Mri side effects symptoms: Toxicity & Nephrogenic Systemic Fibrosis
Toxicity & Nephrogenic Systemic Fibrosis
People who undergo an MRI scan with a gadolinium-based contrast agent, or GBCA, may experience coldness at the injection site, altered taste or the sensation known as pins and needles, depending on the brand of drug used.
A 2016 study in Magnetic Resonance Imaging found headaches, bone and nerve pain, and skin thickening were the most commonly reported reactions in patients that were presumed to have gadolinium toxicity. In the study of 42 people with symptoms, brain fog and headaches lasted for more than three months in 29 people.
Vomiting can occur with less than 1 in 100 injections, according to Inside Radiology. Between 1 and 4 in 100 will notice mild nausea or a headache.
Studies and adverse event reports submitted to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) link GBCAs to nephrogenic systemic fibrosis, a serious condition that causes skin tightening. In the most serious cases, nephrogenic systemic fibrosis can cause thickening or scarring of the internal organs, which could lead to death. This side effect appears mostly in patients who had pre-existing kidney conditions, and has been estimated to occur in about 4 percent of patients with severe kidney disease that receive GBCAs.
New warnings from the FDA, added in 2018, say gadolinium can stay in the body for months to years after receiving these drugs during an MRI scan. It can build up in bone, brain and kidney tissue. This is known as gadolinium retention.
Did You Know?
Gadolinium may remain in the body for months or years.
Toxicity is a side effect of GBCAs that can occur within hours after undergoing an MRI scan with one of these contrast agents. Or it can manifest years later in people who have gadolinium buildup in their bodies.
Symptoms vary from person to person. The severity ranges from mild to severe.
- Pain in the bones or joints
Burning or “pins and needle” sensations in the skin
Vision or hearing changes
Changes to the skin, such as thickening or discoloration
Nausea, vomiting, or diarrhea
Causes and People at Risk
Linear GBCAs are more likely to cause toxicity than macrocyclic agents, based on their structure. These are the two types of GBCAs available in the U.S.
A 2016 study review published in Biometals suggested one linear GBCA called Omniscan caused skin lesions, skin thickening and cell swelling in rats. Scientists linked the lesions to high gadolinium concentrations in the skin, liver and femur.
Another study published in 2004 in Investigational Radiology showed Omniscan, a linear GBCA, left 2.5 times more gadolinium in human bone than ProHance, a macrocyclic agent.
People who have multiple MRIs with GBCAs potentially increase the risk for toxicity.
Other patients at greater risk of these problems are pregnant women, people who have kidney problems, people with conditions that cause inflammation, or children, according to the FDA.
Testing and Treatment
Few doctors understand this type of toxicity, and there are few methods to test for it. The main tests are urine and blood tests. However, according to an article in Radiology in 2018, normal ranges have not been defined for each GBCA, and these methods need to be tested and standardized before they can be used as a reliable technique for monitoring gadolinium levels.
Chelation is a treatment that can be used to remove toxic levels of heavy metals from the body, although it has not been well studied as a treatment for gadolinium toxicity. Chelation is a process where doctors administer chelating agents to patients. These agents bind gadolinium and remove it from the body through the kidneys.
Health providers may administer chelating agents through an IV, with a pill, as a suppository under the tongue or through a rectal suppository.
Because this type of toxicity may cause pain in the bones, skin or joints, some people use some type of pain relieving medication.
Some patients may respond to treatment involving immune system modulation, although this proposed benefit appears to be theoretical and has not been tested in patients. Immune modulation is using drugs or other agents to weaken or strengthen the immune system.
Nephrogenic Systemic Fibrosis (NSF)
Nephrogenic Systemic Fibrosis (NSF) is a disease that causes hardening and thickening of the skin and internal organs, which could potentially lead to death. According to the Cleveland Clinic, most, if not all, cases are caused by exposure to GBCAs.
Patients who developed the condition who had not been exposed to a GBCA in an MRI were exposed to gadolinium in another way, such as another test, surgery, an injury or an infection. Although the exact mechanism for how the chemical element causes the condition is not known, the risk increases with use of linear gadolinium, and as more gadolinium is administered overall.
Researchers consider the disease to be a rare but serious side effect of GBCAs. These drugs carry a boxed warning that says people with kidney problems are at risk for the disease.
About 4 percent of people with serious kidney problems develop the condition after exposure to the chemical element. At least 30 percent of cases are expected to result in death.
The FDA first alerted the public about the link between GBCAs and NSF in 2006. The agency advises against using GBCAs in certain patients with acute or chronic kidney problems.
Researchers have not reported NSF in patients with normal kidney function after receiving GBCAs.
About 4 percent of patients with severe renal insufficiency following exposure to GBCAs develop NSF. Close to 31 percent of NSF cases end in death.
Gadolinium Deposition Disease (GDD)
GDD is a relatively newly proposed condition, and it resembles NSF. However, GDD specifically occurs in people with normal kidney function.
Scientists think people who get GDD have a genetic abnormality that makes it difficult for their bodies to get rid of heavy metals; however, GDD is still being studied and agencies such as the FDA report that gadolinium deposition has not been directly linked to negative outcomes in patients with normal kidney function.
People who had normal or near-normal kidney function when they were injected with a gadolinium-based contrast agent but then developed toxicity symptoms are suing the drugs’ makers.
Please seek the advice of a medical professional before making health care decisions.
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Benefits and Risks | FDA
An MRI scanner can be used to take images of any part of the body (e.g., head, joints, abdomen, legs, etc.), in any imaging direction. MRI provides better soft tissue contrast than CT and can differentiate better between fat, water, muscle, and other soft tissue than CT (CT is usually better at imaging bones). These images provide information to physicians and can be useful in diagnosing a wide variety of diseases and conditions.
MR images are made without using any ionizing radiation, so patients are not exposed to the harmful effects of ionizing radiation. But while there are no known health hazards from temporary exposure to the MR environment, the MR environment involves a strong, static magnetic field, a magnetic field that changes with time (pulsed gradient field), and radiofrequency energy, each of which carry specific safety concerns:
- The strong, static magnetic field will attract magnetic objects (from small items such as keys and cell phones, to large, heavy items such as oxygen tanks and floor buffers) and may cause damage to the scanner or injury to the patient or medical professionals if those objects become projectiles. Careful screening of people and objects entering the MR environment is critical to ensure nothing enters the magnet area that may become a projectile.
- The magnetic fields that change with time create loud knocking noises which may harm hearing if adequate ear protection is not used. They may also cause peripheral muscle or nerve stimulation that may feel like a twitching sensation.
- The radiofrequency energy used during the MRI scan could lead to heating of the body. The potential for heating is greater during long MRI examinations.
The use of gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs) also carries some risk, including side effects such as allergic reactions to the contrast agent. See GBCAs for more information.
Some patients find the inside of the MRI scanner to be uncomfortably small and may experience claustrophobia. Imaging in an open MRI scanner may be an option for some patients, but not all MRI systems can perform all examinations, so you should discuss these options with your doctor. Your doctor may also be able to prescribe medication to make the experience easier for you.
To produce good quality images, patients must generally remain very still throughout the entire MRI procedure. Infants, small children, and other patients who are unable to lay still may need to be sedated or anesthetized for the procedure. Sedation and anesthesia carry risks not specific to the MRI procedure, such as slowed or difficult breathing, and low blood pressure.
Patients with implants, external and accessory devices
The MR environment presents unique safety hazards for patients with implants, external devices and accessory medical devices. Examples of implanted devices include artificial joints, stents, cochlear implants, and pacemakers. An external device is a device that may touch the patient like an external insulin pump, a leg brace, or a wound dressing. An accessory device is a non-implanted medical device (such as a ventilator, patient monitor) that is used to monitor or support the patient.
- The strong, static magnetic field of the MRI scanner will pull on magnetic materials and may cause unwanted movement of the medical device.
- The radiofrequency energy and magnetic fields that change with time may cause heating of the implanted medical device and the surrounding tissue, which could lead to burns.
