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Monolaurin benefits herpes: Halting Herpes? – DrWeil.com

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Halting Herpes? – DrWeil.com

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I have been considering taking Monolaurin supplements for suppressing herpes outbreaks. What is the most effective dosage? Is it something that should be taken in the same amount daily or increased when an outbreak takes place?

Andrew Weil, M.D. | May 8, 2002

Monolaurin is a nontoxic, antiviral supplement made from lauric acid (a fatty acid found in breast milk) and glycerin. It is used to treat infections with all strains of the herpes virus along with other viral infections including measles, and HIV, the human immunodeficiency virus that causes AIDS. Monolaurin is believed to have the potential to permanently inactivate the fat coated viruses that cause these diseases by fluidizing the lipids (fats) and phospholipids in their envelopes, leading to the disintegration of viral particles.

Monolaurin, sold under the brand name Lauricidin®, comes in the form of mini pellets. Dosage must be individualized. Jon J. Kabara, MD, the physician/researcher who developed monolaurin, says that the usual recommended initial dose is 1.5 grams once or twice a day for one or two weeks. The dose can be increased to 3.0 grams once or twice daily thereafter. A maintenance dose can be 3.0 grams two or three times a day. The idea is to start with a low dose and then increase it gradually until you notice a positive response.

I feel strongly that you take monolaurin only under the supervision of your physician who can order monolaurin for you, determine your best dosage and monitor your progress. However, Dr. Kabara has generously offered to respond to individual questions about dosage submitted with orders via his Web site, www. lauricidin.com.

If you have herpes, be sure to include in your diet more foods high in lysine, an amino acid that inhibits the virus. These include yogurt, fish,potatoes and brewer’s yeast. At the same time, cut back on foods high in L-arginine, another amino acid that may promote outbreaks. These foods include chocolate, peas, nuts and seeds.

Andrew Weil, M.D.

A Review of the Literature

J Chiropr Med. 2019 Dec; 18(4): 305–310.

, DC,a, DC, PhD,b, and , DCc

Lisa A. Barker

aHartsburg Chiropractic Health Center, Danbury, Connecticut

Barclay W. Bakkum

bIllinois College of Optometry, Chicago, Illinois

Cynthia Chapman

cOccoquan Family Chiropractic, Occoquan, Virginia

aHartsburg Chiropractic Health Center, Danbury, Connecticut

bIllinois College of Optometry, Chicago, Illinois

cOccoquan Family Chiropractic, Occoquan, Virginia

Corresponding author: Barclay W. Bakkum, DC, PhD, Illinois College of Optometry, 3241 South Michigan Avenue, Chicago, IL 60616 [email protected]

Received 2018 Aug 28; Revised 2019 Jan 23; Accepted 2019 Feb 20.

Copyright © 2020 by National University of Health Sciences.This article has been cited by other articles in PMC.

Abstract

Objective

The purpose of this study was to determine what the peer-reviewed literature says about the clinical applications, therapeutic dosages, bioavailability, efficacy, and safety of monolaurin as a dietary supplement.

Methods

This was a narrative review using the PubMed database and the terms “monolaurin” and its chemical synonyms. Commercial websites that sell monolaurin were also searched for pertinent references. The reference sections of the newer articles were searched for any other relevant articles. Consensus was reached among the authors as to what articles had clinical relevance.

Results

Twenty-eight articles were found that appeared to address the clinical use of monolaurin.

Conclusion

There are many articles that address the antimicrobial effects of monolaurin in vitro. Only 3 peer-reviewed papers that evidence in vivo antimicrobial effects of monolaurin in humans were located, and these were only for intravaginal and intraoral—that is, topical—use. No peer-reviewed evidence was found for the clinical use of monolaurin as a human dietary supplement other than as a nutrient.

Key Indexing Terms: Anti-Bacterial Agents, Antiviral Agents

Introduction

Monolaurin first became available as a nutritional formulation in the mid-1960s and today is sold worldwide as a nutritional supplement that is touted as a support for immune system function, healthy balance of intestinal flora, and beneficial levels of yeast.1 Its use has been associated with a variety of disorders, including the common cold, influenza, swine flu, herpes simplex, shingles, and chronic fatigue syndrome.2

Monolaurin—very commonly known by 1 of its chemical names, glycerol monolaurate (GML)—is the monoester formed from glycerol and lauric acid. Lauric acid is a naturally occurring 12-carbon medium-chain saturated fatty acid. The richest dietary source of GML is coconut oil.3 GML is also found in human breast milk4 and palm kernel oil.5 Although the body can convert lauric acid into GML by enzymatic activity, it is not known how much this process actually occurs in vivo.6

Because GML is a surfactant, it has been used for decades as a dispersant and emulsifier in the cosmetics industry and as a food additive in the food industry, acting as an emulsifier and preservative.7 The antimicrobial activity of fatty acids and their esters is well known, with chain length, unsaturation (cis, trans), and functional groups all being variables that affect this activity.8 This antimicrobial activity appears mainly to be by disruption of lipid bilayers.9 GML is 1 of the more potent of these antimicrobial agents, being up to 200 times more effectual than lauric acid in bactericidal activity against certain microbes in in vitro studies. 10 It may have been this potent antimicrobial activity that led some to explore its potential clinical use as a nutritional supplement.

Some supplement companies and health practitioners recommend gradually increasing the oral daily adult dose up to 1 to 5 grams of GML (less in children).11,12 One vendor, quoted by several commercial websites, endorses up to 9 g of GML daily as an adult maintenance dose.1 The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has granted GML the status of generally recognized as safe13 but has published no standard dosing guidelines.6 The stability14 and solubility15 of GML are low in an aqueous environment, and the FDA has stated that topical application of GML is safe up to concentrations of 100 mg/mL.16

There seems to be a fairly large amount of anecdotal reporting that GML as a dietary supplement has a range of positive applications for human health and disease prevention. 1,2 The purpose of this study was to determine what evidence there is in the peer-reviewed literature about the clinical applications, therapeutic dosages, bioavailability, efficacy, and safety of GML as a dietary supplement.

Methods

This was a narrative review. Use of review protocols was somewhat limited by the nature of the GML literature. We performed a Boolean search of PubMed (from the beginning of its indexing through April 2018) using the following terms: monolaurin OR glycerol monolaurate OR glyceryl laurate OR 1-lauroyl-glycerol. From this list of citations, the authors individually reviewed the associated abstracts for clinical relevance—that is, whether they contained information related to the clinical applications, therapeutic dosages, bioavailability, efficacy, or safety of GML as a dietary supplement—and then, after discussion, came to consensus on which of these references had such clinical relevance. The full articles for these abstracts were obtained. The reference sections of newer articles were searched for any other pertinent articles. Also, commercial websites that sell GML as a dietary supplement were searched for articles that they cited as evidence for the use of GML. Consensus was reached among the authors as to which articles would be included. Only articles in English were used for this study. Given the paucity of articles and total lack of human clinical trials, no research designs were excluded. There was no quality assessment used, since most of the studies were very simple, straightforward, basic research designs. No clinical entities were excluded.

Results

The PubMed search yielded 190 articles, none of which were human clinical trials using GML as a nutritional supplement. Many of the citations dealt with food preparation or storage issues. After reviewing the abstracts of all 190 articles and searching the reference sections of newer citations and commercial websites for further articles and eliminating duplicates, the authors reached consensus on 28 sources that seemed to address either clinical uses of GML or issues that could have clinical implications. 4,8,10,14,16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39

Discussion

The antibacterial activity of GML in vitro is well documented. In broths, a nutrient-rich substrate inoculated with pathogens, GML is effective against a wide range of gram-positive, gram-negative, and acid-fast organisms ().8,10,17 The effectiveness is influenced by pH, temperature, the biochemical nature of the fatty acid, and any binding agent. 8,10 On the other hand, several other commonly pathogenic gram-negative strains of bacteria do not appear to be affected by GML ().10

Table 1

Antibacterial Activity of Monolaurin (Glycerol Monolaurate)

Bacterium Gram or Other Stain
Staphylococcus aureus Positive
Streptococcus pyogenes Positive
Streptococcus agalactiae Positive
Group C Streptococcus Positive
Group F Streptococcus Positive
Group G Streptococcus Positive
Streptococcus suis Positive
Streptococcus sanguinis Positive
Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 3 Positive
Enterococcus faecalis Positive
Listeria monocytogenes Positive
Bacillus anthracis Sterne Positive
Bacillus cereus Positive
Peptostreptococcus species Positive
Clostridium perfringens Positive
Neisseria gonorrhoeae Negative
Haemophilus influenzae nontypeable Negative
Gardnerella vaginalis Negative
Campylobacter jejuni Negative
Bordetella bronchiseptica Negative
Burkholderia cenocepacia Negative
Pasteurella multocida Negative
Prevotella melaninogenica Negative
Bacteroides fragilis Negative
Fusobacterium species Negative
Pseudomonas aeruginosa Negative
Acinetobacter baumannii Negative
Mycobacterium phlei Acid fast
Mycobacterium tuberculosis Acid fast
Mycoplasma hominis Cell-wall deficient

Table 2

Bacteria Not Susceptible to Monolaurin (Glycerol Monolaurate)

Bacterium Gram Stain
Escherichia coli Negative
Salmonella minnesota Negative
Klebsiella aerogenes Negative
Proteus vulgaris Negative
Shigella sonnei Negative
Klebsiella pneumoniae Negative

GML is also effective against several bacterial biofilms, including those produced by Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Acinetobacter baumannii. 10,17,18 Surgical incisions in rabbits inoculated with S. aureus, P. aeruginosa, or A. baumannii were painted with a carrier gel alone or with GML. The GML gel reduced the bacterial count measured in colony-forming units and the inflammatory redness at the infected site compared to carrier gel alone.17 In women, tampons with GML have been shown to reduce vaginal S. aureus colony-forming units compared to tampons without GML.19 And it has been shown that GML loaded in a microemulsion has enhanced antimicrobial activity compared to GML alone.14

At concentrations below those that are bacteriocidal, GML can inhibit the production and the effects of several gram-positive bacterial toxins in vitro. These include staphylococcal enterotoxins, toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 (TSST-1), anthrax toxin, and several hemolysins.20, 21 Intravaginal application of GML in an in vivo rabbit model decreases the lethality of TSST-1 apparently by stabilizing the host cell membranes and blocking signal transduction. 22 In women, tampons with GML reduce vaginal TSST-1 and production of the cytokine interleukin-8 compared with tampons without GML.19 GML can furthermore inhibit lipase production by S. aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis at concentrations that do not adversely affect the growth of these commensal ocular bacteria in an in vitro model.16

GML appears to increase the effectiveness of certain other antibacterial agents in vitro. For example, the addition of GML to menaquinone analogues,23 ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA),10 and origanum oil24 appears to enhance their ability to inhibit the growth of S. aureus. Incorporation of AP114 and AP138, antimicrobial peptides derived from plectasin, into monolaurin-lipid nanocapsules has displayed synergistic effects against S. aureus, including methicillin-resistant S. aureus.25 Likewise, the combination of GML and cis-2-decenoic acid expresses synergistic antispirochetal (Borrelia sp) effects, including on biofilms. 26 In a human in vivo study, rinsing with a mouthwash containing lysine and GML decreases oral Helicobacter pylori infection better than the traditional treatment of teeth cleaning.27 This increased the success rate of eradication of a concurrent gastric H. pylori infection in the population studied.

There are in vitro studies that have shown that GML has antiviral activity against HIV-1, herpes simplex virus (HSV)–2,28 and cytomegalovirus, but not human rhinovirus 2.4 An in vivo monkey study has shown that daily use of intravaginal GML protected against occult infection from repeated high doses of simian immunodeficiency virus, the rhesus macaque model of HIV-1.29 Intravaginal GML appears to increase susceptibility to HSV-2 in a mouse model,30 but these findings may be inconclusive for a human model, as epithelial thickness differs.28 A vaginal cream with up to 35% GML has no effect on vaginal flora and cytokine (MIP-3 and IL-8P) levels in rhesus macaques. 31 On the other hand, it has been shown in an in vitro model of the female primate genital mucosa that a vaginal microbicide preparation containing GML caused cell death and disruption of the epithelial barrier at concentrations near its active in vivo concentration, which may actually increase the possibility of infection by such organisms as HIV-1.32

GML has shown in vitro antifungal activity to Candida albicans in biofilms.33 There is also both in vitro and in vivo evidence in women that intravaginal gels containing GML reduce counts of several Candida species and Gardnerella vaginalis, although control gels also reduce G. vaginalis counts. Neither of these gels affects Lactobacillus counts or alters vaginal pH.34

Some evidence exists for possible intravaginal and intraoral—that is, topical—antimicrobial applications for GML clinically in humans, but is there any evidence for internal, including dietary or supplemental, clinical benefits? One study using an in vivo subcutaneous rabbit model has shown that GML is bacteriocidal to S. aureus and decreases TSST-1 production.21 It has also been established that the lipid fraction of stomach aspirates from premature infants 1 hour after feeding with human milk or standard cow-milk infant formulas reduces counts of S. epidermidis, Escherichia coli, HSV-1, and vesicular stomatitis virus.35 All these milks contain about 40% to 50% medium-chain triglycerides, but they were not analyzed for individual fatty-acid content. It was shown that lipase activity is necessary for this effect, indicating that it was fatty acids that were the active microbicidal agents. Although this evidence points to the antimicrobial activity of a variety of ingested lipids, it does show that these retain their antimicrobial activity in the digestive tract, at least to the level of the stomach. Because GML is found in human milk, one could infer that it was most likely present in the milks and as a degradation fatty-acid product in the stomach.

One small in vivo study was found that directly addresses the microbicidal action of GML when administered orally through a feeding tube directly into the stomach. Mice weighing 20 g were infected with S. aureus at 5 times the median lethal dose. Fifty percent (4 of 8) of the animals survived for 30 days after receiving a daily gavage of 3.2 mg of GML for 10 days.24 The same number (4 of 8) survived who received the antibiotic vancomycin. No animal in either the untreated group (0 of 8) or the olive oil–only control group (0 of 8) survived for 30 days. A similar dosage of GML adjusted for a 70-kg human would be about 11 g.

There are a variety of other effects that may have clinical implication for GML. Topically, it is a spermicide, reducing both the motility and viability of sperm in the vaginal tract.28,35 Unfortunately, therapeutic indices comparing polarized epithelial cell toxicity with sperm toxicity for several surfactants, including GML, in vitro do not justify their use as contraceptive agents.36 There is in vitro evidence that GML has a dose-dependent effect on T-lymphocyte activation and proliferation, which may suggest its use in immune system support. 37 On the other hand, it appears that human serum albumin, one of the most abundant proteins in human blood, potently reverses the suppression of human T-lymphocytes by GML in vitro.38 In mice with peritoneally implanted tumor cells of Ehrlich carcinoma, injected GML saline solutions inhibit tumor growth.39

We could find no peer-reviewed evidence regarding human clinical applications, therapeutic dosages, bioavailability, efficacy, or safety of GML as a dietary supplement other than the “generally recognized as safe” status granted by the FDA.

Limitations

Because there were not very many studies addressing the clinical use of GML, and none of these are human clinical trials using GML as a nutritional supplement, the present study was a narrative, not a systematic, review. Standard systematic review protocols were used as much as possible given the nature of the literature, but they could not be strictly followed. It is therefore possible that salient studies were missed. This is unlikely, though, because commercial enterprises vending GML as a dietary supplement are highly motivated to support their product with peer-reviewed research.

Conclusion

There are only 3 peer-reviewed articles showing evidence for in vivo antimicrobial effects of GML in humans, and these were only for intravaginal (tampon) and intraoral (mouthwash)—that is, topical—use. No peer-reviewed evidence for the human clinical use of GML as a dietary supplement was found, other than as an ester of a medium-chain fatty acid. Given the large amount of anecdotal evidence that supplemental GML in the diet can have many positive clinical effects, there appears to be a critical need for the scientific community to address these claims.

Funding Sources and Conflicts of Interest

No funding sources or conflicts of interest were reported for this study.

Contributorship Information

Concept development (provided idea for the research): L.A.B.

Design (planned the methods to generate the results): L. A.B., B.W.B., C.C.

Supervision (provided oversight, responsible for organization and implementation, writing of the manuscript): B.W.B.

Data collection/processing (responsible for experiments, patient management, organization, or reporting data): B.W.B.

Analysis/interpretation (responsible for statistical analysis, evaluation, and presentation of the results): L.A.B., B.W.B., C.C.

Literature search (performed the literature search): B.W.B.

Writing (responsible for writing a substantive part of the manuscript): L.A.B., B.W.B.

Critical review (revised manuscript for intellectual content, this does not relate to spelling and grammar checking): L.A.B., B.W.B., C.C.

Practical Applications

  • • Although there is anecdotal evidence, we could find no peer-reviewed research regarding human clinical applications, therapeutic dosages, bioavailability, efficacy, or safety of monolaurin as a dietary supplement, other than the “generally recognized as safe” status granted by the Food and Drug Administration.

