Normal blood pressure for a 8 year old: Blood Pressure Percentiles for Girls (2
High Blood Pressure in Children and Adolescents
1. Hansen ML,
Underdiagnosis of hypertension in children and adolescents. JAMA.
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Prevalence of hypertension and pre-hypertension among adolescents. J Pediatr.
3. Chen X,
Tracking of blood pressure from childhood to adulthood: a systematic review and meta-regression analysis. Circulation.
4. Martino F,
Hypertension in children and adolescents attending a lipid clinic. Eur J Pediatr.
5. Brady TM,
Ability of blood pressure to predict left ventricular hypertrophy in children with primary hypertension. J Pediatr.
6. Urbina EM,
Cardiac and vascular consequences of pre-hypertension in youth. J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich).
7. Riley M,
Recognizing elevated BP in children and adolescents: how are we doing? J Fam Pract.
8. Flynn JT,
Clinical practice guideline for screening and management of high blood pressure in children and adolescents [published correction appears in Pediatrics. 2017;140(6):e20173035]. Pediatrics.
9. Hauk L.
Screening and management of high BP in children and adolescents: an updated guideline from the AAP [Practice Guideline]. Am Fam Physician.
10. Khoury M, Khoury PR, Dolan LM, Kimball TR, Urbina EM. Clinical Implications of the Revised AAP Pediatric Hypertension Guidelines. Published ahead of print July 5, 2018. Pediatrics. http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/early/2018/07/03/peds.2018-0245. Accessed July 25, 2018.
11. Lurbe E,
2016 European Society of Hypertension guidelines for the management of high blood pressure in children and adolescents. J Hypertens.
12. Vogt BA.
Hypertension in children and adolescents: definition, pathophysiology, risk factors and long-term sequelae. Current Therap Res.
13. Kapur G,
Secondary hypertension in overweight and stage 1 hypertensive children: a Midwest Pediatric Nephrology Consortium report. J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich).
14. Falkner B,
The relationship of body mass index and blood pressure in primary care pediatric patients. J Pediatr.
15. Archbold KH,
Effects of sleep patterns and obesity on increases in blood pressure in a 5-year period: report from the Tucson Children’s Assessment of Sleep Apnea Study. J Pediatr.
16. Flynn JT,
Blood pressure in children with chronic kidney disease: a report from the Chronic Kidney Disease in Children study. Hypertension.
17. Brady TM,
Racial differences among children with primary hypertension. Pediatrics.
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Associations of parental, birth, and early life characteristics with systolic blood pressure at 5 years of age: findings from the Mater-University study of pregnancy and its outcomes. Circulation.
19. Martin RM,
Davey Smith G.
Does breast-feeding in infancy lower blood pressure in childhood? The Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). Circulation.
20. Moyer VA.
Screening for primary hypertension in children and adolescents: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement. Ann Intern Med.
21. American Academy of Family Physicians. Clinical preventive service recommendation. Hypertension, children and adolescents. https://www.aafp.org/patient-care/clinical-recommendations/all/hypertension.html. Accessed February 12, 2018.
22. Pickering TG,
Recommendations for blood pressure measurement in humans and experimental animals: part 1: blood pressure measurement in humans: a statement for professionals from the Subcommittee of Professional and Public Education of the American Heart Association Council on High Blood Pressure Research. Circulation.
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Reliability of resting blood pressure measurement and classification using an oscillometric device in children with chronic kidney disease. J Pediatr.
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Is one measurement enough to evaluate blood pressure among adolescents? A blood pressure screening experience in more than 9000 children with a subset comparison of auscultatory to mercury measurements. J Am Soc Hypertens.
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Age-dependent differences in office (OBP) vs ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) in hypertensive children and adolescents: 8C.03. J Hypertens.
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Blood pressure levels in 7 to 14-year-old Belgrade children
The aim of the present study was to assess blood pressure and selected anthropometric characteristics and their relationship in Belgrade children, and to compare blood pressure levels to other population-based studies.
The overall response rate in this study was 83.5%, higher in younger children, 7–10 years old (96.2%) than among older children, 11–14 years old (70.8%). The response rate was higher in comparison with some other investigations.5,6
The average levels of SBP and DBP, 113.4/70.3 mmHg in boys and 114.6/71.1 mmHg in girls, found in the present study, are higher than the values of average blood pressure in children of the same age in a pooled age–sex-specific analysis of 79 studies of blood pressure in children and adolescents.7 Levels of SBP and DBP in our children were also higher than those recorded in Japan,5 Singapore8 USA,9,10 and India.11 In comparison with results from ‘Know your body’ study12,13 comprising children 13 years old from 15 countries, SBP and DBP levels in our children of the same age approach the highest blood pressure levels found in Finland and Netherlands. At the same time, changes in SBP and DBP levels with age, seen in the present study, were smaller in comparison with both the pooled study7 and the study in Japan.5 The pattern of changes in blood pressure levels with age was clearly nonlinear, with the maximum reached at the age of 12 years.
The percentiles for SBP in Belgrade children were higher than those reported for Mexican girls,6 and similar to those found in USA.14 The percentile distribution of DBP was similar to that found in USA children14 and some other investigations,15 and lower than that found in Mexican children.6
Observed differences in average blood pressure levels and in the percentile distribution of SBP and DBP may be at least partly attributed to variations in blood pressure measurement methods and differences in instrumentation and the actual measurement.
As could be expected, among anthropometric characteristics BMI was the most strongly positively related to both SBP and DBP levels. It was especially pronounced in boys in whom an association between BMI and blood pressure was present in all three models of multivariate regression analysis, that is, when blood pressure was analysed as a continuous variable (Model 1), and when children with hypertension were compared with all other children (Model II) or with children having normal blood pressure (Model III). In girls, a relationship between BMI and blood pressure level was found only when SBP and DBP were analysed as continuous variables. A strong positive relationship between blood pressure and height, weight, and various indices for body mass was found in many studies6,9,16,17 including studies demonstrating that weight loss lowers blood pressure in obese adolescents.18,19 BMI was also a significant independent variable in the regression model for systolic and diastolic blood pressure in a cohort study of blood pressure in adolescent girls in USA.10
The most interesting finding in the present study was that in girls, suprailiac skinfold was consistently positively related to blood pressure. Odds ratios for suprailiac skinfold were smaller than those for BMI, but the association was significant in all three regression models. Other skinfolds (triceps and subscapular) were found to be positively related to blood pressure only in some of the regression models that were used.
