Normal size of a newborn baby: The request could not be satisfied
Birth Weight Statistics: Trends in Newborn Growth
The mean or average birth weight in the United States is approximately 7.5 pounds (3,400 grams). However, average does not necessarily mean normal. A birth weight between 5.5 pounds (2,500 grams) and up to 10 pounds (4,500 grams) is considered to fall in a normal range for a full-term newborn.
Newborns that are on the smaller side might be referred to as low birth weight or small for gestational age. Babies that are larger are considered to be large for gestational age.
According to a detailed report from the National Center for Heath Statistics published by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), there were 3,853,472 births registered in the United States in 2017.
In the U.S., state laws require that birth certificates are completed for all births. Federal law mandates the collection and publication of all births and other vital statistics data, which is then compiled by The National Vital Statistics System (NVSS) to provide statistical information from birth certificates.
Here is some information about the birth population gleaned from the data.
Although babies come in many sizes (from just under 1 pound to more than 16 pounds) data from 2017 revealed that:
- The average weight at birth was between 6 pounds, 9 ounces (3,000 grams), and 7 pounds, 11 ounces (3,500 grams).
- 8.28% of babies were considered to be low birth weight (defined as less than 5.5 pounds or about 2,500 grams).
- 1.4% of babies were very low birth weight (less than 3.3 pounds or 1,500 grams).
- Roughly 9% of babies were large for gestational age at birth.
- The average length of a full-term infant was 20 inches.
- The normal range for full-term infants was 18 inches to 22 inches.
In some cases, what is termed low birth weight is actually appropriate. For example, if a baby born is premature (less than 37 weeks gestation) they would “normally” weigh less than 5 pounds, 8 ounces (2,500 grams).
Keep in mind that birth weight numbers are derived from special scales—they are more accurate (and regulated) than a bathroom scale you’d use at home. If you’re concerned about your baby’s birth weight, or their weight as they continue to grow, discuss these concerns with your child’s pediatrician.
Research has shown that kids and adolescents are getting bigger—a trend that is termed the childhood obesity epidemic. Based on findings in older children and teems, it would be natural to assume that newborn babies are also getting bigger.
However, statistics show that babies are actually getting smaller. It’s unclear as to why, since research has not shown a direct link between lower mean birthweight and an increase in premature babies, nor is there a direct correlation to other independent factors such as more Cesarean births.
While the exact cause of the decline in birth weight is unknown, it could be attributed to trends in maternal diet, physical activity, socioeconomic factors, environmental exposures, or even other, unrecorded medical conditions.
Recent Trends in Average Birth Weight
- 1990: 7 lbs., 9.4 oz (3,441 g)
- 1995: 7 lbs., 9.17 oz (3,435 g)
- 2000: 7 lbs., 8.95 oz (3,429 g)
- 2005: 7 lbs., 7.54 oz (3,389 g)
There are different terms that are used to describe birth weight. When babies are born preterm or postdate (overdue), the terms can become a little confusing.
Rather than using absolute weight, the terms that are used to describe gestational age more accurately reflect a baby’s size.
Depending on a baby’s weight at birth and their gestational age, a special growth chart is used to classify infants into one of the following categories.
- Extremely low birth weight (ELBW). Birth weight less than 2 pounds (1,000 grams)
- Very low birth weight (VLBW). Birth weight less than 3.4 pounds (1,500 grams)
- Low birth weight (LBW). Birth weight less than 5 pounds, 8 ounces (2,500 grams)
- Normal birth weight. Between 5 pounds, 8 ounces (2,500 grams) and 8 pounds, 13 ounces (4,000 grams)
- High birth weight (HBW). Birth weight of more than 8 pounds, 13 ounces (4,000 grams)
- Small for gestational age (SGA). Birth weight less than the 10th percentile for a child born at that gestational age
- Appropriate for gestational age (AGA). Birth weight from the 10th percentile to the 90th percentile relative to other babies born at that gestational age
- Large for gestational age (LGA). Birth weight greater than the 90th percentile based on gestational age (also called fetal macrosomia)
The term intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is sometimes used to describe a baby with a birth weight lower than expected for gestational age. However, it is most often used to describe a fetus that is growing less than expected during pregnancy.
Why Are There Different Classifications?
Birth weight and gestational age classifications are useful because they often correspond with clinical care and treatment.
Birth weight can predict short and long-term health complications, including chronic disease risk—even among full-term births.
Many of the terms listed above can be used together. For example, a premature baby could be born with low birth weight (or even extremely low birth weight) but still be at an appropriate weight for their gestational age.
On the other hand, a full-term baby born at 5.5 pounds (2,500 grams) would likely be classified as being both SGA and IUGR.
Factors Affecting Birth Weight
There are many different factors used to determine a baby’s birth weight, including age, genetics, and certain lifestyle factors of the mother.
Young mothers (teens) tend to have smaller babies, as do mothers of advanced maternal age (over 35). However, research has also shown a connection between advanced maternal age and high birth weight as well.
Genetics also play a role in birth weight. The genetic characteristics of both parents are important. One difference, however, is that the mother’s weight at her own birth has a greater impact than the father’s birth weight.
Mothers who smoke tend to have smaller babies, as physiological changes related to smoking reduce the nutrients supplied to the baby. Exposure to secondhand smoke is also correlated with low birth weight and other complications such as IUGR.
In 2016, 7.2% of women who gave birth reported smoking during pregnancy.
Maternal nutrition can also affect an infant’s birth weight. A mother’s weight gain in pregnancy is influenced by different factors, including her socioeconomic conditions, pregnancy and non-pregnancy related health conditions, and genetics.
A lack of early and regular prenatal care has been associated with lower birth weight babies. A lack of prenatal care might result from poor access to health care (for example, options are limited by geographic location), mental health concerns, or socioeconomic conditions.
Overall Maternal (and Paternal) Health
The health of an infant’s mother and father can also affect a newborn’s birth weight.
- Mother’s weight at conception. Women who are heavier when they become pregnant may have larger babies.
- Mother’s blood sugar and blood pressure. Having a history of high blood pressure before pregnancy has been associated with smaller babies. Having a history of diabetes (preexisting diabetes) is associated with larger-than-normal babies.
- Pregnancy complications. Pregnancy-induced hypertension or PIN (high blood pressure during pregnancy) and gestational diabetes (diabetes related to pregnancy) also affect birth weight. PIN is associated with smaller babies and gestational diabetes is linked to large-for-gestational-age babies.
- Uterine conditions. Certain hereditary uterine conditions (such as a bicornuate uterus), as well as acquired conditions (fibroids), can result in lower birth weight.
- Substance abuse. Alcohol and drug use can also affect the birth weight of a baby, typically leading to smaller birth weights.
While many factors can be modified, there are some factors that cannot be changed, such as:
- Sex at birth: Male infants tend to weigh slightly more at birth than female infants.
- Birth order: First babies tend to weigh less than subsequent babies.
- Multiples: Twins and other multiples are usually smaller than singletons.
Monitoring Newborn Weight Gain
If your baby is full-term, of normal birth weight, and has no medical conditions, it’s not usually necessary to weigh your baby as long as they are eating well, have wet diapers, and are developing normally.
Your pediatrician will check your newborn’s weight at each well-child visit and let you know if there is any cause for concern.
If your infant is low birth weight, was born prematurely, or your pediatrician has any other concerns, you will likely be asked to make more frequent visits to the clinic for weight checks.
Average weight gain can vary for children who are born with low birth weight or are large for gestational age. For example, premature babies often undergo catch-up growth.
If your baby was born early, your pediatrician will explain growth expectations. Otherwise, your baby’s weight gain by age can be monitored using the following guidelines.
Initial Weight Loss
Babies usually lose weight at first. This weight loss is roughly 5% of body weight in babies who are bottle-feeding and 7 to 10% in babies who are breastfeeding.
Babies usually regain their birth weight by 10 to 14 days of age.
The First 3 Months
In the first 3 months of life, babies gain an average of 1.5 to 2 pounds per month and grow an average of 2 centimeters (around 1 inch) per month. Your pediatrician will talk about normal growth rates for young children.
Your doctor can also show you where your child is on a growth chart—a graph that compares your baby’s height and weight to other babies of the same age.
4 to 6 Months
Between the age of 4 months and 6 months, babies put on weight less rapidly at around 1 to 1.25 pounds per month and are growing 1/2 to 1 inch each month. By around the 5-month mark, a baby’s birth weight is usually doubled.
6 Months to 1 Year
Weight gain begins to slow down between 6 months and 9 months of age, with growth in length being roughly 3/8 of an inch (1 centimeter) per month from 6 months to 12 months. Birth weight is usually tripled by around 1 year of age.
1 to 2 Years
On average, your baby’s weight will roughly quadruple by the time they are about 2 and a half years old. At this age, there are calculations you can use to estimate your child’s adult height.
