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Night sweats weight loss: Fatigue, Night Sweats And Weight Loss (Unintentional)

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Night Sweats & Weight Loss in Women

Women must deal with hormone changes that may result in fluctuating weight and night sweats.

Night sweats are fairly common occurrences. This is especially true for women. Hormone fluxes are part of a woman’s life. They happen each month during menstruation and they increase as you get older. Many factors cause night sweats and for most women, the occasional bout is not a problem. However, night sweats with other symptoms, such as unexplained weight loss, may indicate illness. Night sweats with unexplained weight loss may be a flag that you have a health problem and need to see a doctor.

Night Sweats

Medically, night sweats are common and do not necessarily point to a health problem. Women may see an increase in night sweats as they age. The hormone changes with menopause are may be one reason night sweats occur. MayoClinic.com lists night sweats as a symptom of perimenopause, the time before cessation of fertility and menstruation. Other possible causes of night sweating include climate, nightmares or sleep apnea. On average, occasional night sweats are medically insignificant. However, when the sweats occur with other symptoms, such as weight loss, you need medical evaluation.

Weight Loss

When you start losing weight for no apparent reason, this may be a symptom of illness. To purposely lose weight, you must burn more calories than you eat. Unexplained weight loss occurs without a diet plan or increase in exercise. Age may be a factor for women, but menopause can produce a slowing down of metabolism and weight gain. When unexplained weight comes at the same time as night sweats, this can indicate illness. Unexplained weight is medically significant and requires evaluation.

Significance

Symptoms of illness are not always straightforward. If you are experiencing night sweats, assess the frequency, any sleep interruptions and your overall health. If you wake up with a fever, flu-like discomfort or are achy, the sweats may suggest you are getting sick. The common cold or influenza may trigger sweats. If you experience night sweating, a loss of appetite, unexplained weight loss, bloating and pain that does not go away over several weeks, consult a doctor to help determine the cause.

Considerations

Start a journal to track potential triggers for night sweating and weight loss. Take note of the temperature in the bedroom. Play with the environment settings to determine if changing the temperature eliminates the sweating. Monitor food and activity levels that may affect weight changes. Things to consider include appetite, activity level and food selections. Take the log with you to the doctor. This will help him examine lifestyle factors that may contribute to night sweats and weight loss.

Illness

Night sweats and unintentional weight loss are something that requires investigation. Illness may cause these seeming unrelated symptoms to appear. A tumor, tuberculosis, cancer and infection are just a few problems that can result in sweating and weight loss. The key to treatment of many diseases, such cardiac insufficiency or diabetes, is early detection. These two symptoms together might indicate a problem requires treatment.

Causes of Night Sweats in Women

Night sweats are a common complaint. In one study, 41% percent of people reported recently experiencing night sweats, but women tend to experience them more than men. Part of the reason for this difference is that night sweats tend to accompany perimenopause and menopause. Still, there are many other physiological processes and underlying health conditions that can cause night sweats in both men and women.

Although many people have woken up sweaty due to heavy blankets, night sweats are not caused by the bedroom environment. Instead, the cause is internal. Night sweats do not necessarily indicate that there is something medically wrong, but their association with some serious conditions means that it is important to speak to your doctor if you are concerned. Night sweats can also be uncomfortable and disturb sleep, as some people sweat enough to soak through their pajamas and bedding.

What Causes Night Sweats in Women?

While sweating might seem like a simple reaction to heat or exercise, it involves a complex system that is affected by many factors. Because of these factors, there is no single answer to explain what causes night sweats in women, since the cause differs from person to person. However, night sweats are often caused when a bodily process or underlying health condition impacts the thermoneutral zone.

The thermoneutral zone is the range of temperatures our body is comfortable with. Shivering is used to warm us up, and sweating is used to cool us down, so that we can stay within this range. While most people have a similar thermoneutral zone, it is a dynamic range that can be influenced by gender, health, and fitness. If your thermoneutral zone increases or narrows during sleep, this change can provoke night sweats.

If you are concerned about night sweats, or if they make sleeping difficult for you, your first step should be to speak with your doctor. Although not all night sweats are triggered by an underlying health condition, your doctor can help determine why you are sweating at night and if you require treatment.

Perimenopause and Menopause

Hormones can affect how we sweat. Up to 80% of women who are going through perimenopause or menopause experience hot flashes or night sweats. Together, these two symptoms are known as vasomotor menopausal symptoms and can cause discomfort and a lower quality of life for women who experience them.

Vasomotor menopausal symptoms can begin in perimenopause, the period of time before menopause that is characterized by fluctuating hormones. In addition to continuing throughout menopause, vasomotor menopausal symptoms can also reoccur for post-menopausal women.

Signs that you may be entering perimenopause or menopause include:

  • Changes to your menstrual cycle
  • Vaginal dryness or infections
  • Bladder incontinence or infections
  • Difficulty sleeping
  • Changes to your libido
  • Mood disturbances
  • Physical changes, including weight gain or loss

The severity of vasomotor menopausal symptoms can vary dramatically from person to person and within the same person over time. In addition to excessive and sometimes extreme sweating, menopause-related night sweats or hot flashes are often accompanied by red skin blotches, excessive sweating, and shivering. They usually last between half a minute and ten minutes, though their frequency can range from multiple times an hour to multiple times a month.

Your doctor can provide additional information and support if you believe you may be going through perimenopause or menopause. While these life stages are a normal part of the aging process, there are treatments that can help alleviate symptoms like night sweats. Depending on the severity of your symptoms and other factors, these treatments may include lifestyle changes, dietary supplements, and hormonal or nonhormonal medication.

Nonmenopausal Hormone Fluctuations

While menopausal hot flashes and night sweats may be more well-known, these symptoms can also be caused by the normal hormonal fluctuations of the menstrual cycle or pregnancy.

Some women experience night sweats at different stages of their menstrual cycle. Women with premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) often experience sleep disturbances and poor sleep quality. Other symptoms of PMDD include mood changes, anxiety, depression, loss of concentration, and lack of energy.

Over one-third of pregnant women report experiencing hot flashes or night sweats, and 29% continue to experience them after delivery. Pregnancy-related sweating appears to peak around week 30, while postpartum sweating peaks two weeks after delivery. Risk factors for pregnancy-related sweating include depressive symptoms and high body weight.

Premature Ovarian Insufficiency

Premature ovarian insufficiency can cause some women to develop menopausal symptoms, including night sweats and hot flashes, at a much earlier age than would be explained by perimenopause.

Previously called ovarian failure, premature ovarian insufficiency occurs when the ovaries stop working normally before the age of 40, causing menopausal symptoms and fertility loss. It is distinct from premature menopause, as women with premature ovarian insufficiency may still have occasional periods. Some women with premature ovarian insufficiency are also still able to become pregnant.