- The magnetic fields and radiofrequency energy produced by an MRI scanner may also cause electrically active medical devices to malfunction, which can result in a failure of the device to deliver the intended therapy.
- The presence of the medical device will degrade the quality of the MR image, which may make the MRI scan uninformative or may lead to an inaccurate clinical diagnosis, potentially resulting in inappropriate medical treatment.
Therefore patients with implanted medical devices should not receive an MRI exam unless the implanted medical device has been positively identified as MR Safe or MR Conditional. An MR Safe device is nonmagnetic, contains no metal, does not conduct electricity and poses no known hazards in all MR environments. An MR Conditional device may be used safely only within an MR environment that matches its conditions of safe use. Any device with an unknown MRI safety status should be assumed to be MR Unsafe.
Adverse events for MRI scans are very rare. Millions of MRI scans are performed in the US every year, and the FDA receives around 300 adverse event reports for MRI scanners and coils each year from manufacturers, distributors, user facilities, and patients. The majority of these reports describe heating and/or burns (thermal injuries). Second degree burns are the most commonly reported patient problem. Other reported problems include injuries from projectile events (objects being drawn toward the MRI scanner), crushed and pinched fingers from the patient table, patient falls, and hearing loss or a ringing in the ear (tinnitus). The FDA has also received reports concerning the inadequate display or quality of the MR images.
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Do MRI Scans Have Side Effects? |
Having to get an MRI can seem intimidating, and when you aren’t sure what to expect the process can lead to anxiety. Here at Medical Imaging Express, we want to make your process as smooth as possible. Your experience should be as enjoyable as it can be. One of the biggest worries people have about MRIs is the potential side effects they may experience. While it’s good to be concerned about any medical procedure, MRI’s are a safe procedure and should cause little to no concern.
What Are The Side Effects Of An MRI?
Magnetic Resonance Imaging, also known as MRI scanning, is a painless type of scanning that uses magnetism and radio waves to produce images of body structures. This type of scanning does not involve x-ray radiation, and in return, there is no risk of exposure to radiation during an MRI.
There are no known side effects from an MRI scan. Patients with claustrophobia or anxiety may be given a sedative medicine to relax during the process and any medication can have side effects. Make sure to tell your doctor of any allergies you may have to avoid negative reactions to medication. If you are given sedation medicine, you may need to arrange for a ride home.
Once the MRI is complete, you are free to continue with your day as normal. While there are no side effects from an MRI, one of the biggest drawbacks is the amount of time they take. Most scans last anywhere from 30 to 90 minutes, in rare cases they last even longer. This time period can seem long, however, because you are not exposed to radiation, and there is no recovery period, the benefits often outweigh the drawbacks when considering an MRI.
Can Anyone Get An MRI?
Since the MRI scanning process uses magnetism, any patients with metallic materials on or in their bodies may be ineligible for MRI scans. These metallic materials can be a variety of things including surgical clips, artificial joints, metallic bone plates, heart pacemakers, metal implants, prosthetic devices, and metal chips. Also items such as metallic ear implants, chemotherapy or insulin pumps, bullet fragments, artificial heart valves, or other metallic materials. These types of materials can significantly distort the MRI images and risk the possibility of being moved by the magnet. If you are pregnant or have epilepsy, an MRI is not advised for you. Talk with your doctor, and be upfront about yourself to determine if an MRI is the right choice for you.
How Does Medical Imaging Express Help?
Unique to Medical Imaging Express, we have the only weight-bearing open-room MRI of its kind. This style of MRI offers relief from claustrophobia and gives unmatched patient comfort. Our open-style MRI allows you to look around the room, interact with others, and use headphones during your procedure. This gives anxiety relief to many patients, making the process even less stressful than a typical MRI scan.
We also offer the option of a standing MRI scan with our weight-bearing MRI machine. This machine allows us to scan patients in an upright or semi-upright position. This is beneficial to many patients that have difficulty laying down due to medical conditions or chronic pain. The natural, stand-up position that this style of MRI offers, allows you to get additional information that may not be possible to see in a traditional MRI.
With this knowledge, you can go into your MRI scan worry-free. Always make sure to listen to instructions given to you by your doctor before, during, and after a medical procedure. Here at Medical Imaging Express, we want to make your experience go as smoothly as possible, in a comfortable, open, and friendly environment. Read our other blogs to learn more about our services and what to expect. We are always happy to talk, so contact us with any questions or concerns you may have.
Here’s What to Expect Before, During, and After an MRI Scan
Getting an MRI scan probably doesn’t top your list of ways to spend your free time, unless you like lying in tubes that make loud and mystifying noises. Can’t relate!
Unfortunately, sometimes getting an MRI (which stands for magnetic resonance imaging) is just a medically necessary evil. In that case, you’ll have to schlep over to your local radiology clinic or hospital to spend some quality time inside a machine that lets doctors see what’s up inside your body. If the thought sends shivers down your spine, there’s some good news: MRIs often aren’t as scary as they seem.
In case you’re not familiar with the test, an MRI uses a magnetic field and radio waves to make detailed pictures of your insides.
When you’re inside an MRI machine, its magnetic field temporarily realigns hydrogen atoms in your body, according to the Mayo Clinic. Radio waves make these atoms create very faint signals—and those are used to make cross-sectional images. Those images are layered on top of each other to give doctors a really good view of the inside of your body that they can see from different angles.
Doctors will often turn to an MRI when they suspect you have an injury or illness that an X-ray, CT scan, or ultrasound won’t pick up, Mina Makary, M.D., chief diagnostic radiology resident at The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, tells SELF. “It provides excellent anatomical detail of the soft tissues, which is helpful for the evaluation of specific conditions,” he explains.
There is a huge range of issues an MRI can spot, including disk abnormalities in your spine, joint problems, tumors in various organs like your kidneys and ovaries, structural problems in your heart, and brain injuries, according to the Mayo Clinic.
You don’t usually have to do a ton of preparation before you get an MRI.
In most cases, you’ll make an appointment to have your scan done and just show up with zero prep work, Kerry L. Thomas, M.D., a radiologist at Moffitt Cancer Center, tells SELF. But if you’re undergoing a pelvic or abdominal MRI, your doctor may ask you to avoid eating or drinking for a few hours beforehand. Skipping food and beverages for a bit will improve the image quality by causing less movement in your gastrointestinal tract, Bachir Taouli, M. D., a professor of radiology and director of body MRI at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, tells SELF.
There are a few things that can mess with your test, which is why it’s so important to be upfront and honest about your health history.
If you have tattoos, the Mayo Clinic advises asking your doctor whether they might impact your test results, since some darker inks can contain metal. “The most important part of having an MRI is that you do not have any metal on for your scan,” Dr. Thomas says. “The machine is very a strong magnet, and metals can cause problems.”
It’s also important to tell your doctor if you’re pregnant or think you may be pregnant. Medical experts don’t understand the effects of magnetic fields on fetuses, and your doctor may recommend using an alternative test or postponing the MRI until after you give birth, the Mayo Clinic says.
Once you arrive at the appointment, you’ll need to remove all metal you might be wearing, like rings, earrings, or glasses and fill out a checklist to make sure you don’t have metal inside your body, like an artificial heart valve, pacemaker, or cochlear implants. Your doctor may also ask if you have a copper IUD (sold under the brand name ParaGard), since copper is a metal. While it’s safe to get an MRI when you have a copper IUD, the prescribing information recommends doing it at what’s known as 1.5 Tesla (the unit used to measure MRI strength), which isn’t as powerful as the 3.0 Tesla often used for MRIs, Dr. Taouli says. This is to avoid the (very minimal) chance of the magnet affecting the metal in the IUD.
Depending on why you’re having your MRI, you may need an injection of a contrasting agent beforehand.
In some cases, your doctor will want to perform an MRI with contrast, which means you’ll be injected with a contrasting agent like gadolinium right before your MRI. Gadolinium lights up when you get a scan and can help doctors get a better look at your brain, heart, and blood vessels. This can aid them in making a diagnosis of things like cancer or an inflammatory condition like multiple sclerosis, Suresh Mukherji, M.D., chairman of the department of radiology at Michigan State University, tells SELF.