A Word From Verywell
The birth weight of babies can vary and will be affected by many factors. A baby’s birth weight does not necessarily predict a child’s adult size. Some very-low-birth-weight babies grow up to be quite tall or large, while large-for-gestational-age babies might be small adults.
Whatever your baby’s birth weight is, your pediatrician will help you understand the growth expectations for your baby. They can use graphs to show you where your child falls in terms of their growth, and how their growth might affect their health.
The Average Length and Weight of Newborns
If you’re expecting a new addition to your family, get ready to pay attention to all sorts of measurements and statistics you would’ve never cared about before. This typically starts with counting the number of fingers and toes on your little one after they are given to you.
When all those numbers add up, the next question for most parents is: “How long is the baby and how much does she weigh?” That’s because the weight and length of a newborn baby is among the most sought-after information when loved ones hear the news that a little one has been born.
While it’s enjoyable to hear these vital statistics, weight and length are measured because they are valuable predictors of a newborn’s health, and they also provide a suspected growth pattern to pediatricians. Keep in mind that averages indicate the most common weights and lengths for babies, and your baby may fall outside of these averages and still be completely healthy.
The Long and Short of It
The normal length of a newborn baby ranges from 18 inches to 22 inches, with the average being 20 inches. Being shorter or longer than the average length doesn’t necessarily indicate a problem.
In fact, the height of the baby’s parents can play a role in how long a baby is at birth. In other words, very tall parents might have a baby longer than the average, while shorter parents might have a baby that’s smaller than average. However, concern for a smaller-than-average baby can come into play in the case of premature births.
A Weighty Issue
The Size of a Newborn Baby
There is a wide range of what doctors consider a healthy weight for a newborn baby. Many factors contribute to the weight of a baby including the size of the parents, the mother’s nutrition and age and prenatal care.
Most babies who are born full term (38 to 40 weeks gestation) weigh between 6 to 9 pounds, with the average full-term baby weighing in around 7.5 pounds. The averages are smaller for babies who are born prematurely and larger for babies born past 40 weeks.
Many health experts define low birth weight as less than 5 pounds 8 ounces at full-term, and larger than average is a birthweight over 8 pounds 13 ounces. Plus, boys are often larger than girls and first babies are usually lighter than siblings.
It’s also important to remember that most babies lose about one-tenth of their birth weight during the first five days, then regain it over the next five, so that by about day ten they usually are back to their original birth weight.
What Does It Mean?
While there isn’t as much concern when a baby is shorter or longer than average, being much lighter or much heavier may be cause for concern. Low birthweight babies are at a greater risk for oxygen deficiencies, infection, neurologic problems, difficulty feeding and difficulty maintaining body temperature.
On the other end of the spectrum, babies who are large for gestational age are at higher risk for a breathing problem called respiratory distress syndrome. They are also at a greater risk of experiencing birth injuries due to their size and they may have an excessive amount of red blood cells.
First Month: Physical Appearance and Growth
When your baby was born, her birth weight included excess body fluid, which she lost during her first few days.
Most babies lose about one-tenth of their birth weight during the first five days, then regain it over the next five, so that by about day ten they usually are back to their original birth weight. Most babies grow very rapidly after regaining their birth weight, especially during growth spurts, which occur around seven to ten days and again between three and six weeks. The average newborn gains weight at a rate of 2⁄3 of an ounce (20–30 grams) per day and by one month weighs about ten pounds (4.5 kg). She grows between 1 1⁄2 and 2 inches (4.5 to 5 cm) during this month. Boys tend to weigh slightly more than girls (by less than 1 pound, or approximately 350 grams). They also tend to be slightly longer than girls at this age (by about 1⁄2 inch, or 1.25 cm).
Your pediatrician will pay particular attention to your child’s head growth, because it reflects the growth of her brain. The bones in your baby’s skull are still growing together, and the skull is growing faster during the first four months than at any other time in her life. The average newborn’s head circumference measures about 13 3⁄4 inches (35 cm), growing to about 15 inches (38 cm) by one month. Because boys tend to be slightly larger than girls, their heads are larger, though the average difference is less than 1⁄2 inch (1 cm).
During these first weeks your baby’s body gradually will straighten from the tightly curled position she held inside the uterus during the final months of pregnancy. She’ll begin to stretch her arms and legs and may arch her back from time to time. Her legs and feet may continue to rotate inward, giving her a bowlegged look. This condition usually will correct itself gradually over the first year of life. If the bowlegged appearance is particularly severe or associated with pronounced curving of the front part of the foot, your pediatrician may suggest a splint or a cast to correct it, but in most instances these circumstances are extremely unusual.
If your baby was born vaginally and her skull appeared misshapen at birth, it soon should resume its normal shape. Any bruising of the scalp or swelling of the eyelids that occurred during birth will be gone by the end of the first week or two. Any red spots in the eyes will disappear in about three weeks.
To your dismay, you may discover that the fine hair that covered your child’s head when she was born soon begins falling out. If she rubs the back of her head on her sleep surface, she may develop a temporary bald spot there, even if the rest of her hair remains. This loss is not medically significant. The bare spots will be covered with new hair in a few months.
Another normal development is baby acne—pimples that break out on the face, usually during the fourth or fifth week of life. They are thought to be due to stimulation of oil glands in the skin by hormones passed across the placenta during pregnancy. This condition may be made worse if the baby lies in sheets laundered in harsh detergents or soiled by milk that she’s spit up. If your baby does have baby acne, place a soft, clean receiving blanket under her head while she’s awake and wash her face gently once a day with a mild baby soap to remove milk or detergent residue.
Your newborn’s skin also may look blotchy, ranging in color from pink to blue. Her hands and feet in particular may be colder and bluer than the rest of her body. The blood vessels leading to these areas are more sensitive to temperature changes and tend to shrink in response to cold. As a result, less blood gets to the exposed skin, causing it to look pale or bluish. If you move her arms and legs, however, you should notice that they quickly turn pink again.
Your baby’s internal “thermostat,” which causes her to sweat when she’s too hot or shiver when she’s too cold, won’t be working properly for some time. Also, in these early weeks, she’ll lack the insulating layer of fat that will protect her from sudden temperature shifts later on. For these reasons, it’s important for you to dress her properly—warmly in cool weather and lightly when it’s hot. A general rule of thumb is to dress her in one more layer of clothing than you would wear in the same weather conditions. Don’t automatically bundle her up just because she’s a baby.
Between ten days and three weeks after birth, the stump from the umbilical cord should have dried and fallen off, leaving behind a clean, well-healed area. Occasionally a raw spot is left after the stump is gone. It may even ooze a little blood-tinged fluid. Just keep it dry and clean (using a cotton ball dipped in rubbing alcohol) and it will heal by itself. If it is not completely healed and dry in two weeks, consult your pediatrician.
The information contained on this Web site should not be used as a substitute for the medical care and advice of your pediatrician. There may be variations in treatment that your pediatrician may recommend based on individual facts and circumstances.
Having a large baby | Pregnancy Birth and Baby
When you have a baby, one of the first things people like to know — besides the baby’s name — is their birth weight. Even before the baby’s born, parents can start to worry about its growth and development in the womb, particularly if they’ve been told they’re having a big baby. But does size really matter?
Babies come in all shapes and sizes
More than 9 out of 10 babies born at term (37 to 40 weeks) weigh between 2.5kg and 4.5kg.
If your baby weighs 4.5kg or more at birth, they are considered larger than normal. This is also known as ‘fetal macrosomia’ and large for gestational age (LGA). (If they weigh less than 2.5kg, they may be considered smaller than normal.)
How is a baby’s size measured?
During routine antenatal check-ups, your doctor or midwife may estimate the growth and size of your baby by measuring the ‘fundal height’. That is the measurement from your pubic bone to the top of your uterus.
An ultrasound can also give health professionals an idea of how big your baby is likely to be, but it’s not very accurate.
Your doctor may also check the level of amniotic fluid. Excessive amniotic fluid, which surrounds the baby in the womb, can indicate the baby is larger than average, since larger babies can produce more urine.
However, there’s no way of reliably measuring your baby’s weight until after they are born. In many cases, women who are told they’re going to have a large baby actually give birth to a baby within the normal range.
Why is my baby big?
A baby may be large at birth due to genetic factors, the mother’s health or, in rare cases, a medical condition that causes the fetus to grow too quickly.
Several factors can contribute to large birth weight. For example:
- the baby’s parents’ height and stature
- if the baby is a boy (baby boys tend to be larger than baby girls)
- having older siblings (the chance of fetal macrosomia increases with each pregnancy)
- a previous pregnancy in which the baby was large
- being overdue by more than 2 weeks
- if the mother has diabetes during pregnancy
- if the mother gains a lot of weight during pregnancy or is obese
- if the mother is aged 30 or older
In some cases, larger-than-normal birth weight doesn’t have a clear cause and can’t be explained.