Concerning association between blood pressure and age, some investigations of schoolage children indicated that age was not a significant predictor of blood pressure,6 and that blood pressure was more closely related to body size than to chronological age between the ages of 7–17 years.20,21 In the present study, even negative association was found between age and hypertension, but only in boys. In girls, there was no relationship between age and blood pressure.
The results of the present study support the opinion that BMI is a significant predictor of blood pressure in children and point out to suprailiac skin-fold in girls as a possible predictor of blood pressure.
Why Your Blood Pressure Should Be Less Than 130/80
January 15, 2021
Your blood pressure is a good indicator of your overall health. Ideally, you want it to be less than 130/80 to prevent things like hypertension. However, what does this number mean, and why should your blood pressure be less than that?
What Is Blood Pressure?
Blood pressure measures how strongly your blood pushes against the walls of your arteries. The two numbers in a blood pressure measurement are systolic and diastolic pressure. The first number that appears is the systolic pressure. Systolic pressure is the pressure in your arteries when your heart pumps blood. Diastolic pressure indicates the pressure on the artery when the heart rests in between beats.
Normal blood pressure is set at 120/80 for adults. A blood pressure of 130/80 is considered stage 1 high blood pressure. When your blood pressure is frequently at this level or higher, you may have hypertension.
Your blood pressure is affected by a lot of things. For one, age is a major contributing factor. As you age, your arteries narrow, which makes it harder for blood to flow through them. Other illnesses or organ problems raise your blood pressure. Likewise, women are at a higher risk of developing high blood pressure. Sometimes, daily activities such as doing strenuous physical activities, eating a lot, or stress can also increase your blood pressure.
Why You Should Keep Your Blood Pressure at Normal Levels
Blood pressure levels are an indicator of how healthy you are. It tells us that your essential organs — like the heart, brain, and kidneys — are functioning normally. Regularly monitoring your blood pressure can help with the early detection and prevention of potential health issues.
When you frequently have high blood pressure, your arteries gradually get damaged. When this happens, blood flow to your heart decreases, which can lead to several cardiovascular diseases, such as:
- Coronary Artery Disease — occurs when the arteries around the heart narrow or become blocked
- Aneurysm — when an artery becomes swollen and forms a bulge; it can rupture and cause fatal internal bleeding
- Heart Attack — a condition where the flow of blood to your heart is blocked
- Heart Failure — a condition when your heart can no longer pump enough oxygenated blood to your other organs
- Enlarged Heart — enlargement results from the heart working harder to pump blood, possibly causing heart failure and heart attack
Stroke and Brain Diseases
Narrowed blood vessels and poor blood circulation are also detrimental to your brain and can impair cognitive functions.
- Stroke — blood clots in the brain can cause impairments and sometimes even death
- Vascular Dementia — an impairment in an individual’s cognition, memory, and decision-making abilities
- Transient Ischemic Attack (TIA) — a temporary disruption of blood flow to the brain, which can indicate you’re at high risk for a stroke
Other Health Conditions
- Kidney Diseases — Blockage of blood flow can also damage your kidney’s normal functioning. It can cause kidney failure, kidney scarring, and failure of blood vessels in the kidney to filter fluid and waste.
- Eye Problems — High blood pressure can damage the arteries in your eyes. Eye problems include retinopathy, fluid buildup under your retina, and eye nerve damage. Prolonged damage to the blood flow to your eye can lead to eye bleeding, blurry vision, and even blindness.
- Sexual Dysfunction — High blood pressure can also decrease blood flow to the genitals. Men experience sexual dysfunction as an effect of hypertension more than women.
How to Maintain Normal Blood Pressure
Maintaining normal blood pressure has a lot to do with keeping a healthy lifestyle. However, for some individuals with hypertension, medications are sometimes needed because the risks are higher. Here are some things you should do to reduce your risk of hypertension:
- Maintain a healthy weight
- Moderate or cut down your alcohol intake
- Quit smoking
- Manage stress
- Eat a balanced diet
- Have regular medical checkups
Urgent Care Center in Rochester, New York
Regular medical checkups can benefit your health in a lot of ways. Monitoring your vitals, like your blood pressure, and chronic disease management can get you ahead of the possible illness and complications you might develop. Prevention is always better than a cure.
Reach out to us at the Cornerstone Urgent Care Center for in-house diagnostic testing and your other medical needs. You may contact us at (585) 207-0088 or send us a message to let us know you’re coming. We are open from 8 am to 8 pm Mondays to Fridays and 9 am to 7 pm during the weekends. We look forward to helping you live a healthier life!
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Preeclampsia and High Blood Pressure During Pregnancy
Arteries: Blood vessels that carry oxygen-rich blood from the heart to the rest of the body.
Body Mass Index (BMI): A number calculated from height and weight. BMI is used to determine whether a person is underweight, normal weight, overweight, or obese.
Cesarean Birth: Birth of a fetus from the uterus through an incision (cut) made in the woman’s abdomen.
Chronic Hypertension: Blood pressure that is higher than normal for a person’s age, sex, and physical condition.
Complications: Diseases or conditions that happen as a result of another disease or condition. An example is pneumonia that occurs as a result of the flu. A complication also can occur as a result of a condition, such as pregnancy. An example of a pregnancy complication is preterm labor.
Corticosteroids: Drugs given for arthritis or other medical conditions. These drugs also are given to help fetal lungs mature before birth.
Diabetes Mellitus: A condition in which the levels of sugar in the blood are too high.
Diastolic Blood Pressure: The force of the blood in the arteries when the heart is relaxed. It is the lower reading when blood pressure is taken.
Fetus: The stage of human development beyond 8 completed weeks after fertilization.
Gestational Hypertension: High blood pressure that is diagnosed after 20 weeks of pregnancy.
HELLP Syndrome: A severe type of preeclampsia. HELLP stands for hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelet count.
High Blood Pressure: Blood pressure above the normal level. Also called hypertension.
Hypertension: High blood pressure.
Kick Count: A record kept during late pregnancy of the number of times a fetus moves over a certain period.