In addition to night sweats, symptoms of premature ovarian insufficiency tend to mimic menopause and can include:

  • Irregular periods or changes to your usual menstrual cycle
  • Libido changes, particularly decreased libido
  • Vaginal dryness and pain during sex
  • Poor concentration and irritability

Researchers are still trying to understand what triggers premature ovarian insufficiency, and 90% of cases have an unknown cause. The condition is underdiagnosed and can increase a woman’s risk of infertility, osteoporosis, and heart disease, so it is important to speak to your doctor if you experience any concerning symptoms. Premature ovarian insufficiency is a chronic condition, but there are treatments that can help alleviate uncomfortable symptoms like night sweats.

Anxiety and Stress

More than 30% of women are diagnosed with an anxiety disorder at some point in their lives, and around 63% of women report at least moderate stress levels. Both short-term and chronic anxiety or stress can cause night sweats, possibly by making sweat glands more responsive.

There is also the possibility that anxiety may make people more likely to notice nighttime sweating, either due to anxiety-related sleep disturbances or because they are worried about the health implications of night sweats. If you are concerned about night sweats or your stress levels, your doctor can determine if you have any underlying health conditions and suggest treatment options.

Medications

Night sweats may be caused by medication you are taking. Some people only experience night sweats, but other people find that their medication causes excessive sweating during the day as well. Some medications with this side effect include:

  • Painkillers like aspirin and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) like ibuprofen
  • Antidepressants, including tricyclic antidepressants and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs)
  • Cortisone and some other corticosteroids
  • Diabetes treatments like hypoglycemic agents

If you believe that your night sweats are caused by a medication you have been prescribed, talk to your doctor before you change your dosage or stop taking it.

Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA)

Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common sleep breathing disorder that can cause night sweats in some people. People with OSA experience multiple apneas, or pauses in their breathing, while asleep due to their airway collapsing or being blocked by excess tissue.

A reported 33% percent of women with OSA may experience night sweats due to the condition. However, sleep apnea treatment appears to help relieve this symptom. Other common symptoms of OSA include:

  • Snoring, gasping, and choking during sleep
  • Excessive daytime sleepiness
  • Depression and other mood changes
  • Difficulty concentrating during the day
  • Regularly waking up during the night

OSA is a chronic condition that requires treatment. The most common treatment involves using a continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) device, but other treatment options include lifestyle changes, oral appliances to open the airway, and surgery.

Infections

Infections release inflammatory mediators that raise your thermoneutral zone. This causes a familiar fever cycle, beginning with shivering to raise your internal temperature. Once your thermoneutral zone returns to normal, you will likely start sweating to decrease your temperature. This cycle usually occurs repeatedly during an infection and can cause night sweats if it happens at night. Your body’s viral or bacterial load may also rise during sleep, increasing the likelihood of night sweats.

Serious infections that can cause night sweats include:

Hyperhidrosis

People with hyperhidrosis sweat excessively without being triggered by heat or exercise. The sweating can occur during the day or at night, and it can be severe enough to soak through clothing and bedding. Skin problems, particularly on the palms, can also develop due to excess moisture.

Hyperhidrosis can occur without an underlying trigger, or it can be caused by medication or a health condition. The most common treatments for this condition include oral and topical medication, surgery, and the use of botulinum toxin to block neurotransmitters.

Other Causes

Night sweats are a symptom of many other health conditions and physiological processes. Of these, some of the more serious causes include:

  • Hyperthyroidism: Both night sweats and excessive daytime sweating are symptoms of hyperthyroidism, which is also known as having an overactive thyroid. Other symptoms of this common condition include weight loss, tremors, fatigue, heart palpitations, disturbed sleep, and anxiety. Night sweats and other symptoms usually respond well to treatment.
  • Neurological Conditions: Conditions that damage the brain can cause unusual and excessive sweating, including night sweats. For example, people who have had a stroke may experience excessive sweating on only one side of their body. Other neurological conditions that may cause night sweats include neuropathy, autonomic dysreflexia, and syringomyelia.
  • Cancer: Both cancer and cancer treatments are known to cause night sweats. The symptom may occur early, mid-treatment, or even in cancer survivors whose disease is in remission. While it is most important to treat the cancer itself, medication and lifestyle changes can reduce night sweats during and after treatment.

When to Talk to Your Doctor

Night sweats can be uncomfortable and sometimes frightening. Not all night sweats are caused by an underlying condition, but you should speak to your doctor about new or unusual night sweats, or night sweats that occur regularly and do not respond to lifestyle changes. Your doctor can take steps to diagnose any underlying health condition and ensure you receive appropriate treatment.

Other symptoms that merit a visit to your doctor if they occur with night sweats include:

  • Weight loss without changing your diet or exercising more
  • Unexplained fever
  • Excessive daytime sleepiness and fatigue
  • Muscle weakness
  • Sleep disturbances
  • Mood changes

Tips to Reduce Night Sweats

Although many health conditions may cause night sweats, treating the condition often relieves the symptom. However, not all night sweats are caused by an underlying condition, and the results of treatments are not always immediate. In addition to any medical treatments suggested by your doctor, other ways of relieving night sweats include:

  • Breathable Bedding: Bedding and pajamas made of breathable, moisture-wicking fabric can help keep you cooler and more comfortable at night. If you regularly sweat through your bedding or clothes, consider keeping extra sets within easy reach.
  • Air Conditioning: Keeping your room at a cool temperature may be more comfortable. It is also easier to sleep better when the room is not too hot, even for people who do not experience night sweats.
  • Stress-Relieving Techniques: Night sweats can be stressful, as are many of the conditions that cause them. Stress also worsens night sweats, making relaxation techniques a useful approach. Some popular methods to reduce stress include mindfulness, guided imagery, meditation, and breathing exercises. Hypnosis and cognitive behavioral therapy can also help.
  • Maintaining a Healthy Weight: Excess weight can be both a cause of night sweats and a risk factor for conditions that cause night sweats, such as sleep apnea.
  • Avoiding Caffeine, Alcohol, and Spicy Food: These foods can affect your internal temperature and cause you to sweat. If you experience night sweats, avoiding eating or drinking these close to your bedtime may help relieve your symptoms or avoid triggering them further.
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A Man with Shortness of Breath, Weight Loss, and Night Sweats

Part of the
Contemporary Internal Medicine
book series (COIM, volume 2)

Abstract

This was the first Ohio State University Hospitals admission for this 32-year-old, divorced man, who was admitted through the emergency room with a chief complaint of shortness of breath. The patient had been in good health until three months previously when he began losing weight. This was associated with anorexia, intermittent diarrhea, and occasional night sweats. He had lost 25 pounds by the time he was admitted to the hospital. Approximately two weeks previously, nightly sweating and diaphoretic episodes during the day had begun, and he began experiencing a nonproductive cough. On the day of admission, he first took his temperature and found it to be 104° F. He came to the hospital because of his fever, worsening cough, and dyspnea.