Giving birth to a large baby
Most large babies who weigh more than 4.5kg do not have a difficult birth. But there are still some risks associated with having a big baby.
Labour may take longer and be more likely to involve complications. There’s an increased risk of having a forceps or vacuum-assisted delivery or a caesarean, and of birth injury to the mother or baby.
There is a link between fetal macrosomia and shoulder dystocia. Shoulder dystocia occurs during a vaginal birth when the baby’s head has been born, but one of the shoulders becomes stuck behind the mother’s pelvic bone. The baby’s shoulders need to be released quickly so the baby’s body can also be born, and they can start breathing.
Shoulder dystocia can happen during any birth. At least half of all babies who experience shoulder dystocia at birth weigh less than 4kg.
Large babies can be born via a normal, vaginal delivery — but it’s best to give birth where you can access specialist medical services, just in case things don’t go according to plan. Every pregnancy and birth is unique, so talk to your doctor or midwife about the best place for you to give birth.
After the birth of a large baby
Since many large babies are born to mothers with diabetes, some babies will need help regulating their blood sugar after they’re born. Later in life, the risk of childhood obesity or being overweight may increase and the baby may develop other problems with their metabolism.
A larger than average baby may need help breathing following the birth, so they may be admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) or special care nursery (SCN).
There is also an increased risk of jaundice (yellowing of the skin) among large babies.
Regardless of their size at birth, a baby’s weight is always monitored closely after they are born to make sure they are healthy and growing properly. But their weight isn’t the only thing that’s important. How well they are feeding and the number of wet nappies and poos they produce daily can also indicate that your baby is doing well.
Can you avoid having a large baby?
Often there’s nothing you can do to avoid having a large or small baby. But looking after yourself during pregnancy is important for all women. You should consider:
Where to seek help
Always talk to your doctor, obstetrician or midwife first if you are concerned about your pregnancy, your own health or the health of your baby.
If you are worried about your baby’s growth — or how fetal macrosomia might affect you as a mum — call Pregnancy, Birth and Baby on 1800 882 436 to speak to a maternal child health nurse.
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Baby size by week | BabyCenter
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Normal Growth and Development of Infants
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WHAT YOU NEED TO KNOW:
What is the normal growth and development of infants?
Normal growth and development is how your infant learns to walk, talk, eat, and interact with others. An infant is 1 month to 1 year old.
How fast will my infant grow?
Your infant will grow faster while he or she is an infant than at any other time in his or her life. Healthcare providers will record the following changes each time you bring him or her in for a checkup:
- Your infant will double his or her birth weight by the time he or she is 6 months old. He or she will triple his or her birth weight by the time he or she is 1 year old. He or she will gain about 1 to 2 pounds per month.
- Your infant will grow about 1 inch per month for the first 6 months of life. He or she will grow ½ inch per month between 6 months and 1 year of age. He or she should be 2 times longer than his or her birth length by the time he or she is 10 to 12 months old. Most of his or her growth will happen in the trunk (mid-section).
- Your infant’s head will grow about ½ inch every month for the first 6 months. His or her head will grow ¼ inch per month between 6 months and 1 year of age. His or her head should measure close to 17 inches around by the time he or she is 6 months old and 20 inches by 1 year of age.
What should I feed my infant?
- Breast milk is the only food your baby needs for the first 6 months of life. If possible, only breastfeed (no formula) him or her for the first 6 months. Breastfeeding is recommended for at least the first year of your baby’s life, even when he or she starts eating food. You may pump your breasts and feed breast milk from a bottle. You may feed your baby formula from a bottle if breastfeeding is not possible. Talk to your baby’s pediatrician about the best formula for your baby. He or she can help you choose one that contains iron.
- Do not add cereal to the bottle. Your infant will not be ready for cereal until he or she is about 4 months old. Your infant may get too many calories during a feeding if you add cereal to the bottle. You can always make more milk or formula if your infant is still hungry after finishing a bottle.
- Your infant will want to feed himself or herself by about 6 months. This may be messy until your infant’s eye-hand coordination improves. Give him or her small pieces of food that he or she can hold in his or her hand. Your infant might not like a food the first time you offer it. He or she may like it after tasting it several times, so offer it a few times. You will learn the foods your infant likes and when he or she wants to eat them. Limit his or her sugar-sweetened foods and drinks. Cut your infant’s food into small bites. Your infant can choke on food, such as hot dogs, raw carrots, or popcorn.
How much should I feed my infant?
- Your infant may want different amounts each day. The amount of formula or breast milk your infant drinks may change with each feeding and each day. The amount your infant drinks depends on his or her weight, how fast he or she is growing, and how hungry he or she is. Your infant may want to drink a lot one day and not want to drink much the next.
- Do not overfeed your infant. Overfeeding means your infant gets too many calories during a feeding. This may cause him or her to gain weight too fast. Your baby may also continue to overeat later in life. Infants have a natural ability to know when they are done feeding. Your infant may cry if you try to continue feeding him or her. He or she may not accept a nipple. Do not try to force him or her to continue.
- Feed your infant each time he or she is hungry. Your infant will drink about 2 to 4 ounces at each feeding. He or she will probably want to feed every 3 to 4 hours. Wake your infant to feed him or her if he or she has been sleeping for 4 to 5 hours.
What do I need to know about feeding my infant safely?
- Hold your infant upright to feed him or her. Do not prop your infant’s bottle. Your infant could choke while you are not watching, especially in a moving vehicle.
- Do not use a microwave to heat your infant’s bottle. The milk or formula will not heat evenly and will have spots that are very hot. Your infant’s face or mouth could be burned. You can warm the milk or formula quickly by placing the bottle in a pot of warm water for a few minutes.
How much sleep does my infant need?
- Your infant will sleep about 16 hours each day for the first 3 months. From 3 months until 6 months, he or she will sleep about 13 to 14 hours each day. He or she will sleep more at night and less during the day as he or she gets older.
- Always put your infant on his or her back to sleep. This will help him or her breathe well while he or she sleeps.
When will my infant be able to control his or her movements?
- Your infant will start to open his or her hands after about 1 month. Your infant can hold a rattle by about 3 months old, but he or she will not reach for it.
- Your infant’s eyes will move smoothly and focus on objects by 2 months. He or she should be able to follow moving objects by 3 months. He or she will follow moving objects without turning his or her head by 9 months.
- Your infant should be able to lift his or her head when he or she is on his or her tummy by 3 months. Your infant’s pediatrician may tell you to you place your infant on his or her tummy for short periods. Do this only when your infant is awake. This can help him or her develop strong neck muscles. Continue to support your infant’s head until he or she is about 4 months old. His or her neck muscles will be stronger at this age. Your infant should be able to hold his or her head up without support by 6 to 8 months old.
- Your infant will interact with and recognize the people around him or her by 3 months. He or she will smile at the sound of your voice and turn his or her head toward a familiar sound. Your infant will respond to his or her own name at about 6 months old. He or she will also look around for objects he or she drops.
- Your infant will grab at things he or she sees at 4 to 6 months. He or she will grab at objects and bring his or her hands close to his or her face. He or she will also open and close his or her hands so that he or she can pick up and look at objects. Your infant will move an object from one hand to the other by 7 months. Your infant will be able to put an object into a container, turn pages in a book, and wave by 12 months.
- Your infant will move into the crawling position when he or she is about 6 months old. He or she should be able to sit with some support by 6 months. He or she may also be able to roll from back to side and from stomach to back. He or she will start to walk at about 10 to 12 months old. Your infant will pull himself or herself to a standing position while holding onto furniture. He or she may take big, fast steps at first. He or she may start to walk alone but not have good balance. You may see him or her fall down many times before he or she learns to walk easily. He or she will put his or her hands on walls or large objects to stay steady while walking. He or she will also change how fast he or she walks when stepping onto surfaces that are not even, such as grass.
How do I care for my infant’s teeth?
Teeth normally come in when your infant is about 6 months old, starting with the 2 lower center teeth. His or her upper center teeth will come in at about 8 months old. The upper and lower side teeth will come in at about 9 months old. You can help keep your infant’s teeth healthy as soon as they start to come in. Limit the amount of sweetened foods and drinks you offer him or her. Brush your infant’s teeth after he or she eats. Ask your infant’s pediatrician for information on the right toothbrush and toothpaste for your infant. Do not put your infant to sleep with a bottle. The liquid will sit in his or her mouth and increase his or her risk for cavities.
What is cradle cap?
Cradle cap is a skin condition that causes scaly patches to form on your baby’s scalp. Some infants may also have scaly patches on other parts of the body. Cradle cap usually goes away on its own in about 6 to 8 months. To help remove the scales, apply warm mineral oil on the scales. Wash the mineral oil off 1 hour later with a mild soap. Use a soft-bristle toothbrush or washcloth to gently remove the scales.
When will my infant begin to talk?