The American College of Radiology notes that the use of contrast agents is “not completely devoid of risk,” pointing out that some people may have side effects ranging from minor discomfort to “rare severe life-threatening situations.” According to the ACR, the adverse event rate for gadolinium-based contrast media (GBCM) ranges from 0.07 percent to 2.4 percent, which includes mild reactions (like coldness or warmth, headache, nausea) to more severe allergic-like reactions.
Is There Any Reason I Shouldn’t Get an MRI?
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) doesn’t use X-rays, so there’s no radiation exposure. Yet this test isn’t safe for everyone.
There are a few reasons why you might need to avoid MRI and choose another test instead.
You Have Metal in Your Body
An MRI machine uses powerful magnets that can attract any metal in your body. If this happens, you could get hurt.
It can also damage equipment that’s implanted in your body — a pacemaker or cochlear implant, for instance. Also, metal can reduce the quality of the MRI image.
Let your doctor know before the test if you have any of these:
- An implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) or pacemaker
- An implanted drug infusion pump or an insulin pump
- Artificial joints, limbs, or heart valves
- Body piercings
- Cochlear implants (which help with hearing)
- Metal fragments, bullets, or shrapnel anywhere in your body
- Surgical clips, plates, pins, staples, wire mesh, or screws
- Tattoos (some inks contain metal)
You Have Kidney Problems
Some MRI scans use a contrast dye that contains the metal gadolinium. This dye helps your doctor see the MRI picture more clearly. Usually it’s very safe. But if you have severe kidney disease, the dye can cause problems. In that case, you might not get that dye made with gadolinium.
Rarely, the dye can cause what’s called “nephrogenic systemic fibrosis” in people with kidney disease. This condition causes thickened and hardened tissue to form on the skin, joints, and organs.
You Recently Became Pregnant
Although MRI doesn’t seem to harm a growing baby, it can raise the temperature inside your body. For this reason, you shouldn’t have this test during your first trimester, when your baby’s organs are developing.
You may need to wait to have an MRI until after your first 3 months of pregnancy or have a different test. Your doctor probably won’t use contrast dye at all while you’re pregnant.
If you have a newborn, an MRI might affect your ability to breastfeed. The makers of contrast dye say women should not nurse for 1 to 2 days after their test. Ask your doctor whether it’s safe for you to breastfeed or if you need to wait.
You’re Allergic to the Contrast Dye
The contrast dye can cause an allergic reaction in some people. Symptoms of a reaction include:
A more serious reaction to the contrast is very rare, but it can cause symptoms such as these:
You’re Afraid of Tight Spaces
A traditional MRI is an enclosed tube surrounded by a magnet. If you’re afraid of tight spaces (claustrophobic), you might not be comfortable inside the tube.
You don’t have to skip the MRI entirely, but you may want to talk with your doctor beforehand about taking medicine to relax you. Or, you can ask about whether an open MRI, in which the machine is open on all sides, is available.
You Can’t Lie Still
You’ll have to lie still in the MRI machine for 30 minutes or more to get a clear image.
If you’ve had a recent injury or surgery, or you have other health problems, it might be hard for you to lie still for the whole test.
Talk to Your Doctor
To avoid any problems, talk to your doctor or radiologist before your MRI.
Tell them about any devices you wear or medical conditions you have. Ask about the risks of having an MRI. Make sure any benefits to you outweigh potential problems.
MRI Scan | Procedure, Uses, Side-Effects | Tests & Health
What is an MRI scan?
MRI stands for magnetic resonance imaging. An MRI scan uses a strong magnetic field and radio waves to create pictures on a computer screen. It can show tissues, organs and other structures inside your body.
This image is an MRI scan of a brain. The person’s eyeballs can be seen at the top of the picture.
By Ptrump (Own work) via Wikimedia Commons
How does an MRI scan work?
Your body contains millions of hydrogen atoms. When you are in an MRI scanner:
- A strong magnetic field aligns particles called protons which are within the hydrogen atoms. All the protons line up in parallel to the magnetic field, like tiny magnets. (Normally the millions of protons all lie in random directions.)
- Then short bursts of radio waves are sent from the scanner into your body. The radio waves knock the protons from their position.
- When the burst of radio waves stop, the protons realign back into place. As they do so they emit radio signals. The protons in different tissues of the body realign at different speeds. Therefore, the signal emitted from different body tissues varies. So, for example, softer tissues can be distinguished from harder tissues on the basis of the signals sent.
- These signals are detected by a receiving device in the scanner.
- The receiving device transmits the signals to a computer. The computer creates a picture based on the radio signals emitted from the body.
What does an MRI scan involve?
The MRI scanner is like a tunnel about 1.5 metres long, surrounded by a large circular magnet. You lie on a couch which then slides into the scanner. A ‘receiving device’, like an aerial, is placed behind, or around, the part of the body being examined. This detects the tiny radio signals emitted from your body. When each ‘picture’ is being taken you need to keep still for a few minutes, otherwise the scan picture may be blurred.
By Jan Ainali (own work) via Wikimedia Commons.
The scan itself is painless. The whole procedure can take 15-40 minutes. It may be a little uncomfortable lying still on the couch for this time. Small children may need a general anaesthetic to keep them still long enough for the pictures to be taken. Where you lie is quite enclosed and some people may find this very unsettling. If you have a fear of confined spaces (claustrophobia) you should discuss this with your doctor before you go for the scan. Some parts of the country have access to ‘open’ scan machines. However, they are not widely available.
In some cases, an injection of a special contrast dye is given into the bloodstream via a vein on the arm. This helps to give clearer pictures of certain tissues or organs being examined.
The radiographer sits in the control room next to the scanner and observes through the window. However, you can talk to them, usually via an intercom, and you will be observed at all times on a monitor.
The scanner is noisy so you will be given some headphones or earplugs to protect your ears from the noise. Quite often you can listen to the radio through the headphones or bring a CD to listen to.
What is an MRI scan for?
An MRI scan can create clear pictures of most parts of the body. So, it is useful for all sorts of reasons where other tests (such as X-rays) do not give enough information required.
It is commonly used to obtain detailed pictures of the brain and spinal cord, to detect abnormalities and tumours. Even torn ligaments around joints can be detected by an MRI scan. So it is being used more and more following sports injuries.
Brain: MRI is the first-choice investigation for brain tumours, as it produces clearer images than computerised tomography (CT) and shows hard-to-reach areas of the brain. There is clear contrast between grey and white matter parts of the brain and this makes MRI the best choice for many other conditions, including multiple sclerosis, stroke, Alzheimer’s disease and epilepsy.
Musculoskeletal system: here, MRI is used to look at the spine – to assess joint disease and soft tissue tumours.
Gastrointestinal system: MRI allows non-invasive assessment of inflammatory bowel disease and bowel tumours. It can also look at problems in the liver and pancreas.
Blood vessels and the heart: this is called magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) and it generates pictures of the arteries to look for abnormal narrowing or vessel wall dilatations (those at risk of bursting). MRA is often used to evaluate the arteries of the neck and brain, the thoracic and abdominal aorta, the renal arteries, and the legs. It might also be used to assess congenital heart disease.
What preparation do I need to do before an MRI scan?
Usually very little. Your local hospital should give you information about what is required before you come for the scan.
The MRI scanner uses an extremely strong magnet, so people with certain types of medical implant cannot be scanned. This is because the magnet can potentially move medical devices with metal in them, or affect their function.
Therefore, before you enter the scanning area you should be asked if you have any medical devices in your body. You may have to fill in a safety questionnaire that asks about things that may contain metal. The following is not a definitive list but may help to remind you of the type of things radiographers need to know about:
- Internal (implanted) defibrillator or pacemaker.
- Ear (cochlear) implant.
- Surgical clips such as those used on brain aneurysms.
- Artificial heart valves.
- Implanted medicine infusion ports.
- Artificial limbs or metallic joints.
- Implanted nerve stimulators.
- Pins, screws, plates, stents or surgical staples.