References

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Isaacs CE, Kim KS, Thormar H. Inactivation of enveloped viruses in human bodily fluids by purified lipids. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1994;724:457–464. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]14. Fu X, Feng F, Huang B. Physicochemical characterization and evaluation of a microemulsion system for antimicrobial activity of glycerol monolaurate. Int J Pharm. 2006;321(1-2):171–175. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]15. Ali MA, Noguchi S, Iwao Y, Oka T, Itai S. Preparation and characterization of SN-38-encapsulated phytantriol cubosomes containing α-monoglyceride additives. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) 2016;64(6):577–584. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]16. Flanagan JL, Khandekar N, Zhu H, Watanabe K, Markoulli M, Flanagan JT, Papas E. Glycerol monolaurate inhibits lipase production by clinical ocular isolates without affecting bacterial cell viability. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2016;57(2):544–550. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]17. Mueller EA, Schlievert PM. Non-aqueous glycerol monolaurate gel exhibits antibacterial and anti-biofilm activity against gram-positive and gram-negative pathogens. PLoS One. 2015;10(3) [PMC free article] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]18. Hess DJ, Henry-Stanley MJ, Wells CL. The natural surfactant glycerol monolaurate significantly reduces development of Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis biofilms. Surg Infect (Larchmt) 2015;16(5):538–542. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]19. Strandberg KL, Peterson ML, Schaefers MM, Case LC, Pack MC, Chase DJ, Schlievert PM. Reduction in Staphylococcus aureus growth and exotoxin production and in vaginal interleukin 8 levels due to glycerol monolaurate in tampons. Clin Infect Dis. 2009;49(11):1711–1717. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]20. Schlievert PM, Deringer JR, Kim MH, Projan SJ, Novick RP. Effect of glycerol monolaurate on bacterial growth and toxin production. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1992;36(3):626–631. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]21. Lin Y-C, Schlievert PM, Anderson MJ, Fair CL, Schaefers MM, Muthyala R, Peterson ML. Glycerol monolaurate and dodecylglycerol effects on Staphylococcus aureus and toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 in vitro and in vivo. PLoS One. 2009;4(10):e7499. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]22. Peterson ML, Schlievert PM. Glycerol monolaurate inhibits the effects of gram-positive select agents on eukaryotic cells. Biochemistry. 2006;45(7):2387–2397. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]23. Schlievert PM, Merriman JA, Salgado-Pabόn W. Menaquinine analogs inhibit growth of bacterial pathogens. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2013;57(11):5432–5437. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]24. Preuss HG, Echard B, Dadgar A. Effects of essential oils and monolaurin on Staphylococcus aureus: in vitro and in vivo studies. Toxicol Mech Methods. 2005;15(4):279–285. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]25. Umerska A, Cassisa V, Bastiat G. Synergistic interactions between antimicrobial peptides derived from plectasin and lipid nanocapsules containing monolaurin as a cosurfactant against Staphylococcus aureus. Int J Nanomedicine. 2017;12:5687–5699. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]26. Goc A, Niedzwiecki A, Rath M. Reciprocal cooperation of phytochemicals and micronutrients against typical and atypical forms of Borrelia sp. J Appl Microbiol. 2017;123(3):637–650. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]27. Wang XM, Yee KC, Hazeki-Taylor N, Li J, Fu HY, Huang ML, Zhang GY. Oral Helicobacter pylori, its relationship to successful eradication of gastric H. pylori and saliva culture confirmation. J Physiol Pharmacol. 2014;65(4):559–566. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]28. Ball C, Krogstad E, Chaowanachan T, Woodrow KA. Drug-eluting fibers for HIV-1 inhibition and contraception. PLoS One. 2012;7(11):e49792. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]29. Haase AT, Rakasz E, Schultz-Darken N. Glycerol monolaurate microbicide protection against repeat high-dose SIV vaginal challenge. PLoS One. 2015;10(6) [PMC free article] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]30. Moench TR, Mumper RJ, Hoen TE, Sun M, Cone RA. Microbicide excipients can greatly increase susceptibility to genital herpes transmission in the mouse. BMC Infect Dis. 2010;10(1):331. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]31. Kirtane AR, Rothenberger MK, Frieberg A. Evaluation of vaginal drug levels and safety of a locally administered glycerol monolaurate cream in rhesus macaques. J Pharm Sci. 2017;106(7):1821–1827. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]32. Gali Y, Delezay O, Brouwers J. In vitro evaluation of viability, integrity, and inflammation in genital epithelia upon exposure to pharmaceutical excipients and candidate microbicides. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2010;54(12):5105–5114. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]33. Lopes LQS, Santos CG, Vaucher RdA, Raffin RP, Santos RCV. Nanocapsules with glycerol monolaurate: effects on Candida albicans biofilms. Microb Pathog. 2016;97:119–124. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]34. Strandberg KL, Peterson ML, Lin Y-C, Pack MC, Chase DJ, Schlievert PM. Glycerol monolaurate inhibits Candida and Gardnerella vaginalis in vitro and in vivo but not Lactobacillus. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2010;54(2):597–601. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]35. Isaacs CE, Kashyap S, Heird WC, Thormar H. Antiviral and antibacterial lipids in human milk and infant formula feeds. Arch Dis Child. 1990;65(8):861–864. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]36. Inácio ÂS, Mesquita KA, Baptista M, Ramalho-Santos J, Vaz WLC, Viera OV. In vitro surfactant structure-toxicity relationships: implications for surfactant use in sexually transmitted infection prophylaxis and contraception. PLoS One. 2011;6(5):e19850. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]37. Witcher KJ, Novick RP, Schlievert PM. Modulation of immune cell proliferation by glycerol monolaurate. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol. 1996;3(1):10–13. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]38. Zhang MS, Houtman JCD. Human serum albumin (HSA) suppresses the effects of glycerol monolaurate (GML) on human T cell activation and function. PLoS One. 2016;11(10) [PMC free article] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]39. Kato A, Ando K, Suzuki S, Tamura G, Arima K. Antitumor activity of monoglycerides and other esters of fatty acids. J Antibiot (Tokyo) 1969;22(2):83–84. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

A Review of the Literature

J Chiropr Med. 2019 Dec; 18(4): 305–310.

, DC,a, DC, PhD,b, and , DCc

Lisa A. Barker

aHartsburg Chiropractic Health Center, Danbury, Connecticut

Barclay W. Bakkum

bIllinois College of Optometry, Chicago, Illinois

Cynthia Chapman

cOccoquan Family Chiropractic, Occoquan, Virginia

aHartsburg Chiropractic Health Center, Danbury, Connecticut

bIllinois College of Optometry, Chicago, Illinois

cOccoquan Family Chiropractic, Occoquan, Virginia

Corresponding author: Barclay W. Bakkum, DC, PhD, Illinois College of Optometry, 3241 South Michigan Avenue, Chicago, IL 60616 [email protected]

Received 2018 Aug 28; Revised 2019 Jan 23; Accepted 2019 Feb 20.

Copyright © 2020 by National University of Health Sciences.This article has been cited by other articles in PMC.

Abstract

Objective

The purpose of this study was to determine what the peer-reviewed literature says about the clinical applications, therapeutic dosages, bioavailability, efficacy, and safety of monolaurin as a dietary supplement.

Methods

This was a narrative review using the PubMed database and the terms “monolaurin” and its chemical synonyms. Commercial websites that sell monolaurin were also searched for pertinent references. The reference sections of the newer articles were searched for any other relevant articles. Consensus was reached among the authors as to what articles had clinical relevance.

Results

Twenty-eight articles were found that appeared to address the clinical use of monolaurin.

Conclusion

There are many articles that address the antimicrobial effects of monolaurin in vitro. Only 3 peer-reviewed papers that evidence in vivo antimicrobial effects of monolaurin in humans were located, and these were only for intravaginal and intraoral—that is, topical—use. No peer-reviewed evidence was found for the clinical use of monolaurin as a human dietary supplement other than as a nutrient.

Key Indexing Terms: Anti-Bacterial Agents, Antiviral Agents

Introduction

Monolaurin first became available as a nutritional formulation in the mid-1960s and today is sold worldwide as a nutritional supplement that is touted as a support for immune system function, healthy balance of intestinal flora, and beneficial levels of yeast.1 Its use has been associated with a variety of disorders, including the common cold, influenza, swine flu, herpes simplex, shingles, and chronic fatigue syndrome.2

Monolaurin—very commonly known by 1 of its chemical names, glycerol monolaurate (GML)—is the monoester formed from glycerol and lauric acid. Lauric acid is a naturally occurring 12-carbon medium-chain saturated fatty acid. The richest dietary source of GML is coconut oil.3 GML is also found in human breast milk4 and palm kernel oil.5 Although the body can convert lauric acid into GML by enzymatic activity, it is not known how much this process actually occurs in vivo.6

Because GML is a surfactant, it has been used for decades as a dispersant and emulsifier in the cosmetics industry and as a food additive in the food industry, acting as an emulsifier and preservative.7 The antimicrobial activity of fatty acids and their esters is well known, with chain length, unsaturation (cis, trans), and functional groups all being variables that affect this activity.8 This antimicrobial activity appears mainly to be by disruption of lipid bilayers.9 GML is 1 of the more potent of these antimicrobial agents, being up to 200 times more effectual than lauric acid in bactericidal activity against certain microbes in in vitro studies.10 It may have been this potent antimicrobial activity that led some to explore its potential clinical use as a nutritional supplement.

Some supplement companies and health practitioners recommend gradually increasing the oral daily adult dose up to 1 to 5 grams of GML (less in children).11,12 One vendor, quoted by several commercial websites, endorses up to 9 g of GML daily as an adult maintenance dose.1 The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has granted GML the status of generally recognized as safe13 but has published no standard dosing guidelines.6 The stability14 and solubility15 of GML are low in an aqueous environment, and the FDA has stated that topical application of GML is safe up to concentrations of 100 mg/mL.16

There seems to be a fairly large amount of anecdotal reporting that GML as a dietary supplement has a range of positive applications for human health and disease prevention.1,2 The purpose of this study was to determine what evidence there is in the peer-reviewed literature about the clinical applications, therapeutic dosages, bioavailability, efficacy, and safety of GML as a dietary supplement.

Methods

This was a narrative review. Use of review protocols was somewhat limited by the nature of the GML literature. We performed a Boolean search of PubMed (from the beginning of its indexing through April 2018) using the following terms: monolaurin OR glycerol monolaurate OR glyceryl laurate OR 1-lauroyl-glycerol. From this list of citations, the authors individually reviewed the associated abstracts for clinical relevance—that is, whether they contained information related to the clinical applications, therapeutic dosages, bioavailability, efficacy, or safety of GML as a dietary supplement—and then, after discussion, came to consensus on which of these references had such clinical relevance. The full articles for these abstracts were obtained. The reference sections of newer articles were searched for any other pertinent articles. Also, commercial websites that sell GML as a dietary supplement were searched for articles that they cited as evidence for the use of GML. Consensus was reached among the authors as to which articles would be included. Only articles in English were used for this study. Given the paucity of articles and total lack of human clinical trials, no research designs were excluded. There was no quality assessment used, since most of the studies were very simple, straightforward, basic research designs. No clinical entities were excluded.

Results

The PubMed search yielded 190 articles, none of which were human clinical trials using GML as a nutritional supplement. Many of the citations dealt with food preparation or storage issues. After reviewing the abstracts of all 190 articles and searching the reference sections of newer citations and commercial websites for further articles and eliminating duplicates, the authors reached consensus on 28 sources that seemed to address either clinical uses of GML or issues that could have clinical implications.4,8,10,14,16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39

Discussion

The antibacterial activity of GML in vitro is well documented. In broths, a nutrient-rich substrate inoculated with pathogens, GML is effective against a wide range of gram-positive, gram-negative, and acid-fast organisms ().8,10,17 The effectiveness is influenced by pH, temperature, the biochemical nature of the fatty acid, and any binding agent.8,10 On the other hand, several other commonly pathogenic gram-negative strains of bacteria do not appear to be affected by GML ().10

Table 1

Antibacterial Activity of Monolaurin (Glycerol Monolaurate)

Bacterium Gram or Other Stain
Staphylococcus aureus Positive
Streptococcus pyogenes Positive
Streptococcus agalactiae Positive
Group C Streptococcus Positive
Group F Streptococcus Positive
Group G Streptococcus Positive
Streptococcus suis Positive
Streptococcus sanguinis Positive
Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 3 Positive
Enterococcus faecalis Positive
Listeria monocytogenes Positive
Bacillus anthracis Sterne Positive
Bacillus cereus Positive
Peptostreptococcus species Positive
Clostridium perfringens Positive
Neisseria gonorrhoeae Negative
Haemophilus influenzae nontypeable Negative
Gardnerella vaginalis Negative
Campylobacter jejuni Negative
Bordetella bronchiseptica Negative
Burkholderia cenocepacia Negative
Pasteurella multocida Negative
Prevotella melaninogenica Negative
Bacteroides fragilis Negative
Fusobacterium species Negative
Pseudomonas aeruginosa Negative
Acinetobacter baumannii Negative
Mycobacterium phlei Acid fast
Mycobacterium tuberculosis Acid fast
Mycoplasma hominis Cell-wall deficient

Table 2

Bacteria Not Susceptible to Monolaurin (Glycerol Monolaurate)

Bacterium Gram Stain
Escherichia coli Negative
Salmonella minnesota Negative
Klebsiella aerogenes Negative
Proteus vulgaris Negative
Shigella sonnei Negative
Klebsiella pneumoniae Negative

GML is also effective against several bacterial biofilms, including those produced by Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Acinetobacter baumannii.10,17,18 Surgical incisions in rabbits inoculated with S. aureus, P. aeruginosa, or A. baumannii were painted with a carrier gel alone or with GML. The GML gel reduced the bacterial count measured in colony-forming units and the inflammatory redness at the infected site compared to carrier gel alone.17 In women, tampons with GML have been shown to reduce vaginal S. aureus colony-forming units compared to tampons without GML.19 And it has been shown that GML loaded in a microemulsion has enhanced antimicrobial activity compared to GML alone.14

At concentrations below those that are bacteriocidal, GML can inhibit the production and the effects of several gram-positive bacterial toxins in vitro. These include staphylococcal enterotoxins, toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 (TSST-1), anthrax toxin, and several hemolysins.20, 21 Intravaginal application of GML in an in vivo rabbit model decreases the lethality of TSST-1 apparently by stabilizing the host cell membranes and blocking signal transduction.22 In women, tampons with GML reduce vaginal TSST-1 and production of the cytokine interleukin-8 compared with tampons without GML.19 GML can furthermore inhibit lipase production by S. aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis at concentrations that do not adversely affect the growth of these commensal ocular bacteria in an in vitro model.16

GML appears to increase the effectiveness of certain other antibacterial agents in vitro. For example, the addition of GML to menaquinone analogues,23 ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA),10 and origanum oil24 appears to enhance their ability to inhibit the growth of S. aureus. Incorporation of AP114 and AP138, antimicrobial peptides derived from plectasin, into monolaurin-lipid nanocapsules has displayed synergistic effects against S. aureus, including methicillin-resistant S. aureus.25 Likewise, the combination of GML and cis-2-decenoic acid expresses synergistic antispirochetal (Borrelia sp) effects, including on biofilms.26 In a human in vivo study, rinsing with a mouthwash containing lysine and GML decreases oral Helicobacter pylori infection better than the traditional treatment of teeth cleaning.27 This increased the success rate of eradication of a concurrent gastric H. pylori infection in the population studied.

There are in vitro studies that have shown that GML has antiviral activity against HIV-1, herpes simplex virus (HSV)–2,28 and cytomegalovirus, but not human rhinovirus 2.4 An in vivo monkey study has shown that daily use of intravaginal GML protected against occult infection from repeated high doses of simian immunodeficiency virus, the rhesus macaque model of HIV-1.29 Intravaginal GML appears to increase susceptibility to HSV-2 in a mouse model,30 but these findings may be inconclusive for a human model, as epithelial thickness differs.28 A vaginal cream with up to 35% GML has no effect on vaginal flora and cytokine (MIP-3 and IL-8P) levels in rhesus macaques.31 On the other hand, it has been shown in an in vitro model of the female primate genital mucosa that a vaginal microbicide preparation containing GML caused cell death and disruption of the epithelial barrier at concentrations near its active in vivo concentration, which may actually increase the possibility of infection by such organisms as HIV-1.32

GML has shown in vitro antifungal activity to Candida albicans in biofilms.33 There is also both in vitro and in vivo evidence in women that intravaginal gels containing GML reduce counts of several Candida species and Gardnerella vaginalis, although control gels also reduce G. vaginalis counts. Neither of these gels affects Lactobacillus counts or alters vaginal pH.34

Some evidence exists for possible intravaginal and intraoral—that is, topical—antimicrobial applications for GML clinically in humans, but is there any evidence for internal, including dietary or supplemental, clinical benefits? One study using an in vivo subcutaneous rabbit model has shown that GML is bacteriocidal to S. aureus and decreases TSST-1 production.21 It has also been established that the lipid fraction of stomach aspirates from premature infants 1 hour after feeding with human milk or standard cow-milk infant formulas reduces counts of S. epidermidis, Escherichia coli, HSV-1, and vesicular stomatitis virus.35 All these milks contain about 40% to 50% medium-chain triglycerides, but they were not analyzed for individual fatty-acid content. It was shown that lipase activity is necessary for this effect, indicating that it was fatty acids that were the active microbicidal agents. Although this evidence points to the antimicrobial activity of a variety of ingested lipids, it does show that these retain their antimicrobial activity in the digestive tract, at least to the level of the stomach. Because GML is found in human milk, one could infer that it was most likely present in the milks and as a degradation fatty-acid product in the stomach.