Kidneys: Organs that filter the blood to remove waste that becomes urine.
Lupus: An autoimmune disorder that affects the connective tissues in the body. The disorder can cause arthritis, kidney disease, heart disease, blood disorders, and complications during pregnancy. Also called systemic lupus erythematosus or SLE.
Nutrients: Nourishing substances found in food, such as vitamins and minerals.
Obstetrician–Gynecologist (Ob-Gyn): A doctor with special training and education in women’s health.
Oxygen: An element that we breathe in to sustain life.
Placenta: An organ that provides nutrients to and takes waste away from the fetus.
Placental Abruption: A condition in which the placenta has begun to separate from the uterus before the fetus is born.
Preeclampsia: A disorder that can occur during pregnancy or after childbirth in which there is high blood pressure and other signs of organ injury. These signs include an abnormal amount of protein in the urine, a low number of platelets, abnormal kidney or liver function, pain in the upper abdomen, fluid in the lungs, or a severe headache or changes in vision.
Prenatal Care: A program of care for a pregnant woman before the birth of her baby.
Preterm: Less than 37 weeks of pregnancy.
Stroke: A sudden interruption of blood flow to all or part of the brain, caused by blockage or bursting of a blood vessel in the brain. A stroke often results in loss of consciousness and temporary or permanent paralysis.
Systolic Blood Pressure: The force of the blood in the arteries when the heart is contracting. It is the higher reading when blood pressure is taken.
Trimester: A 3-month time in pregnancy. It can be first, second, or third.
Ultrasound Exams: Tests in which sound waves are used to examine inner parts of the body. During pregnancy, ultrasound can be used to check the fetus.
Veins: Blood vessels that carry blood from various parts of the body back to the heart.
A blood pressure test is a simple way of checking if your blood pressure is too high or too low.
Blood pressure is the term used to describe the strength with which your blood pushes on the sides of your arteries as it’s pumped around your body.
Blood Pressure Chart
High blood pressure (hypertension) can put a strain on your arteries and organs, which can increase your risk of developing serious problems such as heart attacks and strokes.
Low blood pressure (hypotension) isn’t usually as serious, although it can cause dizziness and fainting in some people.
A blood pressure test is the only way to find out if your blood pressure is too high or too low, because most people won’t have any obvious symptoms. Having a test is easy and could save your life.
Average Blood Pressure
SEND US YOUR RESULTS
When should I get my blood pressure tested?
You can ask for a blood pressure test if you’re worried about your blood pressure at any point.
You can get your blood pressure tested at a number of places, including:
- at your local GP surgery
- at some pharmacies
- in some workplaces
- at home (see home blood pressure testing below)
- at an NHS Health Check appointment offered to adults in England aged 40-74
It’s recommended that all adults over 40 years of age have their blood pressure tested at least every five years so any potential problems can be detected early.
If you’ve already been diagnosed with high or low blood pressure, or you’re at a particularly high risk of these problems, you may need to have more frequent tests to monitor your blood pressure.
How blood pressure is tested
A device called a sphygmomanometer will be used to measure your blood pressure.
This usually consists of a stethoscope, arm cuff, pump and dial, although automatic devices that use sensors and have a digital display are also commonly used nowadays.
It’s best to sit down with your back supported and legs uncrossed for the test. You’ll usually need to roll up your sleeves or remove any long-sleeved clothing, so the cuff can be placed around your upper arm. Try to relax and avoid talking while the test is carried out.
During the test:
- you hold out one of your arms so it’s at the same level as your heart, and the cuff is placed around it – your arm should be supported in this position, such as with a cushion or arm of a chair
- the cuff is pumped up to restrict the blood flow in your arm – this squeezing may feel a bit uncomfortable, but only lasts a few seconds
- the pressure in the cuff is slowly released while a stethoscope is used to listen to your pulse (digital devices use sensors to detect vibrations in your arteries)
- the pressure in the cuff is recorded at two points as the blood flow starts to return to your arm – these measurements are used to give your blood pressure reading (see below)
You can usually find out your result straight away, either from the healthcare professional carrying out the test or on the digital display.
Home blood pressure monitoring
Blood pressure tests can also be carried out at home using your own digital blood pressure monitor.
This can give a better reflection of your blood pressure, as being tested in somewhere like a GP surgery can make you feel anxious and can affect the result. It can also allow you to monitor your condition more easily in the long term.
You can buy a variety of low-cost monitors so you can test your blood pressure at home or while you’re out and about.
It’s important to make sure you use equipment that has been properly tested. The British Hypertension Society (BHS) has information about validated blood pressure monitors that are available to buy.
Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring
In some cases, your doctor may recommend 24-hour or ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM).
This is where your blood pressure is tested automatically around every 30 minutes over a 24-hour period using a cuff attached to a portable device worn on your waist.
ABPM can help to give a clear picture of how your blood pressure changes over the course of a day.
You should continue with your normal daily activities during the test, although you must avoid getting the equipment wet.
Understanding your blood pressure reading
Blood pressure is measured in millimetres of mercury (mmHg) and is given as two figures:
- systolic pressure – the pressure when your heart pushes blood out
- diastolic pressure – the pressure when your heart rests between beats
For example, if your blood pressure is “140 over 90” or 140/90mmHg, it means you have a systolic pressure of 140mmHg and a diastolic pressure of 90mmHg.
As a general guide:
- normal blood pressure is considered to be between 90/60mmHg and 120/80mmHg
- high blood pressure is considered to be 140/90mmHg or higher
- low blood pressure is considered to be 90/60mmHg or lower
A blood pressure reading between 120/80mmHg and 140/90mmHg could mean you’re at risk of developing high blood pressure if you don’t take steps to keep your blood pressure under control.
Find out more about what your blood pressure result means.
Controlling your blood pressure
If your blood pressure is found to be too high or too low, your GP or the healthcare professional performing the test can advise you about ways to control it.
This may involve:
In some cases, you may be referred to a doctor such as a cardiologist (heart specialist) to discuss treatment options.
Read more about treating high blood pressure and treating low blood pressure.
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Vital Signs in Children | HealthLink BC
What are vital signs?
Vital signs include heart rate, respiration (breathing rate), blood pressure, and temperature. Knowing the ranges for vital signs for your child can help you notice problems early or relieve concerns you may have about how your child is doing. The table below includes information that can help.