It is also important to tell the radiographer if you have ever had any metal fragments lodged in your eyes or your body. In some cases you may need an X-ray before an MRI scan, to make sure you are safe to enter the scanner.
What are the possible side-effects of an MRI scan?
MRI scans are painless and thought to be safe. MRI scans do not use X-rays so the possible concerns associated with X-ray pictures and CT scans (which use X-rays) are not associated with MRI scans.
- Rarely, some people have reactions to the contrast dye which is sometimes used.
- Pregnant women are usually advised not to have an MRI scan unless it is urgent. Although the scan is thought to be safe, the long-term effects of strong magnetic fields on a developing baby are not yet known.
What can I expect after the scan?
There are no after effects from the scan. You can return to your normal activities as soon as the scan is over. The scan pictures are studied by a specialist who interprets them – a radiologist – who sends a report to the doctor who requested the scan. It is usual to have to wait for at least two weeks before hearing about your results. If there are any urgent findings, the specialist will be informed as soon as possible.
Feeling Sick After an MRI? This Could Be Why
UPDATE: Hickey Law Firm would love to help you and represent you because of this horrible substance that is being used. However, the federal court presiding over litigation from this has issued a ruling which makes that nearly impossible.
The defendants (including manufacturers and distributors of Gadolinium-Based Contrast Agents, “GBCAs”) filed a motion to exclude expert testimony that GBCAs cause injuries in people who had healthy kidney function prior to their exposure to GBCAs. The court granted the defendants’ motion. In doing so, the court referred to the Medical Imaging Drugs Advisory Committee convened by the Food and Drug Administration, which concluded that the medical and scientific evidence does not establish that GBCAs cause Gadolinium Deposition Disease (GDD). Importantly, the court stated that “every regulatory and medical organization to consider the question has found insufficient evidence to conclude that GBCAs cause GDD.” This order had, and will continue to have, a serious and negative effect on the likelihood of success for many potential Gadolinium toxicity cases.
For this reason, we are unable to represent you with your Gadolinium case.
If you’re feeling sick after receiving an MRI, you’re not alone. Many patients who received MRIs have come forward with the same claims of toxic side effects. It turns out that an element used to make the MRI results easier to read may be dangerous to the human body.
If you’re experiencing strange symptoms after your MRI, this could be why.
MRI Dyes Can Be Harmful, and Here’s How
As a rare earth element, one common ingredient of MRI dye, gadolinium, often faces scrutiny simply for the fact that it can cause a wide variety of issues in the human body. However, medical professionals will use gadolinium as an MRI dye for good reason: the element is a magnetic substance.
Traces of it will be mixed with a solution that is then injected into your bloodstream. The reason why professionals will do this is to conduct what is called a contrast MRI, which utilizes the magnetism to actually tell where and how much your blood is circulating throughout your body.
This allows X-ray techs to essentially see inside your veins and arteries. They get an accurate picture of your circulatory system as the MRI scan pulls with that magnetism and receives a very accurate read-out.
The problem is that you’re effectively allowing a metallic substance to circulate throughout your body. While everyone responds differently to this material, the side effects can be severe for those sensitive to it. And for some patients, gadolinium doesn’t leave the body, residing in the hair and skin.
Generally speaking, your system is capable of filtering all sorts of impurities out, but gadolinium can sometimes imprint and stay in your body from anywhere between two months, to six years, and even as long as you live.
As a result, many people with gadolinium poisoning suffer from:
- Generalized pain
- Muscle fatigue
- Skin pigment changes
- Eye problems
- Vision problems
- Blood clots
- Chronic fatigue
- Cognitive issues
- Difficulty swallowing
- Voice problems
- Low body temperature
- Itchy skin
There’s a reason the list of symptoms is so diverse and widespread. When you’re injected with gadolinium, it circulates throughout your entire body. That means you could experience a variety of symptoms all over.
Are You Susceptible to Gadolinium Poisoning?
If you have certain preexisting conditions that would target you as not a candidate for gadolinium, best make sure your doctor knows. Such conditions include:
- NSF (Nephrogenic Systemic Fibrosis)
- Kidney problems
- Other skin issues
Before you get an MRI, discuss your concerns about gadolinium beforehand with your doctor.
Consult an Attorney If You’re Feeling Sick After an MRI
Misinformation, or lack thereof, would be the precursor to disaster, especially in the medical field. If by chance you had an MRI done, check your records and find out if you had your MRI “with contrast.” Talk to a qualified lawyer, and determine whether or not there may be an issue, and in the event you start experiencing symptoms, it’s important to know that you can get compensation for it. It is, after all, your health that matters the most.
Written on behalf of John H. “Jack” Hickey by AskTheLawyers.com™
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for childhood cancer
- An appointment for an MRI begins with the patient and parent registering at the registration desk and awaiting a call for examination. It is important to arrive a few minutes early in order to have time to register.
- When it is time for the procedure, the MRI technologist or nurse will guide the patient and parent to the room that contains the MR system, or “scanner”.
- The MRI machine looks like a large donut with a tunnel in the middle.Inside is a pull-out padded table (sometimes called a bed). For the examination, the patient lies on the table and will have to remain in place while the MRI is being performed. Movement during the procedure will blur the resulting image, and it will have to be repeated. A child adaptation specialist can teach patients relaxation techniques. You can also listen to music or watch a movie using special glasses. For patients who find it difficult to stay still, sedation may be used to help them relax or sleep during the procedure.
- MRI is painless and neither magnetic field nor radio waves are felt. But the procedure is very noisy. Patients are given earplugs or noise-canceling headphones to block out noise and protect their hearing.
- During the procedure, the technologist goes to the next room and can see, hear the patient and talk to him. The patient can communicate with the technologist through two-way communication. Each childcare center has different rules, but usually the parent is allowed to be in the next room with the technologist.
- A standard MRI procedure takes 20–90 minutes, depending on the body part being imaged.
- After scanning, patients can return to normal activities if sedation has not been used. Patients who have received a sedative need to recover first.
In some cases, patients are injected with a contrast agent to make the MRI images appear clearer and more vivid. It is delivered through an intravenous catheter.If the patient does not already have a catheter or port system, the nurse will insert the catheter.
MRI usually uses gadolinium contrast agent. Gadolinium should not be given to women who are pregnant or to patients with an established allergic reaction to the substance or serious kidney disease. In addition, parents should inform the doctor if the patient has had heart disease, asthma, diabetes, or thyroid problems. Some patients may temporarily experience a metallic taste in their mouth after contrast is injected.A small proportion of patients experience side effects from contrast media, including nausea and pain at the injection site. Very rarely, patients are allergic to contrast media in the form of urticaria, itchy eyes, and other reactions. If this happens, a radiologist or other doctor can provide immediate assistance.
MRI of the abdominal cavity separately or together with the pelvic region
If the doctor prescribes an MRI of the abdomen or abdomen and pelvis, the patient may receive an intravenous (vein) injection of hyoscyamine (Levsin®).This medicine will decrease the mobility of your bowel during the MRI scan and make the image clearer.
Potential side effects of hyoscyamine (Levsin®) include skin redness, increased heart rate, mild abdominal pain, and constipation. These side effects are usually mild. Patients are not prescribed hyoscyamine (Levsin®) if they have certain medical conditions or are taking medication that may increase the chance of a bad reaction.
90,000 Side effects after MRI with contrast
Magnetic resonance imaging is safe and painless for the patient.The method does not require invasive manipulations, the exception is intravenous injection of the solution during the contrast procedure. The essence of MRI is to use the phenomenon of magnetic resonance: water molecules in cells change their position and line up in a special way under the action of a directed induction field.
The severity of tissue response depends on the saturation of the latter with moisture, loose structures provide an intense response, bones and cartilage give a weak signal. The information is read by detectors installed in the tomograph.
A sophisticated computer program converts the data into layer-by-layer images of the study area. Scanning is done in axial, sagittal and coronary projections; if necessary, the doctor reconstructs a 3D model of the examined area.