One small in vivo study was found that directly addresses the microbicidal action of GML when administered orally through a feeding tube directly into the stomach. Mice weighing 20 g were infected with S. aureus at 5 times the median lethal dose. Fifty percent (4 of 8) of the animals survived for 30 days after receiving a daily gavage of 3.2 mg of GML for 10 days.24 The same number (4 of 8) survived who received the antibiotic vancomycin. No animal in either the untreated group (0 of 8) or the olive oil–only control group (0 of 8) survived for 30 days. A similar dosage of GML adjusted for a 70-kg human would be about 11 g.

There are a variety of other effects that may have clinical implication for GML. Topically, it is a spermicide, reducing both the motility and viability of sperm in the vaginal tract.28,35 Unfortunately, therapeutic indices comparing polarized epithelial cell toxicity with sperm toxicity for several surfactants, including GML, in vitro do not justify their use as contraceptive agents.36 There is in vitro evidence that GML has a dose-dependent effect on T-lymphocyte activation and proliferation, which may suggest its use in immune system support.37 On the other hand, it appears that human serum albumin, one of the most abundant proteins in human blood, potently reverses the suppression of human T-lymphocytes by GML in vitro.38 In mice with peritoneally implanted tumor cells of Ehrlich carcinoma, injected GML saline solutions inhibit tumor growth.39

We could find no peer-reviewed evidence regarding human clinical applications, therapeutic dosages, bioavailability, efficacy, or safety of GML as a dietary supplement other than the “generally recognized as safe” status granted by the FDA.

Limitations

Because there were not very many studies addressing the clinical use of GML, and none of these are human clinical trials using GML as a nutritional supplement, the present study was a narrative, not a systematic, review. Standard systematic review protocols were used as much as possible given the nature of the literature, but they could not be strictly followed. It is therefore possible that salient studies were missed. This is unlikely, though, because commercial enterprises vending GML as a dietary supplement are highly motivated to support their product with peer-reviewed research.

Conclusion

There are only 3 peer-reviewed articles showing evidence for in vivo antimicrobial effects of GML in humans, and these were only for intravaginal (tampon) and intraoral (mouthwash)—that is, topical—use. No peer-reviewed evidence for the human clinical use of GML as a dietary supplement was found, other than as an ester of a medium-chain fatty acid. Given the large amount of anecdotal evidence that supplemental GML in the diet can have many positive clinical effects, there appears to be a critical need for the scientific community to address these claims.

Funding Sources and Conflicts of Interest

No funding sources or conflicts of interest were reported for this study.

Contributorship Information

Concept development (provided idea for the research): L.A.B.

Design (planned the methods to generate the results): L.A.B., B.W.B., C.C.

Supervision (provided oversight, responsible for organization and implementation, writing of the manuscript): B.W.B.

Data collection/processing (responsible for experiments, patient management, organization, or reporting data): B.W.B.

Analysis/interpretation (responsible for statistical analysis, evaluation, and presentation of the results): L.A.B., B.W.B., C.C.

Literature search (performed the literature search): B.W.B.

Writing (responsible for writing a substantive part of the manuscript): L.A.B., B.W.B.

Critical review (revised manuscript for intellectual content, this does not relate to spelling and grammar checking): L.A.B., B.W.B., C.C.

Practical Applications

  • • Although there is anecdotal evidence, we could find no peer-reviewed research regarding human clinical applications, therapeutic dosages, bioavailability, efficacy, or safety of monolaurin as a dietary supplement, other than the “generally recognized as safe” status granted by the Food and Drug Administration.

References

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Lin Y-C, Schlievert PM, Anderson MJ, Fair CL, Schaefers MM, Muthyala R, Peterson ML. Glycerol monolaurate and dodecylglycerol effects on Staphylococcus aureus and toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 in vitro and in vivo. PLoS One. 2009;4(10):e7499. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]22. Peterson ML, Schlievert PM. Glycerol monolaurate inhibits the effects of gram-positive select agents on eukaryotic cells. Biochemistry. 2006;45(7):2387–2397. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]23. Schlievert PM, Merriman JA, Salgado-Pabόn W. Menaquinine analogs inhibit growth of bacterial pathogens. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2013;57(11):5432–5437. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]24. Preuss HG, Echard B, Dadgar A. Effects of essential oils and monolaurin on Staphylococcus aureus: in vitro and in vivo studies. Toxicol Mech Methods. 2005;15(4):279–285. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]25. Umerska A, Cassisa V, Bastiat G. Synergistic interactions between antimicrobial peptides derived from plectasin and lipid nanocapsules containing monolaurin as a cosurfactant against Staphylococcus aureus. Int J Nanomedicine. 2017;12:5687–5699. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]26. Goc A, Niedzwiecki A, Rath M. Reciprocal cooperation of phytochemicals and micronutrients against typical and atypical forms of Borrelia sp. J Appl Microbiol. 2017;123(3):637–650. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]27. Wang XM, Yee KC, Hazeki-Taylor N, Li J, Fu HY, Huang ML, Zhang GY. Oral Helicobacter pylori, its relationship to successful eradication of gastric H. pylori and saliva culture confirmation. J Physiol Pharmacol. 2014;65(4):559–566. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]28. Ball C, Krogstad E, Chaowanachan T, Woodrow KA. Drug-eluting fibers for HIV-1 inhibition and contraception. PLoS One. 2012;7(11):e49792. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]29. Haase AT, Rakasz E, Schultz-Darken N. Glycerol monolaurate microbicide protection against repeat high-dose SIV vaginal challenge. PLoS One. 2015;10(6) [PMC free article] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]30. Moench TR, Mumper RJ, Hoen TE, Sun M, Cone RA. Microbicide excipients can greatly increase susceptibility to genital herpes transmission in the mouse. BMC Infect Dis. 2010;10(1):331. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]31. Kirtane AR, Rothenberger MK, Frieberg A. Evaluation of vaginal drug levels and safety of a locally administered glycerol monolaurate cream in rhesus macaques. J Pharm Sci. 2017;106(7):1821–1827. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]32. Gali Y, Delezay O, Brouwers J. In vitro evaluation of viability, integrity, and inflammation in genital epithelia upon exposure to pharmaceutical excipients and candidate microbicides. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2010;54(12):5105–5114. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]33. Lopes LQS, Santos CG, Vaucher RdA, Raffin RP, Santos RCV. Nanocapsules with glycerol monolaurate: effects on Candida albicans biofilms. Microb Pathog. 2016;97:119–124. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]34. Strandberg KL, Peterson ML, Lin Y-C, Pack MC, Chase DJ, Schlievert PM. Glycerol monolaurate inhibits Candida and Gardnerella vaginalis in vitro and in vivo but not Lactobacillus. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2010;54(2):597–601. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]35. Isaacs CE, Kashyap S, Heird WC, Thormar H. Antiviral and antibacterial lipids in human milk and infant formula feeds. Arch Dis Child. 1990;65(8):861–864. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]36. Inácio ÂS, Mesquita KA, Baptista M, Ramalho-Santos J, Vaz WLC, Viera OV. In vitro surfactant structure-toxicity relationships: implications for surfactant use in sexually transmitted infection prophylaxis and contraception. PLoS One. 2011;6(5):e19850. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]37. Witcher KJ, Novick RP, Schlievert PM. Modulation of immune cell proliferation by glycerol monolaurate. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol. 1996;3(1):10–13. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]38. Zhang MS, Houtman JCD. Human serum albumin (HSA) suppresses the effects of glycerol monolaurate (GML) on human T cell activation and function. PLoS One. 2016;11(10) [PMC free article] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]39. Kato A, Ando K, Suzuki S, Tamura G, Arima K. Antitumor activity of monoglycerides and other esters of fatty acids. J Antibiot (Tokyo) 1969;22(2):83–84. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

A Review of the Literature

J Chiropr Med. 2019 Dec; 18(4): 305–310.

, DC,a, DC, PhD,b, and , DCc

Lisa A. Barker

aHartsburg Chiropractic Health Center, Danbury, Connecticut

Barclay W. Bakkum

bIllinois College of Optometry, Chicago, Illinois

Cynthia Chapman

cOccoquan Family Chiropractic, Occoquan, Virginia

aHartsburg Chiropractic Health Center, Danbury, Connecticut

bIllinois College of Optometry, Chicago, Illinois

cOccoquan Family Chiropractic, Occoquan, Virginia

Corresponding author: Barclay W. Bakkum, DC, PhD, Illinois College of Optometry, 3241 South Michigan Avenue, Chicago, IL 60616 [email protected]

Received 2018 Aug 28; Revised 2019 Jan 23; Accepted 2019 Feb 20.

Copyright © 2020 by National University of Health Sciences.This article has been cited by other articles in PMC.

Abstract

Objective

The purpose of this study was to determine what the peer-reviewed literature says about the clinical applications, therapeutic dosages, bioavailability, efficacy, and safety of monolaurin as a dietary supplement.

Methods

This was a narrative review using the PubMed database and the terms “monolaurin” and its chemical synonyms. Commercial websites that sell monolaurin were also searched for pertinent references. The reference sections of the newer articles were searched for any other relevant articles. Consensus was reached among the authors as to what articles had clinical relevance.

Results

Twenty-eight articles were found that appeared to address the clinical use of monolaurin.

Conclusion

There are many articles that address the antimicrobial effects of monolaurin in vitro. Only 3 peer-reviewed papers that evidence in vivo antimicrobial effects of monolaurin in humans were located, and these were only for intravaginal and intraoral—that is, topical—use. No peer-reviewed evidence was found for the clinical use of monolaurin as a human dietary supplement other than as a nutrient.

Key Indexing Terms: Anti-Bacterial Agents, Antiviral Agents

Introduction

Monolaurin first became available as a nutritional formulation in the mid-1960s and today is sold worldwide as a nutritional supplement that is touted as a support for immune system function, healthy balance of intestinal flora, and beneficial levels of yeast.1 Its use has been associated with a variety of disorders, including the common cold, influenza, swine flu, herpes simplex, shingles, and chronic fatigue syndrome.2

Monolaurin—very commonly known by 1 of its chemical names, glycerol monolaurate (GML)—is the monoester formed from glycerol and lauric acid. Lauric acid is a naturally occurring 12-carbon medium-chain saturated fatty acid. The richest dietary source of GML is coconut oil.3 GML is also found in human breast milk4 and palm kernel oil.5 Although the body can convert lauric acid into GML by enzymatic activity, it is not known how much this process actually occurs in vivo.6

Because GML is a surfactant, it has been used for decades as a dispersant and emulsifier in the cosmetics industry and as a food additive in the food industry, acting as an emulsifier and preservative.7 The antimicrobial activity of fatty acids and their esters is well known, with chain length, unsaturation (cis, trans), and functional groups all being variables that affect this activity.8 This antimicrobial activity appears mainly to be by disruption of lipid bilayers.9 GML is 1 of the more potent of these antimicrobial agents, being up to 200 times more effectual than lauric acid in bactericidal activity against certain microbes in in vitro studies.10 It may have been this potent antimicrobial activity that led some to explore its potential clinical use as a nutritional supplement.

Some supplement companies and health practitioners recommend gradually increasing the oral daily adult dose up to 1 to 5 grams of GML (less in children).11,12 One vendor, quoted by several commercial websites, endorses up to 9 g of GML daily as an adult maintenance dose.1 The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has granted GML the status of generally recognized as safe13 but has published no standard dosing guidelines.6 The stability14 and solubility15 of GML are low in an aqueous environment, and the FDA has stated that topical application of GML is safe up to concentrations of 100 mg/mL.16

There seems to be a fairly large amount of anecdotal reporting that GML as a dietary supplement has a range of positive applications for human health and disease prevention.1,2 The purpose of this study was to determine what evidence there is in the peer-reviewed literature about the clinical applications, therapeutic dosages, bioavailability, efficacy, and safety of GML as a dietary supplement.

Methods

This was a narrative review. Use of review protocols was somewhat limited by the nature of the GML literature. We performed a Boolean search of PubMed (from the beginning of its indexing through April 2018) using the following terms: monolaurin OR glycerol monolaurate OR glyceryl laurate OR 1-lauroyl-glycerol. From this list of citations, the authors individually reviewed the associated abstracts for clinical relevance—that is, whether they contained information related to the clinical applications, therapeutic dosages, bioavailability, efficacy, or safety of GML as a dietary supplement—and then, after discussion, came to consensus on which of these references had such clinical relevance. The full articles for these abstracts were obtained. The reference sections of newer articles were searched for any other pertinent articles. Also, commercial websites that sell GML as a dietary supplement were searched for articles that they cited as evidence for the use of GML. Consensus was reached among the authors as to which articles would be included. Only articles in English were used for this study. Given the paucity of articles and total lack of human clinical trials, no research designs were excluded. There was no quality assessment used, since most of the studies were very simple, straightforward, basic research designs. No clinical entities were excluded.

Results

The PubMed search yielded 190 articles, none of which were human clinical trials using GML as a nutritional supplement. Many of the citations dealt with food preparation or storage issues. After reviewing the abstracts of all 190 articles and searching the reference sections of newer citations and commercial websites for further articles and eliminating duplicates, the authors reached consensus on 28 sources that seemed to address either clinical uses of GML or issues that could have clinical implications.4,8,10,14,16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39

Discussion

The antibacterial activity of GML in vitro is well documented. In broths, a nutrient-rich substrate inoculated with pathogens, GML is effective against a wide range of gram-positive, gram-negative, and acid-fast organisms ().8,10,17 The effectiveness is influenced by pH, temperature, the biochemical nature of the fatty acid, and any binding agent.8,10 On the other hand, several other commonly pathogenic gram-negative strains of bacteria do not appear to be affected by GML ().10

Table 1

Antibacterial Activity of Monolaurin (Glycerol Monolaurate)

Bacterium Gram or Other Stain
Staphylococcus aureus Positive
Streptococcus pyogenes Positive
Streptococcus agalactiae Positive
Group C Streptococcus Positive
Group F Streptococcus Positive
Group G Streptococcus Positive
Streptococcus suis Positive
Streptococcus sanguinis Positive
Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 3 Positive
Enterococcus faecalis Positive
Listeria monocytogenes Positive
Bacillus anthracis Sterne Positive
Bacillus cereus Positive
Peptostreptococcus species Positive
Clostridium perfringens Positive
Neisseria gonorrhoeae Negative
Haemophilus influenzae nontypeable Negative
Gardnerella vaginalis Negative
Campylobacter jejuni Negative
Bordetella bronchiseptica Negative
Burkholderia cenocepacia Negative
Pasteurella multocida Negative
Prevotella melaninogenica Negative
Bacteroides fragilis Negative
Fusobacterium species Negative
Pseudomonas aeruginosa Negative
Acinetobacter baumannii Negative
Mycobacterium phlei Acid fast
Mycobacterium tuberculosis Acid fast
Mycoplasma hominis Cell-wall deficient

Table 2

Bacteria Not Susceptible to Monolaurin (Glycerol Monolaurate)

Bacterium Gram Stain
Escherichia coli Negative
Salmonella minnesota Negative
Klebsiella aerogenes Negative
Proteus vulgaris Negative
Shigella sonnei Negative
Klebsiella pneumoniae Negative

GML is also effective against several bacterial biofilms, including those produced by Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Acinetobacter baumannii.10,17,18 Surgical incisions in rabbits inoculated with S. aureus, P. aeruginosa, or A. baumannii were painted with a carrier gel alone or with GML. The GML gel reduced the bacterial count measured in colony-forming units and the inflammatory redness at the infected site compared to carrier gel alone.17 In women, tampons with GML have been shown to reduce vaginal S. aureus colony-forming units compared to tampons without GML.19 And it has been shown that GML loaded in a microemulsion has enhanced antimicrobial activity compared to GML alone.14

At concentrations below those that are bacteriocidal, GML can inhibit the production and the effects of several gram-positive bacterial toxins in vitro. These include staphylococcal enterotoxins, toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 (TSST-1), anthrax toxin, and several hemolysins.20, 21 Intravaginal application of GML in an in vivo rabbit model decreases the lethality of TSST-1 apparently by stabilizing the host cell membranes and blocking signal transduction.22 In women, tampons with GML reduce vaginal TSST-1 and production of the cytokine interleukin-8 compared with tampons without GML.19 GML can furthermore inhibit lipase production by S. aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis at concentrations that do not adversely affect the growth of these commensal ocular bacteria in an in vitro model.16

GML appears to increase the effectiveness of certain other antibacterial agents in vitro. For example, the addition of GML to menaquinone analogues,23 ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA),10 and origanum oil24 appears to enhance their ability to inhibit the growth of S. aureus. Incorporation of AP114 and AP138, antimicrobial peptides derived from plectasin, into monolaurin-lipid nanocapsules has displayed synergistic effects against S. aureus, including methicillin-resistant S. aureus.25 Likewise, the combination of GML and cis-2-decenoic acid expresses synergistic antispirochetal (Borrelia sp) effects, including on biofilms.26 In a human in vivo study, rinsing with a mouthwash containing lysine and GML decreases oral Helicobacter pylori infection better than the traditional treatment of teeth cleaning.27 This increased the success rate of eradication of a concurrent gastric H. pylori infection in the population studied.

