About all

Organs diseases: All Diseases and Conditions | NIAMS


All Diseases and Conditions | NIAMS

We are pleased to bring you our refreshed mobile-friendly health information. For each health topic, you’ll find a “Basics” version, which provides essential facts, and an “In-Depth” version, which provides more details.



What is acne? It is caused when blocked skin follicles from a plug caused by oil from glands, bacteria, and dead cells clump together and swell.

Alopecia Areata

What is alopecia areata? It is a condition that attacks your hair follicles (they make hair). In most cases, hair falls out in small, round patches.

Ankylosing Spondylitis

What is ankylosing spondylitis? It is arthritis that affects the spine, usually producing redness, heat, swelling, and pain in the spine where it joins the pelvis.


Arthritis is joint inflammation that can cause stiffness or pain. Learn more about the symptoms & treatments.

Atopic Dermatitis

What is atopic dermatitis? It is a skin disease causing much itchiness. Scratching leads to redness, swelling, cracking, weeping clear fluid, crusting, and scaling.

Autoimmune Diseases

What are autoimmune diseases? These diseases occur when your immune cells attack your body by mistake. These diseases can affect almost any part of the body.

Autoinflammatory Diseases

What are autoinflammatory diseases? They cause your immune cells to attack your body by mistake, and can cause fever, rash, joint swelling, and more.


Back Pain

Back pain is one of the most common medical problems in the United States. It can range from a dull, constant ache to sudden, sharp pain that makes it hard to move.

Behçet’s Disease

What is Behçet’s disease? It is a chronic condition that causes mouth or genital sores, and inflammation in parts of the eye.


What is bursitis? It is a common condition that causes swelling and pain around muscles and bones.


Epidermolysis Bullosa

What is epidermolysis bullosa? It is a group of diseases causing painful blisters to form on the skin. These blisters can cause problems if they become infected.



Doctors don’t yet know the exact causes of Fibromyalgia. Find out more about this muscle-pain & fatigue causing chronic disorder.

Fibrous Dysplasia

What is fibrous dysplasia? It happens when healthy bone is replaced with other types of tissue. Bones may become weak or oddly shaped, or they may even break.


Giant Cell Arteritis

What is giant cell arteritis? It causes arteries in the scalp and neck to become red, hot, swollen, or painful. Arteries most affected are those in the temples.


What is gout? It is a kind of arthritis that causes painful and stiff joints. Gout is caused by the build-up of crystals of uric acid in your joints.

Growth Plate Injuries

Injuries to the growth plate happen when a break or fracture develops near or at the end of a long bone.


Hidradenitis Suppurativa (HS)

Hidradenitis suppurativa (also known as acne inversa) is a chronic, noncontagious, inflammatory condition characterized by pimple-like bumps or boils and tunnels or tracts on and under the skin.

Hip Replacement Surgery

Hip replacement surgery removes damaged or diseased parts of a hip joint and replaces them with new, artificial parts.



What is ichthyosis? It is a disorder that causes dry, thickened skin that may look similar to fish scales.


Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA)

Juvenile arthritis describes arthritis in children. Arthritis is caused by inflammation of the joints. Find out all you need to know about juvenile arthritis.


Kids Pages

Your childhood and teen years are a prime time to learn habits that will help you keep your bones, joints, muscles, and skin healthy for years to come. Have fun exploring these pages, and come back often for updates and new features.


Marfan Syndrome

What is Marfan syndrome? It is a disorder that affects connective tissue, which supports many parts of your body. Marfan syndrome is often a genetic disease.



What is osteoarthritis? It damages the slippery tissue that covers the ends of bones, causing bones to rub together, producing pain, swelling, and loss of motion.

Osteogenesis Imperfecta

Osteogenesis imperfecta is a genetic disease, also called brittle bone disease, that causes bones to be weak and break easily.


What is osteonecrosis? Osteonecrosis is a bone disease in which the bone begins to die and collapse. Find out the symptoms and goals of treatment.


What is osteopetrosis? It is a rare disorder that causes bones to grow abnormally and become too dense. When this happens, bones can break easily.


What is osteoporosis? It is a disease in which your bones become weak and are more likely to break. There are no symptoms until a bone breaks.


Pachyonychia Congenita

What is pachyonychia congenita? It is a rare disorder causing thick nails and painful calluses on the bottoms of the feet and other symptoms.

Paget’s Disease of Bone

What is Paget’s disease? It is a disorder that causes bones to grow too large and weaken. You can have Paget’s disease in any bones in your body.


What is pemphigus? It is a disease where the immune system attacks healthy cells in the top layer of skin, resulting in blisters.