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To increase the information content of MRI, contrast enhancement is used. The patient is injected intravenously with a solution of gadolinium.Filling the vascular bed and intercellular space, the drug visualizes the nature of the blood supply to the area in question, shows the slightest changes in the structure of the anatomical formation. Side effects after MRI with contrast are rare and are associated with the characteristics of the patient’s health.
Benefits of having an MRI
The main advantage of magnetic resonance imaging is its high information content in assessing the state of internal organs and structures. The images obtained reflect changes in the shape, size, structure of anatomical structures.The method is used in diagnostics:
- inflammatory processes;
- degenerative-dystrophic changes;
- benign formations;
- ischemic events;
- primary malignant neoplasms and metastases;
- traumatic injuries of soft tissues, blood vessels, nerves;
- demyelinating diseases;
- anomalies in the structure of internal organs;
- vascular pathologies, etc.
Magnetic resonance imaging is used with insufficient information content of other types of instrumental examination.
Contrast MRI allows you to see neoplasms with a diameter of 3 mm, diagnosing neoplastic processes in the early stages. If there is a suspicion of pathological conditions of the vascular system, scanning makes it possible to determine the focus of damage, to suggest the causes of the disease, to clarify the nature of the process and the consequences of a violation of the blood supply.
Magnetic resonance imaging is effective in examining the brain and spinal cord. Tomograms show the slightest changes in neural structures, allowing you to timely determine the nature of pathological changes and choose the optimal method of treatment.
Contrast MRI of the brain
Popular “tales” about the dangers of MRI
An abundance of conflicting information about the procedure for magnetic resonance imaging is the reason for the increased nervousness of patients before the examination. Often there are negative reviews, which are based on a lack of understanding of the features of the method.
Some patients believe that the phenomenon of nuclear magnetic resonance has a negative effect on human health: it inhibits the functioning of the central nervous system, deteriorates the quality of blood, and causes changes in joints and muscles.This opinion is wrong. As a result of the research, the influence of the induction field on the state of internal organs and structures was not revealed. The resonance of hydrogen nuclei in water molecules does not affect the work of cells and passes without a trace after the end of the operation of the generator of the electromagnetic pulse.
The next myth about the dangers of scanning is the appearance of pain after MRI with contrast. A solution of gadolinium chelates is excreted from the body with feces and urine, this process takes no more than a day. The drug spreads along the vascular bed and penetrates into the interstitial space without affecting the functioning of cells.In a healthy person, the use of contrast enhancement during scanning does not cause pain. Deterioration in well-being can be triggered by existing pathologies.
MRI series of spine (sagittal and axial projections)
Popular misconception: doctors and X-ray technicians are behind a partition due to the negative effects of MRI. Complex equipment during operation is sensitive to third-party electromagnetic impulses. A computer, mobile phone, metal objects located near the device can distort the image and cause damage to the tomograph.Medical personnel are located in an adjacent room to exclude any extraneous impact on the operation of the device.
It is believed that the induction field used for scanning stimulates the growth of malignant tumors. There is no connection between the effect of a magnet and the processes of malignancy. As a result of MRI, formations that were previously unnoticed due to their small size can be detected. The method allows you to see the already existing tumors, if necessary, the doctor recommends a biopsy, on the basis of which the final diagnosis is made.
Harmful radiation exposure is another MRI myth. Magnetic resonance scanning is carried out without the use of ionizing streams. The study does not give dangerous radiation exposure and can be used in patients with contraindications to radiography.
Parents are unnecessarily afraid of having an MRI scan for a child at an early age. The study does not affect the growth and development of the body; restrictions on the contrast procedure are associated with the peculiarities of intravenous injections for children.
MRI photo of Ewing’s sarcoma
Magnetic resonance imaging is one of the most harmless types of hardware diagnostics. It is possible to prevent the development of undesirable consequences by observing safety rules during the procedure.
Side effects after MRI with contrast
Discomfort can be triggered by violation of individual restrictions. Contraindications to the appointment of MRI are:
- fixed metal prostheses, pins, implants, vascular clips, etc.;
- implanted electromagnetic devices;
- first trimester of pregnancy;
- tattoos made with ferromagnetic inks.
In the terminal stages of kidney and liver diseases, contrast enhancement is not used.
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Among the relative restrictions:
- tendency to allergic reactions;
- overweight patient (over 120 kg with abdominal girth over 150 cm).
Side effects of MRI with contrast are of different nature. Interaction of the patient’s existing metal-containing prostheses, tattoos, etc. with a magnetic field can be accompanied by unpleasant sensations: burning, itching, pain. Electronic devices fail when in contact with the tomograph.
Removing the staining solution from the body increases the burden on the liver and kidneys. In case of serious pathologies of the filtration organs, contrast MRI leads to the decompensation of these diseases.Systemic nephrogenic fibrosis and retention of gadolinium chelates in the body are extremely rare. Acute kidney damage is characterized by a sharp deterioration in the patient’s well-being.
The drug used for contrast enhancement is hypoallergenic, but with individual intolerance to the components of the solution, local reactions are possible: skin redness, itching at the injection site, tissue edema, rash.
Postoperative MRI of the head with contrast (in three projections)
Patients with claustrophobia are prone to panic attacks.There is a high probability of an attack occurring when you are in the confined space of the apparatus tunnel. Fear can provoke:
- abdominal pain;
- feeling of lack of air.
Similar side effects appear in patients with increased anxiety, unstable psycho-emotional background.
Headache (cephalalgia), nausea, weakness, palpitations, sweating during the procedure may indicate the presence of vegetative-vascular disorders.
Discomfort after magnetic resonance imaging is experienced by persons suffering from cervical osteochondrosis. Scanning with contrast takes about 30 minutes. During this time, the patient must remain motionless, which is accompanied by impaired blood flow in the great vessels. An increasing headache, tinnitus, weakness may appear.
People with cardiovascular diseases report negative consequences after MRI with contrast. Weakness, nausea, and an increase or decrease in blood pressure are possible. Side effects are associated with pathological changes in tone, vascular patency, increased permeability of the walls of veins and arteries.
Dyspeptic symptoms can be observed with overeating before the procedure. Contrast MRI is recommended after a light snack. Examination of the abdominal cavity and small pelvis is done on an empty stomach, the main meal is allowed 4 hours before the scan. But immediately before the procedure, it is advised to eat something light.
Tomogram of the pelvic organs in a woman (frontal projection)
How long do the side effects last?
Discomfort occurs during the procedure or within 1-1.5 hours after the administration of a contrast agent.The duration of the side effects depends on the cause.
Ailments caused by overeating or fasting before the procedure disappear within a few hours. Pain due to cervical osteochondrosis subside after the restoration of the patency of the great vessels. If untreated, cephalalgia returns and becomes regular.
If the deterioration in well-being is caused by cardiovascular pathologies, autonomic disorders, individual intolerance to a solution of gadolinium salts, the patient will feel an improvement as the contrast is removed from the body.The cleansing process takes 1-2 days, depending on the age and general health of the subject.
Elderly people, persons with metabolic disorders note the disappearance of side effects after 48-72 hours. Young, active patients fully recover within a day after the procedure.
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How to remove contrast from the body after an MRI?
Compliance with the drinking regime helps to speed up the process of cleansing the body.Nutritionists recommend drinking clean, still water.
Withdrawal of contrast occurs naturally, with the participation of the kidneys and liver. There is no need to stimulate the filtration organs. Eliminating confectionery, fatty, fried, spicy, salty foods from the diet helps to reduce the load and speed up the cleansing.
During the first day after the examination, doctors recommend avoiding overeating, stress, excessive exertion, it is advisable to limit smoking.
Is alcohol allowed after MRI with contrast?
Ethyl alcohol has a toxic effect, destroys liver cells, affects the functioning of blood vessels, irritates the mucous membrane of the gastrointestinal tract.Slight sedation resolves quickly. Patients who want to relieve excessive nervousness with the help of alcohol run the risk of increasing the intensity of side effects (headache, nausea, dyspepsia).