There are in vitro studies that have shown that GML has antiviral activity against HIV-1, herpes simplex virus (HSV)–2,28 and cytomegalovirus, but not human rhinovirus 2.4 An in vivo monkey study has shown that daily use of intravaginal GML protected against occult infection from repeated high doses of simian immunodeficiency virus, the rhesus macaque model of HIV-1.29 Intravaginal GML appears to increase susceptibility to HSV-2 in a mouse model,30 but these findings may be inconclusive for a human model, as epithelial thickness differs.28 A vaginal cream with up to 35% GML has no effect on vaginal flora and cytokine (MIP-3 and IL-8P) levels in rhesus macaques.31 On the other hand, it has been shown in an in vitro model of the female primate genital mucosa that a vaginal microbicide preparation containing GML caused cell death and disruption of the epithelial barrier at concentrations near its active in vivo concentration, which may actually increase the possibility of infection by such organisms as HIV-1.32

GML has shown in vitro antifungal activity to Candida albicans in biofilms.33 There is also both in vitro and in vivo evidence in women that intravaginal gels containing GML reduce counts of several Candida species and Gardnerella vaginalis, although control gels also reduce G. vaginalis counts. Neither of these gels affects Lactobacillus counts or alters vaginal pH.34

Some evidence exists for possible intravaginal and intraoral—that is, topical—antimicrobial applications for GML clinically in humans, but is there any evidence for internal, including dietary or supplemental, clinical benefits? One study using an in vivo subcutaneous rabbit model has shown that GML is bacteriocidal to S. aureus and decreases TSST-1 production.21 It has also been established that the lipid fraction of stomach aspirates from premature infants 1 hour after feeding with human milk or standard cow-milk infant formulas reduces counts of S. epidermidis, Escherichia coli, HSV-1, and vesicular stomatitis virus.35 All these milks contain about 40% to 50% medium-chain triglycerides, but they were not analyzed for individual fatty-acid content. It was shown that lipase activity is necessary for this effect, indicating that it was fatty acids that were the active microbicidal agents. Although this evidence points to the antimicrobial activity of a variety of ingested lipids, it does show that these retain their antimicrobial activity in the digestive tract, at least to the level of the stomach. Because GML is found in human milk, one could infer that it was most likely present in the milks and as a degradation fatty-acid product in the stomach.

One small in vivo study was found that directly addresses the microbicidal action of GML when administered orally through a feeding tube directly into the stomach. Mice weighing 20 g were infected with S. aureus at 5 times the median lethal dose. Fifty percent (4 of 8) of the animals survived for 30 days after receiving a daily gavage of 3.2 mg of GML for 10 days.24 The same number (4 of 8) survived who received the antibiotic vancomycin. No animal in either the untreated group (0 of 8) or the olive oil–only control group (0 of 8) survived for 30 days. A similar dosage of GML adjusted for a 70-kg human would be about 11 g.

There are a variety of other effects that may have clinical implication for GML. Topically, it is a spermicide, reducing both the motility and viability of sperm in the vaginal tract.28,35 Unfortunately, therapeutic indices comparing polarized epithelial cell toxicity with sperm toxicity for several surfactants, including GML, in vitro do not justify their use as contraceptive agents.36 There is in vitro evidence that GML has a dose-dependent effect on T-lymphocyte activation and proliferation, which may suggest its use in immune system support.37 On the other hand, it appears that human serum albumin, one of the most abundant proteins in human blood, potently reverses the suppression of human T-lymphocytes by GML in vitro.38 In mice with peritoneally implanted tumor cells of Ehrlich carcinoma, injected GML saline solutions inhibit tumor growth.39

We could find no peer-reviewed evidence regarding human clinical applications, therapeutic dosages, bioavailability, efficacy, or safety of GML as a dietary supplement other than the “generally recognized as safe” status granted by the FDA.

Limitations

Because there were not very many studies addressing the clinical use of GML, and none of these are human clinical trials using GML as a nutritional supplement, the present study was a narrative, not a systematic, review. Standard systematic review protocols were used as much as possible given the nature of the literature, but they could not be strictly followed. It is therefore possible that salient studies were missed. This is unlikely, though, because commercial enterprises vending GML as a dietary supplement are highly motivated to support their product with peer-reviewed research.

Conclusion

There are only 3 peer-reviewed articles showing evidence for in vivo antimicrobial effects of GML in humans, and these were only for intravaginal (tampon) and intraoral (mouthwash)—that is, topical—use. No peer-reviewed evidence for the human clinical use of GML as a dietary supplement was found, other than as an ester of a medium-chain fatty acid. Given the large amount of anecdotal evidence that supplemental GML in the diet can have many positive clinical effects, there appears to be a critical need for the scientific community to address these claims.

Funding Sources and Conflicts of Interest

No funding sources or conflicts of interest were reported for this study.

Contributorship Information

Concept development (provided idea for the research): L.A.B.

Design (planned the methods to generate the results): L.A.B., B.W.B., C.C.

Supervision (provided oversight, responsible for organization and implementation, writing of the manuscript): B.W.B.

Data collection/processing (responsible for experiments, patient management, organization, or reporting data): B.W.B.

Analysis/interpretation (responsible for statistical analysis, evaluation, and presentation of the results): L.A.B., B.W.B., C.C.

Literature search (performed the literature search): B.W.B.

Writing (responsible for writing a substantive part of the manuscript): L.A.B., B.W.B.

Critical review (revised manuscript for intellectual content, this does not relate to spelling and grammar checking): L.A.B., B.W.B., C.C.

Practical Applications

  • • Although there is anecdotal evidence, we could find no peer-reviewed research regarding human clinical applications, therapeutic dosages, bioavailability, efficacy, or safety of monolaurin as a dietary supplement, other than the “generally recognized as safe” status granted by the Food and Drug Administration.

References

3. Hegde BM. Coconut oil—ideal fat next only to mother’s milk (scanning coconut’s horoscope) J Indian Acad Clin Med. 2006;7(1):16–19. [Google Scholar]4. Clarke NM, May JT. Effect of antimicrobial factors in human milk on rhinoviruses and milk-borne cytomegalovirus in vitro. J Med Microbiol. 2000;49(8):719–723. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]5. Oo KC, Stumpf PK. Some enzymic activities in the germinating oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) seedling. Plant Physiol. 1983;73(4):1028–1032. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]6. Lieberman S, Enig MG, Preuss HG. A review of monolaurin and lauric acid. Altern Complement Ther. 2006;12(6):310–314. [Google Scholar]7. Milne GWA. Wiley; Hoboken, NJ: 2005. Gardner’s Commercially Important Chemicals: Synonyms, Trade Names, and Properties. [Google Scholar]8. Kabara JJ, Swieczkowski DM, Conley AJ, Truant JP. Fatty acids and derivatives as antimicrobial agents. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1972;2(1):23–28. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]9. Isaacs CE, Kim KS, Thormar H. Inactivation of enveloped viruses in human bodily fluids by purified lipids. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1994;724:457–464. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]14. Fu X, Feng F, Huang B. Physicochemical characterization and evaluation of a microemulsion system for antimicrobial activity of glycerol monolaurate. Int J Pharm. 2006;321(1-2):171–175. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]15. Ali MA, Noguchi S, Iwao Y, Oka T, Itai S. Preparation and characterization of SN-38-encapsulated phytantriol cubosomes containing α-monoglyceride additives. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) 2016;64(6):577–584. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]16. Flanagan JL, Khandekar N, Zhu H, Watanabe K, Markoulli M, Flanagan JT, Papas E. Glycerol monolaurate inhibits lipase production by clinical ocular isolates without affecting bacterial cell viability. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2016;57(2):544–550. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]17. Mueller EA, Schlievert PM. Non-aqueous glycerol monolaurate gel exhibits antibacterial and anti-biofilm activity against gram-positive and gram-negative pathogens. PLoS One. 2015;10(3) [PMC free article] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]18. Hess DJ, Henry-Stanley MJ, Wells CL. The natural surfactant glycerol monolaurate significantly reduces development of Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis biofilms. Surg Infect (Larchmt) 2015;16(5):538–542. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]19. Strandberg KL, Peterson ML, Schaefers MM, Case LC, Pack MC, Chase DJ, Schlievert PM. Reduction in Staphylococcus aureus growth and exotoxin production and in vaginal interleukin 8 levels due to glycerol monolaurate in tampons. Clin Infect Dis. 2009;49(11):1711–1717. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]20. Schlievert PM, Deringer JR, Kim MH, Projan SJ, Novick RP. Effect of glycerol monolaurate on bacterial growth and toxin production. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1992;36(3):626–631. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]21. Lin Y-C, Schlievert PM, Anderson MJ, Fair CL, Schaefers MM, Muthyala R, Peterson ML. Glycerol monolaurate and dodecylglycerol effects on Staphylococcus aureus and toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 in vitro and in vivo. PLoS One. 2009;4(10):e7499. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]22. Peterson ML, Schlievert PM. Glycerol monolaurate inhibits the effects of gram-positive select agents on eukaryotic cells. Biochemistry. 2006;45(7):2387–2397. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]23. Schlievert PM, Merriman JA, Salgado-Pabόn W. Menaquinine analogs inhibit growth of bacterial pathogens. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2013;57(11):5432–5437. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]24. Preuss HG, Echard B, Dadgar A. Effects of essential oils and monolaurin on Staphylococcus aureus: in vitro and in vivo studies. Toxicol Mech Methods. 2005;15(4):279–285. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]25. Umerska A, Cassisa V, Bastiat G. Synergistic interactions between antimicrobial peptides derived from plectasin and lipid nanocapsules containing monolaurin as a cosurfactant against Staphylococcus aureus. Int J Nanomedicine. 2017;12:5687–5699. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]26. Goc A, Niedzwiecki A, Rath M. Reciprocal cooperation of phytochemicals and micronutrients against typical and atypical forms of Borrelia sp. J Appl Microbiol. 2017;123(3):637–650. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]27. Wang XM, Yee KC, Hazeki-Taylor N, Li J, Fu HY, Huang ML, Zhang GY. Oral Helicobacter pylori, its relationship to successful eradication of gastric H. pylori and saliva culture confirmation. J Physiol Pharmacol. 2014;65(4):559–566. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]28. Ball C, Krogstad E, Chaowanachan T, Woodrow KA. Drug-eluting fibers for HIV-1 inhibition and contraception. PLoS One. 2012;7(11):e49792. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]29. Haase AT, Rakasz E, Schultz-Darken N. Glycerol monolaurate microbicide protection against repeat high-dose SIV vaginal challenge. PLoS One. 2015;10(6) [PMC free article] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]30. Moench TR, Mumper RJ, Hoen TE, Sun M, Cone RA. Microbicide excipients can greatly increase susceptibility to genital herpes transmission in the mouse. BMC Infect Dis. 2010;10(1):331. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]31. Kirtane AR, Rothenberger MK, Frieberg A. Evaluation of vaginal drug levels and safety of a locally administered glycerol monolaurate cream in rhesus macaques. J Pharm Sci. 2017;106(7):1821–1827. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]32. Gali Y, Delezay O, Brouwers J. In vitro evaluation of viability, integrity, and inflammation in genital epithelia upon exposure to pharmaceutical excipients and candidate microbicides. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2010;54(12):5105–5114. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]33. Lopes LQS, Santos CG, Vaucher RdA, Raffin RP, Santos RCV. Nanocapsules with glycerol monolaurate: effects on Candida albicans biofilms. Microb Pathog. 2016;97:119–124. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]34. Strandberg KL, Peterson ML, Lin Y-C, Pack MC, Chase DJ, Schlievert PM. Glycerol monolaurate inhibits Candida and Gardnerella vaginalis in vitro and in vivo but not Lactobacillus. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2010;54(2):597–601. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]35. Isaacs CE, Kashyap S, Heird WC, Thormar H. Antiviral and antibacterial lipids in human milk and infant formula feeds. Arch Dis Child. 1990;65(8):861–864. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]36. Inácio ÂS, Mesquita KA, Baptista M, Ramalho-Santos J, Vaz WLC, Viera OV. In vitro surfactant structure-toxicity relationships: implications for surfactant use in sexually transmitted infection prophylaxis and contraception. PLoS One. 2011;6(5):e19850. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]37. Witcher KJ, Novick RP, Schlievert PM. Modulation of immune cell proliferation by glycerol monolaurate. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol. 1996;3(1):10–13. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]38. Zhang MS, Houtman JCD. Human serum albumin (HSA) suppresses the effects of glycerol monolaurate (GML) on human T cell activation and function. PLoS One. 2016;11(10) [PMC free article] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]39. Kato A, Ando K, Suzuki S, Tamura G, Arima K. Antitumor activity of monoglycerides and other esters of fatty acids. J Antibiot (Tokyo) 1969;22(2):83–84. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

A Review of the Literature

J Chiropr Med. 2019 Dec; 18(4): 305–310.

, DC,a, DC, PhD,b, and , DCc

Lisa A. Barker

aHartsburg Chiropractic Health Center, Danbury, Connecticut

Barclay W. Bakkum

bIllinois College of Optometry, Chicago, Illinois

Cynthia Chapman

cOccoquan Family Chiropractic, Occoquan, Virginia

aHartsburg Chiropractic Health Center, Danbury, Connecticut

bIllinois College of Optometry, Chicago, Illinois

cOccoquan Family Chiropractic, Occoquan, Virginia

Corresponding author: Barclay W. Bakkum, DC, PhD, Illinois College of Optometry, 3241 South Michigan Avenue, Chicago, IL 60616 [email protected]

Received 2018 Aug 28; Revised 2019 Jan 23; Accepted 2019 Feb 20.

Copyright © 2020 by National University of Health Sciences.This article has been cited by other articles in PMC.

Abstract

Objective

The purpose of this study was to determine what the peer-reviewed literature says about the clinical applications, therapeutic dosages, bioavailability, efficacy, and safety of monolaurin as a dietary supplement.

Methods

This was a narrative review using the PubMed database and the terms “monolaurin” and its chemical synonyms. Commercial websites that sell monolaurin were also searched for pertinent references. The reference sections of the newer articles were searched for any other relevant articles. Consensus was reached among the authors as to what articles had clinical relevance.

Results

Twenty-eight articles were found that appeared to address the clinical use of monolaurin.

Conclusion

There are many articles that address the antimicrobial effects of monolaurin in vitro. Only 3 peer-reviewed papers that evidence in vivo antimicrobial effects of monolaurin in humans were located, and these were only for intravaginal and intraoral—that is, topical—use. No peer-reviewed evidence was found for the clinical use of monolaurin as a human dietary supplement other than as a nutrient.

Key Indexing Terms: Anti-Bacterial Agents, Antiviral Agents

Introduction

Monolaurin first became available as a nutritional formulation in the mid-1960s and today is sold worldwide as a nutritional supplement that is touted as a support for immune system function, healthy balance of intestinal flora, and beneficial levels of yeast.1 Its use has been associated with a variety of disorders, including the common cold, influenza, swine flu, herpes simplex, shingles, and chronic fatigue syndrome.2

Monolaurin—very commonly known by 1 of its chemical names, glycerol monolaurate (GML)—is the monoester formed from glycerol and lauric acid. Lauric acid is a naturally occurring 12-carbon medium-chain saturated fatty acid. The richest dietary source of GML is coconut oil.3 GML is also found in human breast milk4 and palm kernel oil.5 Although the body can convert lauric acid into GML by enzymatic activity, it is not known how much this process actually occurs in vivo.6

Because GML is a surfactant, it has been used for decades as a dispersant and emulsifier in the cosmetics industry and as a food additive in the food industry, acting as an emulsifier and preservative.7 The antimicrobial activity of fatty acids and their esters is well known, with chain length, unsaturation (cis, trans), and functional groups all being variables that affect this activity.8 This antimicrobial activity appears mainly to be by disruption of lipid bilayers.9 GML is 1 of the more potent of these antimicrobial agents, being up to 200 times more effectual than lauric acid in bactericidal activity against certain microbes in in vitro studies.10 It may have been this potent antimicrobial activity that led some to explore its potential clinical use as a nutritional supplement.

Some supplement companies and health practitioners recommend gradually increasing the oral daily adult dose up to 1 to 5 grams of GML (less in children).11,12 One vendor, quoted by several commercial websites, endorses up to 9 g of GML daily as an adult maintenance dose.1 The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has granted GML the status of generally recognized as safe13 but has published no standard dosing guidelines.6 The stability14 and solubility15 of GML are low in an aqueous environment, and the FDA has stated that topical application of GML is safe up to concentrations of 100 mg/mL.16

There seems to be a fairly large amount of anecdotal reporting that GML as a dietary supplement has a range of positive applications for human health and disease prevention.1,2 The purpose of this study was to determine what evidence there is in the peer-reviewed literature about the clinical applications, therapeutic dosages, bioavailability, efficacy, and safety of GML as a dietary supplement.