Your infant will start to babble at around 4 months old. He or she will start to talk at about 9 months old. Your infant will learn to talk by copying the words and sounds he or she hears. He or she will learn what words mean by watching others point to what they talk about. Your infant should be able to speak a few simple words by 12 months. He or she will begin to say short words, such as mama and dada. He or she will understand the meaning of simple words and commands by 9 to 12 months. He or she will also know what some objects are by their name, such as ball or cup.
Why is it important to create routines for my infant?
Routines will help your infant feel safe and secure. Set a schedule for your infant to sleep, eat, and play. Routines may also help your infant if he or she has a hard time falling asleep. For example, read your infant a story or give him or her a bath before bed.
You have the right to help plan your baby’s care. Learn about your baby’s health condition and how it may be treated. Discuss treatment options with your baby’s healthcare providers to decide what care you want for your baby. The above information is an educational aid only. It is not intended as medical advice for individual conditions or treatments. Talk to your doctor, nurse or pharmacist before following any medical regimen to see if it is safe and effective for you.
© Copyright IBM Corporation 2021 Information is for End User’s use only and may not be sold, redistributed or otherwise used for commercial purposes. All illustrations and images included in CareNotes® are the copyrighted property of A.D.A.M., Inc. or IBM Watson Health
Always consult your healthcare provider to ensure the information displayed on this page applies to your personal circumstances.
90,000 Weight and height of the child by months to a year – Table and norms for the weight of babies
A young mother often worries about whether her baby is developing correctly. And the weight of the child is one of the “sore” issues that often comes up on the playground.
Undoubtedly, how much a newborn gains in weight is really important to know. But remember that the height and weight of a child are individual indicators. And they may not always fit into pretty statistics. Although the approximate norm for a newborn’s weight is calculated based on general values.Doctors who regularly weigh a newborn also have their own guidelines.
The table below shows the height and weight of the newborn by month. The figures take into account statistics and recommendations of pediatricians (the discrepancy, by the way, is only 3%).
Newborn weight norm
|Child’s age, months||Boy, weight, g||Boy, height, cm||Girl, weight, g||Girl, height, cm|
|1 month||4450||54.5||4 150||53.5|
|2 month||5 250||58||4900||56.8|
|4 month||6,700||63||6 150||61.5|
|5 month||7 300||65||6 650||63.4|
|7 month||8 400||68.7||7,700||66.9|
|8 month||8 850||70.3||8 100||68.4|
|9 month||9 250||71.7||8,500||70|
|10 month||9 650||73||8 850||71.3|
|12 month||10 300||75.5||9,500||73.8|
To use the table, it is worth knowing how to weigh a newborn correctly.Before turning on the scales, you must remove all foreign objects from the pan, otherwise you will receive distorted data. Although you can leave the diaper on it and then press the “Tara” button to reset the result. It is necessary to put the baby in the scales at rest in order to fix the exact numbers, which can then be compared with the “ideal”.
Modern electronic scales for weighing newborns are ahead of the curve. A smart device “knows” the weight of a healthy baby in advance and compares the norm itself with the result.It is enough to wait just a few seconds and you will see the result. Home scales with a built-in height rod will allow you to monitor the physical development of your baby without visiting the clinic.
Remember that the proper weight of the child is growing over time. You can track this indicator through a mobile application that collects the results of each weighing.
Sizes of clothes for newborns by month: table
There comes a happy moment for a mother, when the baby should be born.Everything is ready for childbirth, but the question arises: what size clothes to choose for the baby? Even an ultrasound scan will not be able to say for sure what height and weight he will be. Firstly, this study does not provide 100% of the data, and secondly, it is done a week or two before birth, when the baby is still growing. In order not to be mistaken, you need to know what sizes of clothes for newborns exist. This will help a table of sizes by month.
What are the standard sizes?
The growth of babies is very fast, so buy clothes for a child that will absolutely match his height.The size chart is based on the standard height and weight of the child by months, and it is best to take larger items, as the baby will outgrow them very soon.
- 50 is the smallest size. It is designed for premature babies. Even if the growth of a child born at term is 50 cm, it is still better to purchase larger things, since the increase in height and weight will occur very quickly.
- 56 – suitable for babies born at term of average height: 43-52 cm.During the first month, the growth of the child will already overtake the size of the thing, and you will have to buy large sets. If you are diagnosed with a large fetus on an ultrasound, you can immediately stock up on size 56 clothes.
- 62 is the standard size for a baby in the second month of life, but larger babies can wear it in the first month.
Other examples of dimensional grids for a newborn baby can be found in Russian manufacturers:
- Monthly.0-3 months; 3-6 months, etc.
- By size. 18 – for newborns; 18-20 – for babies 1 month old or large newborns; 20-22 – for a child of 2 months, etc.
In Europe, a dimensional grid for months is also adopted, but it is written differently, for example: 0/3, which means from 0 to 3 months.
The following is a table of sizes of clothes for a child by months.
The biggest problem is the size of hats and bonnets.This is a mandatory attribute of children’s clothing, which is worn even in hot weather, so that the baby does not blow out his ears or head.
The size of the headgear is determined by the circumference of the head. It is best for a newborn to purchase a size 35, although after birth it may be necessary to settle for a larger size.
Below is a table that determines the size of the headgear for the child.
Up to 7-8 months, until the child tries to get up, the baby does not need shoes at all.You can completely do with warm socks. Their size is determined based on the size of the foot. It is best if the socks are slightly larger than the foot: this will make it more difficult for the baby to throw them off.
The most characteristic designations for the size of socks for a child are: 0+, 0-3, 3-6. For a newborn, size 0+ is suitable. In order not to run to the store for socks as the child grows, you can immediately purchase several copies for growth in size 0-3.
Basic rules for choosing clothes
Some mothers, out of superstition, try not to buy clothes for a child in advance.On the one hand, this is true, since you do not know what kind of baby will be born. On the other hand, before giving birth, you have the opportunity to calmly pick up things, and not then run around the shops in a hurry.
Each mother determines the time for the purchase herself. When choosing clothes, it is better to adhere to these rules:
- The seams on clothes for a newborn should face outward so as not to injure the baby’s skin.
- Whichever wardrobe item you purchase, opt for snap fasteners over zippers.
- Garments must be made from natural fabrics.
- Warm clothes need to be bought a couple of sizes larger.
- Dimensions indicated by different manufacturers with the same markings may not correspond to each other.
- Buy several copies before giving birth. You should not buy a whole “dowry” at once: it may turn out to be small or not suitable for other reasons.
If the child will be at home in diapers, buy 2-3 pieces of each piece of clothing for home use.Warm clothes are enough one piece at a time. And remember: it is better to buy larger things for a newborn than to buy small ones. The size chart presented on the site will always help you navigate correctly and choose the right thing for your baby.
How much should a newborn weigh? Problems of Bogatyrs and Thumbelines | Healthy life | Health
The consultant-professor of the department for premature babies of the SCCH RAMS, Honored Scientist of the Russian Federation, Academician of the Russian Academy of Natural Sciences Galina Yatsyk tells about large and small babies .
Let’s figure out what “small” means. Baby weight at birth over 2.5 kg is normal weight. Pediatricians do not consider infants 2.5–2.7 kg small. A full-term newborn with such a weight does not need any special reinforced nutrition, no wrapping, or a hot heated room. Sometimes parents want to feed a miniature baby, quickly see how plump cheeks have become, folds on thick legs have appeared … They begin to give the baby a little more food than necessary.The result is regurgitation. Don’t overfeed your mini-babies. Yes, he eats a little less milk or infant formula by volume than a large baby, but he has enough. He’s just of a different constitution. In parents, grandparents and great-grandfathers, who are also, probably, fragile build. He will eat his norm, but develop normally, catch up with his peers in all respects and after a year can weigh no less than them.
But children who were born with a weight of less than 2.5 kg already require more close attention of doctors and special care.Pediatricians call such crumbs small.
Reasons for the birth of very small children:
- multiple pregnancy.
Prematurity – not a sentence
The main problem of premature babies is not at all low weight, but the immaturity of some body systems – respiratory, thermoregulatory … They are by nature laid to live while in the mother’s tummy, develop further, and their weight for intrauterine life is quite normal.And then suddenly bad luck: something made me be born prematurely.
Premature babies are also divided into those with a very low weight – less than 1.5 kg, and those with an extremely low weight – less than 1 kg. Of course, such crumbs are not often born, there are 0.4% and 0.2% of all premature babies. Previously, it seemed that if a baby with a weight of only 1 kg was born, it would be a disaster! How to get it out? Now, according to the WHO classification, a fetus born alive after 22 weeks of intrauterine development and weighing more than 500 g (!) Is considered a child that can and should be nursed.Now both society and doctors are psychologically differently tuned, they believe that a healthy child can be raised from a newborn weighing 1–1.2 kg and he will be mentally healthy.