0 to 12 months
1 to 11 years
12 and up
100 to 160 beats per minute (bpm)
70 to 120 bpm
60 to 100 bpm
0 to 6 months
30 to 60 breaths per minute (bpm)
6 to 12 months
24 to 30 bpm
1 to 5 years
20 to 30 (bpm)
6 to 11 years
12 to 20 bpm
12 to 18 bpm footnote 1
Blood pressure ( systolic/ diastolic) footnote 1
0 to 6 months
65 to 90/45 to 65 millimetres of mercury (mm Hg)
6 to 12 months
80 to 100/55 to 65 mm Hg
90 to 110/55 to 75 mm Hg
110 to 135/65 to 85 mm Hg
Temperature footnote 2
36.6 C to 38 C (97.9 F to 100.4 F)
35.8 C to 38 C (96.4 F to 100.4 F)
35.5 C to 37.5 C (95.9 F to 99.5 F)
36.5 C to 37.5 C (97.8 F to 99.5 F)
Learn more about how to take your child’s temperature, take a pulse, measure blood pressure, and count breaths with these topics:
- Harman M, et al. (2011). Pediatric emergency and resuscitation. In RM Kliegman et al., eds., Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics, 19th ed., p. 280. Philadelphia: Saunders Elsevier.
- Leduc D, et al. (2000, reaffirmed 2013). Temperature measurement in paediatrics. Canadian Paediatric Society Position Statement. Available online: http://www.cps.ca/en/documents/position/temperature-measurement.
Adaptation Date: 7/24/2020
Adapted By: HealthLink BC
Adaptation Reviewed By: HealthLink BC
Adaptation Date: 7/24/2020
Adapted By: HealthLink BC
Adaptation Reviewed By: HealthLink BC
Harman M, et al. (2011). Pediatric emergency and resuscitation. In RM Kliegman et al., eds., Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics, 19th ed., p. 280. Philadelphia: Saunders Elsevier.
Leduc D, et al. (2000, reaffirmed 2013). Temperature measurement in paediatrics. Canadian Paediatric Society Position Statement. Available online: http://www.cps.ca/en/documents/position/temperature-measurement.
Pressure in a child – treatment and prevention
Headache, dizziness, decreased visual acuity, nosebleeds, vomiting, sleep disturbances, short-term fainting – all these can be signs of increased blood pressure in a child. The prevalence of arterial hypertension (AH) in children and adolescents is currently second only to asthma and obesity among chronic childhood diseases! A number of studies say that almost every 5 children in our country are susceptible to hypertension …
How to suspect high blood pressure (BP) in a child? In addition to those listed above, it is to learn how to correctly measure the pressure of the child.This is somewhat more difficult than for an adult. Of course, the doctor will do it faster and more accurately, but at home you can also learn how to measure blood pressure.
HOW IT IS CORRECT TO MEASURE HELL IN A CHILD?
1. First, understand what pressure will be the norm for your child. To do this, you need to use three percintile tables (tables of the percentage of different values):
- In table 1, find the age and height of your child (for boys and girls – these are different parts of the table) and memorize the “growth percintile” of your child (from 5% to 95%).
- In table 2 (for boys) or in table 3 (for girls), look for the child’s age, correlate it with the “growth percintile” and then find the value for the upper (systolic) and lower (diastolic) blood pressure. The optimal value will be up to 90%. Higher is already higher than the norm.
2. In order to measure the pressure, you need a tonometer, but most importantly, the correct – children’s – cuff. For electronic blood pressure monitors, there is only one cuff for children (diameter 15-22 cm). For mechanical ones – the diameter of the cuff for children starts at 7 cm.The size of the cuff corresponds to the circumference of the arm at the place of its application (measured with a measuring tape).
3. Carry out threefold measurement of blood pressure on the hands with an interval of 2-3 minutes, calculate the average value. Compare with recommended.
4. Keep a blood pressure diary. If there was a one-time increase, it is recommended to measure 2-3 times during the day at rest while sitting, as well as with characteristic complaints (headaches, nosebleeds, dizziness).
WHEN should a child have blood pressure measured?
In accordance with the order of the Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation dated 03.07.2000 No. 241 BP should be measured at the age of 3 years (before entering a nursery school, kindergarten), 1 year before school (at 5-6 years old), immediately before school (6-7 years old), after graduating from the 1st class (7-8 years old), at the age of 10, 12, 14-15, 16 and 17 years old.
- In children under 1 year old, this pathology is most often associated with concomitant diseases – pathology of the kidneys, endocrine system, as well as congenital heart disease (coarctation of the aorta).
- From the year to 6 years, the pathology of the kidneys and the endocrine system is also the leading cause.Such children are monitored by specialists and should be additionally examined by a cardiologist.
- From the age of 7, cases of so-called essential hypertension (primary, for unknown reasons) are detected.
- During puberty, this type of hypertension becomes the leading one.
WHAT DOES CHILD HELL DEPEND ON?
Blood pressure is 30-60% determined by genetic factors, therefore children from parents with a burdened heredity (hypercholesterolemia, arterial hypertension, hypertension, strokes, heart attacks, diabetes mellitus) require close attention.
The second component is a way of life. Children with a sedentary lifestyle, overweight, consumption of excess salt and high-calorie foods, smokers require control.
WHAT TO DO IF THE CHILD HAS HIGH HELL?
If this was discovered during examination by a doctor, then keep in mind that children have the so-called “white coat” hypertension due to the child’s emotional lability. If this turned out to be not an isolated case, then it is imperative to keep a diary where you record the child’s blood pressure readings.Moreover, it is necessary to measure at the same time.
It is also necessary to additionally conduct examinations to assess the damage to other organs (the so-called target organs): clinical blood test, clinical urinalysis, biochemical blood test with an assessment of the lipid spectrum, electrolytes, glucose and renal markers, ECG, echocardiography, examination fundus, ultrasound of the kidneys with the assessment of blood vessels, daily monitoring of blood pressure.