Drinking alcohol slows down metabolic processes, increases the load on the filtration organs and slows down the elimination of the “staining” solution. Doctors recommend not drinking alcohol after MRI with contrast. The limitation period depends on the patient’s condition (from 1 to 3 days).
What should I do if I feel unwell after MRI with contrast?
Preliminary preparation helps prevent potential negative effects of Magnified Resonance Imaging. With claustrophobia, increased nervousness, severe pain syndrome, the patient, on the recommendation of a doctor, takes sedatives and pain relievers.
If a person feels unwell during the scan, the panic button can be used. When pressed in a room occupied by medical personnel, a signal sounds, the procedure is stopped.
In the event that a patient becomes ill after an MRI with contrast, it is necessary to check the compliance with safety measures. The appearance of a metallic taste in the mouth, severe headache, nausea, weakness are the reasons for seeking medical attention. If necessary, the specialist will prescribe symptomatic treatment (analgesics, sedatives).
A latent pathological process can become the cause of the malaise. In this case, the doctor may recommend an additional examination to diagnose the disease.
Malignant brain tumor on MRI scan
Clinic “Academy of MRI” offers an additional discount to patients who have applied again. There are special prices for examination at night and in the direction of the attending physician. You can sign up for an MRI on the clinic’s website and by calling the contact number 8 (812) 648-23-49.
The medical center provides free consultations by phone, the patient is told about the features of magnetic resonance imaging.A conversation with a radiologist allows you to properly prepare for the procedure, which reduces the risk of negative consequences.
MRI of the brain – MRI Center
Magnetic resonance imaging or MRI is a modern non-invasive diagnostic method of research, which is based on the action of an electromagnetic field. This medical study allows you to examine organs and tissues layer by layer, to examine sections of any thickness and in any plane. The advantage of this method is that X-rays are not used.The pathology of the central nervous system is especially well diagnosed. Side effects with MRI of the head and cerebral vessels are minimal, even if the examination requires the introduction of a contrast agent.
MRI is a rather informative research method, with a small list of contraindications – pregnancy, pacemakers, the presence of ferromagnetic implants, metal bodies near the eye sockets. Features such as severe obesity or very tall stature, claustrophobia are relative contraindications.Currently, there are open-type MRI machines that allow examining a patient even with such characteristics of the body. An open-type tomograph has just been installed in our Center, we take patients weighing up to 250 kg, and those who are afraid of confined spaces suffer from claustrophobia.
In this case, the examinee must inform the doctor about implants, dentures, a pacemaker, or even about his fear of the procedure. The quality of the examination and his well-being during it will depend on this.
MRI of the head and brain vessels allows you to see the blood vessels and brain tissue. According to statistics, head injuries rank first among the reasons for the death of young and middle-aged people. Even with a successful outcome, but incorrect treatment, there is a possibility of losing the necessary functions of the body, therefore, having hit his head, the victim should definitely seek medical help! Only a comprehensive examination by a traumatologist, neurologist and examinations will make it possible to establish the correct diagnosis and choose treatment tactics.
MRI of the brain is prescribed for the following diseases:
- Ischemic and hemorrhagic strokes (where it happened and the extent of the lesion)
- Brain trauma (concussion, contusion, penetrating wounds)
- Complications after injuries and strokes (cysts, expansion of the ventricles of the brain)
- Pathology of the development of cerebral vessels (aneurysms, splitting of the vascular wall)
- Congenital pathology of the brain (absence of convolutions of the cerebral cortex, absence of lobes of the brain)
- Examination in case of unclear diagnoses, clarification of diagnoses.For example, with memory loss, changes in patient behavior, encephalopathy.
- Central nervous system infections (encephalitis, meningitis)
- Benign or malignant brain tumors, metastases
- Other diseases of the nervous system: multiple sclerosis, epilepsy, convulsions of unknown origin
Symptoms of concussion are varied and may appear within the first 12 hours after an accident! This can be – loss of consciousness, malaise, nausea, vomiting, visible damage to the head, headache, fever, drowsiness, loss of consciousness, palpitations, surges in blood pressure, pain with eye movement.Even if the symptoms do not appear, it is better to see a doctor for prevention. According to the MRI of the brain, the doctor will be able to more accurately prescribe the treatment, depending on the particular injury.
The situation is different with a contusion of the brain. There are three degrees of severity in this condition. Brain contusions are accompanied by changes on MRI: areas of local edema are visible, punctate hemorrhages in the cerebral cortex, limited subarachnoid hemorrhages are possible. Treatment should not be neglected in any case, because a severe degree can lead to paralysis or other severe dysfunctions of the body.Very often, severe contusion of the brain is accompanied by fractures of the bones of the skull.
Thus, among the usual methods of examination, such as a complete blood count or X-ray of the skull, MRI of the head and cerebral vessels is the most effective and sparing method of examining the structures of the brain. The doctor can prescribe an MRI in case of controversial situations, so as not to miss a concomitant pathology. Patients should not forget that a timely examination, which makes it possible to accurately diagnose and find the cause of impaired body functions, is also a prevention of complications.Accordingly, the percentage of fully cured patients is increasing.
Spending just a few minutes on high-quality, modern and safe MRI of the brain, a person saves hours that could be spent on other examinations, and also increases the chances of getting more correct treatment, and in this regard, the fastest recovery and return to the usual life …
Magnetic resonance imaging
Diseases of the pelvic organs are a common cause of reproductive disorders in women and men.Chronic endometritis (inflammation in the uterus) with hysteroscopy (examination of the uterine cavity with a special device) is determined in every third woman who underwent this study. In men, infections and inflammatory diseases of the pelvic organs provoke pathological changes in the sperm.
Before choosing a research method, it is worth understanding the scope of a particular type of diagnosis. Diagnostic methods have dissimilar principles of action with unique or repeatable pros and cons, indications and contraindications, characteristics and research potential.In complex clinical cases, combinations of types of diagnostics are also applicable to formulate an accurate diagnosis. The required and optimally shown type of examination is chosen by the attending physician, depending on the purpose of the examination.
Innovative MRI technologies make it possible to early diagnose diseases at the stage of the absence of pronounced symptoms, until the disease is defeated. The uniqueness of MRI in diagnostics of the pelvic organs (OMT) is that the device, using special software, displays an image of each organ layer by layer, showing it from different angles and projections.
MRI of the pelvic area is an effective and popular diagnosis. The results of this examination are actively used by urologists, gynecologists, reproductologists and coloproctologists. MRI does not use radiation, there is no harm to health. Thanks to tomography, without resorting to invasive methods and endoscopy, it is possible to assess the internal organs, check the vessels and lymph nodes in the pelvic area. In the department of radiation diagnostics of Medgard, the newest one and a half tesla high-field apparatus Siemens Magnetom Aera 1.5 T is installed, suitable for examining absolutely all organs and systems of a person.In addition to the high resolution of the images obtained, the tomograph has an increased carrying capacity – it is able to withstand the weight of patients up to 200 kilograms, as well as an extended “window” where the patient is placed – 70 cm instead of the usual 60 cm.
What does MRI of the pelvis examine?
MRI is used for women to study the condition of the reproductive organs (uterus and fallopian tubes, ovaries, vagina), as well as the rectum, bladder and tissues of the surrounding structures.
In men, the bladder, rectum, vas deferens and seminal vesicles are examined.
Prescribe MRI testing for suspected diseases of the internal organs of the small pelvis, pathology of organ formation, neoplasms, aplasia, metastases in the lymph nodes, hyperplasia of intestinal tissues, polyps. This study is also indispensable for latent injuries of the pelvic organs.
In the case of diagnosing OMT formations by other methods, MRI will clarify its nature (benign or malignant), determine its localization and tumor boundaries. MRI reveals even insignificant changes in the structures of the pelvic organs, which indicate an infection or tumor process.
The MRI procedure is more informative than computed tomography (CT) in the diagnosis of tumors, cysts, abscesses and other formations in the tissues of the pelvic region. Unlike ultrasound diagnostics (ultrasound), MRI gives a snapshot of deep sections of the tissues of organs, and with ultrasound of the small pelvis in patients who are overweight or obese, it is not possible to do this, because ultrasound does not propagate in a dense medium, fat deposits are an obstacle to it.