Keywords

Human immunodefIciency Virus Human immunodefIciency Virus Infection Herpes Zoster Pneumocystis Carinii Pneumonia Night Sweat 

These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1989

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Night Sweats and Blood Cancers

Are night sweats a sign or a symptom of blood cancers?

First of all, let us define what are “night sweats”. Night sweats are episodes of excessive perspiration that occur while one is sleeping. Night sweats typically coincide with increased heart rates and high levels of sleep environment discomfort. People who experience night sweats report waking up with damp (or drenched) bed sheets, pillowcases, and pajamas. Night sweats can result from a variety of conditions, including some cancers, but can also be a side effect of cancer treatments.

Night sweats can be an early symptom of both leukemia and lymphoma, the most common blood cancers. 

Unlike night sweats that are caused by hormonal changes, such as pregnancy, perimenopause, or menopause, which occur sporadically, those linked to cancer tend to be persistent. Both leukemia and lymphoma are among the blood cancers associated with night sweats. Coinciding symptoms include: fatigue, weight loss, or excessive bruising. Daytime fevers are also a sweat-related symptom of leukemia.

Here is a full list of leukemia signs and symptoms:

  • Tiredness or lack of energy
  • Shortness of breath during physical activity
  • Pale skin
  • Fever or night sweats
  • Slow healing of cuts and bruises
  • Excess bleeding
  • Unexplained bruising
  • Pinhead sized red spots under the skin
  • Aches in bones or joints (commonly in knees, hips, or shoulders)
  • Low white blood cell counts, particularly monocytes or netrophils

Here is a full list of lymphoma signs and symptoms: 

  • Fever
  • Drenching night sweats
  • Rapid or unexplained weight loss
  • Cough
  • Shortness of breath
  • Fatigue or tiredness
  • Itchy skin

What is the difference between a “sign” and a “symptom”?

  • A sign is a change in the body that your doctor or healthcare professional sees in an exam or a test result. Common signs of disease or health issues such as viruses or infections include: changes in cholesterol or lipid panels, increases or decreases in white and red blood cell counts, protein detection in urine specimens, and many more.

 

  • A symptom is a change in the body that a patient can see or feel. Common symptoms include: hormonal and body temperature changes, digestive changes, fatigue, and/or changes in the skin.

What is the difference between leukemia and lymphoma?

  • Leukemia, also referred to as blood cancer, is a type of cancer which affects the production and function of blood cells.

 

  • Lymphoma, also referred to as lymphatic cancer, is cancer of the lymphatic system of the body involving immune cells.

Why are leukemia and lymphoma always lumped together?

Leukemia and lymphoma are often lumped together because they have many overlapping concepts. Most cancers are solid, which means that a collection of mutated cells that multiply and grow into a “solid” tumor. The six most common types of cancers: lung, breast, colorectal, bladder, melanoma, and prostate, are solid.

The cancers that are not considered “solid” are often lumped together in the category of blood cancers. Among these are leukemia and lymphoma. While these two blood cancers share certain symptoms, there are some differences in their causes, characteristics, and treatments.

Both leukemia and lymphoma originate from issues with your white blood cells (leukocytes). Bone marrow is the body’s factory for these cells. Leukemia starts when your bone marrow generates a high number of mutated white blood cells that do not die off in the way that typical aging blood cells do. Instead, they keep multiplying and ultimately take over healthy red blood cells. This situation becomes problematic since your body depends on red blood cells for nutrient and oxygen transport. Like lymphoma, leukemia may also begin in the lymph nodes.

Why is Wicked Sheets, a “night sweats company”, interested in blood cancers?

A couple of reasons:

  • Wicked Sheets has a long history of being involved with the Leukemia & Lymphoma Society of Kentucky and Southern Indiana. The first silent auction item that Wicked Sheets ever donated was to the “Light the Night” campaign in 2010.
  • We know our customers. Over the years, we have been fortunate enough to be the bed sheet of choice for hundreds of our customers who are (or were) battling night sweats as a side effect of their respective blood cancers.
  • CEO Alli sent one of her very first sets of Wicked Sheets to her friend at MD Anderson who was being treated with chemotherapy as a result of his lymphoma diagnosis. He was one of 4 beta customers who tried the product and completed surveys for Alli’s customer discovery before she launched the brand.
  • The law firm where Wicked Sheets has been a client for over 14 years, has a young female attorney who is still practicing today after being the recipient of an LLS sponsored clinical trial. She is friends with Alli through the entrepreneurial community in Louisville.
  • As a result of these close ties to those who have been affected by both night sweats and blood cancers,  Alli is running for Man/Woman of the Year this year with the Leukemia and Lymphoma Society of Kentucky and Southern Indiana. Every dollar that she raises in her campaign, “Put Cancer to Bed” will go towards clinical trials that will (hopefully) save more of her friends and family members who have been affected by this horrible disease.

4 Common Causes and How to Get Rid of Them

  • Night sweats can be caused by hormonal fluctuations or disorders, infection, fever, and more.
  • Many women will experience night sweats during menopause or perimenopause. 
  • Occasional night sweats aren’t a cause for concern, but see a doctor if they are persistent. 
  • Visit Insider’s Health Reference library for more advice.

Ever wake up in the middle of the night dripping in sweat, like you just ran a marathon? Then you’re one of many people who have experienced night sweats, or sleep hyperhidrosis.

Night sweats aren’t related to your environment, like if your room is too hot. Rather, they’re usually caused by hormonal fluctuations in the body or are a side effect of medication. 

Either way, they can have a big impact on your sleep. Night sweats often wake you up, and you may have to change your clothes or sheets in order to comfortably fall back asleep. 

Here’s what you need to know about the common causes of night sweats and when to see a doctor. 

1. Menopause  

Night sweats are often linked to the hormonal fluctuations during menopause and perimenopause. 

More than 80% of women in perimenopause and menopause experience hot flashes — or sudden, intense feelings of warmth. When these happen at night, they can cause night sweats. 

Menopause occurs 12 months after a woman has her last menstrual period, usually between the ages of 45 and 55. Perimenopause occurs in the 7 to 14 years before menopause. 

Specifically, the drop in the hormone estrogen, which occurs during perimenopause, is linked to night sweats because it affects the body’s temperature regulation. 

“Women experience more night sweats related to hormonal changes during perimenopause and menopause,” says Soma Mandal, MD, board-certified internist at Summit Medical Group, in Berkeley Heights, New Jersey. 