Polymyalgia Rheumatica

What is polymyalgia rheumatica? It causes muscle pain and stiffness in the neck, shoulder, and hip, and can be accompanied by fever, weakness, and weight loss.


Psoriasis is a skin disease that causes red, scaly skin that may feel painful, swollen, or hot. Learn more about the types and what causes psoriasis.

Psoriatic Arthritis

What is psoriatic arthritis? It can occur in people who have psoriasis (scaly red and white patches). It affects the joints and areas where tissues attach to bone.


Raynaud’s Phenomenon

What is Raynaud’s phenomenon? It is a disease that affects blood vessels. It causes your body to not send enough blood to the hands and feet for a period of time.

Reactive Arthritis

What is reactive arthritis? It is caused by an infection and results in joint pain and swelling. You may also have red, swollen eyes and a swollen urinary tract.

Rheumatoid Arthritis

What is rheumatoid arthritis? It is a disease that affects multiple joints, resulting in pain, swelling, and stiffness. Tiredness and fever may also be present.


What is rosacea? It is a long-term disease that causes reddened skin and pimples, usually on the face. It can also make the skin thicker and cause eye problems.



Scleroderma causes patches of tight, hard skin, but can also harm your blood vessels and organs. Learn the causes and treatments of this skin disease.

Scoliosis in Children and Teens

What is scoliosis? It is a disorder causing a sideways curve of the spine. Curves are often S- or C-shaped. In most people, there is no known cause for this curve.

Sjögren’s Syndrome

What is Sjögren’s syndrome? It is a disease that affects the glands that make moisture. It most often causes dryness in the mouth and eyes.

Spinal Stenosis

What is spinal stenosis? It is the narrowing of the spine. This narrowing puts pressure on the spinal cord and nerves and can cause pain.

Sports Injuries

Sports injuries are injuries that happen when playing sports or exercising. There are two kinds of sports injuries: acute and chronic.

Sports Injuries in Youth: A Guide for Parents

Parents learn about common sports injuries among youth and the ways to prevent such injuries from happening.

Sprains and Strains

A sprain is an injury to a ligament (tissue that connects bones). A strain is an injury to a muscle or tendon (cords of tissue connecting muscle to bone).

Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (Lupus)

Lupus is a disease where the body’s defense system attacks healthy cells and tissues, causing damage to many parts of the body. Learn more about this disease.



What is tendinitis? It is swelling and pain in a joint usually caused by repeated injuries to a tendon, the part of the joint that connects muscles to bones.



Vitiligo is a disorder that causes patches of skin to become white. It happens because cells that make color in your skin are destroyed.

Organ-Specific Autoimmune Disorders – Autoimmune Disorders Center

Organ-specific autoimmune diseases, as the name suggests, are defined as disorders in which the body’s immune response attacks healthy cells in a specific organ.

Autoimmune hepatitis, Hashimoto’s thyroiditis, Graves’ disease, type 1 diabetes, Addison’s disease, and Sjogren’s syndrome are some of the more common organ-specific autoimmune conditions.

Autoimmune hepatitis. Autoimmune hepatitis is a chronic autoimmune disorder that affects the liver. The liver becomes inflamed when the body’s immune cells wrongly identify liver cells as foreign invaders. Autoimmune hepatitis is sometimes referred to as chronic active hepatitis (CAH), but autoimmunity is not its only cause. Allergic reactions to medications, excessive alcohol use, and viruses also can cause it. Autoimmune hepatitis is differentiated from these other forms of chronic hepatitis by the presence of auto-antibody markers.

Patients with autoimmune hepatitis may notice the following symptoms: abdominal distention, dark urine, fatigue, itching, loss of appetite, nausea and vomiting, and pale stools. Women may also experience amenorrhea, the absence of menstruation.

Between 100,000 and 200,000 people in the United States have autoimmune hepatitis. The condition is most common in women and young girls, and it’s often seen in people of Northern European descent. Research hints at a genetic cause for autoimmune hepatitis because the condition often occurs in people whose relatives have autoimmune hepatitis or another autoimmune disease.

Hashimoto’s thyroiditis. Hashimoto’s thyroiditis, also referred to as chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis or autoimmune thyroiditis, is caused by an autoimmune reaction to proteins in the thyroid gland. This inappropriate reaction causes the thyroid gland to swell, which reduces its function. A hypofunctioning thyroid can lead to a variety of symptoms, including constipation, difficulty concentrating, dry skin, enlarged neck or face swelling, fatigue, hair loss, heavy and irregular periods, intolerance to cold, weight gain, and joint stiffness.

Researchers believe some people may be genetically predisposed to Hashimoto’s, as patients frequently have concurrent autoimmune conditions or a family history of thyroid problems. The disease occurs in both men and women but women are more prone to it and are most likely to develop the condition between ages 30 and 50. Current estimates are that, in Western countries, between 0.1 and 5 percent of adults are affected by this condition.