Methods

This was a narrative review. Use of review protocols was somewhat limited by the nature of the GML literature. We performed a Boolean search of PubMed (from the beginning of its indexing through April 2018) using the following terms: monolaurin OR glycerol monolaurate OR glyceryl laurate OR 1-lauroyl-glycerol. From this list of citations, the authors individually reviewed the associated abstracts for clinical relevance—that is, whether they contained information related to the clinical applications, therapeutic dosages, bioavailability, efficacy, or safety of GML as a dietary supplement—and then, after discussion, came to consensus on which of these references had such clinical relevance. The full articles for these abstracts were obtained. The reference sections of newer articles were searched for any other pertinent articles. Also, commercial websites that sell GML as a dietary supplement were searched for articles that they cited as evidence for the use of GML. Consensus was reached among the authors as to which articles would be included. Only articles in English were used for this study. Given the paucity of articles and total lack of human clinical trials, no research designs were excluded. There was no quality assessment used, since most of the studies were very simple, straightforward, basic research designs. No clinical entities were excluded.

Results

The PubMed search yielded 190 articles, none of which were human clinical trials using GML as a nutritional supplement. Many of the citations dealt with food preparation or storage issues. After reviewing the abstracts of all 190 articles and searching the reference sections of newer citations and commercial websites for further articles and eliminating duplicates, the authors reached consensus on 28 sources that seemed to address either clinical uses of GML or issues that could have clinical implications.4,8,10,14,16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39

Discussion

The antibacterial activity of GML in vitro is well documented. In broths, a nutrient-rich substrate inoculated with pathogens, GML is effective against a wide range of gram-positive, gram-negative, and acid-fast organisms ().8,10,17 The effectiveness is influenced by pH, temperature, the biochemical nature of the fatty acid, and any binding agent.8,10 On the other hand, several other commonly pathogenic gram-negative strains of bacteria do not appear to be affected by GML ().10

Table 1

Antibacterial Activity of Monolaurin (Glycerol Monolaurate)

Bacterium Gram or Other Stain
Staphylococcus aureus Positive
Streptococcus pyogenes Positive
Streptococcus agalactiae Positive
Group C Streptococcus Positive
Group F Streptococcus Positive
Group G Streptococcus Positive
Streptococcus suis Positive
Streptococcus sanguinis Positive
Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 3 Positive
Enterococcus faecalis Positive
Listeria monocytogenes Positive
Bacillus anthracis Sterne Positive
Bacillus cereus Positive
Peptostreptococcus species Positive
Clostridium perfringens Positive
Neisseria gonorrhoeae Negative
Haemophilus influenzae nontypeable Negative
Gardnerella vaginalis Negative
Campylobacter jejuni Negative
Bordetella bronchiseptica Negative
Burkholderia cenocepacia Negative
Pasteurella multocida Negative
Prevotella melaninogenica Negative
Bacteroides fragilis Negative
Fusobacterium species Negative
Pseudomonas aeruginosa Negative
Acinetobacter baumannii Negative
Mycobacterium phlei Acid fast
Mycobacterium tuberculosis Acid fast
Mycoplasma hominis Cell-wall deficient

Table 2

Bacteria Not Susceptible to Monolaurin (Glycerol Monolaurate)

Bacterium Gram Stain
Escherichia coli Negative
Salmonella minnesota Negative
Klebsiella aerogenes Negative
Proteus vulgaris Negative
Shigella sonnei Negative
Klebsiella pneumoniae Negative

GML is also effective against several bacterial biofilms, including those produced by Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Acinetobacter baumannii.10,17,18 Surgical incisions in rabbits inoculated with S. aureus, P. aeruginosa, or A. baumannii were painted with a carrier gel alone or with GML. The GML gel reduced the bacterial count measured in colony-forming units and the inflammatory redness at the infected site compared to carrier gel alone.17 In women, tampons with GML have been shown to reduce vaginal S. aureus colony-forming units compared to tampons without GML.19 And it has been shown that GML loaded in a microemulsion has enhanced antimicrobial activity compared to GML alone.14

At concentrations below those that are bacteriocidal, GML can inhibit the production and the effects of several gram-positive bacterial toxins in vitro. These include staphylococcal enterotoxins, toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 (TSST-1), anthrax toxin, and several hemolysins.20, 21 Intravaginal application of GML in an in vivo rabbit model decreases the lethality of TSST-1 apparently by stabilizing the host cell membranes and blocking signal transduction.22 In women, tampons with GML reduce vaginal TSST-1 and production of the cytokine interleukin-8 compared with tampons without GML.19 GML can furthermore inhibit lipase production by S. aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis at concentrations that do not adversely affect the growth of these commensal ocular bacteria in an in vitro model.16

GML appears to increase the effectiveness of certain other antibacterial agents in vitro. For example, the addition of GML to menaquinone analogues,23 ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA),10 and origanum oil24 appears to enhance their ability to inhibit the growth of S. aureus. Incorporation of AP114 and AP138, antimicrobial peptides derived from plectasin, into monolaurin-lipid nanocapsules has displayed synergistic effects against S. aureus, including methicillin-resistant S. aureus.25 Likewise, the combination of GML and cis-2-decenoic acid expresses synergistic antispirochetal (Borrelia sp) effects, including on biofilms.26 In a human in vivo study, rinsing with a mouthwash containing lysine and GML decreases oral Helicobacter pylori infection better than the traditional treatment of teeth cleaning.27 This increased the success rate of eradication of a concurrent gastric H. pylori infection in the population studied.

There are in vitro studies that have shown that GML has antiviral activity against HIV-1, herpes simplex virus (HSV)–2,28 and cytomegalovirus, but not human rhinovirus 2.4 An in vivo monkey study has shown that daily use of intravaginal GML protected against occult infection from repeated high doses of simian immunodeficiency virus, the rhesus macaque model of HIV-1.29 Intravaginal GML appears to increase susceptibility to HSV-2 in a mouse model,30 but these findings may be inconclusive for a human model, as epithelial thickness differs.28 A vaginal cream with up to 35% GML has no effect on vaginal flora and cytokine (MIP-3 and IL-8P) levels in rhesus macaques.31 On the other hand, it has been shown in an in vitro model of the female primate genital mucosa that a vaginal microbicide preparation containing GML caused cell death and disruption of the epithelial barrier at concentrations near its active in vivo concentration, which may actually increase the possibility of infection by such organisms as HIV-1.32

GML has shown in vitro antifungal activity to Candida albicans in biofilms.33 There is also both in vitro and in vivo evidence in women that intravaginal gels containing GML reduce counts of several Candida species and Gardnerella vaginalis, although control gels also reduce G. vaginalis counts. Neither of these gels affects Lactobacillus counts or alters vaginal pH.34

Some evidence exists for possible intravaginal and intraoral—that is, topical—antimicrobial applications for GML clinically in humans, but is there any evidence for internal, including dietary or supplemental, clinical benefits? One study using an in vivo subcutaneous rabbit model has shown that GML is bacteriocidal to S. aureus and decreases TSST-1 production.21 It has also been established that the lipid fraction of stomach aspirates from premature infants 1 hour after feeding with human milk or standard cow-milk infant formulas reduces counts of S. epidermidis, Escherichia coli, HSV-1, and vesicular stomatitis virus.35 All these milks contain about 40% to 50% medium-chain triglycerides, but they were not analyzed for individual fatty-acid content. It was shown that lipase activity is necessary for this effect, indicating that it was fatty acids that were the active microbicidal agents. Although this evidence points to the antimicrobial activity of a variety of ingested lipids, it does show that these retain their antimicrobial activity in the digestive tract, at least to the level of the stomach. Because GML is found in human milk, one could infer that it was most likely present in the milks and as a degradation fatty-acid product in the stomach.

One small in vivo study was found that directly addresses the microbicidal action of GML when administered orally through a feeding tube directly into the stomach. Mice weighing 20 g were infected with S. aureus at 5 times the median lethal dose. Fifty percent (4 of 8) of the animals survived for 30 days after receiving a daily gavage of 3.2 mg of GML for 10 days.24 The same number (4 of 8) survived who received the antibiotic vancomycin. No animal in either the untreated group (0 of 8) or the olive oil–only control group (0 of 8) survived for 30 days. A similar dosage of GML adjusted for a 70-kg human would be about 11 g.

There are a variety of other effects that may have clinical implication for GML. Topically, it is a spermicide, reducing both the motility and viability of sperm in the vaginal tract.28,35 Unfortunately, therapeutic indices comparing polarized epithelial cell toxicity with sperm toxicity for several surfactants, including GML, in vitro do not justify their use as contraceptive agents.36 There is in vitro evidence that GML has a dose-dependent effect on T-lymphocyte activation and proliferation, which may suggest its use in immune system support.37 On the other hand, it appears that human serum albumin, one of the most abundant proteins in human blood, potently reverses the suppression of human T-lymphocytes by GML in vitro.38 In mice with peritoneally implanted tumor cells of Ehrlich carcinoma, injected GML saline solutions inhibit tumor growth.39

We could find no peer-reviewed evidence regarding human clinical applications, therapeutic dosages, bioavailability, efficacy, or safety of GML as a dietary supplement other than the “generally recognized as safe” status granted by the FDA.

Limitations

Because there were not very many studies addressing the clinical use of GML, and none of these are human clinical trials using GML as a nutritional supplement, the present study was a narrative, not a systematic, review. Standard systematic review protocols were used as much as possible given the nature of the literature, but they could not be strictly followed. It is therefore possible that salient studies were missed. This is unlikely, though, because commercial enterprises vending GML as a dietary supplement are highly motivated to support their product with peer-reviewed research.

Conclusion

There are only 3 peer-reviewed articles showing evidence for in vivo antimicrobial effects of GML in humans, and these were only for intravaginal (tampon) and intraoral (mouthwash)—that is, topical—use. No peer-reviewed evidence for the human clinical use of GML as a dietary supplement was found, other than as an ester of a medium-chain fatty acid. Given the large amount of anecdotal evidence that supplemental GML in the diet can have many positive clinical effects, there appears to be a critical need for the scientific community to address these claims.

Funding Sources and Conflicts of Interest

No funding sources or conflicts of interest were reported for this study.

Contributorship Information

Concept development (provided idea for the research): L.A.B.

Design (planned the methods to generate the results): L.A.B., B.W.B., C.C.

Supervision (provided oversight, responsible for organization and implementation, writing of the manuscript): B.W.B.

Data collection/processing (responsible for experiments, patient management, organization, or reporting data): B.W.B.

Analysis/interpretation (responsible for statistical analysis, evaluation, and presentation of the results): L.A.B., B.W.B., C.C.

Literature search (performed the literature search): B.W.B.

Writing (responsible for writing a substantive part of the manuscript): L.A.B., B.W.B.

Critical review (revised manuscript for intellectual content, this does not relate to spelling and grammar checking): L.A.B., B.W.B., C.C.

Practical Applications

  • • Although there is anecdotal evidence, we could find no peer-reviewed research regarding human clinical applications, therapeutic dosages, bioavailability, efficacy, or safety of monolaurin as a dietary supplement, other than the “generally recognized as safe” status granted by the Food and Drug Administration.

References

3. Hegde BM. Coconut oil—ideal fat next only to mother’s milk (scanning coconut’s horoscope) J Indian Acad Clin Med. 2006;7(1):16–19. [Google Scholar]4. Clarke NM, May JT. Effect of antimicrobial factors in human milk on rhinoviruses and milk-borne cytomegalovirus in vitro. J Med Microbiol. 2000;49(8):719–723. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]5. Oo KC, Stumpf PK. Some enzymic activities in the germinating oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) seedling. Plant Physiol. 1983;73(4):1028–1032. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]6. Lieberman S, Enig MG, Preuss HG. A review of monolaurin and lauric acid. Altern Complement Ther. 2006;12(6):310–314. [Google Scholar]7. Milne GWA. Wiley; Hoboken, NJ: 2005. Gardner’s Commercially Important Chemicals: Synonyms, Trade Names, and Properties. [Google Scholar]8. Kabara JJ, Swieczkowski DM, Conley AJ, Truant JP. Fatty acids and derivatives as antimicrobial agents. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1972;2(1):23–28. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]9. Isaacs CE, Kim KS, Thormar H. Inactivation of enveloped viruses in human bodily fluids by purified lipids. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1994;724:457–464. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]14. Fu X, Feng F, Huang B. Physicochemical characterization and evaluation of a microemulsion system for antimicrobial activity of glycerol monolaurate. Int J Pharm. 2006;321(1-2):171–175. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]15. Ali MA, Noguchi S, Iwao Y, Oka T, Itai S. Preparation and characterization of SN-38-encapsulated phytantriol cubosomes containing α-monoglyceride additives. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) 2016;64(6):577–584. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]16. Flanagan JL, Khandekar N, Zhu H, Watanabe K, Markoulli M, Flanagan JT, Papas E. Glycerol monolaurate inhibits lipase production by clinical ocular isolates without affecting bacterial cell viability. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2016;57(2):544–550. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]17. Mueller EA, Schlievert PM. 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8 Claimed Benefits of Monolaurin + Side Effects

Monolaurin is a component of coconut oil. People say it increases their immune response, making them more resilient to bacterial, viral and fungal infections. Does science back them up? Read on to find out and be ready for a few surprising drawbacks of using monolaurin regularly.

What is Monolaurin?

Overview

Monolaurin is a naturally-occurring fat present in both coconut oil and breast milk [1, 2].

Monolaurin, also known as glyceryl monolaurate, glyceryl laurate, or 1-Lauroyl-glycerol, is a monoglyceride (a single molecule of glycerol attached to a fatty acid) [3].

Coconut oil is 48% lauric acid, which is valued for its use in the food and health supplement industries. Lauric acid converts to monolaurin in the body [4, 5].

Some scientists believe monolaurin might be a promising antimicrobial. Ongoing research is exploring its antibacterial and antiviral effects and safety [6].

Monolaurin is a fat found in coconut oil and breast milk.

Uses

  • Food production: used as a food additive, emulsifier, and as a preservative in ice cream, margarine, spaghetti, and other processed foods [7, 8, 9, 10].
  • Manufacturing: commonly used in deodorants, cosmetics, detergents, and insecticides and as an equipment sanitizer in manufacturing [7, 8, 9, 10].
  • Dietary supplement: some people take monolaurin as a dietary supplement [11].

Monolaurin supplements have not been approved by the FDA for medical use. Supplements generally lack solid clinical research. Regulations set manufacturing standards for them but don’t guarantee that they’re safe or effective. Speak with your doctor before supplementing.

Despite a lack of evidence, people use monolaurin to prevent bacterial, fungal, and viral infections. Allegedly, it also helps with skin conditions, strengthens the immune system, and balances bacteria in the gut. However, clinical studies are lacking [12, 13, 11, 14].

Although people use monolaurin as a supplement, its benefits are uncertain. Some scientists believe it might help fight microbes, but human studies haven’t been carried out.

Mechanism of Action

Antiviral Activity

Monolaurin might be active against viruses that has a fat (lipid) membrane on the outside [15, 16].

Since monolaurin is the same size as the fat molecule of the virus, it absorbs into the cell’s fat layer. As it has poor binding power, the skin envelope breaks apart. This prevents the virus from attaching and entering host cells, stopping infection and replication. Have in mind that this is only a theory based on cellular studies [15, 16].

Scientists think monolaurin might disrupt virus replication by blocking DNA replication signals. In the lab, when monolaurin binds to the viral envelope, it makes the virus more recognizable to the immune system [17, 18].

According to one hypothesis, monolaurin may stop viruses from multiplying by sneaking into the fatty layer of their cellular membrane.

Antibacterial Activity

Researchers hypothesize that monolaurin incorporates itself into the cell membrane of gram-positive bacteria and destroys them by breaking down the cell membrane. Theoretically, this stops bacteria from replicating and spreading, making it easier for the immune system to destroy them [19].

In cells, monolaurin also stops the production of most Staphylococcal toxins and other proteins at the bacterial DNA level. It also blocks the production of beta-lactamases, which are responsible for resistance to penicillins, extended-spectrum cephalosporins, monobactams, and carbapenems. Its effects on humans, however, are unknown [20, 21, 22].

Ongoing research is determining its effects on decreasing the gene expression of inflammatory cytokines, IL-1α and IL-1β [23].

According to another unverified theory, monolaurin breaks down the cell membrane of bacteria, which theoretically makes them easier targets for the immune system.

Claimed Health Benefits of Monolaurin

Lacking Evidence:

No clinical evidence supports the use of monolaurin for infections or any of the conditions listed in this section.

Below is a summary of the existing animal and cell-based research, which should guide further investigational efforts.

However, the studies listed below should not be interpreted as supportive of any health benefit. Monolaurin should not be used for any of the conditions described below due to the complete lack of safety and efficacy data in humans.

1) Bacteria

Monolaurin was studied against bacteria in cells and mice [24, 25, 26, 27].

Gram-positive bacteria

Scientists hypothesize that it may inhibit the activity of gram-positive bacteria such as [8, 28, 29, 30, 18, 31]:

  • Bacillus subtilis
  • Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)
  • Bacillus anthracis, which produces toxins and is abused in bioterrorism
Gram-negative bacteria

Monolaurin might not be active against most gram-negative bacteria like Salmonella, which has a different kind of outer cell membrane than gram-positive bacteria [6].