Based on the results of the examination, treatment is prescribed with recommendations for control and lifestyle.In short, with increased blood pressure in a child, it is recommended to him:
- primarily normalization of lifestyle,
- healthy 8-10 hours sleep, regular physical activity in the form of walking, running, swimming, skating, skiing, cycling 30-60 minutes a day, limiting weight lifting (static loads),
- limiting work with gadgets to 30-40 minutes a day,
- proper nutrition (restriction of table salt, reduction of light carbohydrates),
- normalization of weight in case of its excess.
In case of hypertensive crises with worsening of the condition – call an ambulance, it is not recommended to take medications on your own, if they have not been previously selected by a doctor, incorrect selection of the dosage can worsen the condition!
WHAT IS DANGEROUS HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE IN A CHILD?
Every third child with this disease may develop hypertension in the future.
Increased pressure affects both the general condition of the child – fatigue, lag in mental and physical development, and various organs, such as eyes, kidneys, heart.
But, I would like to emphasize that prevention and treatment in children are more effective than in adults and a complete cure is possible!
Pediatrician and pediatric cardiologist Ekaterina Aleksandrovna Yakunina.
Norm of blood pressure in children: table | Med-magazin.ua
Date of publication: 11.09.2019
Every mother should know what is the rate of pressure in children of a certain age, and, in fact, be able to notice changes in time. To begin with, it should be noted that blood pressure in children, compared to adults, is lower – at an early age, the vessel walls are very thin, with a wide lumen. The capillary network is larger than that of an adult and the blood pressure is correspondingly lower.But the situation changes with age.
If you notice that the pressure level of your child sometimes changes, you should not panic ahead of time. Indeed, pressure surges can be influenced by such factors as:
- change of weather;
- lack of physical activity or, on the contrary, too intense physical activity;
- it is noteworthy that the pressure in girls, at the age of 5 to 10 years, is higher than that of boys, then – on the contrary.
But if deviations from the norm happen often, and in addition to this, the child’s health worsens and a headache appears, this is a clear reason for a visit to the doctor. In order to prevent the development of serious pathologies, you need to notice in time that the child has problems with blood pressure and act as quickly as possible. What is the rate of blood pressure in children? It is separate for each age. In general, “normal” pressure is a common indicator of 3 values - SBP (systal or upper), DBP (diastolic, the so-called lower) pressure and pulse.The difference between SBP and DBP is the pulse pressure.
There is a special table of pressure norms in children of different ages, according to which the indicators of SBP and DBP:
- in newborns, they are in the range of 60-96 and 40-50 units;
- normal pressure before the age of 1 year is 90-112 and 50-74 units;
- the correct pressure in children at 4 years old is 110-116 and 60-76.
The older the child gets, the higher the rate.But the table shows averaged indicators for certain ages. How to understand what pressure should be in children at 5 years old? Or what kind of pressure of a 7-year-old child should not cause concern among parents? To determine the rate of blood pressure for a specific age, you can use the formula – to the number of years of the child to determine the SBP, we add 90 units, and for the DBP – 60.
To measure pressure, a special device is used – a tonometer. Tonometers are mechanical or electronic. In order for the result to be as accurate as possible, it is worth adhering to certain rules:
- the measurement is carried out at rest, best after waking up;
- hands should be on a solid surface, palms up;
- the cuff of the tonometer is attached to the arm in such a way that a finger can be inserted between it;
- pump and bleed air from the device slowly;
- for a more accurate result, it is recommended to make 2-3 measurements and choose the smallest value;
- if the child often has a headache and you need to get results for further examination, measure the pressure for several days in a row, but strictly at a certain time – this way you will get the most accurate readings.
And, of course, you should not immediately diagnose some kind of disease in your child. Trust this business only to professionals, and do not self-medicate. What you can really do is get your child into a routine. Walk more with him in the fresh air, limit the time spent at the computer, normalize the diet. Do not forget about moderate but regular physical activity.
90,000 Normal blood pressure in children from birth to 15 years | Maternity
In children, blood pressure is significantly lower than in adults.The smaller the child, the more elastic his vessel walls are, the wider their lumen, the larger the capillary network, and, consequently, the lower the blood pressure. With age, the pressure increases. Distinguish between diastolic (lower) and systolic (upper) pressure.
What is systolic pressure
Systole is the status of the heart muscle at the moment when it contracts, diastole – during the relaxation period. When the ventricle contracts, a significant amount of blood enters the aorta, which stretches its walls.At the same time, the walls resist, the blood pressure increases and reaches its maximum value. It is this indicator that is called systolic.
What is diastolic pressure
After a period of contraction of the heart muscle, the aortic valve closes securely, and its walls begin to gradually displace the resulting volume of blood. It slowly spreads through the capillaries, while losing pressure. By the end of this stage, diastole, its indicator decreases to the minimum figures, which are considered to be diastolic pressure.
There is another interesting indicator that sometimes helps doctors determine the cause of the disease – the difference between systolic and diastolic pressure. It is usually 40-60 mm Hg and is called pulse pressure.
What pressure should a child have?
Blood pressure rises quite significantly in the first year of a child’s life. Up to five years of age, blood pressure in boys and girls is the same. From five to nine years, it is slightly higher in boys.
Having reached values of 110 – 120/60 – 70 mm Hg. Art., blood pressure is then maintained at this level for a long time. By old age, the level of maximum pressure increases in women more than in men. The pulse pressure rises. After 80 years, blood pressure in men stabilizes, and in women it even decreases slightly.
Systolic (upper) blood pressure (SD) in children under 1 year old can be calculated using the formula:
- 76 + 2n (n – number of months)
In children over the age of one year, the upper blood pressure is calculated by the formula:
- 90 + 2n (n is the number of years).
(The upper limit of the norm of systolic blood pressure in children over one year old is 105 + 2n, the lower limit of the norm is 75 + 2n)
Diastolic (lower) blood pressure (BP) in children is:
- Under the age of one year – from 2/3 to 1/2 of the maximum SD,
- Over the age of one year – 60 + n (n is the number of years).
(The upper limit of the norm of diastolic blood pressure in children over the age of 75 + n, the lower limit of the norm is 45 + n).
|Age||Blood pressure (mmHg)|
|up to 2 weeks||60||96||40||50|
|6-9 years old||100||122||60||78|
|10-12 years old||110||126||70||82|
|13-15 years old||110||136||70||86|
Norms of blood pressure indicators in children
There are blood pressure readings that are considered normal for a certain age.In newborn infants up to about three weeks of age, the upper and lower pressures are normally relatively low.