Night sweats during menopause aren’t cause for concern, but they can be uncomfortable. 

If you’re experiencing night sweats during menopause, talk to your doctors about treating the symptoms with medications that help replace estrogen. 

2. Hormonal disorders

Hormonal disorders can make it difficult for your body to regulate its normal temperature, which can cause night sweats. 

Body temperature is regulated by the hypothalamus, an area in the brain that produces hormones. When your hormones are out of balance, it sometimes means that the hypothalamus isn’t able to regulate temperature correctly. 

Hormonal disorders that can affect body temperature and cause night sweats include: 

  • Hyperthyroidism. This condition leads to overproduction of the thyroid hormone, which causes increased sweating, including night sweats. 
  • Pheochromocytoma. This is a tumor on the adrenal gland which makes it produce too many hormones. Symptoms can include night sweats and elevated heart rate. 
  • Carcinoid syndrome. This is a rare disease linked to tumors in the endocrine system. In some cases, it can lead to excess production of the neurotransmitter serotonin. One of the symptoms is excess sweating. 

If you experience other symptoms of a hormonal imbalance, such as weight changes or headaches, talk with your doctor about these symptoms. 

3. Infection

If you’re sick with a viral or bacterial infection, your body raises its internal temperature to fight off the infection, which is what causes fever. 

This increase in body temperature can lead to sweating — and night sweats are a common symptom associated with fevers. 

“Various infections such as HIV, tuberculosis, and infectious mononucleosis can cause night sweats,” Mandal says. “These conditions can produce chemicals called cytokines which combat infection. Cytokines can induce fever and night sweats.”

If you experience a fever in addition to night sweats, you may want to check in with your doctor about what type of infection you have. 

4. Medications

Certain medications can cause night sweats, including antidepressants for

depression

or anxiety.  

A 2018 study found that up to 14% of people on Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs) — the most common form of antidepressants — experience excessive sweating and night sweats. 

The study authors concluded that these medications likely affect the areas of the brain that produce hormones, which help control temperature and sweating. 

Other medications that may cause night sweats include:

  • Triptan migraine medications, like Relpax or Frova
  • Hormone-blocking medications, like Arimidex or Femara 
  • Diabetes medications, like Metformin or insulin (if you’re taking these, check your blood sugar to ensure that it isn’t too low and causing the night sweats) 

If your medications are causing night sweats, you can try sleeping in lighter clothes or keeping the room cooler. If night sweats continue to interrupt your sleep, you should talk to your doctor about your concerns. 

When to be concerned about night sweats

According to Mandal, night sweats by themselves aren’t always a cause for concern. 

That’s especially true if they’re happening for a common reason — like if you’re going through menopause or taking SSRIs. However, if you’re experiencing other symptoms as well, your night sweats could indicate a bigger problem. 

“If they are accompanied by fever,

weight loss

, general malaise, or change in appetite, then it’s time to get checked out by your primary care physician,” Mandal says. 

Insider’s takeaway

Night sweats may be caused by a number of reasons including menopause, hormonal disorders, infection, and the side effects of certain medications like migraine medications and hormone-blocking medications. You shouldn’t be concerned if you have occasional night sweats, but you should see your doctor if it’s accompanied by fever, weight loss, or changes in appetite. 

Case Study: Cervical Adenopathy, Weight Loss, and Night Sweats

The following case study focuses on a woman in her early 30s who presents with cervical adenopathy, weight loss, and night sweats. Test your knowledge by reading the background information below and making the proper selection.

A 32-year-old woman presents with cervical adenopathy, weight loss, and night sweats. Lymph node biopsy shows a CD30+, CD2+, CD3, CD4+, anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)-positive anaplastic large-cell lymphoma. Staging evaluations reveal adenopathy in the mediastinum and retroperitoneum and no evidence of disease in the bone marrow. LDH is twice the upper limit of normal and ECOG performance status is 1.

What is the most appropriate initial therapy for this patient?

  1. R-CHOP x 6-8 cycles
  2. Brentuximab vedotin
  3. CHOP x 6-8 cycles
  4. CHOP x 4-6 cycles then proceed to autologous stem cell transplant
  5. ABVD
  6. Crizotinib

Answer

  1. CHOP x 6-8 cycles

Explanation

Anaplastic large-cell lymphoma (ALCL) is an aggressive peripheral T-cell lymphoma that is characteristically strongly CD30+, and 60 to 85 percent of cases demonstrate expression of anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) (usually a result of a fusion gene between NPM and ALK that leads to constitutive activation). Younger patients have a higher frequency of ALK positivity, and ALK+ ALCL is associated with a better prognosis, compared with ALK-negative disease and in comparison to other aggressive peripheral T-cell lymphomas.1 Therapy with 6 to 8 cycles of CHOP leads to a three-year event-free survival rate of 75 percent according to recent studies, and therefore is the best initial treatment for ALK+ ALCL.2 As ALCL is CD-20 negative (being of T-cell origin), rituximab is not included in the regimen. ABVD is the regimen recommended for Hodgkin lymphoma, another tumor that is frequently CD30+.

In relapsed or refractory ALK+ ALCL, both autologous and allogeneic stem cell transplantation have been investigated, though they are not recommended in first remission because of the prognosis associated with chemotherapy alone.3 In 2010, brentuximab vedotin was demonstrated to have activity in relapsed/refractory ALCL, though only two patients with ALCL were included in this original trial.4 Currently, additional data are available to support its use in relapsed/refractory disease, though none as a first-line agent.5 Finally, clinical response to crizotinib has been reported in a few patients with ALK+ ALCL; however, studies are currently underway to quantify this potential benefit.6

References

  1. Gascoyne RD, Aoun P, Wu D, et al. Prognostic significance of anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) protein expression in adults with anaplastic large cell lymphoma. Blood. 1999;93:3913-3921.
  2. Schmitz N, Trümper L, Ziepert M, et al. Treatment and prognosis of mature T-cell and NK-cell lymphoma: an analysis of patients with T-cell lymphoma treated in studies of the German High-Grade Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Study Group. Blood. 2010.116:3418-3425.
  3. Casulo C and Horwitz S. Should eligible patients with T-cell lymphoma receive high-dose therapy and autologous stem cell transplant in the upfront setting? Curr Oncol Rep. 2010.12:374-382.
  4. Younes A, Bartlett NL, Leonard JP, et al. Brentuximab vedotin (SGN-35) for relapsed CD30-positive lymphomas. N Engl J Med. 2010;363:1812-1821.
  5. Foyil KV, Kennedy DA, Grove LE, et al. Extended retreatment with brentuximab vedotin (SGN-35) maintains complete remission in patient with recurrent systemic anaplastic large-cell lymphoma. Leuk Lymphoma. 2011. Epub ahead of print.
  6. Gambacorti-Passerini C, Messa C, and Pogliani EM. Crizotinib in anaplastic large-cell lymphoma. N Engl J Med. 2011;364:775-776.