In contrast to this general finding, monolaurin was able to inhibit the growth of both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria in skin cells [6].

Additionally, the ulcer-causing Helicobacter pylori is a gram-negative bacteria. Monolaurin was active against it in some cell-based studies [32, 27, 33, 34].

Resistance

A cell study compared monolaurin and 6 common antibiotics (including penicillin, oxacillin, and vancomycin) against bacteria causing skin infections. Monolaurin showed promise and animal studies are needed [6].

However, there are various super strains of vancomycinresistant Enterococcus (VRE) that have developed partial (up to 70%) resistance to monolaurin. Mutated Enterococcus bacteria had learned to tighten their cell walls, making it more difficult for monolaurin to get in [35].

Monolaurin had no adverse effect on gut bacteria in dishes. Its effect on gut bacteria in humans is unknown [11].

Staph Infections

In bacteria, monolaurin combined with monocaprin, lauric acid, or monomyristin had better results against Staphylococcus aureus [36].

Untreated mice injected with Staphylococcus aureus died within a week. However, 50% of mice given vancomycin and monolaurin daily survived for 30 days [5].

Additionally, over 60% of mice survived when receiving a daily combination of origanum oil and monolaurin [5].

In another mice study, the groups receiving vancomycin, monolaurin, or a combination of both showed some protection against S. aureus (50 to 70% survival rate) [26].

Lyme Disease

Monolaurin was active against the bacteria (Borrelia burgdorferi) that causes Lyme disease in dishes. Some people with recurrent Lyme disease take coconut oil, as recommended by some alternative practitioners. Evidence doesn’t support this practice, as clinical data are nonexistent [37, 32].

2) Viruses

Scientists investigated whether monolaurin inhibits several fat-coated viruses that infect humans and animals. Fat-coated viruses can live in your body fat for years and interfere with your metabolism. Monolaurin is hypothesized to weaken or disintegrates viruses’ fat coatings and kill them. However, its effects in humans are unknown [38].

In dishes, monolaurin showed activity against the following viruses, which have fat envelopes [39]:

  • Cytomegalovirus
  • Epstein-Barr virus
  • HIV-1, HIV+
  • Measles virus
  • Herpes simplex virus-1 and 2
  • Herpesviridae (all)
  • Human lymphotropic viruses (type 1)
  • Vesicular stomatitis virus
  • Visna virus
  • Influenza virus
  • Pneumovirus
  • Sarcoma virus
  • Syncytial virus

Other Viruses

Monolaurin was investigated against Herpes viruses, which cause cold sores and genital herpes, in cells [11].

It was also researched against the swine flu and Herpes varicella-zoster virus (causing chickenpox and reactivating to cause shingles), which has a fat envelope. However, no human trials were ever carried out [40, 41].

Monolaurin shows antiviral activity in animals against Herpes simplex virus (which causes cold sores) [42].

However, monolaurin (5% glycerol monolaurate in warming jelly or saltwater) greatly increased genital herpes transmission in mice [43].

There are many anecdotal reports of monolaurin helping combat the flu. There is no valid evidence to back them up. Monolaurin from human breast milk was effective against cytomegalovirus (CMV) but was not effective against the cold-causing virus, rhinovirus [2].

Although monolaurin may fight certain viruses in test tubes, it seems to increase genital herpes transmission in mice.

3) Yeast

Researchers are investigating if monolaurin may inactivate or destroy various fungi and yeasts. These include several species of ringworm. It was studied against Candida albicans, which is present in the mouth, gut, and female reproductive system [38, 23, 44].

In a study of 36 women with yeast vaginal infections, monolaurin was effective against Candida albicans. More research is needed [45].

4) Parasites

Monolaurin was researched against the parasite Giardia lamblia [38].

Animal research indicates that the intestinal parasites Giardia lamblia and Entamoeba histolytica may respond to a combination of metronidazole (an anti-parasitic drug) and monolaurin [46].

5) Immune Defense

Some people take monolaurin as an immune booster. Monolaurin is also a supplement users say improves immune function in chronic fatigue syndrome. Clinical evidence is lacking to support this use.

Scientists are investigating monolaurin’s effects on T-cell function. Better T-cell function helps the body recognize and kill bacteria and viruses. It’s also being studied against the viruses potentially responsible for infections in chronic fatigue and immune dysfunction syndrome [47, 48, 11].

6) Weight Control

Some controversial theories suggest that fat-coated viruses can live in body fat and disturb metabolism, promoting obesity. Supporters are investigating whether monolaurin may assist in weight management by killing these stored viruses, though no valid evidence has yet been published [49].

In a study of 9 healthy overweight men, consumption of medium-chain fatty acids increased calorie burning and fat breakdown (through oxidation), reducing fat storage. Monolaurin specifically wasn’t studied, though [49].

7) Skin Health

Monolaurin might be active against skin infections, so it is being researched for acne [13].

A study in two dermatology clinics showed that coconut oil, which contains monolaurin, might help people with Staphylococcus aureus infected eczema. Large-scale studies are lacking [13].

8) Alzheimer’s

Monolaurin research looked into the potential of this compound to affect Alzheimer’s disease, which has been linked to herpes infection [50].

In Alzheimer’s patients, the presence of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV1) in the brain people with the type 4 allele of the apolipoprotein E gene has been positively associated with an increased risk of Alzheimer’s [50].

Medium-chain fatty acids, such as lauric acid, are present in coconut oil and convert into monolaurin in the body. The liver can convert them into ketones, which are an important alternative energy source for the brain. In theory, they may be beneficial to people with memory impairment, but evidence is lacking [51].

There’s no clinical evidence whatsoever to support the use of monolaurin.

Using Monolaurin

Is Monolaurin Safe?

According to the United States by the Food and Drug Administration, monolaurin is generally recognized as safe (GRAS) [52].

Monolaurin is likely safe when used in small amounts (i.e in foods). However, safety data is lacking to determine its long-term health effects, especially in higher amounts [53].

Monolaurin is found in coconut oil, which is an edible, non-toxic, and a standard cooking oil. Coconut oil is safe unless you have a coconut allergy or consume it in very large amounts [54, 8].

Monolaurin should be avoided during pregnancy and breastfeeding due to a lack of safety data.

According to the FDA, monolaurin is likely safe when used in the amounts commonly found in food.

Side Effects

Some people report short-term side effects and caused by the alleged “die-off” effect. In some circles, this is referred to as the Jarisch-Herxheimer reaction, a highly controversial and unproven theory, especially in the way it is referred to in popular health blogs.

According to this theory, when large numbers of infecting organisms die quickly, these microbes give off toxins as they die [55].

The symptoms are temporary and may include:

  • Headache
  • Muscle pain
  • Skin rash
  • Acne
  • Nausea

This concept may hold in people with serious infections such as syphilis, but it has also received a lot of criticism from the scientific community when people who don’t have life-threatening infections talk about it [55].

Bloggers say they avoid this die-off reaction by building up to a full dose gradually (over about 7 to 10 days). If adverse effects occur, they stop taking monolaurin for a day or two “to give their body a little extra time to remove the dead organisms.” Then they start again at a lower dosage and gradually increase, “until their body can handle it.” This approach remains completely unproven [56].

Some people claim that monolaurin can trigger a “die-off reaction” by killing microbes in the body, but there’s no scientific evidence to back them up.

Inflammatory and Immune Side Effects

In mice, monolaurin worsens multiple sclerosis, in which the immune system attacks the protective sheath (myelin) that covers nerve fibers and causes communication problems between the brain and the rest of the body [57].

People with intestinal inflammation or risk of multiple sclerosis may need to limit their consumption of coconut and MCT oil, and, therefore monolaurin [57].

Drug Interactions

The potential interactions between monolaurin and drugs are unknown due to a lack of data.

The antibacterial effectiveness of monolaurin in the food industry may be reduced significantly in high-fat or low-starch food products, but is not affected by proteins [8].

Dosage

Monolaurin has not been evaluated by the FDA for any medical condition, while clinical studies are few. No dosing guidelines can be established [38].

If someone is taking coconut oil as a source of lauric acid, one theory suggests that the ideal dosage may also depend on the body’s genetic ability to convert the acid into monolaurin.

Coconut oil is made up of about 50% lauric acid [4, 58]. The human body converts lauric acid to monolaurin when ingested, but we could not find studies any published studies on conversion rates.

Lauricidin

Dr. Jon Kabara, Ph.D., who discovered monolaurin in mother’s milk in the 1960s and sells a supplement called Lauricidin has dosing recommendations that are based only on his clinical experience and have not been scientifically verified.

He claims that the monolaurin yield from coconut oil is no more than 3% .

He also insists that people need to take 3 – 9g of monolaurin in order to experience a significant effect.

According to him and the usage instructions on his supplement, adults should start with 750 mg of monolaurin two to three times per day for one week, then take 1,500 mg, and maintain at 3,000 mg, two to three times per day. In stubborn cases this may be increased, he claims.

Assuming you get 3% monolaurin from coconut oil, that means in order to get 750mg 3x a day, one would have to consume close to 6 tablespoons a day, which is excessive.

To get the upper dosage suggested by Kabara (9g monolaurin), one would need to consume about 22 tablespoons of coconut oil in a day, which is unreasonable.

However, there is insufficient data to back up the claim that people get only 4% of monolaurin from all types of coconut oil.

It’s important to note that Kabara has a vested interest in selling his supplements, so his information may not be reliable. Also, coconut oil contains other antimicrobial fats and compounds not found in pure monolaurin. For example, lauric acid itself is antimicrobial.

Dr. Kabara discovered monolaurin and markets it under the brand name Lauricidin. Despite a lack of evidence, he claims that people need 3 – 9g per day to feel an effect.

Forms

Monolaurin is quite bitter. Supplements are available in capsule, pellets and powder. It is also available in a lip balm.

The richest food source of lauric acid is coconut oil (up to 50% lauric acid). It is also present in coconut milk, coconut water, and solid coconut. Your body can convert lauric acid into monolaurin. It is not known how much coconut must be consumed to receive enough monolaurin [38].

Lauric acid is mainly found in [59]:

  • Coconut oil (50%)
  • Coconut cream
  • Coconut milk
  • Human breast milk (12%)
  • Goat and cow milk (contain only a small percentage of lauric acid)

Monolaurin vs. Lauricidin vs. Coconut Oil

Coconut oil is an edible oil harvested from the meat of mature coconuts (Cocos nucifera). Roughly 40 to 60% of coconut oil is comprised of lauric acid [38].

Monolaurin is the highly purified glycerol ester of lauric acid and is more biologically active than lauric acid [38].

Lauricidin is a commercially available product. It combines lauric acid from coconut oil with a plant-based glycerol (non-soy), creating the purified ester known as monolaurin [38].

User Reviews

Many holistic doctors report that they see improvement in clients’ overall sense of well-being. The improvement in energy is the most talked-about.

However, users complained about its bad taste. Also, some people did not experience any health benefits from monolaurin supplementation.

The opinions expressed in this section are solely those of the users who may or may not have medical or scientific training. Their reviews do not represent the opinions of SelfHacked. SelfHacked does not endorse any specific product, service, or treatment.

Do not consider user experiences as medical advice. Never delay or disregard seeking professional medical advice from your doctor or another qualified healthcare provider because of something you have read on SelfHacked. We understand that reading individual, real-life experiences can be a helpful resource, but it is never a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment from a qualified healthcare provider.

Takeaway

Monolaurin is a fat found in coconut oil and breast milk.

It’s used as a supplement, but no clinical studies on its health effects have been published to date.

Some scientsts believe that monolaurin may help fight microbes–including bacteria, yeast, and parasites–but their experiments are limited to cells and lab animals.

The scientist who discovered monolaurin markets it under the brand name Lauricidin. He recommends high doses that would be unattainable with coconut oil or other foods.

Although the side effects of monolaurin are unknown, people claimed to have experienced controversial “die-off reactions.”

All in all, monolaurin is likely safe in the amounts commonly found in food. However, there’s no valid evidence to support its use as a dietary supplement.

New approach offers chance to finally kill herpes

WASHINGTON (Reuters) – U.S. researchers reported on Wednesday they may have found a way to flush out herpes viruses from hiding — offering a potential way to cure pesky and painful conditions from cold sores to shingles.

They discovered that a mysterious gene carried by the herpes simplex-1 virus — the one that causes cold sores — allows the virus to lay low in the nerves it infects.

It does so via microRNAs, little pieces of genetic material that regulate the activity of many viruses, the researchers report in the journal Nature.

It may be possible to “wake up” the virus and then kill it with standard antiviral drugs such as acyclovir, said Jennifer Lin Umbach of Duke University in North Carolina, who worked on the study.

“We are trying to go into animal trials,” Umbach said in a telephone interview.

The Duke team is discussing a potential collaboration with Regulus Therapeutics LLC, a joint venture between Alnylam Pharmaceuticals, Inc and Isis Pharmaceuticals, Inc that specializes in microRNAs.

Herpes viruses cause permanent infections. They head straight to nerve cells, where they stay latent for the life of an animal or person, often causing periodic outbreaks.

Herpes simplex 1 or HSV-1 causes cold sores, HSV-2 causes genital herpes, while varicella causes chicken pox and returns in middle or old age as herpes zoster to cause shingles.

Acyclovir and related drugs can suppress symptoms but only when the virus is active.

IMPOSSIBLE TO KILL

“Inactive virus is completely untouchable by any treatment we have. Unless you activate the virus, you can’t kill it,” said Bryan Cullen, who oversaw the research.

Umbach said that for still unknown reasons, viruses infecting different neurons in the same body activate at different times, making it impossible to eradicate an infection.

Her team found that a gene called LAT controls microRNAs that turn off other genes in the virus.

“The presence of these active microRNAs keep the virus dormant,” Umbach said. “When the virus is activated by stress like UV (ultraviolet) light or a wound, production of (other) genes goes up.”

Then LAT is overwhelmed and unable to keep the virus in check. It wakes up and causes an outbreak.

A drug that would turn off the microRNAs could drive the virus out of hiding and allow all copies of the virus to be killed with acyclovir, she said.

“You would have one cold sore but you would get rid of it,” she said. Curing something more painful, such as shingles, might be a little trickier, she added.

One class of drug called an antagomir might work, Umbach said. These chemically engineered oligonucleotides are short segments of RNA that can be made into mirror images of a targeted bit of genetic material — such as the herpes microRNAs. They would attach and “silence” the microRNA.

The potential market is large. An estimated one in five Americans have genital herpes, according to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, while 100 million have the HSV-1 virus that causes cold sores.

The CDC estimates there are a million cases of shingles every year in the United States alone.

90,000 MONOLAURINE: DUMP OR PANACEA? – ALL THE BEST AT EIKHERB. Secrets. Myths. Discovery – LiveJournal

This is how the situation with monolaurin looks like.

Solaray, Monolaurin, 500 mg, 60 Vegetarian Capsules.

PRACTICE

So, friend.

She took monoluarin to prevent exacerbations of herpes – he tortured her, what is there. The first time, monolaurin, together with lysine and zinc, worked perfectly. Herpes withered away without having time to develop, in just a few hours.A friend said it was faster than when she drank only lysine with zinc.

The second time, when only monolaurin was used, the results were not so impressive: the herpes blossomed, however, it was easier and faster.

A friend drank monolaurin 1 capsule twice a day, as recommended by the manufacturer.

What is this monolaurin anyway?

It is a compound of lauric acid and glycerin. Glycerin is more or less known to us, but lauric acid is why everyone loves coconut oil so much.It is also found in breast milk and strengthens the baby’s immunity.

Since adults drank their breast milk long ago, and how much coconut oil should be eaten there for a therapeutic effect, no one knows, the supplement monolaurin was developed.

Monolaurin has shown itself to be excellent in research. Influenza and coronavirus, herpes types I and II, the Epstein-Barr virus – in all these pathogens, monolaurin destroyed the protective membrane, thereby causing irreparable harm to the viruses.

There is only one nuance.Studies on the intake of monolaurin in humans have not been conducted – it has been studied in most cases in test tubes and a little in animals.

And this means that “whether there is life on Mars, whether there is life on Mars, science is not known for certain”: research in test tubes ( in vitro ) is the most unreliable variant of research, most often in tests on living organisms, the object under study manifests yourself in a completely different way.

One thing pleases. Monolaurin is non-toxic and has a GRAS status (generally recognized as safe), so you can try it.What if this drug works for you? Look how many admiring reviews on Ayherbe!

Just keep in mind that there are no instructions for use as such. The fact that 3-4 monolaurin is drunk in the reviews, and even given to children, remains solely the initiative of the authors.

The manufacturer of the patented monolaurin (called lauricidin) also warns that if the initial levels of the drug are too high, it can cause short-term (from several days to several weeks) exacerbation of minor symptoms such as headache, pain in joints and muscles, pain in the body, acne, itchy skin, mild rash, skin redness, sore throat, general malaise, sweating, chills, nausea, or other symptoms.