- The permissible upper pressure in a newborn baby is in the range from sixty to ninety-six millimeters of mercury, and the lower forty to fifty mm Hg. Art.
- Normal blood pressure in a child at the age of 12 months is from 90-112 to 50-74.
- For a child 2-3 years old, the upper blood pressure is 100-112, the lower 60-74.
- For a five-year-old child, the upper (systolic) pressure of 100-114 mm Hg is considered normal. Art. and lower (diastolic) – 60-74 mm Hg. Art.
- For children six to seven years old, the upper pressure should be in the range of 100-116 mm Hg. Art., and the lower in the range of 60-76 mm Hg. Art.
- For children eight to nine years old, the upper (systolic) blood pressure range will be normal – 100-122 mm Hg. Art. and lower (diastolic) – 60-78.
- At ten years old, normal blood pressure is for the upper values - 110-124 mm Hg.Art., and for the lower ones – 70-82.
- For twelve years old, these figures are for upper pressure 110-128 mm Hg. Art., and for the lower – 70-84.
- At thirteen to fourteen years old, the upper pressure should be in the range of 110-136 mm Hg. Art., and the lower 70-86.
What pulse should a child have?
The heart rate in children is primarily determined by the age of the child: the older he is, the less often the heart rate. In addition to age, the pulse rate depends on the general health of the child or adolescent, the fitness of the body, body temperature and the environment, the conditions in which the count is made, as well as many other factors.This is because by changing the heart rate, the heart helps the child’s body adapt to changes in the internal or external environment.
You can count your heart rate in 15 seconds and start multiplying the result by 4. But it is best to count your heart rate in a minute, especially if a child or adolescent has arrhythmia. The table shows the normal values of heart rate in children of different ages.
|Child’s age||Limits of the norm||Average|
|0 to 1 month||110 – 170||140|
|1 to 12 months||102 – 162||132|
|1-2 years||94 – 154||124|
|2-4 Years||90 – 140||115|
|4-6 Years||86 – 126||106|
|8-10 Years||68 – 108||88|
|10-12 Years||60 – 100||80|
Photo – photo bank Lori
Publication date 12.02.2017
The author of the article: Maternity.ru
Aleksandrovskaya district children’s hospital | News
Diseases of the circulatory system have become much younger, a predisposition to them is laid already in childhood and adolescence. Increasingly, cardiologists are making a previously rare diagnosis of “hypertension” in very young patients. How dangerous are pressure surges? What blood pressure can be considered normal for a preschooler or high school student?
The chief pediatric cardiologist of the Vladimir region, a pediatric cardiologist of the Regional Children’s Clinical Hospital, a doctor of the highest qualification category Irina Pestova answered these and other questions in an interview with the Vladimirskie Vedomosti newspaper.
– Irina Vladimirovna, what to do if a child often complains of a headache?
– The first is to put a thermometer, the second is to measure the pressure.
– What blood pressure is considered normal for a child?
– For children 4-6 years old – 80/40 or 90/50, for seven year olds – the permissible upper bar is 90/95, for ten years old – 100/110. During puberty, the norm is the same pressure as in an adult – 120/80. For very tall and large children, the upper bar of 125 is also normal.But the pressure 125/90 is already considered high.
– What to do if a child has high blood pressure?
– Observe and measure for two weeks, be sure to contact your local doctor, who, if necessary, will refer you to specialists. But if you do not go to a doctor, you can bring the matter to the formation of hypertension.
– Can you measure pressure with devices for adults?
– It is possible, but the cuff for the tonometer is needed for children, it should cover 2/3 of the shoulder.
– What are the causes of high blood pressure?
– Often, adolescents develop primary hypertension. The reasons are varied. For example, blood pressure rises when a child spends a long time with a gadget. His head is tilted, the cervical spine is pinched, and as a result, blood flow is disturbed. Perhaps the reason for the increased pressure was a sharp decrease in vision. Influence on blood pressure and sedentary lifestyle, and malnutrition, and stress. Added to this are the heavy workloads at school.Regularity: during the holidays, children do not have a headache and they feel normal.
Unfortunately, among my patients there are adolescents with bad adult habits – smoking, alcohol. This is also a negative factor.
You need to be especially careful about children whose both parents suffer from high blood pressure, and from an early age. It is imperative to control blood pressure, observe the regime – make sure that the child goes to bed on time, without night vigils! As a rule, if these recommendations are followed and medications are taken, then there is an improvement in health.
– What are your recommendations for physical activity?
– Dynamic load and training regime for any teenager are mandatory. If you have problems, for example, overweight, hypertension, you can go walking or jogging.
– Who should I contact if a paramedic in a kindergarten or school found a heart murmur in a child? This is dangerous?
– With noises, you must definitely contact a cardiologist. I’ll reassure you: 80% of people hear noises. After all, the heart has a very complex structure: the valves are held on a thread, because of the chords, there is a strong internal vibration that causes noises.Turbulent (vortex) blood flow may also be the cause. At the same time, there are dumb defects, which can only be determined by making a cardiogram and ultrasound of the heart. Everything is very individual, but in any case, you need a specialist consultation.
Interviewed by Irina IGNATOVA, Vladimirskie Vedomosti
Source of information official website of the Department of Health of the Vladimir Region
90,000 Invisible disease. Childhood and adolescent hypertension
17 December 2018 09:12
My son had an exam yesterday.And another day later. Of course, stress and insomnia both for him and for me. I measured blood pressure for myself and for him at the same time. One hundred and forty to ninety. What is it? Arterial hypertension at the age of 17 ?! Well, okay with me. And with him! .. The son says that he does not feel anything, everything is fine. Maybe it jumped up by chance and will pass tomorrow? And if not?..
What is arterial hypertension in adolescents and young people, we asked the pediatric cardiologist, deputy chief physician for the medical department of the Arkhangelsk Regional Children’s Clinical Hospital named after V.I.P.G. Vyzhletsova Svetlana Nazarenko.
– Svetlana Yurievna, recently they say that arterial hypertension has become younger and is often found in adolescents and young people.
– I got younger. The number of cases of hypertension is increasing not only in adults, but also in children, especially in adolescents and young men of military age.