Only the attending physician determines the choice of the type of study in cases with an ambiguous picture of the course of the disease.The data obtained in the course of the study will help the specialist avoid an erroneous diagnosis and prescribe an effective treatment.
Indications for MRI of the pelvic organs
MRI diagnoses serious diseases of the female genital organs – endometritis and adnexitis, adenomyosis and uterine myoma, cystic formations and ovarian apoplexy, the prevalence of endometriosis and oncological formations of the pelvic organs.
Obstetricians-gynecologists and reproductive specialists of Samara Medgard prescribe MRI to women to identify the following problems and diseases:
neoplasms of OMT
to identify fluid in the pelvic cavity
adhesive process (more often before the planned operation to clarify the diagnosis)
to clarify the diagnosis (for diseases of the female genital organs and lesions of the urinary tract and intestines)
MRI diagnostics detects pathologies of the urinary tract and intestines in both men and women.
Contraindications for MRI scanning OMT
Patients with metal-containing devices in the body (pacemakers, pacemakers, artificial joints, intracardiac prostheses, insulin pumps) are not diagnosed with MRI due to the threat of burns and device breakdown. Also, Medgard’s doctors do not prescribe MRI to pregnant women, although there have been no cases of harm to the mother and child for more than 30 years of experience in MRI diagnostics.
For patients suffering from claustrophobia and other neurological or psychological ailments, the study is prescribed after special preparation (taking sedatives recommended by the doctor).
Preparation for MRI examination of the pelvic organs
A couple of days before the MRI, patients should follow a low-carbohydrate diet, exclude food and drinks that cause increased gas production. The bladder should be emptied half an hour before the visit to the MRI room. If your doctor recommends taking antispasmodic drugs, take 1-2 no-shpa tablets.
How is the MRI of the pelvic organs
The tomograph in Samara Medgard is installed in a closed type, it is a huge cylindrical tube surrounded by a magnet around its entire perimeter.The patient is placed on a mobile table, which is then placed in the center of the magnet. In open-type MRI machines, the magnet does not completely surround the patient, it is open at the sides. Usually these are low-field devices of lower power, the image quality of which is lower than that of high-field ones.
The magnet coil will be directed towards the pelvic area. The patient will have to remain immobile for half an hour (this is how long a standard study takes). A number of studies are carried out with the introduction of a contrast agent.The introduction of paramagnets (contrast) is required for in-depth visualization of organs with suspected oncological processes. With MRI with the introduction of a contrast agent, the duration of the study will increase. For the patient’s comfort, the staff will turn on a special lighting that will reduce the discomfort of being in a semi-enclosed space, as well as music.
The MRI procedure is painless, however some patients say they felt a pleasant warmth in the area where the magnetic coil was pointed.This is a standard tissue response when exposed to a magnetic field. Audio communication is turned on between the patient in a separate room in the device and the radiologist, the doctor sees and hears the patient. An alarm device is placed in the examinee’s hand to emergency call personnel in case of anxiety or problems.
90,000 Information on the dangers of PET / CT, hazards, radiation doses – PET-Technology
PET / CT diagnostics has been used in clinical practice for several decades, and during this period no negative effects on healthy tissues and organs of patients have been identified.
Radionuclide studies, including PET / CT, are carried out in accordance with radiation safety standards. For non-cancer patients, the established standard radiation dose is on average 1 mSv per year, but not more than 5 mSv per year. However, the side effects of PET / CT are not commensurate with the risk of disease that this diagnostic method can detect. Therefore, for cancer patients, no limit values have been established, but three factors are taken into account when prescribing a study:
- validity – the benefits of diagnostics should exceed the potential harm from radiation;
- optimization – all necessary measures must be taken to reduce radiation exposure;
- rationing – compliance with established safety standards and rules.
Irradiation of more than 200 mSv during the year is considered to be potentially dangerous.
In the centers of PET-Technology, the radiation safety standards and requirements for the appointment of radionuclide diagnostics are strictly observed. Examinations are carried out only if there is sufficient justification and when there is evidence.
PET / CT exposure: harmful or not
The radiation dose for PET / CT depends on the type of radiopharmaceutical and the size of the study, for example, when scanning a separate area, the radiation exposure is less than when scanning the whole body.With additional contrasting, the indicators will be slightly higher.
Modern standards reduce the harm from PET / CT:
- PET / CT is performed using ultra-short-lived radiopharmaceuticals, so the harm from PET / CT is minimal. Thus, the half-life of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose is 110 minutes. This means that after 20 hours the drug is completely destroyed and excreted by the urinary system.
- The dose of the drug is calculated individually for each patient according to international standards, taking into account body weight, height and age.This allows for accurate results with minimal radiation exposure.
- Modern PET / CT scanners are equipped with ASIR software and X-ray dose reduction filters. The ASiR high-definition image reconstruction method is needed for image processing, noise and defect removal. As a result, you can get a high-quality image after the examination without additional radiation to the patient.
- Proper preparation of the patient – drinking plenty of water before and during the examination improves visualization of organs and accelerates the excretion of drugs by the kidneys.
- The survey is carried out in compliance with the radiation safety standards according to NRB-99/2009 and OSPORB 99/2010.
Preparation for the production of a radiopharmaceutical at the Center for Nuclear Medicine in Ufa
Information content and safety of positron emission tomography
PET / CT is the optimal method of examination, as it combines positron emission tomography, which helps to see changes at the cellular level, and computed tomography to assess the structure of the organ. As a result of the diagnosis, the doctor receives more complete information about the pathological process, tumors from 6 mm in the largest dimension are visible in the images.
Positron emission tomography allows you to determine the stage of the disease and plan treatment, to reduce the radiation exposure to the surrounding healthy tissues during radiotherapy by accurately determining the localization of the tumor. It is indispensable in assessing the prevalence of certain malignant neoplasms, such as lymphoma, melanoma, and others.
Radiation therapy consists of targeted irradiation of the tumor. The goal of the doctor is to effectively act on the malignant focus, affecting healthy tissues as little as possible. To do this, you need to accurately determine its boundaries, which is not always easy.
PET / CT helps to distinguish malignant growth from unaffected tissues and to target it.
For example, in lung cancer, atelectasis is observed – the collapse of lung tissue due to the fact that air does not enter the alveoli.The tumor may be small and occupy only part of the atelectasis. But on computed tomography, the boundaries between the tumor tissue and the collapsed lung are not visible, so healthy cells are exposed to radiation. PET / CT helps to distinguish malignant growth from unaffected tissues and to target it. Likewise, positron emission tomography can determine the boundaries of glioblastoma against the background of cerebral edema.
Thanks to PET / CT, the doctor sees the exact contours of the lesion, as a result, the correct dose of radiation is delivered to a smaller area, which helps to maintain healthy tissue, which is vital when organs such as the brain and lungs are damaged.
How is PET / CT performed in children
Children are injected with a smaller amount of a radiopharmaceutical, the dose is calculated taking into account the age and weight of the child. It is usually difficult for a child under 3-5 years old to remain immobile during the diagnosis, fear of the procedure causes emotional stress, therefore, in 90% of cases, the examination is carried out under anesthesia. During this entire period, the patient’s condition is monitored by an anesthesiologist. Medication sleep is not provided in PET-Technology centers.
Positron emission tomography side effects
The state of health after PET / CT is not disturbed, not disturbed, however, with some diseases, it is difficult for the patient to be immobile for a long time.The most common side effects of the diagnosis are weakness and dizziness due to dietary restrictions and study duration. The drugs injected are non-toxic, prepared under sterile conditions and meet the requirements of state standards. If the doctor’s recommendations are followed, there are no negative consequences for PET / CT.
A 19-year-old female patient with a diagnosis of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Image on the left – the results of PET / CT studies to assess the prevalence of the malignant process (red areas) before starting treatment, on the right – the results after two courses of chemotherapy.