Writes that this is normal. Most likely, you just need to reduce the dosage. This, of course, does not apply to serious symptoms such as edema or heart failure, in which the drug should be stopped and see a doctor (well, this is a standard warning).

Monolaurin also showed itself well externally. For example, a study of thirty healthy hospital workers showed that 5 g of hand sanitizer containing monolaurin (1.5% lauricidin concentration), which was distributed on the hands within 30 seconds of bacterial contamination, reduced bacteria as well. good as 70% isopropryl alcohol (Abraham, Phil J Microbiol Infect Dis 2000).

Well, this is the situation for monolaurin today. Research on it continues, the prospects are promising, to accept or not to accept – it’s up to everyone to decide.

Until 20.00 Moscow time Friday, October 27, Solaray, Monolaurin, 500 mg, 60 vegetarian capsules comes with a discount of 11% + 5% under the code COLD17 .

***

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Monolaurin: Prevents colds and viruses.

The other day I was asked to write about monolaurin and my personal experience of taking the supplement. And the reason was found, until Wednesday 10% discount for the supplement. I am pleased to tell you about monolaurin.

Monolaurin has very powerful properties against viruses and bacteria.It works great for preventing seasonal (viral) colds, but how does it do it? In any supplement, it is important for me to understand the mechanism of action, so I will write about it first. I think this is also important to you.

I wrote that coconut oil is often “endowed” with antiviral effects due to its lauric acid content. Lauric acid really has antiviral and antibacterial effects. But ..

Monolaurin is simply several times stronger than even pure lauric acid! If you eat coconut oil, which is about 40% lauric acid, too little monoluarin is converted to use it.This is a very important point, a key one.

You don’t need to spoon-eat coconut oil to reap the benefits. There is monolaurin for that, it is approved as Safe Food Supplement .

Monolaurin: antibacterial properties

Monolaurin has shown antibacterial action against a variety of bacteria, including antibiotic-resistant strains. It even works against Staphylococcus aureus. It also inhibits intestinal (Escherichia coli) and hay bacillus (Bacillus subtilis).

In 2007, the Journal of Drugs in Dermatology published a study in which scientists compared the effects of monolaurin and six antibiotics for treating various skin infections. Monolaurin showed a wide spectrum of activity and, at the same time, it did not cause bacterial resistance (resistance).

Monolaurin is effective against microbial biofilms that are associated with periodontitis, otitis media, and biliary tract infections. Antibiotics do not completely penetrate the biofilm to kill all bacteria.And monolaurin has this property and, at the same time, does not affect the beneficial intestinal flora.

Antivirus Properties

Monolaurin also inhibits lipid-coated viruses that infect humans and animals. These are the most famous viruses: cytomegalovirus, measles, herpes simplex, HIV, influenza, Epstein-Barr virus and pneumoviruses.

The mechanism of action has already been deciphered: it binds to the envelope of the virus and prevents its attachment to the cells of the “host”, making it impossible for its replication.Then it solubilizes lipids in the protective viral envelope, causes its disintegration and kills the virus itself.

Thus, monolaurin works effectively in infections that are difficult to treat, since viruses are encapsulated and hidden in certain parts of cell membranes, becoming “invisible” to our immune system.

Has a slight anti-fungal effect.

There is one study where monolaurin reduced Candida (6), but it is small. More research is needed before a supplement can be recommended as a treatment for candida and other fungi.I must say right away that I do not use monolaurin in the Candida Cleanse program.

Monolaurin instructions for use

When used:

You can buy my ready-made supplementation protocols, take courses in nutritionology and join a closed club, whose members get more knowledge on taking vitamins and dietary supplements.

  • for the prevention of colds and flu
  • to strengthen the immune system
  • for chronic fatigue syndrome
  • herpes
  • candida
  • for infections resistant to antibiotics (Staphylococcus aureus)
  • other viral and bacterial infections

The supplement is especially suitable for people who suffer from fatigue and frequent colds.

Solaray supplement I always buy

Monolaurin buy

How to choose the right additive? The supplement is sold in capsule or powder form. I advise you to choose only capsules as it is the most convenient way to take it. Since the powder has a bitter and soapy flavor, not everyone will like this.

Where to buy monolaurin:

⇒ Monolaurin Solaray 500 mg, 60 capsules
⇒ Monolaurin + zinc Health From The Sun, 90 capsules


How to take Monolaurin

Monolaurin is not an FDA-controlled drug for the treatment of any disease, so there are no standard dosage guidelines.It is usually advised to follow the instructions on the supplement packaging. I looked for dosages and found this.

Dr. John Kabara, who first reported the benefits of monolaurin, now sells it under the brand name Lauricidin and says people aged 12 and over 90,080 can start with 750 mg. monolaurin 2-3 times a day .

In special cases, he suggests increasing the dosage to 3000 mg. 2-3 times a day.

These recommendations are based only on the clinical experience of Dr.Cabarets and are not supported by specific research. The company’s website also states that children aged 3 years and older can start taking the supplement in very small doses and increase the dosage. With children, I recommend strongly discussing dosages with a pediatrician.

The Solaray brand recommends 1-2 capsules per day .

Nutritionists have experience that taking 6 capsules a day or more gives good results for herpes. This course of admission is about 4-12 weeks.


My personal experience of receiving

I have been buying Solaray for several years now.

First, I bought it and start drinking for the intestines and reducing candida. Now I have no candida at all. This supplement is great to use as a prophylaxis for viral (seasonal) colds, and if you have already started to get sick. I have several stories when people had a temperature of 37.1 and began to have a cold, but after 90,080 doses of Solaray monolaurin, 2 capsules, 2 times a day, the temperature dropped and the person did not get sick.

I also used this property of the supplement on my daughter, to fight the onset of colds and prevent development. She gave 1 capsule 3 times a day. The daughter is now 14 years old.


How to tell me THANKS for the posts?

Use the code IFO971 in each order, you can enter it manually during checkout. This is how you support my blog and reviews. Newbies $ 11 discount per order.


Sources:

  1. Thormar H, Isaacs CE, Brown HR, Barshatzky MR, Pessolano T.Inactivation of enveloped viruses and killing of cells by fatty acids and monoglycerides
  2. Bergsson G, Arnfinnsson J, Steingrimsson O, Thormar H. In vitro killing of Candida albicans by fatty acids and monoglycerides
  3. Donavon J. Hess, a, b Michelle J. Henry-Stanley. Antibacterial Synergy of Glycerol Monolaurate and Aminoglycosides in Staphylococcus aureus Biofilms
  4. Shari Lieberman, Mary G. Enig. A Review of Monolaurin and Lauric Acid: Natural Virucidal and Bactericidal Agents
  5. Carpo BG1, Verallo-Rowell VM, Kabara J.Novel antibacterial activity of monolaurin compared with conventional antibiotics against organisms from skin infections: an in vitro study
  6. Kristi L. Strandberg, Marnie L .. Glycerol Monolaurate Inhibits Candida and Gardnerella vaginalis In Vitro and In Vivo but Not Lactobacillus.

Monolaurin ᐈ What is it, Benefits, Prevention and treatment of diseases, How to take?

1. Mark F. McCarthy and James Nicolantonio. Properties of triglycerides with lauric acid.Open heart. 2016; 3 (2): e000467. Published online July 27, 2016 DOI: 10.1136 / openhrt-2016-000467PMCID: PMC4975867 PMID: 27547436 Academicjournals

2. Harry J. Preiss, Bobby Echard, Azad Dadgar, Nadim Talpur, Vijaya Manohar, Mary Enig, Debasis Bagchi, Kass Ingram. Effect of essential oils and monolaurin on Staphylococcus aureus: in vitro and in vivo studies. Toxicol Mech Methods. 2005; 15 (4): 279-85. DOI: 10.1080 / 15376520590968833 Researchgate

3. Beatrice G. Carpo, Vermen M.Verallo-Rowell, John Cabara. New antibacterial activity of monolaurin compared to conventional antibiotics against organisms that cause skin infections: an in vitro study. Comparative study of J Drugs Dermatol. 2007 October; 6 (10): 991-8. Pubmed

4. Lauren Boateng, Richard Ansong, William B. Owusu, and Matilda Steiner-Asiedou. The role of coconut and palm oils in nutrition, health and national development: an overview. Ghana Med J. Sep 2016; 50 (3): 189-196 Ncbi

5. Halldor Tormar, Hilmar Hilmarsson and Gudmundur Bergsson.Stable concentrated emulsions of 1-monoglyceride of capric acid (monocaprin) with microbicidal activity against food bacteria Campylobacter jejuni, Salmonella spp, Escherichia coli. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2006 Jan; 72 (1): 522-526. Ncbi

6. Muriel Dufour, Janet M. Manson, Philip J. Bremer, Jean-Pierre Dufour, Gregory M. Cook, Robin S. Simmonds. Characterization of resistance to monolaurin Enterococcus faecalis. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2007 Sep; 73 (17): 5507–5515. Published online July 13, 2007 doi: 10.1128 / AEM.01013-07 Ncbi

7. Hui Zhang, Heven Wei, Yinan Cui, Guojun Zhao, Fengqin Feng. Antibacterial interactions of monolaurin with commonly used antimicrobial agents and food ingredients. J Food Sci. September 2009; 74 (7): M418-21. DOI: 10.1111 / j.1750-3841.2009.01300.x. Pubmed

8. Dmitry Gil, Sergey Shuvaev, Anastasia Frank-Kamenetskaya, Vladimir Reukov, Christopher Gross, Alexey Vertegel. New antibacterial coating for orthopedic wires to eliminate pin tract infections.Chemother Antimicrobial Agents. June 27, 2017; 61 (7): e00442-17. DOI: 10.1128 / AAC.00442-17. July 2017 print. Ncbi

9. Zeinab Hassanein Fahmi, Eman Ali, Ibrahim Shalshi Amira H. Mohamed. Effect of medium-chain saturated fatty acids (monolaurin) on cytokine levels in animal experiments infected with Entamoeba histolytica and lamblia. African Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology. 8 (4), pp. 106-114, January 29, 2014 DOI: 10.5897 / AJPP2013.3839 Academicjournals

10. Vermen M.Verallo-Rowell, Christine M. Dillagu, Bertha S. Syah-Tjundavan. New antibacterial and emollient effects of coconut and olive oil for atopic dermatitis in adults. A randomized controlled trial Dermatitis. November-December 2008; 19 (6): 308-15. Pubmed

11. BW Petschow, R.P. Batema, L.L. Ford. Sensitivity of Helicobacter pylori to the bactericidal properties of medium-chain monoglycerides and free fatty acids. Comparative study. Chemother Antimicrobial Agents. 1996 February; 40 (2): 302-6.DOI: 10.1128 / AAC.40.2.302. Ncbi

12. CE Isaacs, K.S. Kim, H. Tormar. Inactivation of enveloped viruses in human body fluids by purified lipids. Review by Ann New York Academy of Sciences. 1994 June 6; 724: 457-64. DOI: 10.1111 / j.1749-6632.1994.tb38947.x. Pubmed

13. Jeffrey Sands, David Operin, Wallace Snipes. Extreme sensitivity of enveloped viruses, including herpes simplex, to unsaturated monoglycerides and long chain alcohols. Antimicrobial agents. Chemother. 1979 Jan; 15 (1): 67–73.DOI: 10.1128 / aac.15.1.67 Ncbi

14. S. Brown-Scrobot, P. M. Schliver, F. Vandenesh, R. P. Novik. Glycerol monolaurate inhibits the production of beta-lactamase, toxic shock-1 toxin and other staphylococcal exoproteins, preventing signal transmission. J Bacteriol. July 1994; 176 (14): 4204-9. DOI: 10.1128 / jb.176.14.4204-4209.1994. Ncbi

15. Schlivert, J. R. Dereringer, M. H. Kim, S. J. Proyan, R. P. Novick. Effect of glycerol monolaurate on bacterial growth and toxin production.Antimicrobial agents. Chemother. 1992 March; 36 (3): 626-31. DOI: 10.1128 / aac.36.3.626. Ncbi

16. Ashley T. Haase, Eva Rakas, Nancy Schultz-Darken, Kimberly L. Weisgrau, Kavan S. Reilly, Qinsheng Lee, Peter J. Southern, Megan Rothenberger, Marnie L. Peterson, Patrick M. Schlivert. Protection against repeated vaginal infection with high dose SIV with the microbicide glycerol monolaurate. PLoS One. 2015; 10 (6): e0129465 Published online 2015 June 9. Doi: 10.1371 / journal.pone.0129465 Ncbi

17.Alexander Tokarsky and Douglas L. Marshall. Mechanism of synergistic inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes growth by lactic acid and monolaurin. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2008 Dec; 74 (23): 7126-7129. Ncbi

18. S.J. Proyan, S. Brown-Scrobot, P.M. Schlivert, F. Vandenesh and R.P. Novik. Glycerol monolaurate inhibits the production of beta-lactamase, toxic shock-1 toxin and other staphylococcal exoproteins, preventing signal transmission. J Bacteriol. July 1994; 176 (14): 4204-4209. Ncbi

19.And Ruzin, R.P. Novik. Equivalence of lauric acid and glycerol monolaurate as inhibitors of signal transduction in Staphylococcus aureus. J Bacteriol. 2000 May; 182 (9): 2668-71. DOI: 10.1128 / jb.182.9.2668-2671.2000. Ncbi

20. Sarah M. Drose, Robert Bonomo. Three decades of beta-lactamase inhibitors. Clin Microbiol Rev. Review 2010 Jan; 23 (1): 160-201. DOI: 10.1128 / CMR.00037-09. Ncbi

21. Beatrice G. Carpo, Vermen M. Verallo-Rowell, John Cabara. New antibacterial activity of monolaurin compared to conventional antibiotics against organisms that cause skin infections: an in vitro study.Comparative study of J Drugs Dermatol. 2007 October; 6 (10): 991-8. Pubmed

22. Anna Gok, Mathias Rath. Efficacy of phytochemicals and micronutrients against borrelia: an update. Ther Adv Infect Dis. June 2016; 3 (3-4): 75-82. Ncbi

23. Harry J. Preiss, Bobby Echard, Mary Enig, Itzhak Brook, Thomas B. Elliott. Minimum inhibitory concentrations of herbal essential oils and monolaurin for gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Mol Cell Biochem. Apr 2005; 272 (1-2): 29-34.DOI: 10.1007 / s11010-005-6604-1. Pubmed

24. Cynthia Kew Sun, Charmian J. O’Connor, Anthony M. Roberton. Antibacterial action of fatty acids and monoglycerides against Helicobacter pylor.i FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol. 2003 May 15; 36 (1-2): 9-17. Academic

25. Gudmundur Bergsson, Olafur Steingrimsson, Halldor Tormar. Bactericidal action of fatty acids and monoglycerides on Helicobacter pylori. Antimicrobial Agents Int J. 2002 Oct; 20 (4): 258-62. Academic

26.Beatrice G. Carpo, Vermen M. Verallo-Rowell, John Cabara. New antibacterial activity of monolaurin compared to conventional antibiotics against organisms that cause skin infections: an in vitro study. Comparative study of J Drugs Dermatol. 2007 October; 6 (10): 991-8. Pubmed

27. Youngseok Ham and Tae-Jong Kim. Inhibitors of biofilm formation of monoacylglycerols in Aeromonas hydrophila, Streptococcus mutans, Xanthomonas oryzae, and Yersinia enterocolitica. Ham and Kim SpringerPlus (2016) 5: 1526.Ncbi

28. Daniela Batovskaya, Iva T. Todorova, Iva V. Tsvetkova, Hristo M. Naydensky. Antibacterial study of medium chain fatty acids and their 1-monoglycerides: individual effects and synergistic relationships. Pol J Microbiol. 2009; 58 (1): 43-7. Pubmed

29. Harry J. Preiss, Bobby Echard, Azad Dadgar, Nadim Talpur, Vijaya Manohar, Mary Enig, Debasis Bagchi, Kass Ingram. Effect of essential oils and monolaurin on Staphylococcus aureus: in vitro and in vivo studies. Toxicol Mech Methods.2005; 15 (4): 279-85. DOI: 10.1080 / 15376520590968833 Pubmed

30. Gok A., Nedzwiecki A., Rath M. In vitro evaluation of antibacterial activity of phytochemicals and trace elements against Borrelia burgdorferi and Borrelia garinii. J Appl Microbiol. 2015; 119 (6): 1561-72. DOI: 10.1111 / jam.1297. Ncbi

31. Rajesh Arora, R. Chawla, Rohit Marwa, P. Arora, 3 R. K. Sharma, Vinod Koshik, R. Goel, A. Kaur, M. Silambarasan, RP Tripati, JR Bhardwaj. Opportunities for Complementary and Alternative Medicine in Prevention of the Novel h2N1 (Swine Flu) Pandemic: Preventing Potential Disasters in the Inception.Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2011; 2011: 586506. Published online October 13, 2010 doi: 10.1155 / 2011/586506. Ncbi

32. Shari Lieberman, Mary J. Enig, Professor Harry G. Preiss. A review of monolaurin and lauric acid: natural virucidal and bactericidal agents. Alternative and Complementary Therapies Vol. 12, no. 6 Liebertpub