– What is the reason?
– First, more attention began to be paid to measuring blood pressure.We used to think: what is the pressure of the children there ?! Today, in the standards of treatment of absolutely all diseases, it is required to measure the pressure in hospitals every day, regardless of what we are treating and age. The standards of examination in the polyclinic also include the measurement of pressure for each child from the first days of life.
– And secondly?
– Blood pressure depends on the activity of the heart, on the tone of the arteries and can change under the influence of physical exertion, emotions, diseases.Emotional stress, increased training load can cause an increase in pressure. So, for example, in physics and mathematics schools the percentage of children with increased blood pressure in 2 90 130 – is 3 times higher than in ordinary ones.
At a young age, the cause of arterial hypertension is most often a high level of work of the sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system. The desire to do everything, the thirst for competition, the feeling of lack of time, aggressiveness, determination, the need to be a leader, a high degree of control over behavior in situations – qualities inherent in people with hyperactivity of the sympathetic nervous system.Perhaps it is great if young people strive to take everything from life to the maximum, but there is a flip side of the coin – these are the mechanisms that trigger an increase in blood pressure.
The development of hypertension is also facilitated by the low physical activity of children leading a sedentary, sedentary lifestyle, overweight. And if in the family it is still customary to constantly add salt and even oversalt food … then all the risk factors for hypertension are obvious.
– And then a lifetime diagnosis? ..
– In a teenager, an increase in blood pressure does not always mean stable hypertension, which will remain with him for life. Although there are studies that say: if an increase in blood pressure is recorded at the age of 13, one-time or constantly, then the likelihood of developing arterial hypertension by the age of 35 in a person increases 9 times. That is, its mechanisms start early.
– Are there any peculiarities of hypertension in children? What is juvenile hypertension?
– If we see an increase in blood pressure every year, at the age of five (I’m not talking about newborns), this is not at all the same hypertension as in adults. Up to 10 – 11 years of age in children, hypertension is only symptomatic (secondary), that is, you need to look for the disease that causes it. For example, the cause may be heart defects or renal vessels, kidney disease.The child must be examined.
Juvenile hypertension means the age period after 10 90 130 – 90 131 90 075 12 years, regardless of gender. At this time, all the causes of secondary hypertension are usually already identified, and children who come to us with high blood pressure have exactly the same primary hypertension that occurs in adults.
– The child’s complaints “Mom, I have a headache” can portend hypertension?
– Very rarely, arterial hypertension can cause a headache – it is not typical for this disease.Of course, if this is not a hypertensive crisis, when the headache is caused by a sharp rise in pressure. According to the symptoms, hypertension is an invisible disease, which is most often detected by chance, for example, when measuring blood pressure at a doctor’s examination. The increase in pressure is rarely accompanied by complaints, children usually feel good.
– What about the “white coat hypertension”?
– There is a lot of “armchair” hypertension, the so-called “white coat hypertension”, as a specific reaction to stress due to the tension of the same sympathetic nervous system.Approximately 30% of adolescents and young people have a reaction to stress at the moment when blood pressure is measured … Then everything goes away.
– Still, there are at least some specific complaints about this invisible disease?
– Nothing special. Arterial hypertension, I repeat, is detected by chance, for example, in a military enlistment office, in a hospital, where the child was admitted with an injury. Complaints are more common if hypertension is accompanied by vegetative-vascular dystonia, with which the teenager comes to the doctor.Then there are many complaints: weakness, lethargy, sweating, motion sickness in transport … Vegeto-vascular dystonia is a dysfunction between the control structures of the brain and, as a functional disorder, in most cases passes. Although it can be delayed if there is a predisposition, especially on the part of the mother. Of all childhood periods, vegetative-vascular dystonia is most typical for adolescents.
– There are diseases that are inherited from parents …
– There is no gene responsible for arterial hypertension.It is not genetically transmitted, but if hypertension began early in the parents, then the child can be attributed to the risk group with a family predisposition.
– How is the diagnosis made?
– It is impossible to make a diagnosis at one appointment, the pressure itself is very labile. This is not the hemoglobin level – they took an analysis, saw anemia, and prescribed treatment. At the doctor’s appointment, the pressure is measured three times, an average value of is taken. Then measured after two weeks. To exclude “white coat hypertension”, daily monitoring of blood pressure at home is prescribed. Then the device is installed for a day, and the child leads a normal life. Then the fundus of the eye, the heart are checked, an ECG is taken. It is very important to have a blood pressure monitor at home and a properly selected pressure cuff. There are three sizes: for infants, preschoolers, schoolchildren and adults. If there is no suitable cuff, then it is better to measure the pressure with a doctor at the clinic.
– How is childhood and adolescent hypertension treated?
– In pediatrics, there are big problems in the treatment of arterial hypertension. There are very few clinical studies in the pediatric population. Recommendations for the treatment of hypertension in children are based on adult recommendations. In the instructions for new drugs in 95% of cases, it is written “the safety of use under 18 has not been established”, that is, all responsibility for the appointment rests with the doctor.It will take time for drugs to become sufficiently researched and migrate to pediatrics. Therefore, we have a greater percentage of not only outdated, but already approved and long-used drugs. The second problem is that there are no pediatric forms of drug release. And third, there is no scientific evidence on how early treatment of arterial hypertension with medications will affect the future health of the little patient. After all, a person grows, blood vessels grow and develop, the heart grows.
– How does the prevention of hypertension in children begin? What can replace drugs?
90 130 – We need to move! Swim, hike, ski.With hypertension, static load is harmful: pumping up muscles, jumping, wrestling. It is important to alternate mental and physical activities during the day: so that there is no hours of sitting at the computer or watching TV. Children over 5 years old need to devote at least half an hour daily to moderate dynamic aerobic exercise and 30 minutes 3 – 4 days a week to intense exercise. What is moderate exercise? This is dancing at a fast pace, walking at a brisk pace, playing volleyball or basketball …
One should not forget about such factors provoking hypertension as stress, overweight, smoking.NI Amosov said: “To be healthy, you need your own efforts, constant and significant. There is nothing to replace them with! ”
The effectiveness of all these measures has been proven in numerous studies, therefore, it is necessary to resort to drug therapy in most cases if the lifestyle correction for several months has not yielded an effect.