Premature babies first need special care, they are placed in special hospitals, but if the baby is already discharged home, it means that he can live in normal conditions, like all babies, he can breathe, drink and eat, and he needs to be fed like an ordinary baby …
The fact that prematurity is not a verdict and that among famous people there were premature babies, probably everyone has already heard.Goethe, Napoleon were premature … Low birth weight did not become an obstacle to longevity, talent, or happiness.
Sometimes babies are born on time, and their height for newborns is quite normal, and their weight is very small – 1.3–1.5 kg. This is hypotrophy. It is caused by my mother’s illness. Such children appear in women with cardiovascular diseases, hypertension, diseases of the endocrine system … Thin, long, they continue to gain weight poorly, although nutritionists have created special food for them, enriched with proteins, fats, vitamins.For the rest of their lives they can remain small, but they will develop well.
Malicious habits of the mother can also cause hypotrophy in an infant. If a woman smokes during pregnancy, the fetus is constantly poisoned, the child is born small.
And children from multiple pregnancies are born small, and they are born earlier, because they are cramped in the womb of the mother. They are nursed in the same way as premature babies. And quite healthy twins and triplets grow out of them.
But doctors are not very happy with large children, those who weigh more than 4 kg at birth.
It’s harder to give birth to them, that’s understandable. They are more likely to receive birth injuries: clavicle fractures, hematomas, paralysis … Therefore, when doctors, doing an ultrasound to a pregnant woman, see a large fetus, they often offer her a cesarean section.
But the most important thing is that large children are born to sick mothers. It happens, of course, that the baby is big simply because his dad is under two meters, and his mother is not small either.But such a reason for high weight is rare. But a hero for a mother with diabetes, including a mother who does not yet know about her illness, is the rule. And each subsequent child of this mother will be bigger and bigger. And there is a great danger that these children will also develop diabetes.
So families with those suffering from this disease should definitely consult a pregnant woman with an endocrinologist. She will receive special treatment so that the baby is not born too large and does not suffer during intrauterine development.
Large babies adapt longer after birth. Usually, in a newborn, in the first three days, at least five days, the cardiovascular system begins to function rhythmically, the pulse is leveled, breathing is established – without shortness of breath, without signs of apnea, the gastrointestinal tract enters into its own rhythm … And in large, adaptation can stretch for two weeks.
But the hero arrived home from the hospital. How to feed him now? He should eat the same amount of food by volume as the average child.But at the same time, a hero can gain weight more than an average child.
And such a baby must be shown to an endocrinologist. We have well-equipped children’s centers where a baby can be tested for any endocrine pathology.
► On average, larger children are born in Scandinavia, smaller ones in Africa.
► The average weight of boys (3200–3500 g) is slightly more than the weight of girls (3000–3250 g).
► Firstborns are usually born smaller than the second and third children in the family.Although if parents and children are healthy, the differences in grams and centimeters may be barely noticeable.
► Accelerates already at birth are larger in weight and height of children of the generation that has not been affected by acceleration.
90,000 Head and chest circumference (average)
The head circumference of of the newborn is on average 34 cm, and of the chest is 32 cm.
For the year , the circumference of the head increases by 12 cm, i.e.That is, an average of 1 cm per month. In the first months of life head grows more intensively. However, during the first year of life, the rate of growth of the chest is higher, as a result of which at 3-4 months the size of chest and head circumferences becomes the same, and by the year chest circumference exceeds head circumference by an average of 2 cm ; for a year it increases by 16 cm. In the future, in a healthy child , the circumference of the chest will always be greater than the circumference of the head .
|Age||Head circumference||Chest circumference||Age||Head circumference||Chest circumference|
|cm||% of body length||cm||% of body length||cm||% of body length||cm||% of body length|
|Up to 1 month||35||69||34||67||Up to 1 month||34||68||33||66|
|1 month||37||69||36||67||1 month||36||68||35||66|
|2 months||39||68||38||66||2 months||38||68||37||66|
|3 months||41||67||39||64||3 months||40||68||38||64|
|6 months||44||65||43||63||6 months||43||65||42||64|
|9 months||46||64||45||63||9 months||45||64||44||63|
|1 year||47||63||47||63||1 year||46||62||47||63|
|2 years||49||57||51||59||2 years||48||56||50||58|
|3 years||50||52||52||54||3 years||49||52||51||54|
|4 years||51||50||53||51||4 years||50||50||52||51|
|5 years||51||47||55||50||5 years||50||47||53||49|
|6 years||51||45||57||49||6 years||50||44||55||48|
|7 years||52||43||58||48||7 years||51||43||57||48|
|8 years||52||41||59||47||8 years||51||41||59||47|
|9 years||52||40||61||47||9 years||61||39||61||47|
|10 years||52||38||64||47||10 years||51||38||63||48|
|11 years||53||38||66||46||11 years||52||37||66||48|
|12 years old||53||37||68||47||12 years old||52||36||71||49|
|13 years old||53||36||71||48||13 years old||53||35||74||49|
|14 years old||54||35||74||48||14 years old||53||34||76||49|
You can make an appointment with pediatric specialists ONLINE
To view more detailed information about the services please follow the link
90,000 tables what size clothes to buy
Every young parent at least once in his life faced the problem of choosing clothes for his child.Often these problems were associated with not understanding the grid. In practice, everything is extremely easy. In the selection of clothes for a baby, a table of sizes of clothes for newborns, which is scheduled by month, will help you.
The size of a newborn baby is on average half a meter, it directly depends on the sex of the baby. The average weight is 3.4 kg for boys and 3.2 kg for girls. To use a table of sizes of things for babies, it is enough to know the growth rates of the baby. Basic measurements:
- 50 – most often suitable for small or premature babies.It is recommended that the average baby over 50 be purchased only for release from the maternity ward. But since the crumb is developing rapidly after a couple of weeks, things will be small. Sometimes large babies cannot fit into things of this size.
- 56 – these things are suitable for almost any baby in the first weeks of its development. But it should be noted that larger babies may not be suitable.
- 62 – the size of clothes for newborns, if the baby was born medium, then it is worth purchasing things from 62.Often such things are suitable for a baby up to 7-8 weeks old. Large babies can wear this size right after birth.
But do not forget that every newborn is different. It is necessary to buy based on the individual growth and weight of the baby. If you want to buy things before the baby is born, then you need to focus on the results of the control ultrasound.
These are the most common measurements for babies in Russia. If you are going to order from European or Asian stores, then it will be useful for you to know the European standards.
Below is a grid of measurements of things for children under one year old to buy clothes for newborns.
|Age by months||Height, cm||Bust, cm||Size (Russia)||Size (Europe)|
|Up to 1 month||50-56||36||From 18||From 56|
|1-2 month||56-62||38||From 18 to 20||From 62|
|3-6 month||62-68||40||From 20 to 22||From 68|
|7-9 month||68-74||42||From 22||From 74|
|12 month||74-78||44||From 22 to 24||From 80|
The following measurement system is found in Europe:
- 0/3 – 0-3 months;
- 3/6 – 3-6 months;
- 6/9 – 6-9 etc.
But this table is not used in Russia. Even in the CIS, you can often find standard markings:
- 18 – newborn babies;
- 20 – children from 1 to 3 months;
- 22 – from 6 to 9 months;
- 24 – starting with a year and so on.
Clothes 56 according to the Russian series of measurements, 18 according to the standard, or in cases with the European 0/3 will fit perfectly on children who were born just recently. For underdeveloped or small babies, 50 is well suited.For children whose height / weight indicators exceed the standards, it is worth choosing a model of 62 measurements.
How to choose a hat for a newborn?
A cap is a mandatory attribute at the birth of a baby. The volume of the headgear is determined by the girth of the head. But as is the case with things, sometimes you have to buy a hat even before the baby is born. To know the approximate size of the baby’s head, you need to be guided by the results of the last ultrasound examination.Babies born at term have a head of 35 centimeters in coverage, the length is 12-14 centimeters. Below is a table of measurements of hats.
Caps and caps:
|Age||Head coverage||Headgear size|
|From 3 months||35-40||40|
|From 6 months||42-44||44|
|From 9 months||44-46||46|
|From 1 year||48-50||47|
If the width of the baby’s head is not exactly known, it is recommended to buy bonnets or thin hats 36, 38, 40 per piece.The head will grow every 2 weeks, so they will not be superfluous. When buying a warm hat, you should start with 40 or more.
Sometimes babies’ caps have sizes 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 and so on.
It is useful to know that:
- 0 – for premature or very small babies,
- 1 – newborns,
- 3 – babies aged from 13 weeks,
- 4 – for babies from half a year,
- 5 – from 40 weeks,
- 6 – from one year old, and so on.
Table of measurements of socks and booties for newborns
Just like caps, socks can sometimes be found with such designations as 0, 1-3, 3-6, 6-9 and so on.