Common Causes and When to Be Concerned

Have you ever woken up in the middle of the night covered in sweat? Sometimes we can write off night sweats as a symptom of a fever, or stress-related. But when night sweats are reoccurring, it can be a real burden on day-to-day life. Family Medicine Nurse Practitioner, Lindy Chavez, NPC, who practices with Dignity Health Medical Group in Camarillo, has answered four important questions about night sweats. [Skip to Video]

  1. What medical conditions can cause night sweats?

Night sweats are a common symptom that we see a lot of in the primary care setting. There are several conditions that may cause it, but often times, there isn’t a real obvious reason for night sweats. They can occur somewhat randomly. Common causes vary in severity and can include: infection, acid reflux, certain medications, endocrine or neurological abnormalities, menopause, and more rarely, some forms of cancer.

  1. Are there lifestyle choices that could cause night sweats?

An overheated room or having too many bed coverings are often the simplest cause for night sweats. Make sure you wear comfortable breathable pajamas and avoid placing multiple blankets on the bed — especially during hot months. Most experts suggest setting the thermostat to 65-72 degrees Fahrenheit while you sleep, if possible.

Daytime stress that disrupts sleep patterns may be a contributor to night sweats, too. Developing a good night-time routine for relaxation can aid in providing a more restful, stress-free night’s sleep.

There aren’t specific foods linked to night sweats, but I encourage patients to avoid any foods in the evening that cause overproduction of acid in the stomach, as this may worsen symptoms of acid reflux, a contributor to night sweats. Foods that cause an overproduction of acid include: citrus, tomato-based foods, chocolate, caffeine, and spicy or high-fat foods. Sometimes simple changes to your routine can help reduce the symptoms, if not all together alleviate them.

  1. If someone is experiencing night sweats, should they be worried?

Not necessarily. Night sweats can be brought on by a variety of reasons, and it is often difficult to determine the cause. If you are having unintentional weight loss, or  experiencing fatigue, fever, cough, shortness of breath, or palpitations along with night sweats, this may be indicative of a more serious underlying cause. 

  1. If someone with night sweats wants to find a cure, what should their first step be?

If you’re worried about your night sweats, talk with your primary health care provider about your symptoms. Your primary care provider will assist you in determining the necessary next steps, including narrowing down potential causes and working on solutions.

Lindy Chavez, NPC, is a Family Medicine Nurse Practitioner with Dignity Health Medical Group – Ventura Region. Her office is located at 2486 N. Ponderosa Drive, Suite D205 in Camarillo and she is currently accepting new patients. To learn more or make an appointment, please call 805.419.7780 or visit DHMF.org/Ventura.

90,000 15 Signs of Cancer Requiring to See a Doctor Named | News | Izvestia

Cancer diseases have different symptoms and manifestations, however, there are 15 signs of their occurrence that cannot be ignored, writes on Tuesday, June 22, Express edition with reference to the MSD medical handbook.

Symptoms listed include unexplained weight loss, fatigue, night sweats, and loss of appetite. Also signs of oncology are called recent persistent pain, persistent nausea or vomiting, blood in urine, stools, constipation or diarrhea.

In addition, it is worth consulting a doctor if a person develops a fever, chronic cough, changes in the size and shape of moles, as well as enlarged lymph nodes and inflammation and changes in the size of growths on the skin.

The article notes that the above symptoms are often caused by less dangerous diseases, but they cannot be ignored. The sooner cancer is detected, the better a person’s chances of recovery, added the authors of the article.

So, some of the symptoms in general indicate oncology, but do not give an understanding in which specific organ the cancer develops.Checking these signs will help determine where exactly the cancer has appeared in the body.

In addition, the material indicates that cancer has become the most common cause of death in the world. Moreover, men are most often diagnosed with cancer of the prostate, lungs or intestines, and in women – of the mammary glands, lungs, colon or rectum. Children are most often diagnosed with leukemia, lymphoma, or brain tumors.

On the eve of the oncologist Andrey Pylev listed several symptoms that may indicate the occurrence of liver cancer.

According to the specialist, the so-called “small signs syndrome” is characteristic of a number of oncological diseases, including liver cancer.

These “minor” signs include weakness, lethargy, weight loss and pain. Pylev clarified that the further development of events depends on the location of the tumor.

What are the signs of diabetes? Have you heard about latent diabetes – is there such a thing?

What are the signs of diabetes? Have you heard about latent diabetes – is there such a thing?

Endocrinologist Renata Helda answers

It should be borne in mind that there is type 1 and 2 diabetes.In the case of type 1 diabetes, insulin injections are given from the moment it is diagnosed, which is the only way to eliminate the lack of insulin. Type 1 diabetes usually affects children and young people, and of those with diabetes, it is type 1 diabetes that affects about 10-15 percent.

In type 1 diabetes, the most common symptoms are frequent urination, uncontrollable thirst, dry mouth, fatigue, hunger, nervousness, and weight loss.

Type 2 diabetes mainly affects people over 40 years old, and 85-90% of all diabetics have type 2 diabetes.It should be noted that type 2 diabetes is predominantly a consequence of an unhealthy lifestyle, coupled with unfavorable heredity, therefore, in the initial stage, it can be treated with healthy nutrition, the establishment of a regular diet and appropriate physical activity. If necessary, medications that lower blood sugar levels are additionally prescribed, sometimes insulin injections are needed.

The statement expressed in the question – attention, hidden diabetes! – more due to the fact that the signs of type 2 diabetes appear gradually and very slowly, so it can go unnoticed for a long time, in some patients, diabetes may not appear at all.

The most common symptoms: unexplained weight loss, fatigue for no reason, thirst, frequent urination, blurred vision, slow healing of wounds, numbness of the legs, and others. Due to the fact that type 2 diabetes is not diagnosed for a relatively long time, preventive checks are of great importance – once a year, a blood test should be taken in order to determine the presence of any changes or an increase in blood sugar levels.

At the initial stage of the disease, a person does not feel specific symptoms, but with the appearance of severe thirst, very frequent urination and unreasonable weight loss, deterioration of vision, it is most likely that the blood glucose level is very high, and the disease has not been diagnosed for a long time.Since type 2 diabetes usually begins asymptomatic and is determined too late, the consequences can be very serious – due to high sugar levels, cardiovascular diseases develop – heart attack, stroke and others, there is an increased risk of complications – vision loss, renal failure , it may even be necessary to amputate the legs.