Material: Elena Antropova
Source of material : magazine “Your Health Formula” No. 38.
90,000 Normal and high blood pressure in children. Blood pressure norm in 7,8,9,10,11 year olds
1. WHY THE BLOOD PRESSURE INDICATORS DIFFER IN CHILDREN AND ADULTS
According to medical statistics in recent years, the number of children with high blood pressure has increased markedly. Moreover, this indicator has grown not only in the adolescent group.Among children of primary school age and even preschoolers, hypertension can also develop.
Before we learn about the most common diseases associated with a violation of the cardiovascular system in children, let’s understand the important indicators of blood pressure.
There are lower (diastolic) pressure and upper (systolic) pressure. When the heart muscle relaxes during the heartbeat, the least pressure is exerted on the vessel walls, and when the heart muscle contracts, the maximum pressure is exerted on the vessel walls.Pulse pressure is defined as the difference between the two.
If the lower pressure readings differ markedly from the norm corresponding to the age of the child, then there may be problems with the functioning of the kidneys or there are disorders in the vascular system.
If there are abnormalities in the indicators of upper pressure, then most likely there are violations in the functioning of the heart muscle in the child.
It should be noted right away that blood pressure in children is lower than in adults.The younger the child, the lower this indicator due to the good elasticity of the vascular walls. Next, we will tell you in detail what should be the normal blood pressure in newborns, children of preschool and school age, as well as adolescents.
2. SOME REASONS CAUSING HIGH OR LOW BLOOD PRESSURE IN CHILDREN
High blood pressure:
that causes hypertension.Hypertension is expressed in the symptoms of diseases such as vegetative-vascular dystonia, hypertension, organic lesions of the central nervous system, endocrine pathologies.
One of the most common diseases in children is arterial hypertension. This ailment is characterized by a short-term increase in blood pressure. May be caused by increased vascular tone or spasm. Hypertension often manifests itself in children during an emotional outburst or with noticeable physical exertion.
Low blood pressure:
The child may also have low blood pressure. If it is caused by any disease (diabetes, thyroid problems, various infectious diseases), then the so-called secondary hypotension develops.
3. BLOOD PRESSURE RATE. BP INDICATORS IN CHILDREN OF DIFFERENT AGE
In newborn babies, as well as in infants of 2-3 weeks of age, normal values of systolic and diastodic pressure are quite low.
The admissible rate of systolic pressure in an infant is 60-96 mm Hg. Art.
Diastodic – 40-50 mm Hg Art.
Borders of the heart rate (pulse) rate in newborns and infants up to 1 month – 110-170.
The dynamics of an increase in blood pressure in children under 2 years of age is quite pronounced. By the age of 3, this dynamics decreases and then the indicators increase moderately.
During puberty (by the age of 13-14 in girls, by the age of 15-16 in boys), the increase in blood pressure again noticeably accelerates.
Consider the normal blood pressure in children of different ages:
Normal blood pressure in a 5-year-old child:
Diastolic – 60-74 mm Hg. Art.
Systolic – 100-114 mm Hg. Art.
Normal blood pressure in children 6-7 years old:
Diastolic – 60-76 mm Hg. Art.
Systolic – 100-116 mm Hg Art.
The norm of blood pressure in children 8-9 years old:
Diastolic – 60-78 mm Hg.Art.
Systolic – 100-122 mm Hg Art.
The norm of blood pressure in a 10-year-old child:
Diastolic – 70-82 mm Hg. Art.
Systolic – 110-124 mm Hg Art.
The norm of blood pressure in a child of 11 years old:
Diastolic – 70-82 mm Hg. Art.
Systolic – 110-126 mm Hg. Art.
The norm of blood pressure in a child 12 years old:
Diastolic – 70-84 mm Hg. Art.
Systolic – 110-128 mm HgArt.
The norm of blood pressure in children 13-14 years old:
Diastolic – 70-86 mm Hg. Art.
Systolic – 110-136 mm Hg Art.
Table with indicators of normal heart rate (HR) in children under 16 years of age. Heart rate in the fetus, newborn babies , preschool and school children.
It should be noted that fluctuations in blood pressure are influenced by factors such as physical activity, temperature and atmospheric pressure, emotional state and stress, type of weather, food intake.External factors have a significant impact on fluctuations in blood pressure in some children.
How to correctly and accurately measure your child’s blood pressure:
ALSO FIND OUT …
Blood pressure in a 12-year-old child – Rambler / female
It is imperative to monitor the blood pressure indicator, including in children at the age of 12.It is the pressure that signals problems in the work of the child’s cardiovascular system, therefore, in order to prevent the development of various diseases, you need to monitor its value regularly.
The norm of blood pressure in a 12-year-old child
What is the normal blood pressure in a 12-year-old teenager? At this age, the norm fluctuates within the following limits:
systolic pressure – 110-120 mm. rt. Art .;
Dystolytic pressure – 70-80 mm. rt. Art.
Any deviation from the norm in blood pressure indicators may indicate a deterioration in the health of a teenager.See a doctor.
You need to know that high or low blood pressure is not always evidence of violations in the cardiovascular system of the child. Sometimes it “jumps” due to hormonal changes in the child’s body, which occur at the age of 12, or due to excessive fatigue of the child. That is, if the attacks of “surges” of pressure are rare, you do not need to sound the alarm immediately.
High blood pressure in a 12-year-old child
If a child’s pressure is interrupted periodically, and its increase is accompanied by headaches and tinnitus, you should consult a doctor.This may indicate the presence of hypertension in a teenager.
Treatment of high blood pressure
Usually the doctor in such cases prescribes a number of preventive measures: normalization of the educational regime, rest, moderate physical activity, walks in the fresh air. He can also prescribe a number of medications to the child to stabilize the pressure.
Overweight children most often suffer from high blood pressure. The task of parents in this case is to balance the diet of a teenager and try to direct all his efforts to get rid of extra pounds.
Low blood pressure in a 12-year-old child
Low blood pressure is much more common in adolescents than high blood pressure. Usually, when the pressure drops, the child experiences a breakdown, fatigue, drowsiness, headaches and even fainting. Also, low blood pressure is accompanied by a rare pulse.
Treatment of low blood pressure
Treatment of low blood pressure is carried out exclusively by a doctor.