- 0 – premature or very small babies, suitable for discharge from the hospital. The size is approximately 8 cm;
- 1-3 – just born, about 10 cm;
- 3-6 – for babies, from 13 weeks of age, about 12 cm;
- 6-9 – for children up to half a year old, 14 cm;
- 9-12 – for children from six months to one year old, equal to 16 cm.
If you need to buy socks, and the length of the crumbs’ foot is unknown, then you should use the sock measurement table.
|From birth to six months||7-9|
|From six months to one year||10-12|
When choosing socks “by eye”, choose products from elastic fabric, which in the case of
When choosing socks “by eye”, choose products from elastic fabrics that, in which case, stretch to a decent length, or vice versa, sit on the leg.
With booties things are different: it is advisable to know the exact measurements of the boy, this is due to the fact that booties are much more voluminous than socks. But if you had to choose blindly, you need to use a grid with measurements.
|Age (months)||Foot length||Size (USA)||Size (Europe)|
|Foot length in cm||8.3||8.9||9.2||9.5||10.2||10.5|
the exact parameters of its growth, weight, leg length, head girth.If the baby has not yet been born, you can rely on the results of an ultrasound examination. But even an ultrasound scan will not be able to tell you the exact indicators, so the right option would be not to purchase anything in advance, if you really want to buy something, you need to do it at a minimum, maximum for graduation from the maternity hospital.
When a child grows up, many parents look after him for a new thing on aliexpress, we suggest finding out and comparing US children’s size to Russian on Aliexpress.
If the baby is supposed to be large, you should start purchasing a small wardrobe with 62.When shopping, keep a table of measurements of baby clothes nearby, it will help you choose the right things for your baby.
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90,000 When the fontanelle heals in a newborn
The newborn has many physiological characteristics that are not found in older children.Probably everyone has heard of such a concept as a fontanel in a newborn, but few have complete information about it. In the article you will find answers to the most popular and significant questions about the fontanelle in babies, including finding out when the fontanelle in a newborn heals.
What is the fontanel
The fontanelle is a small area located between the bones of the skull, which has not yet had time to ossify. The fontanelles are elements of the “membranous” skeleton.
The anterior (large or frontal, “soft crown”) fontanelle connects the sagittal, frontal and coronary sutures.The shape is diamond-shaped, four sutures extend from the fontanel itself: frontal, sagittal and two coronal.
The posterior (small or occipital) – has a small depression, this is the place of convergence of the sagittal and lambdoid sutures. The shape of this fontanelle is triangular, with three sutures extending from it: sagittal and two lambdoid.
There are other fontanelles (paired mastoid and paired wedge-shaped), but it is the first two that are of great practical importance, therefore, special attention is always paid to them.
Pulsation of fontanelles is absolutely normal. Despite the fact that there is still no ossification at the place of the fontanel, the connective tissue has sufficient strength to protect the baby from possible injuries.
Normal fontanel size
The normal size of the fontanelle has its own range, which fluctuates, and can be individual for each newborn. However, there are generally accepted dimensions on which to rely.
Large fontanel size:
0 -1 month
25 – 28 mm
1 – 2 months
25 – 28 mm
2 – 3 months
23 – 24 mm
20 – 21 mm
4 – 5 month
18 – 20 mm
5 – 6 months
18 – 20 mm
6 – 7 months
16 – 17 mm
7 – 8 month
16 – 17 mm
8 – 9 month
14 – 15 mm
9 – 10 month
12 – 14 mm
10 – 11 month
9 – 12 mm
11 – 12 months
5 – 8 mm
Small fontanel size
1 – 3 months
The mastoid and wedge-shaped fontanelles close almost immediately after birth, and in some cases even during intrauterine development.
When does the fontanelle heal?
There is no definite answer to this question. The thing is that this process is purely individual, each baby has its own timing of overgrowing of fontanelles.
As mentioned above, paired wedge-shaped and mastoid fontanelles overgrow shortly after birth, and some babies are born with already ossified fontanelles, both options are the norm.
The posterior or lesser fontanelle may heal soon after birth or by three months.
When does a baby’s fontanelle heal? This question can be answered in more detail. The anterior fontanelle is always closely monitored, since its abnormal overgrowth may indicate pathology. But here, too, there are no clear time boundaries, as a rule, the time of overgrowing of the large fontanel is between 10 and 14 months, but sometimes it can ossify by 3 months, or remain open, for example, at 18 months, but the fontanel closes up to 2 years.
The specialist assesses the condition of the fontanelle, the physical development and health of the baby as a whole, therefore, it is wrong to think about pathologies based only on the size of the fontanelle.
There is an unspoken rule that in children who are breastfed, fontanelles overgrow somewhat faster than in babies who are artificially fed. However, this hypothesis has no precise confirmation and is based on general statistics.
What is the function of the fontanel
- The fontanelles act as shock absorbers between the bones of the newborn’s skull and protect the brain from possible injury.
- The presence of fontanelles contributes to the normal and unimpeded passage of the fetal head through the birth canal. The fact is that fontanelles enable the baby’s head to “fold” and “shrink”, this helps the child to be born without injuries and concussions.
- A large fontanelle serves as an indicator of the presence of pathologies. If it is swollen or, conversely, sunken, pathology or developmental disabilities can be suspected.
- In an infant, the brain is actively growing throughout the first year of life, fontanelles help the bones of the skull to cope with the load.
- The fontanelle helps to cool the brain when the baby’s temperature rises.
- In the first year of life, a child actively gets to know the world, falls and blows are not uncommon. The fontanelle suppresses the force of the concussion.
- The fontanelle helps to assess the physiological development of the child.
Pathology of fontanelle
- If the large fontanelle closes too early, this may indicate an increase in phosphorus-calcium metabolism.
- Early ossification of the fontanelle may interfere with brain development by interfering with normal brain development.
- Closing too early may indicate an oversized skull.
- In case of late closure, calcium deficiency may be suspected, which is associated with insufficient intake of vitamin D. In the future, such children may develop rickets.
- If the fontanelle closes early, and later episodes of increased intracranial pressure occur, suture divergence is possible.
- If the fontanelle is significantly larger than normal, oxygen deprivation during pregnancy or after birth injuries can be suspected.
- The following causes of an oversized fontanelle: metabolic or thyroid disorders, infectious diseases.
- If the fontanelle is sunken, it may indicate dehydration (which may be caused by diarrhea or repeated vomiting).
- A bulging fontanelle indicates increased intracranial pressure.
- Deviations in fontanelle healing occur in premature babies.
- Constant increased pulsation of the large fontanelle is a sign of neurological disorders.
- An increase in the fontanelle in conjunction with an excessive increase in head volume indicates hydrocephalus (fluid accumulation).
How to measure correctly
As a rule, the large fontanel is measured, as it can tell a lot about the condition and physiological development of the newborn. A large fontanelle is measured for absolutely all children, without exception. For the measurement procedure, you will need: a measuring tape, ethyl alcohol, a napkin and paper with a pen to record the values obtained.For safety reasons, do not leave the baby alone on the changing table while measuring the fontanelle.
The fontanel measurement process includes the following steps:
- Before proceeding with the direct measurement of the large fontanel, the doctor must wash his hands and then dry them.
- Hands should be at a comfortable temperature. If the hands are too cold, the child may become very frightened.
- Before starting the measurement, the measuring tape must be processed on both sides; for this, a napkin is taken and moistened with a 70% solution of ethyl alcohol.
- A measuring tape or a transparent ruler is applied to the child’s head, namely the large fontanel area. Measurement is taken diagonally on both sides.
- The received data must be recorded.
When the doctor takes measurements of the fontanelle, he at the same time accurately assesses the general condition of the fontanelle: he feels the edges of the bone, checks for the presence or absence of increased softness, serration. An important point is the assessment of soft tissues in the fontanel area, the doctor looks to see if there is any pathological protrusion or retraction.
Now you know when your baby’s fontanelle will approximately heal. If you are worried about the appearance of the fontanelle, the child has an unstable condition, you should immediately consult a doctor. In addition, so that there are no problems with the healing process, you need to carefully monitor the pregnancy and take a responsible approach to childbirth.
90,000 Liver size in a newborn
Ultrasound examination of the liver and other internal organs allows you to identify structural pathology, as well as to measure them.Normal liver sizes in children vary over a wide range, depending on height, body weight and type of constitution. Increased indicators of the length or width of the organ testify in favor of the presence of pathology.
Features of the structure and functioning of the liver in children
The liver is an unpaired parenchymal organ, which is located mainly in the right hypochondrium and occupies a small part of the left. In a newborn baby, this organ makes up 4.5% of the area of the whole body and weighs on average about 120-140 grams.This is due to the fact that in the prenatal period, he performed a hematopoietic function, which ceases after birth.
By about 10 months of life the weight of the “digestive gland” doubles, and by the age of 3 it triples, which is 360-400 grams. It is also important to remember that in infants and preschool children, the lower edge of the organ normally protrudes somewhat (by 2-3 cm) from under the costal arch, so the doctor can easily palpate it during examination.