But all complications can be eliminated with appropriate treatment. Doctors in connection with type 2 diabetes talk about metabolic syndrome, which covers the main risk factors for type 2 diabetes: along with genetic tendencies, excess weight appears, especially fat accumulates on the belly.This is associated with increased blood pressure and increased levels of lipids or fats in the blood. In the case of type 2 diabetes, nutrition and the daily rhythm of life are of great importance.

Whether there is a risk of type 2 diabetes depends to a large extent on age, eating habits, overweight, physical activity, smoking habits, blood cholesterol levels, blood pressure, and the presence of this disease in relatives first degree and other factors.

If you do not have diabetes yet, but your blood sugar level has increased at least once, control tests should be done at least 2 times a year.The sooner the doctor makes a diagnosis, the lower the risk of complications and the more effective the treatment.

90,000 7 causes of night sweats | Power Source

If you have thick duvets, warm pajamas, or forget to ventilate your bedroom, it’s okay to sweat at night. However, flushing flashes that cause excessive sweating, usually not associated with an overheated environment, may indicate a health problem.

1. Menopause

Hot flashes accompanying menopause can occur at night and cause sweating. This is one of the most common causes of night sweats for women. Although unpleasant, it is considered a normal manifestation of menopause.

2. Infections

Night sweats can be triggered by common infectious diseases such as influenza, bronchitis or herpes. This will probably last no more than two weeks. If perspiration problems persist, the culprit could be more serious infectious diseases such as mononucleosis and tuberculosis.There may also be bacterial infections such as heart valve inflammation, bone inflammation, abscess, or HIV.

3. Hypoglycemia

If people with diabetes sweat increase, they may have low blood sugar during the night. Sweat is part of the body’s defense response to a drop in blood sugar. This is manifested by cramps and pain in the lower extremities and, less often, problems with digestion and urinary tract. However, this fluctuation usually occurs in the case of a serious violation of the regimen – most often it is a missed meal or a significant increase in physical activity.

4. Medications

Certain medications can also cause night sweats. Antidepressants are known triggers. As well as medicines used to reduce fever or for seizures, such as paralen, aspirin, algifen, or even ibuprofen. This is a pretty natural side effect.

5. Hormonal disorders

Night sweats can be observed with some types of hormonal disorders, the most common of which is an increase in the activity of the thyroid gland (hyperthyroidism, thyrotoxicosis).For less common reasons, this can be pheochromocytoma (a tumor in the adrenal medulla) or carcinoid syndrome (a slowly growing tumor that originates from tissues similar to hormone-producing organs).

6. Oncology

Cancer in its generalization is manifested, in particular, by night sweats. This is a manifestation of a general inflammatory response in the fight against tumor cells. Most often, these are blood cell tumors such as leukemias and lymphomas. In addition to night sweats, weight loss and anemia are common.

7. Neurological problems

Less common causes of night sweats can be various neurological problems, such as post-stroke conditions or autonomic neuropathy.

Night sweats that last for a long time should not be underestimated, especially if they are associated with problems such as weight loss or anemia. Consult a specialist.

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Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center

This document, provided by Lexicomp ® , contains all the information you need to know about the drug, including the indications, route of administration, side effects and when you should contact your healthcare provider.

Trade names: USA

Femara

Trade names: Canada

ACH-Letrozole; APO-Letrozole; BIO-Letrozole; CCP-Letrozole; Femara; JAMP-Letrozole; Mar-Letrozole; MED-Letrozole; MINT-Letrozole; NAT-Letrozole; PMS-Letrozole; RAN-Letrozole; RIVA-Letrozole; SANDOZ Letrozole; TEVA-Letrozole; VAN-Letrozole [DSC]; Zinda-Letrozole

What is this drug used for?

  • Used to treat postmenopausal breast cancer.
  • This medicinal product may be used for other indications. Check with your doctor.

What do I need to tell my doctor BEFORE taking this drug?

  • If you are allergic to letrozole or any of the other ingredients of this medicine.
  • If you are allergic to this drug, any of its ingredients, other drugs, foods or substances. Tell your doctor about your allergy and how it manifested itself.
  • If you are or may become pregnant.Do not take this drug if you are pregnant.
  • If you are breastfeeding. Do not breast-feed while taking this drug or for 3 weeks after your last dose.

This list of drugs and diseases that may be adversely associated with this drug is not exhaustive.

Tell your doctor and pharmacist about all the medicines you take (prescription and over-the-counter, natural products and vitamins) and your health problems.You need to make sure that this drug is safe for your medical condition and in combination with other drugs you are already taking. Do not start or stop taking any drug or change the dosage without your doctor’s approval.

What do I need to know or do while I am taking this drug?

  • Tell all healthcare providers that you are taking this drug.These are doctors, nurses, pharmacists and dentists.
  • Avoid driving or other activities that require special attention until you can see how this drug is affecting you.
  • This drug may cause increased bone fragility. This phenomenon is observed more often with prolonged use of the drug. This may increase the likelihood of bone fractures. Call your doctor right away if you develop bone pain.
  • Get a bone density test as directed by your doctor.Check with your doctor.
  • Perform blood tests as directed by your healthcare practitioner. Please consult your doctor.
  • Take calcium and vitamin D as directed by your healthcare professional.
  • If you are 65 years of age or older, use this drug with caution. You may have more side effects.
  • This drug may affect fertility. Fertility problems can lead to infertility in both men and women.If you plan to become pregnant or conceive a child, talk with your doctor before taking this drug.
  • If used during pregnancy, the drug may have a harmful effect on the fetus.
  • If you are able to get pregnant, you will have a pregnancy test to make sure you are NOT pregnant before you start taking this drug. Please consult your doctor.
  • Use birth control to prevent pregnancy while taking this drug and for at least 3 weeks after your last dose.
  • If you become pregnant while on this drug or within 3 weeks of your last dose, call your doctor right away.

What side effects should I report to my doctor immediately?

WARNING. In rare cases, some people with this drug can have serious and sometimes deadly side effects. Call your doctor or doctor right away if you have any of the following signs or symptoms, which may be associated with serious side effects:

  • Signs of an allergic reaction such as rash, hives, itching, reddened and swollen skin with blistering or scaling, possibly associated with fever, wheezing or wheezing, tightness in the chest or throat, difficulty breathing, swallowing or speaking, unusual hoarseness, swelling in the mouth, face, lips, tongue, or throat.
  • Signs of high blood pressure, such as very severe headache, or dizziness, or loss of consciousness, or blurred vision.
  • Signs of a urinary tract infection, including blood in the urine, burning or painful sensations when urinating, frequent or immediate urge to urinate, fever, pain in the lower abdomen or pelvis.
  • Swelling of the gland.
  • Pain or pressure in the chest.
  • Shortness of breath.
  • Abnormal vaginal bleeding.
  • Depression.
  • Inflammation.
  • Difficulty urinating or change in the amount of urine excreted.

