTANCE OF EXERCISE

Exercise is important for many reasons: it helps control weight, strengthens your immune system, improves appetite, and relieves stress and depression. While the idea of ​​exercising when you’re feeling tired may seem counterintuitive, it can improve your overall sense of well-being.

Exercise doesn’t mean you need to go to the gym – walking, gardening, and even housework are important. Do things in moderation. Try to do 10 minute blocks of exercise throughout the day. Low-impact exercises such as walking or swimming work best. You can start with a 10-minute walk at a comfortable pace, take breaks to rest as needed, and gradually increase your activity level. It is a good idea to talk to your doctor before starting a diet and exercise program.


THE IMPORTANCE OF STRESS REDUCTION AND ANGER MANAGEMENT

Everyone experiences stress in life at one time or another – work, finances, children, family problems are all examples of common stressors. Our bodies are built to deal with stress, to keep us out of harm’s way, or to endure a difficult day. However, stress can be a problem if it is persistent or intense.

Chronic stress negatively affects the immune system and contributes to other problems such as high blood pressure, heart disease, sleep problems and substance abuse. A chronic medical condition such as hepatitis C can cause physical and emotional stress. Hepatitis C treatment can add additional stressors depending on the level of side effects you are experiencing. When people are under chronic stress, there is often anger.

Feeling angry at the first diagnosis of an illness is a common reaction. You might have thoughts like “I don’t deserve this!” and “Why did this happen to me?” While these reactions are perfectly normal, anger that becomes chronic and / or turns into rage is not.Simply put, it can ruin your relationship and rob you of the energy you need to live a good life.

Dealing with stress and anger is an integral part of hepatitis C infection control and treatment. Here are some strategies to help you:

  • Find ways to relax and calm your mind. Some people find meditation, prayer, visualization, or massage helpful.
  • Do something physical as a release.Dancing, cycling, walking, yoga, or any kind of exercise can keep you healthy and reduce stress and anger.
  • Join a Hepatitis C Support Group
  • Help others; sometimes helping others is the best way to forget about your own problems.
  • Set reasonable expectations for yourself. Solve problems one task at a time. What should I do today? If it’s not that important, cross it off the list.
  • Learn to let others help you when you need it.
  • Spend time with people who are positive about life and limit your interactions with people and places that are negative.
  • Attend stress and / or anger management classes. They are often offered by employers, health insurance companies, or community centers.
  • Find a way to laugh. Whether you’re watching a funny movie or spending time with a good friend, remember that laughter has a healing effect on both body and mind.
  • Try to give a positive touch to things and do not worry about the little things. Practice positive thinking by replacing negative thoughts with messages of hope and affirmation.
  • Discuss your feelings with people you trust. Sometimes others may offer a different point of view or solution to what’s on your mind. Or consider seeking help from a mental health professional.

“7 liquids that should not be taken with medicines”

Dr. Ivanov on why pills do not give the desired effect when taken with alcohol, coffee or tea

We all know perfectly well that medicines should be taken with water, but in the hectic day we do not always have the opportunity for this, so sometimes we wash down our tablets with some kind of drinks.And the consequences of such actions are not so harmless: at least the drug will not have the expected therapeutic effect, at the maximum it becomes deadly. Read more in a new article by Alexander Ivanov, Candidate of Medical Sciences, Neurologist, Osteopath Luciano.

Chemicals in medications react with fluids and can reduce the effectiveness of treatment and harm the body.
Photo: Oksana Cherkasova

HOW WE REDUCE TREATMENT EFFICIENCY

If we take medicines incorrectly and drink them not with water, but with any kind of drinks, then the chemicals in the composition of medicines, reacting with liquids, can both reduce the effectiveness of treatment and harm our health.

1. ALCOHOL

Perhaps this is the most dangerous drink in order to take medicine with it. The fact is that the drugs themselves, as a rule, have a rather strong effect on the liver, and in combination with alcohol, the body receives additional intoxication. In addition, alcohol increases the acidity of gastric juice, damages the mucous membrane and promotes the development of inflammation – gastritis. Some medicines, such as antibiotics, stop working when mixed with alcohol, or their effectiveness is markedly reduced.And there are no exceptions – you wash down your medicines with champagne, beer or wine, the result will always be double harm.

2. COFFEE

Coffee is an excellent drink if consumed in small quantities, but they should not be taken with medicine, as it contains tannin and caffeine. Caffeine has a stimulating effect, and if you take sedatives and sedatives with it, then their effect on your body will be zero. In addition, coffee increases the acidity of the stomach, which makes certain drugs (antacids) that lower the acidity of the stomach ineffective.Coffee can thin the blood, therefore, if we drink it with aspirin and NSAIDs (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs), it threatens us with mucosal erosion and even stomach bleeding.

3. TEA

Do not take your medications with tea. And not only black, but also green, because both contain the substance tannin. Tannin binds some macro- and microelements, such as iron, which makes vitamin-mineral complexes ineffective. Tea also neutralizes cardiac glycosides, aminophylline. As for herbal teas, this is a separate topic. For example, an infusion of St. John’s wort reduces the effectiveness of hormonal contraceptives.

4. MILK AND SOFT MILK DRINKS

We have already spoken about milk in one of my previous articles. Medicines, especially antibiotics, should not be washed down with milk, as calcium, magnesium and iron in milk can reduce their effectiveness. Also, a number of enzymatic preparations (festal, creon), if you drink them with milk, will not give the desired effect.In addition, with latent or explicit lactose intolerance, drugs may not be absorbed at all and exit through the intestines.

5. CARBONATED DRINKS AND MINERAL WATER

Carbonated drinks contain carbon dioxide, and there is also a lot of sugar. All this can cause fermentation in the stomach and reduce the absorption of drugs by the body. Mineral water, as a rule, has an alkaline reaction, reducing the acidity of gastric juice and the absorption of a number of drugs. This leads to the elimination of drugs from the body and a decrease in the effectiveness of treatment.

6. CITRUS JUICES

Juices from citrus fruits (orange, lemon, grapefruit) block the work of the CYP3A4 enzyme, which regulates the absorption of drugs in the stomach. This neutralizes the effect of antihistamines, oral contraceptives, anticonvulsants, analgesics, statins (drugs to lower blood cholesterol). Grapefruit contains furanocoumarins – substances that multiply the effect of the drug. Therefore, if you drink grapefruit juice with heart medications, antiallergic, antiviral, antidepressants and antibiotics, there can be serious complications.

7. KISEL

The viscous consistency of this drink and the sugar can bind some drugs and reduce their effectiveness. True, if the patient has gastritis or an ulcer, doctors recommend drinking the pills with jelly – it envelops the walls of the stomach and protects them from unnecessary irritation. But at the same time, the effectiveness of the drug is reduced.

SUMMARY

So, in order for the medicine to work, it is necessary to drink it with 100-200 ml of pure drinking water without gas.

Be sure to ask your doctor how to take the medicine correctly, how many times a day, before, during or after meals, to chew or drink without chewing. Do not overdose. If the doctor prescribed the drug three times a day in equal doses, this does not mean that you can drink all three tablets at one time and the effect will be the same. This is especially important to understand with regard to antibiotics. It is important to maintain the concentration of the drug in the blood at a certain level.

Be healthy!

Alexander Ivanov

The opinion of the author may not coincide with the position of the editorial office

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