33. Dalia Selim, Emily Chen, Bruna Benso, Vanessa Pardee and Ramiro M. Murata. In vitro evaluation of the antifungal activity of monolaurin against Candida albicans biofilms.PeerJ. 2016; 4: e2148. Published online, 2016 June 22. Doi: 10.7717 / peerj.2148. PMCID: PMC4924139. PMID: 27366648. Ncbi

34. Gudmundur Bergsson, Johann Arnfinnsson, Olafur Steingrimsson, Halldor Tormar. Destruction of Candida albicans in vitro by fatty acids and monoglycerides. Chemother Antimicrobial Agents. 2001 Nov; 45 (11): 3209-3212 DOI: 10.1128 / AAC.45.11.3209-3212.2001. PMCID: PMC90807. PMID: 11600381 Ncbi

35. Christie L. Strandberg, Marnie L. Peterson, Ying-Chi Lin, Melinda K.Park, David J. Chase, Patrick M. Schlivert. Glycerol monolaurate inhibits Candida and Gardnerella vaginalis in vitro and in vivo. Chemother Antimicrobial Agents. Feb 2010; 54 (2): 597-601 Published online December 14, 2009 doi: 10.1128 / AAC.01151-09. PMCID: PMC2812150. PMID: 2000877 Ncbi

36. C. J. The Witcher, R. P. Novick, P. M. Schlivert. Modulation of the proliferation of immune cells by glycerol monolaurate. Wedge Diag Lab Immunol. 1996 Jan; 3 (1): 10-3. Ncbi

37.Hamid Rabb. T-lymphocytes as a bridge between the innate and adaptive immune systems: implications for the kidneys. Kidney Int. June 2002; 61 (6): 1935-46. DOI: 10.1046 / j.1523-1755.2002.00378.x. Pubmed

38. Shari Lieberman, Ph.D., Mary G. Enig, Ph.D., Harry G. Preuss. Review: Monolaurin and Lauric Acid. Natural virucidal and bactericidal agents Liebertpub

39. Etienne Croto, Christian-Alexander Castellano, Marie Ann Richard, Melanie Fortier, Scott Nugent, Martin Lepage, Simon Duchenne, Kevin Whittingstall, Eric E Turcotte, Christian Bocti, Tamas Fulep, Stephen Kunnein.Medium chain ketogenic triglycerides increase energy metabolism in the brain in Alzheimer’s disease. J Alzheimers Dis. 2018; 64 (2): 551-561. DOI: 10.3233 / JAD-180202. Pubmed

40. M-P St-Onge, H. Jones. The increase in fat oxidation with the consumption of medium-chain triglycerides compared to long-chain triglycerides is associated with lower initial body weight and greater loss of subcutaneous adipose tissue. Clinical trial. 2003 December; 27 (12): 1565-71. Doi: 10.1038 / sj.ijo.0802467. Pubmed

41. Vermén M Verallo-Rowel, Kristine M Dillague, Bertha Syah-Tjundawan. New antibacterial and emollient effects of coconut and olive oil for atopic dermatitis in adults. Pubmed

42. Shari Lieberman, Mary G. Enig, and Professor Harry G. Preiss. Review of monolaurin and lauric acid – natural virucidal and bactericidal agents. Alternative and Complementary Therapies 12, no. 6 Liebertpub

43. Zeinab Hassanein, Fahmi Eman Ali, Ibrahim Amira, H.Mohamed. Effect of medium-chain saturated fatty acids (monolaurin) on cytokine levels in experimental animals with Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia lamblia infections. Article Number – 0C0410F43049 Vol.8 (4), pp. 106-114, January 2014 Academicjournals

44. Effect of essential oils and monolaurin on Staphylococcus aureus: in vitro and in vivo studies. July 2005 Mechanisms and Methods of Toxicology 15 (4): 279-85. Pubmed

45. Hui Zhang, Heven Wei, Yinan Cui, Guojun Zhao, Fengqin Feng.Antibacterial interactions of monolaurin with commonly used antimicrobial agents and food ingredients. J Food Sci. September 2009; 74 (7): M418-21. DOI: 10.1111 / j.1750-3841.2009.01300.x. Pubmed

46. Gitanjali Reddy Belum, Viswanath Reddy Belum, Sri Krishna Chaitanya Arudra, B.S.N. Reddy. Jarisch-Herxheimer reaction. Review of Travel Med Infect Dis. July-August 2013; 11 (4): 231-7. DOI: 10.1016 / j.tmaid.2013.04.001. Epub 2013 28. Ncbi

47. Roland Nau and Helmut Eiffert.Modulation of the release of proinflammatory bacterial compounds by antibacterial agents: a possible effect on the course of inflammation and outcome in sepsis and meningitis. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2002 Jan; 15 (1): 95-110 DOI: 10.1128 / CMR.15.1.95-110.2002. PMCID: PMC118062. PMID: 11781269 Ncbi

48. Aiden Hagikia, Stephanie Joerg, Alexander Dusha, Johannes Berg, Arndt Manzel. Dietary fatty acids directly affect the autoimmunity of the central nervous system through the small intestine.Erratum Immunity 2016 April 19; 44 (4): 951-3. DOI: 10.1016 / j.immuni.2016.04.006. Linkinghub

L-Lisine and monolaurin for viruses and immunity from Solaray!

DISCOUNT 25%!

L-Lisine and monolaurin from Solaray:
Solaray-L-Lysine-Monolaurin-1-1-Ratio

An excellent remedy against viruses and for strengthening the immune system!

Monolaurin is an organic compound from lauric acid obtained from coconut.

Effective for diseases caused by viruses: ARVI, various influenza viruses, herpes, cytomegalovirus, mononucleosis, Epstein-Barr virus and fungal: candidiasis, nail fungus, ringworm, chlamydia, etc. does not completely cure this bacteria, but suppresses it). With lamblia and other parasites, it is good to drink it on drink to consolidate the result after the main course, because monolaurin not only enhances immunity, but also strengthens the body as a whole.
Monolaurin is also useful for improving the digestive tract, eliminates bloating, flatulence, etc.

Monolaurin is not addictive, it does not have a withdrawal syndrome, it does not kill beneficial bacteria in the body and does not disturb the intestinal microflora!

This supplement contains not only monolaurin, but also the amino acid L-Lisin , which has a strong antiviral effect and is one of the most effective agents against various types of herpes virus (lysine blocks the activity and reproduction of herpes viruses).But these are not all the beneficial properties of lysine, it also helps better absorption of calcium in the body, normalizes metabolism, and helps in the fight against stress and depression.

There are 60 capsules in a jar, enough for a month of taking.

I used to buy just monolaurin, and lysine separately, but it is in this product that both components are contained in good, working dosages, so it is much more profitable to buy it than monolaurin and lysine separately.

I ordered the supplement in winter, when I caught an incomprehensible virus, the tests did not really show anything, but the doctor suspected either a kind of herpes infection or mononucleosis.She prescribed me an expensive antiviral agent, but at first I began to drink just monolaurin, which I had in my medicine cabinet, and then, when this drug came, I began to take it. I drank 2 capsules a day with food for a month. 2 weeks after taking the test, the tests returned to normal, although before that they were very bad (high ESR, etc.).

Previously, we took monolaurin with our teenage son during the flu epidemic, and recovered very quickly, unlike our friends, who suffered much heavier flu (I’m talking about ordinary monolaurin, without lysine).I know that it is given to children as well, but I haven’t given it to my daughter yet.

I consider Monolaurin to be my find, I am buying it already 4 times (with lysine for the first time)!

Capsules are not small, but easy to swallow.

If my feedback is useful to you, then I will be grateful to you for using my code RNQ198 , which will give you a 5% discount!
Read more of my community reviews here: pinkorhideya

I’m @pinkorhideya on Instagram

Read more about my health supplements here: Digestive Probiotics 9000 systems and for immunity Culturelle
Effective and effective probiotics Lactobif with cranberry
Supplement for immunity with vitamins D3 and C, zinc and selenium for $ 1!
About vitamin D3 from Gummiology
About beneficial magnesium in chelated form from Nature * s Answer

[this entry is only for those who pro_heicherb]

02:13 pm – [this entry is only for those who pro_aicherb]
our monolaurin appeared, girls – the best with zinc and a high dose, it is cheaper than everyone else – she switched to it instead of Solareyevsky, it feels like he is quicker to help and in general)
mine in the photo

lies here
grab and have !
Monolaurin – I would not know what it is if it were not for a detailed review there on the site from an advanced user, here I am copying it here:
Dr. Mary ENIG, nutritionist / biochemist, one of the world’s leading authorities on fats and oils, says:
“About 50 percent of the fatty acids in coconut fat are lauric acid fats.Lauric acid is converted to monolaurin in humans or animals.

Monolaurin is an antiviral, antibacterial, and antiprotozoal monoglyceride and is used by the human or animal body to break down the lipid membranes of viruses such as HIV, herpes, cytomegalovirus, influenza, various pathogenic bacteria including Listeria and Heliobacter pylori, and protozoa such as Giardia lambia.

Several studies have also shown some antimicrobial effect of free lauric acid “In studies conducted at the Respiratory Virology Department, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, monolaurin was effective against 14 DNA and RNA strains of human enveloped viruses in culture cells.These include influenza, SARS, measles, Newcastle, coronavirus, herpes simplex types 1 and 2, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and cytomegalovirus. (Monolaurin does not affect non-enveloped viruses such as polio, encephalitis virus, coxsachie, or smallpox.) In addition to antiviral effects, it has antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae, Group A, F and G streptococci, Chlamydia, H. pylori, and against yeasts and fungi, as well as Candida and ringworm.Monolaurin is one of the most popular nutrients that are effective against various viruses. It is believed to interact with lipids and phospholipids, which form the envelope of the virus, causing it to disintegrate. Studies show that monolaurin is effective against the following viruses:
• Human immunodeficiency virus HIV-1, HIV +
• Measles virus
• Herpes simplex virus-1
• Herpes simplex virus-2
• Herpes viridae (all)
• Human lymphotropic viruses (type 1)
• Vesicular stomatitis virus
• Cytomegalovirus
• Epstein-Barr virus
• Influenza virus
• Pneumonovirus
• sarcoma virus
• syncytial virus

Recommendations for the use of Monolauril: colds
Better protection against viruses diseases – good nutrition, ensuring the normal functioning of the immune system, as well as the use of a complex of antiviral vitamins at the first sign of influenza.The most important components of the antiviral program are Monolaurin, as well as vitamins C and A, zinc, oregano oil and olive leaf extract, you can add Vitagmal, Trifitol, Grapefruit extract, Neem.

At the first signs of a viral infection, you need to take Monolaurin: on the first day, I recommend taking 2 to 4 capsules of 550 mg each, and when the disease begins to subside – 1 to 2 capsules a day.
recommendations for use: For those who feel that they have contracted a viral infection: 550 mg capsules – take 3 monolaurin capsules on an empty stomach, in the morning, in more severe cases, 3 more at night.Children can also take monolaurin at a reduced dose. If you are giving monolaurin to children (or adults) who have difficulty swallowing the capsules, you can pop open them and sprinkle monolaurin in something like applesauce or yogurt.

Now you know)
remember in the heat of consumption that a 5% discount on the entire order can be obtained by entering SNB732 in the basket window and clicking “apply”

Nature’s Life, Monolaurin and zinc, 90 vegetarian capsules

Read a review of a dietary supplement that can increase immunity, as well as treat viral, bacterial and fungal infections, including herpes and thrush, plus it is used to reduce weight and improve skin condition.

I will not make loud statements that monolaurin is a magic pill for many diseases, but I note that it has the GRAS status (generally recognized as safe), according to research it is able to suppress some types of viruses with lipid membranes that infect humans and animals: influenza and coronavirus, cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex viruses (type 1 and 2), etc.

Please note that the price of this supplement remained the same as last year !! For the rest of the monolaurin from the site, the price was raised, including a similar one of the same brand, but without zinc.Screenshots under the cut.

Nature’s Life, Monolaurin & Zinc, 90 Vegetarian Capsules

Monolaurin is a compound of lauric acid and glycerin.

Glycerin is a polyhydric alcohol with emollient and moisturizing properties, and lauric acid is a fatty acid found in coconut oil and also in breast milk (it helps protect the baby’s body from disease). Lauric acid has strong antibacterial, antiviral and antifungal activity, improves immunity, protects the body from various diseases and infections.

According to research, monolaurin suppresses some types of viruses with lipid membranes that infect humans and animals: influenza and coronavirus, cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex viruses (type 1 and 2), measles, sarcoma, Epstein-Barr, HIV-1 and HIV +, various yeasts and other fungi, incl. causing ringworm and candida (Candida albicans), which can multiply uncontrollably in the mouth, intestines, as well as in the female reproductive system and cause thrush. In all these pathogens, monolaurin destroyed the protective membrane, thereby causing irreparable harm to the viruses.

Monolaurin is an antiparasitic agent – it destroys lamblia (Giardia lamblia), and can also help in the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease, plus it helps to control body weight and helps to stop skin infections, therefore it can be useful for treating acne.

Here’s an interesting theory. In practice, we take it for prophylaxis. This monolaurin, with the addition of zinc (it strengthens the immune system) was not in stock for a long time, and as soon as it appeared – I typed it 🙂 For myself and my family, as well as for a doctor friend who is now working in a covid hospital.We accept 1 piece in the morning.

Please note that this monolaurin is on sale at last year’s price! These two supplements cost almost the same a year, with zinc a little more. In the spring, the price for all monolaurin on the site was raised, but not for an addition from my review. A plus!! when buying two or more jars, a quantity discount is added, and do not forget about the promo code BFSALE12, which gives a 12% discount on the entire basket. In general, nowadays this supplement can be bought very profitably.

Nature’s Life, Monolaurin, 90 Veggie Caps – Same Supplement, Only Zinc Free.

Whether or not to take this supplement is up to everyone to decide. But personally, I think that it will definitely not be superfluous in a home first-aid kit, there are so many admiring reviews on iHerb.

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Body cleansing / treatment course: anna_montenegro – LiveJournal

Monolaurin – The course of cleansing / treatment of the body

Microbiologists first discovered monolaurin when they studied breast milk to determine the substances that protect children from various infections.
The fatty acids in breast milk were found to have antimicrobial effects, but one of them, lauric acid, was found to be the most active.
Lauric acid is a medium chain fatty acid found in human breast milk (6.2% total fat), but even more in coconut oil (47.5% by weight).

Monolaurin has the greatest activity against lipid-coated bacteria and viruses.

Start a purification course with monolaurin , if there are no diagnosed (or strongly suspected) problems with pathogens, then a month of 2 capsules is enough.If you need to intensively cleanse (heal), then you can take monolaurin for two months, 3-4 capsules (2000 mg per day).

So what is this component and how is it useful for humans? Monolaurin is a monoester of lauric acid (a fatty acid found in coconut oil and found in breast milk). Monolaurin or lauric acid, a component of coconut oil and mother’s milk, is a powerful immune booster.

How it works:

Dissolves the lipids of the membrane of microorganisms, destroying the viruses of HIV, measles, herpes and cytomegalovirus, staphylococcus. At the same time, it does not kill good microorganisms and bacteria of our digestive system, unlike antibiotics.

In addition, it suppresses the effects of the herpes virus.

Diseases for which the use of drugs with monolaurin is recommended:

• HIV diseases type -1, +. The lipid envelope of the virus is destroyed, after regular use clinical tests show a significant decrease in the concentration parameters of this virus in human blood
• Cytomegalovirus is the main cause of most childhood diseases
• Regularly mutating influenza viruses
• Herpes type viridae.The studies performed have revealed the effective effect of the substance on all species of viridae
• Herpes simplex-1, -2
• Lymphotropic viruses of the first type
• Vesicular viral stomatitis
• Viruses: Visna, Epstein-Barr, sarcomas, syncytial, Pneumonoviru
• Staphylococcus aureus
• Chlamydia
• Helicobacter pylori (Suppresses, but does not cure)
• Streptococcus groups A, F, G and agalactiae
• Ringworm
• Candidiasis
• Giardia and other parasites

Monolaurin has no effect on viruses that do not have an envelope in the cellular structure.

Some good Monoluarin with iHerb:

  1. Ecological Formulas with Inosine 600mg-90 Capsules ,
  2. Solaray 500mg – 60 Capsules,
  3. Nature’s Life 990mg – 90 Capsules,
  4. Monolaurin with Inosine 300mg – 90 capsules
  5. Nature’s Life Zinc 936 mg – 90 Capsules

About the dosage of monolaurin.
By annotation – 1 capsule 2 times a day, on an empty stomach with a glass of water or with meals.

The course is a month and a half. For serious diseases, the course is up to 4 months – as with Lyme disease and HIV.

Therapeutic dose up to 2000 mg. per day, in the case of especially evil and resistant pathogens – 2 capsules twice a day.
If you feel that you are ill with acute respiratory infections – 3 capsules at once, if this morning, then 2 more in the evening, in the acute period, 2 twice a day, drink until you recover, or drink for a month’s course, if you have never done this

Consult your healthcare practitioner before starting dietary supplements

AQA5484 – 5% discount on the entire order for regular and new customers
(the discount is always valid, summed up with other promotional codes)

Other promo codes for iHerb, with which you can increase the discount See HERE

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