Is PET / CT harmful in pregnancy and breastfeeding
The harm of PET / CT during pregnancy is that the developing fetus is sensitive to radiation, malformations are possible. Therefore, future mothers are not prescribed a study or are prescribed for vital indications. Breastfeeding mothers are advised to stop breastfeeding for 24 hours after the procedure while expressing milk. During the day, the radioactive drug disintegrates and is excreted, so further feeding will not cause any harm to the child.
How often can the test be done
PET / CT is performed on the referral of the attending physician as many times as the physician deems necessary in each specific case. If it happens that the patient is often enough undergo various research methods, such as CT, X-ray or fluoroscopy, fluorography, bone scintigraphy, SPECT, you need to notify the doctor in advance, before prescribing PET / CT.
Usually three procedures a year are safe for a person.It is advisable to conduct them no more than once a quarter in order to minimize the harm from PET / CT examinations. In the presence of vital indications and on the recommendation of the attending physician, the examination may be carried out more often.
Frequently Asked Questions
90,000 reasons, symptoms, treatment in Moscow – Consultation and examination for encephalopathy – Neurology in Clinic No. 1
Examination and treatment
Dyscirculatory encephalopathy is a neurological disease with slow progression.It is characterized by a lack of blood supply to the vessels of the brain. As a result, its functions are impaired in the area of the affected foci. The disease occurs in both elderly and young patients. The sooner treatment is started, the higher the chances of a full recovery.
Get diagnosed with disculatory encephalopathy at Clinic # 1:
- Ophthalmologist consultation
- EEG, REG
- SPL of vessels
- Duplex scanning
With a one-time payment for services – 20% discount
Causes of the development of the disease
The brain tissue is highly dependent on the supply of oxygen to them.Without a constant blood supply, cells die no later than six minutes after cessation of nutrition. The main causes of discirculatory encephalopathy are:
- Pressure surges in hypertension, polycystic kidney disease, glamerulonephritis, Cushing’s disease.
- Cervical osteochondrosis.
- Neck injuries.
- Arterial malformations.
- Vegetovascular dystonia.
- Inflammatory processes in the vessels.
- Bad habits.
- Diseases of the endocrine system.
- Blood clots in the cerebral arteries.
- Frequent stress.
Symptoms and stages of development
Symptoms of the disease vary depending on the extent of the lesion:
- At the first degree of DEP, anxiety, vulnerability, irritability, frequent mood swings appear.The patient gets tired quickly, periodically complains of a headache. Memory deteriorates, fatigue is observed after physical exertion. Instability, unsteady gait, nausea may appear.
- The second stage is characterized by more serious symptoms, there are obvious cognitive impairments, movement disorders. The headache becomes frequent, the patient feels a noise in the head, lethargy, does not sleep well. There may be difficulties with swallowing, coordination, speech, hearing is impaired, tremors of the head and hands, convulsions appear.There may be flashes of light in front of the eyes.
- The third degree is accompanied by a serious impairment of coordination and is essentially vascular dementia. Vision, hearing and speech are impaired, the patient’s behavior is inadequate. There is a shuffling gait, constant tremors of the head and hands, fecal and urinary incontinence, convulsions.
Types of disease
The types of discirculatory encephalopathy are divided depending on the causes of its occurrence:
Which doctor should I contact?
Dyscirculatory encephalopathy is a neurological disorder. If alarming symptoms appear, you should consult a neurologist as soon as possible. The specialist will conduct an examination, make an accurate diagnosis and prescribe adequate treatment. The sooner help is provided, the more optimistic the prognosis for the patient.
Get diagnosed with disculatory encephalopathy at Clinic # 1:
- Ophthalmologist consultation
- EEG, REG
- SPL of vessels
- Duplex scanning
With a one-time payment for services – 20% discount
Timely accurate diagnosis is extremely important for vascular therapy and restoration of normal blood supply to the brain. Attending routine examinations with a neurologist will help to identify diseases at an early stage. Especially for older patients, this should be done regularly. Also, preventive examinations are indicated for patients from the risk group: hypertensive patients, diabetics, patients suffering from atherosclerosis. To identify cognitive impairments that are initially invisible to others and the patient himself, special tests allow. The neurologist may ask the patient to draw a dial, repeat the words spoken earlier.
Also used to make a diagnosis:
- MRI (allows you to identify foci of silent heart attacks – the most reliable sign of DEP).
- Consultation with an ophthalmologist.
- EEG, REG.
- Ultrasound diagnostics of blood vessels.
- Duplex scanning.
In the treatment of pathology, complex etiopathogenetic therapy is used. It is aimed at compensating for the disease, normalizing blood circulation, protecting nerve cells from oxygen starvation and ischemia. Drugs are used to lower blood sugar levels, normalize blood pressure, cholesterol.Nutrition is adjusted, the patient is assigned a special diet.
The operation can be prescribed in the case when the pathology is caused by a narrowing of the lumen of the artery, progresses rapidly and is accompanied by serious complications.
As a preventive measure, the normalization of lipid metabolism is used. Violation of this process leads to deposits on the inner surface of the vessels, which narrow the lumen and interfere with normal blood circulation. Also important is the fight against atherosclerosis, maintenance of normal sugar levels in patients with diabetes mellitus.
Make an appointment with a neurologist
Clinic # 1 in Moscow offers a competent consultation with a neurologist. The multidisciplinary medical center is located in the immediate vicinity of the Lyublino metro station. The clinic has all the modern technical capabilities for the successful diagnosis and treatment of many diseases. You can make an appointment by phone or through our website.
Moscow, st. Krasnodar, house.52, bldg. 2
+7 (495) 152-33-19
We work on weekdays and weekends from 8.00 to 21.00
Prices for consultation and appointment with a neurologist
|Service name||The cost|
|Free doctor’s consultation after MRI / CT||0.00|
|Initial appointment with a neurologist (consultation)||1270,00|
|Repeated consultation with a neurologist||810.00|
MRI with contrast in Moscow
This is a study, before the start of which the patient is injected intravenously with gadolinium-based dyes.The solution quickly spreads through the body with the blood stream and improves tissue visibility. This method of examination maximizes the clarity of the images, which allows you to study in detail the state of any organ.
When contrast-enhanced tomography is required
The need to use contrast agents arises in difficult clinical cases when there is suspicion of neoplasms. Tumors absorb the dye and change color in contrast medium. This makes it possible to determine the anatomical structure of organs, lymphatic pathways and features of blood flow and the exact size of the neoplasm.
Also indications for performance with contrast are:
- suspected inflammatory processes in the brain;
- the need to assess the state of the vascular system;
- the presence of an unknown infection;
- monitoring the patient’s condition after surgery;
- the need to determine the activity of the pathological process in multiple sclerosis.
An examination with a contrast agent is indicated if conventional MRI does not allow visualization of tissues with sufficient clarity to establish a diagnosis.
Advantages of MRI diagnostics at the Central Clinical Hospital of the Russian Academy of Sciences
- Safe, without radiation exposure, multiple repeated studies are possible
- High diagnostic efficiency.
- Experienced doctors guarantee the accuracy of the diagnosis and the quality of the drawn up protocol.
What contrast agents are used in the examination
For the manufacture of dyes, gadolinium salts and ions are used, which dissolve well in water and are quickly excreted from the body.The most popular are the following drugs:
Absolutely harmless dyes do not exist, but compared to the compounds used for CT and X-ray, MRI contrasts are much safer for the body and rarely cause side effects and allergies.
How is contrast-enhanced diagnostics
Before the magnetic resonance examination, the doctor examines the test results and the patient’s history to identify possible contraindications to the examination.MRI with contrast is not done for pregnant women, people with serious mental disorders, kidney failure and heart pathologies, as well as patients with metal objects implanted into the body (endoprostheses, pacemakers, etc.).
Get a specialist consultation or make an appointment
All metal items must be removed before starting the examination. After intravenous administration of contrast, the patient lies on a retractable table, which is placed in the tomograph chamber for 40-60 minutes.It is important to remain still during the procedure, otherwise the images will be blurry. After completing the examination, the doctor deciphers the data obtained.