What are some other side effects of this drug?

Any medicine can have side effects. However, many people have little or no side effects. Call your doctor or get medical help if these or any other side effects bother you or do not go away:

  • Feeling tired or weak.
  • Tides.
  • Headache.
  • Dizziness.
  • Nausea or vomiting.
  • Cough.
  • Back pain.
  • Pain in joints or muscles.
  • Constipation.
  • Diarrhea.
  • Night sweats.
  • Excessive sweating.
  • Insomnia.
  • Weight gain or loss.
  • Abdominal pain.
  • Hair loss.

This list of potential side effects is not comprehensive.If you have any questions about side effects, please contact your doctor. Talk to your doctor about side effects.

You can report side effects to the National Health Office.

You can report side effects to the FDA at 1-800-332-1088. You can also report side effects at https://www.fda.gov/medwatch.

What is the best way to take this drug?

Use this drug as directed by your healthcare practitioner.Read all the information provided to you. Follow all instructions strictly.

  • Take this drug with or without food.
  • Continue taking this drug as directed by your doctor or other healthcare professional, even if you feel well.
  • Take this drug at about the same time of the day.

What to do if a dose of a drug is missed?

  • Take the missed dose as soon as you can.
  • If it is time for your next dose, do not take the missed dose and then return to your normal dose.
  • Do not take 2 doses at the same time or an additional dose.

How do I store and / or discard this drug?

  • Store at room temperature.
  • Store in a dry place. Do not store in the bathroom.
  • Store all medicines in a safe place. Keep all medicines out of the reach of children and pets.
  • Dispose of unused or expired drugs. Do not empty into toilet or drain unless directed to do so. If you have any questions about the disposal of your medicinal products, consult your pharmacist. There may be drug recycling programs in your area.

General information on medicinal products

  • If your health does not improve or even worsens, see your doctor.
  • Do not give your medicine to anyone or take other people’s medicines.
  • Some medicines may come with other patient information sheets. If you have questions about this drug, talk with your doctor, nurse, pharmacist, or other healthcare professional.
  • Some medicines may come with other patient information sheets. Check with your pharmacist. If you have questions about this drug, talk with your doctor, nurse, pharmacist, or other healthcare professional.
  • If you think an overdose has occurred, call a Poison Control Center immediately or seek medical attention. Be prepared to tell or show which drug you took, how much and when it happened.

Consumer use of information and limitation of liability

This information should not be used to make decisions about taking this or any other drug. Only the attending physician has the necessary knowledge and experience to make decisions about which drugs are suitable for a particular patient.This information does not guarantee that the drug is safe, effective, or approved for the treatment of any disease or specific patient. Here are only brief general information about this drug. It does NOT contain all available information on the possible use of the drug with instructions for use, warnings, precautions, information about interactions, unwanted effects and risks that may be associated with this drug. This information should not be construed as a treatment guide and does not replace information provided to you by your healthcare professional.Check with your doctor for complete information on the possible risks and benefits of taking this drug. Use of this information is governed by the Lexicomp End User License Agreement available at https://www.wolterskluwer.com/en/solutions/lexicomp/about/eula.

Copyright

© UpToDate, Inc. and its affiliates and / or licensors, 2021. All rights reserved.

90,000 tuberculosis

The main reason for the increase in morbidity is the decline in the standard of living of the population, the growth of alcoholism and drug addiction.The migration of the population, which has sharply increased in recent years, makes a significant contribution. An important factor contributing to the increase in morbidity is the reduction in the coverage of the population with preventive examinations.

To protect oneself from this disease, everyone should know about the causative agent of tuberculosis, how it spreads and how to avoid infection.

Tubercle bacilli are tenacious. In the dust, they last up to 3 months, in the spit dried up on the sidewalk – up to a month.In soil, in water, in damp and dark rooms, they remain viable for up to a year; on the floor, on walls, objects – up to 6 months. They are not afraid of frost: at a temperature of minus 230, tuberculosis bacteria do not die for 7 years. However, they cannot even withstand boiling for a short time. The sun kills them in 1-2 hours, and scattered ultraviolet rays in 5-6 hours. In damp and dimly lit rooms, people are more likely to get sick with tuberculosis. It is no coincidence that the proverb says: “Where the sun rarely looks, a doctor often comes there.”

The source of infection is a person with tuberculosis or sick animals, very rarely – birds.

Two modes of infection are predominant: air and food.

A patient with tuberculosis excretes a huge number of pathogens with sputum (up to 15-20 million per day), which are carried by coughing – by 2 meters, by sneezing – up to 9 meters. When sputum droplets settle on the floor and dry out, conditions are created for an air-dust method of infection.Dust particles rise into the air and easily enter the respiratory tract of healthy people.

Infection with tuberculosis through food most often occurs when unboiled milk from cows with tuberculosis is consumed.

You can get infected through kisses, when smoking other people’s cigarettes, through household items, books, toys, handshakes, etc.

Flies, cockroaches and other insects are also carriers of mycobacterium tuberculosis.

What do you need to do to protect yourself from contracting tuberculosis?

Ventilate the room more often

The floor should only be swept using a damp method.

When coughing, sneezing, turn away from the interlocutor. When coughing, cover your mouth with the back of your left hand, but better with a handkerchief.

Use a separate towel, toothpaste, separate toothbrush, mug, and separate utensils.

Everyone should have a separate bed.

Smoking and alcoholism weaken the body and lead to tuberculosis.

Do not clean dirty clothes and shoes in the room.

To go in for physical culture and sports at any time of the year.

The spread of tuberculosis among the population is facilitated by a banal inattention to their health.

Everyone should know that the reason for testing for tuberculosis is a prolonged cough, a prolonged increase in body temperature for no reason, night sweats, loss of appetite and weight loss. If such symptoms occur, you should immediately contact your local doctor, who will send you for a fluorographic examination.

Remember – tuberculosis is curable today!

Phthisiatrician Mitina E.B.

Article on the prevention of tuberculosis – MAU DO “Children’s Art School”, settlement Verkh-Neyvinsky

In 2015, 5 cases of tuberculosis were again detected in the urban district of Verkh-Neyvinsky (incidence rate 98.04 per 100 thousand population), which corresponds to the level of 2014 and the average long-term level. All cases are respiratory tuberculosis.At the same time, 40% are bacillary forms of tuberculosis, in which bacterial excretion occurs, which indicates an unfavorable epidemiological situation, the presence of a large reservoir of infection on the territory of the r. Verkh-Neyvinsky, late detection of tuberculosis patients. Men and women get sick in equal proportions. It draws attention to the fact that the highest rates of detection of tuberculosis are recorded among the unorganized population, risk groups, and employees of private enterprises. According to the data of the GBUZ SO “Tuberculosis Dispensary”, in 2015 in the urban district of Verkh-Neyvinsky fluorographic examination covered 118.91% of the population, which is higher than the regional average (81.3%).Tuberculin diagnostics covered 93.5% of children aged 0 to 14 years.