In adults and children, the liver consists of 4 lobes:
- tailed, square.
- right, left;
They are separated by ligaments, grooves and gates – the place in the organ where the vessels enter and from where they exit (portal, hollow, hepatic veins, arteries). On the visceral surface “lies” the gallbladder, the main duct of which flows into the lumen of the duodenum. The liver itself is made up of hepatocytes, which form the hepatic tracts, surrounded by small capillaries and bile ducts.
Basic functions of the parenchymal organ in childhood:
- synthesis of bile, which is an important component of the digestion process;
- participation in carbohydrate, protein and fat metabolism;
- neutralization of poisonous, toxic substances;
- production of proteins, some factors of the blood coagulation system;
- Formation of reserves of vitamins, glucose in the form of glycogen;
- participation in hormonal metabolism.
Children’s liver is more rich in small vessels, and its cells are just finishing differentiation, which causes easy development of stagnation in it against the background of banal ARVI or acute intestinal infection.
Organ sizes in children of different ages
Age-related changes in the liver mainly concern its size, the structure and location of the organ does not change. To do this, measure the length, width of the left and right lobes. There are several options for tables of liver sizes in normal children: by age, height.
The right lobe in a one-year-old baby is within 60 mm, after which it increases by 5-6 mm on average every year. The anteroposterior size in a child at 12 months normally does not exceed 40 mm, and each subsequent year increases by 2 mm.
Approximate indicators of the liver, depending on age:
- 3-4 years old: right lobe – 70-75mm, left – 44-46mm.
- 6-7 years old: right lobe – 85-90 mm, left – 50-54 mm.
- 9-10 years old: right lobe – 100-110 mm, left – 60-62mm.
- 14-15 years old: right lobe – 110-115 mm, left – 65-67 mm.
- 18 years old: right lobe 120 mm, left 70 mm.
Table of the norm of abdominal ultrasound in children by age
|Right lobe length in cm||Length of the left lobe in cm|
|1 year||6.0 + 0.5-0.6 every year||4.0 + 0.2 every year|
|15 Years||10.0||5.0 + 0.1|
|18 years old||12.0||7.0|
|Spleen (length and width in cm)|
|From 3 to 7 years||7.5-7.8||5.6-5.85|
|8-12 years old||8.7-9.0||5.9-6.0|
|13-15 years old||9.5-10.0||6.0-6.2|
|Gallbladder (length and width in cm)|
|From 2 to 4 years||5.2||1.5-1.8|
Normal ultrasound readings
Modern domestic doctors-sonologists in their practice use a special table according to Dvoryakovsky or Pykov, which reflect the normal size of the lobes, help to determine with an increase or vice versa – a pathological decrease in an organ.
In infancy, ultrasound of internal organs is recommended by the doctor only to premature babies, with suspicions of congenital diseases, or with prolonged jaundice, when it does not go away within 2 weeks.
If the liver of a newborn is enlarged, then in addition to ultrasound, other diagnostic measures are prescribed to establish the exact disease, prescribe treatment. Hepatomegaly in a child can be associated with injuries during childbirth, endocrine diseases in the mother.
The causes of hepatomegaly in newborns, clinical manifestations of hepatic diseases, diagnostic methods and interpretation of ultrasound results – we will consider further.
Hepatomegaly in newborns
When they talk about hepatomegaly, they mean a pathological increase in organ size against the background of a primary lesion or due to other concomitant diseases. Normally, in a healthy infant, the liver occupies up to 4.5% of the total body weight and up to half of the abdominal cavity.
If the baby has an enlarged liver, it is necessary to distinguish the norm from the pathology. The fact is that hepatomegaly in newborns is due to physiology, and the gland extends beyond the edge of the lower rib by 20-40 millimeters, and only by the age of 6-7 it takes on normal dimensions, that is, it goes beyond the costal arch.
The doctor may suspect a pathology during a physical examination and subsequent palpation of the projection of the gland. The increase is confirmed by ultrasound or CT.
When examining a small child, it should be borne in mind that the organ can be of different morphotypes – be elongated in length or thickness, have an additional lobe (called Reader’s lobe).A fairly common anomaly in children is the “accessory liver”. This is when small lobules of various shapes and sizes are localized next to the main gland – parenchymal neoplasms.
The norm in newborns is due to body size. So, at 50-59 cm, the right lobe is 6.1, the left is up to 3.6. If the child is 60-69 cm, then the right one is up to 6.4 cm, and the left one is up to 3.7 cm; if 70-80 cm, then the right up to 7.1 cm, and the left up to 4.1 cm.
In this case, the gestational age of the child (at what week of pregnancy he was born), the nature of childbirth (mild or with complications) and their duration, the presence of pathologies of the chronic course in the mother, and the weight of the baby should be taken into account.
Etiology of liver enlargement
If during pregnancy the liver is an organ of hematopoiesis, then after the birth of a child, it begins to produce protein substances, blood clotting factors. The detoxification function is gaining strength.
Due to the increased load, the organ is large, occupies a significant part of the abdominal cavity, and this is a variant of the norm. As the child grows, the gland becomes normal in size (compared with respect to body area), located on the right.
Causes of hepatomegaly in newborns:
- Infections in the mother’s body that have crossed the placenta. Pathogens enter the baby’s circulatory system, which leads to an enlarged liver. Measles, cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr disease are usually suspected.
- Hemolytic disease. In this situation, there is a conflict over the blood group or the Rh factor – “foreign objects” penetrate into the woman’s circulatory system – protein compounds from the child, to which antibodies are produced in response.With such an ailment, the child is immediately sent to intensive care, blood transfusion is performed.
- Genetic syndromes cause enlargement of the gland. This is Gaucher’s disease, galactosemia, etc. With these pathologies, metabolic processes in the body are disrupted or decay products and minerals accumulate. Their common symptom is hepatomegaly.
- Hemolytic anemia. With such an ailment, an enlarged gland acts as a concomitant symptom with increased decay of erythrocytes in the blood serum.
- Impaired absorption of sugar. Even an infant can develop diabetes mellitus, which leads to diabetic hepatosis – an increase in the size of all internal organs.
If an ultrasound of the newborn shows an enlarged gland, then portal hypertension must be excluded. Most often, the primary source of an increase in pressure in a vein is an abnormal structure or venous thrombosis.
A child can be born with hepatitis B or C. Infection occurs vertically – from mother to child.Viral pathogens are characterized by high tropism for the liver tissues, penetrate into hepatocytes, which leads to their destruction.
Liver disease in newborns and infants
Due to the natural underdevelopment of the bile ducts, which is not excluded during the prenatal period, the gland of a newborn child does not immediately adapt to other conditions. Because of this, the child has physiological jaundice of newborns.
Overfeeding can cause yellowing of the skin if the mother has fat milk.Usually, by 2 weeks, the symptom levels off on its own. If this does not happen, it is necessary to look for the cause of the pathological condition.
In a newborn, an enlarged liver may be the result of acute infectious processes – rubella, psittacosis, mononucleosis, parasitic cysts, tumor neoplasms.
Pathological conditions and diseases leading to hepatomegaly:
- Obstruction of the bile ducts.
- Disorders of glycogen metabolism.
- Lipid metabolism disorders.
- Pathology of the cardiovascular system.
- Lymphoma (tumor growth in the lymphatic system).
- Congenital liver fibrosis.
- High concentration of vitamin A.
- Congenital pathological dilation of blood vessels.
- Sepsis and others
Rarely, but young children are diagnosed with biliary atresia – this is an obstruction of the bile ducts. Pathology practically does not lend itself to drug treatment, the only way to save a child is liver transplantation.
Hepatomegaly is not an independent disease, but a symptom that indicates the development of a pathological process. It can be accompanied by changes in the structure of the liver, decrease / increase in blood counts.
So, the color of the skin, mucous membranes and whites of the eyes changes in a child – it becomes yellowish in color. Capillary stars are formed – mainly in the abdominal cavity.
A newborn baby can eat poorly, gain weight, cry and be capricious, since pain syndrome is possible with an enlarged liver.
- Disorders of the digestive process, belching.
- Unpleasant odor from the mouth.
- Poor sleep – the baby often wakes up at night, is naughty.
- Constant crying associated with pain and discomfort
- Visual enlargement of the abdomen, especially in the area of the liver.
- When touching the belly in the upper right, the child begins to cry – this is associated with painful sensations.
- Nausea, vomiting.
- Decreased appetite – baby sluggishly suckles milk or refuses to breastfeed at all.
With such symptoms, a comprehensive examination is required to establish the original source of the problem.
Which doctor should I go to?
If you experience characteristic symptoms, you need to see a doctor. Timely diagnosis increases the chances of a favorable prognosis and prevents negative consequences. It is recommended to go to the pediatrician first. Your doctor will order further tests based on your symptoms.
Primary diagnosis includes a physical examination of the skin, mucous membranes, sclera of the eyes.The doctor will feel the abdomen, palpate the liver. After that, the physician will determine the need for consultation with narrow specialists – hepatologist, gastroenterologist, infectious disease specialist.
It is not difficult to determine an enlarged liver; standard palpation and percussion are sufficient for this. To confirm hepatomegaly, ultrasound of the liver, other internal organs – the pancreas, gallbladder is performed.
Differential diagnosis begins with the exclusion of viral pathogenesis.They do laboratory tests, determine ALT – the indicator increases against the background of hepatitis of a viral nature. A reliable method for PCR diagnostics. For children, a puncture biopsy for the purpose of histological examination of liver tissue is performed in extreme cases.
To exclude autoimmune disorders in the body, the concentration of circulating autoantibodies is detected. Autoimmune disorders are suspected if, in addition to hepatic symptoms, there is a febrile condition, impaired renal function.
With the help of ultrasound, CT and MRI, the location and size of internal organs is determined, the information obtained is visualized. To exclude tumor neoplasm in the child’s liver, MSCT of internal organs is performed.
Interpretation of ultrasound results
It is possible to reliably reveal how many centimeters a newborn baby has an enlarged liver using ultrasound and CT. The first option is most often used, since a CT scan without sedation (immersion in a state similar to a nap) will not work for a baby – he will not be able to lie still.
Ultrasound signs of liver enlargement in a child:
- The anteroposterior craniocaudal size of the left and / or right lobe is enlarged. In some cases, the doctor diagnoses isolated hypertrophy of the caudate lobe, which is located below the left on ultrasound.
- Hepatic lymph node is inflamed.
- Smoothing the angle of the right lobe (acute angle in a healthy liver).
- The protrusion of the lower edge of the right lobe of the gland from under the rib by more than 40 millimeters is determined.
Depending on the specific disease in a newborn child, it is possible to identify the following additional signs:
- The branches of the portal vein and itself are dilated and / or deformed. In a healthy child, the diameter of this vein is no more than 41 mm.
- Increased echogenicity of the organ, heterogeneous structure is present. Usually this sign indicates intrauterine or acquired infection, diabetic hepatosis.
- Presence of cystic neoplasms.They are of a congenital nature; parasitic.
- Appearance of hypo-, hyper-, isoechoic neoplasms of irregular or round shape, with blood flow in the center or along the periphery.
Based on the diagnostic results, the primary source is determined. Treatment is based on the specific cause of the enlarged liver.
Treatment of infants
The therapy is focused on eliminating the primary source of hepatomegaly – the underlying liver disease. If the reason lies in hepatitis of a viral nature, then antiviral agents are used.With metabolic disorders of a congenital nature, the child’s metabolism is corrected with medicines.
Intoxication requires urgent cleansing of the blood from hazardous compounds. With congenital heart defects or an abnormal structure of the biliary tract, treatment is performed surgically.
Therapy includes drugs from different pharmacological groups. Antiviral medicines, antibiotics, hepatoprotectors, enzyme agents can be prescribed to the baby.
Diet for mothers
Since a newborn baby eats mother’s milk, a dietary food for a woman is recommended – it is required to introduce restrictions in the diet.It is necessary to exclude fatty, spicy, salty, canned food, soda, sweets.
It is especially important to follow a diet in case of congenital metabolic disorders (against the background of mucopolysaccharidosis, amyloidosis, glycogenosis), products are completely excluded from the menu:
- Chicken eggs.
- Fatty meat, fish.
- Cottage cheese, cheese.
- Chocolate, cocoa.
- Tea, coffee.
- Butter, margarine.
The success of hepatomegaly therapy is due to the timely treatment of the doctor – many diseases at an early stage respond well to treatment.Parents must strictly follow all the doctor’s recommendations, give the child the prescribed medications, contact the attending physician at the slightest deterioration in the condition or the appearance of symptoms.
In some diseases, the size of organs changes, therefore, with the help of ultrasound diagnostics, CT and MRI, it is possible to establish the presence of a serious disorder.
If a child complains of pain in the liver, the doctor may prescribe an ultrasound scan. But what are the normal liver sizes in children? In what disorders does the liver change in size? And how does a child need to properly prepare for an ultrasound scan? These issues are discussed below.
Reasons for changing the size of the organ
The liver performs many functions – detoxifying toxins and poisons, removing excess vitamins and minerals from the body, processing nutrients into glucose to feed the body, storing certain vitamins, synthesizing proteins, etc.
This is why liver size can be used to diagnose diseases in adults and children. Most often, ultrasound-based devices are used to determine the size of the liver.
In theory, CT, MRI and some other precision instruments can also be used to determine the size, but in most cases this is not expedient from a diagnostic and economic point of view, since conventional ultrasound is sufficient to roughly estimate the size of the liver, and the CT and MRI procedures are quite expensive.
After the ultrasound examination, the doctor may prescribe additional tests to clarify the nature of the disease.
Changes in liver size in children may indicate the presence of the following disorders:
- Inflammatory processes. In case of inflammation, the structure and size of the liver tissue changes, which will be seen on an ultrasound examination. Often, inflammation is not an independent disease, but a symptom of some other disorder.
- Cancer and metastases. Today, ultrasound of internal organs is the main method for diagnosing cancer. Moreover, such an examination will make it possible to establish the presence of a disorder even at an early stage, which significantly increases the patient’s chances of successful treatment.
- Cysts. If a cavity has formed in the liver, this may indicate the presence of a cyst, which will be visible during ultrasound examination. At the same time, please note that cysts are quite common in children, therefore, in case of complaints of abdominal pain in a child, you should definitely consult a doctor.
- Cirrhosis. Cirrhosis is the irreversible degeneration of liver cells into connective tissue, and the liver gradually begins to lose its function, which can lead to death.Fortunately, cirrhosis is extremely rare in children because of this. The fact is that cirrhosis usually appears at the later stages of the development of other diseases, which can last for a long time.
- Problems with bile secretion. With the help of ultrasound, bile stasis can be detected, which often provokes other diseases (cholecystitis, some types of hepatitis, etc.).
- Blood vessel pathology. Due to the peculiarities of the development of internal organs at an early age, hemangiomas often appear in the blood vessels of children.If the doctor has a suspicion of this disease, then using the so-called Doppler ultrasound screening, he diagnoses this disorder even at an early stage of development.
Table of normal liver sizes in children
The normal size of the liver in children directly depends on age. After the baby is born, the liver has a fairly small size, and as it grows up, the liver grows along with other organs. From birth until the age of 10, this internal organ grows rather quickly, but after reaching the age of 10, growth slows down.
Liver growth completely stops at about 20 years of age. At the same time, quite often the liver is enlarged, but the child is considered completely healthy.
This usually happens in cases when the child had some serious liver disease (for example, hepatitis) in childhood, and during the illness, the liver cells partially degenerated into connective tissue, but the child recovered after some time. In this case, healthy liver cells will divide until the liver regains its functions.
In normal healthy children, the liver has the following dimensions:
|Age||Right lobe of the liver, mm||Left lobe of the liver, mm|
|less than 1 year||57-61||30-35|
|1 to 3 years||70-74||35-39|
|9-11 years old||95-105||45-49|
|11-13 years old||95-105||47-51|
|15-18 years old||115-125||48-52|
Ultrasound of the child’s liver
If the child was assigned an ultrasound of the liver, it is necessary to prepare for the examination.3 days before ultrasound diagnostics, dairy products, chocolate and sweets, fruits, bread, sugary drinks and legumes should be excluded from the diet, since these products can provoke flatulence, which will distort the results.
If a child is prone to flatulence from birth, it is necessary to consult a doctor so that he prescribes special enzymatic preparations that prevent the appearance of flatulence.
If the examination is carried out in the morning, then the last time the baby should be fed the night before.If the examination is carried out in the morning, but late enough (for example, at 11 o’clock), it is allowed to feed the child at night so that he does not feel hungry in the morning.
You also need to remember the following rules:
- Take a small diaper with you and, if necessary, place it on the laboratory table. The hospital usually provides a disposable diaper, but in most cases it is too thin and the baby may freeze.
- Do not dress your child in overalls or tight-fitting sweaters – such clothing will squeeze the body.the right clothes – shirts, T-shirts with zippers, etc.
- If the child is very young (less than 3 years old), it is better to take some sweets and some toy with you. If the child becomes sad, then you need to give him a candy or a toy to distract him;
- If the child is over 3 years old, you need to talk to the child about the upcoming procedure. It is necessary to tell about it in a language that the child understands, and at the end it is necessary to add that ultrasound is completely safe, so you should not be intimidated.
An enlarged liver may indicate a serious illness. At normal birth in children, the size of the right lobe of the liver is approximately 57-61 mm, and the size of the left lobe is 30-35 mm.
As the liver grows older, the size of the right lobe should be 115-125 mm, and the size of the left one should be 48-52 mm at the age of 18.