TUBERCULOSIS is a chronic infectious disease caused by mycobacterium tuberculosis.

The leading role in the occurrence of tuberculosis is played by unfavorable living conditions, as well as a decrease in the body’s resistance.

The penetration of the pathogen into the body occurs by airborne droplets, contact-household (through things that the patient used) and food (milk from a sick cow, eggs, etc.) paths.

Without expressing itself in any way under the normal state of the immune system, the pathogen multiplies rapidly and shows aggression at the slightest decrease in its level. From the moment of infection, to the first developed clinical manifestations, in some patients it can take up to ten years.

Factors contributing to the development of pulmonary tuberculosis

chronic stress and fatigue; inadequate and inadequate nutrition; taking steroid hormones; HIV infection, social and living conditions and the nature of life, chronic alcoholism, chronic inflammatory diseases of the lungs and upper respiratory tract, diabetes mellitus, chronic heart disease.

Pulmonary tuberculosis symptoms

weakness, chronic fatigue; night sweats; unreasonable (about 37 ° C) temperature; lack of appetite; weight loss; general pallor. The first sign that makes you suspect something was wrong is an increase in the size of the lymph nodes of the axillary, supraclavicular or cervical groups. The disease at this stage can only be detected by performing fluorography or performing an x-ray examination of the chest organs for other indications.

Screening method (fluorography) of the annual examination allows, in addition to tuberculosis, to identify other nonspecific lung diseases and tumors of the chest organs.

We remind you once again that tuberculosis is curable only when it is detected in time. A patient with tuberculosis can infect up to 15 healthy people a year, including children.

90,000 World TB Day is celebrated annually on 24 March

World TB Day 2021 90,028 is an occasion to discuss successes and achievements and to warn of the double threat of drug-resistant TB and the impact of the COVID pandemic -19.

World Tuberculosis Day is celebrated annually 24 March . The overall goal of this event is to raise the level of knowledge about the global problem of tuberculosis and remind about the prevention of this disease, measures to combat it.

Tuberculosis continues to be one of the top 10 causes of death in the world. Every day, almost 4.5 thousand people die from this preventable and curable disease, and almost 30 thousand people contract it.

According to the WHO, 54 million lives have been saved since 2000, thanks to the global fight against tuberculosis, and the death rate from tuberculosis has decreased by 42%.

In September 2018, at the first-ever UN High-level Meeting, heads of state made massive commitments to end tuberculosis. The goal of these commitments is to end the tuberculosis epidemic by 2030.

In 2021, World Tuberculosis Day is celebrated under the motto “Time is ticking!” and with the slogan “Time to Act” , which remind of the commitment of world leaders.This requires expanding access to prevention and treatment, ensuring sufficient and stable funding, and expanding anti-tuberculosis activities.

In the city of Magadan, in 2020, tuberculosis was first diagnosed in 24 people, which is 20% less than last year. Among the sick is 1 child. Of all cases, 8.3% have a combination of tuberculosis with HIV infection, 54.1% of cases have acutely infectious forms, and 23% have multidrug resistance.The proportion of patients with advanced forms in 2020 increased by 25%, which indicates an unstable epidemiological situation for tuberculosis in the city.

It should be remembered that anyone can become infected with tuberculosis, but people who are in close contact with a patient with active tuberculosis have the highest risk. Sources of tuberculosis infection are sick people or animals that release Mycobacterium tuberculosis into the external environment. The leading ways of transmission of tuberculosis infection are airborne and airborne dust.The causative agents of the disease are transmitted from sick to healthy with droplets of sputum when coughing, sneezing, talking. In the external environment, the causative agents of tuberculosis persist for a long time in dried particles of sputum, which can be contaminated with various objects (they remain viable for several months, easily tolerate low and high temperatures, drying).

There are several factors that cause an increased susceptibility of a person to tuberculosis, the most significant: HIV, smoking (especially more than 20 cigarettes a day), diabetes, imprisonment.All this increases the likelihood of getting tuberculosis 2-4 times.

In order to prevent the spread of tuberculosis among the population, reliable and affordable diagnostic methods are used. To identify the disease, it is enough to undergo fluorography. According to the current regulatory documents, all adult citizens of the Magadan Region are subject to an annual fluorographic examination.

Particular attention is paid to preventive examinations for tuberculosis by employees of decreed professions – employees of children’s institutions, catering and trade, public services, employees of medical organizations and social service institutions, etc.

In 2020, despite the introduction of restrictive measures for a new coronavirus infection, more than 67 thousand people underwent preventive examination for tuberculosis, which amounted to 71.1% of the population of the city of Magadan.

Let’s remind the main symptoms of the disease : cough lasting more than two to three weeks, weight loss, prolonged increase in body temperature, night sweats. In the presence of such signs, it is imperative to consult a doctor.

Treatment of tuberculosis is a complex and lengthy process that directly depends on the form and degree of neglect of the disease. Today, for the treatment of tuberculosis, phthisiatricians use powerful modern drugs, which in most cases lead to a complete cure. But in order for the disease to be guaranteed to end successfully, you need to know that tuberculosis is easier to cure in the early stages, its initial forms can be completely cured in 100% of cases.

Specific prevention of tuberculosis begins with the birth of a child.In accordance with the sanitary legislation, the terms of primary vaccination (in the maternity hospital) and revaccination (6-7 years) for children are determined. Regardless of whether the child is vaccinated against tuberculosis or not, immunodiagnostics (determination of the specific sensitization of the body to mycobacterium tuberculosis) should be carried out by staging the Mantoux and Diaskintest reaction. The Mantoux test is carried out once a year for children from 12 months of age to 7 years inclusive, from 8 to 17 years inclusive – Diaskintest.

At present, there are clearly regulated requirements for admitting children to educational institutions without the results of testing for tuberculosis .Children whose immunodiagnosis has not been carried out are admitted to children’s organizations if there is a conclusion of a phthisiatrician about the absence of a disease, which is issued only if there are test results to identify latent, asymptomatic forms of tuberculosis. On the territory of the Magadan Region, today, alternative methods of diagnosing tuberculosis in children are used, such as T-SPOT (serological blood test) and chest x-ray.

To protect yourself and your loved ones from tuberculosis infection, you must remember to follow a number of rules:

– be vaccinated on time;

– annually undergo fluorographic examination;

– monitor the regularity and balance of the diet, give the body adequate daily physical activity, giving up, if possible, bad habits.