Graves’ disease. Like Hashimoto’s disease, Graves’ is an autoimmune disorder that disturbs the thyroid — but with the opposite effect. Graves’ causes the thyroid to overfunction, leading to a series of symptoms, many of which are in contrast to those caused by Hashimoto’s: anxiety, double vision, eye irritation and tearing, frequent bowel movements, heat intolerance, increased appetite, increased sweating, insomnia, rapid or irregular heartbeat, shortness of breath upon exertion, tremor, and weight loss. These types of symptoms are due to the fact that Graves’ disease causes an increase in production of thyroid hormone, which helps regulate metabolism. The hyperfunctioning thyroid caused by Graves’ leads to an increase in metabolism.

Men and women can experience Graves’ disease, but it’s more commonly seen in women, and most commonly between the ages of 20 and 30. In the United States and Europe, an estimated three million people have the condition, with approximately 37,000 new cases per year in the United States.

Type 1 diabetes. Sometimes referred to as insulin-dependent diabetes or juvenile diabetes, type 1 diabetes occurs when a person’s body produces little or no insulin. Insulin is a necessary hormone because it’s what allows sugar to enter the cells. When sugar can’t enter the cells, the body can’t get energy, so type 1 diabetes patients often experience increased hunger — yet tend not to gain weight. They also may need to frequently use the bathroom because when glucose doesn’t go into the cells, it gets stuck in the blood and can cause excessive urination and increased thirst. Abdominal pain, loss of periods, fatigue, nausea, and weight loss are other symptoms of type 1 diabetes.

Of the nearly 18 million people in the United States who have been diagnosed with diabetes, between 5 and 10 percent have type 1. The condition can occur at any age, but it often begins in childhood or develops in young adults, more commonly in females.

Addison’s disease. This condition occurs when the adrenal glands, small organs that sit on top of the kidneys, don’t produce enough hormones. Specifically, Addison’s patients don’t produce enough cortisol and aldosterone, two hormones that are produced in the outer portion (the cortex) of the adrenal glands. This is why the disorder is sometimes referred to as adrenal insufficiency. Common symptoms of Addison’s disease include blood pressure changes, diarrhea, patchy skin darkening, fatigue and weakness, loss of appetite, mouth lesions on the inside of the cheeks, salt cravings, nausea and vomiting, and weight loss.

Not all cases of Addison’s disease are considered autoimmune in nature. The condition can be caused by tuberculosis, HIV or fungal infections, blood loss, tumors, or the use of blood-thinning drugs. However, autoimmune attacks on the adrenal glands account for 70 percent of Addison’s cases.

Addison’s disease affects 1 in 100,000 people of all age groups, but most commonly in people between the ages of 30 and 50. Men and women are equally affected by this condition.

Sjogren’s syndrome. This autoimmune condition attacks the glands that produce tears and saliva. As a result, people who have Sjögren’s syndrome experience dry eyes and mouth. Other symptoms may include itching eyes, difficulty swallowing, loss of taste, dental cavities, hoarseness, fatigue, joint pain, and swollen glands. In most cases of Sjogren’s, symptoms are limited to the tear ducts and salivary glands, but in severe cases, the condition also can affect the kidneys and lungs.

Sjogren’s syndrome occurs most often in middle-aged women, although men also can be affected. The condition is rarely seen in children, unless they have another autoimmune disease. While Sjogren’s can occur alone, it’s common to see it show up in people with other autoimmune conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, scleroderma, or polymyositis. It is estimated that between one and four million Americans have Sjogren’s syndrome.

To find out more about organ-specific autoimmune diseases, talk to your doctor or visit the American Autoimmune Diseases Web site.

Disorders of the Immune System

Your immune system is your body’s defense against infections and other harmful invaders. Without it, you would constantly get sick from bacteria or viruses.

Your immune system is made up of special cells, tissues, and organs that work together to protect you.

The lymph, or lymphatic, system is a major part of the immune system. It’s a network of lymph nodes and vessels. Lymphatic vessels are thin tubes that branch, like blood vessels, throughout the body. They carry a clear fluid called lymph. Lymph contains tissue fluid, waste products, and immune system cells. Lymph nodes are small, bean-shaped clumps of immune system cells that are connected by lymphatic vessels. They contain white blood cells that trap viruses, bacteria, and other invaders, including cancer cells.

White blood cells are the cells of the immune system. They are made in one of your lymph organs, the bone marrow. Other lymph organs include the spleen and thymus.

What can go wrong with your immune system?

When your immune system doesn’t work the way it should, it is called an immune system disorder. You may:

  • Be born with a weak immune system. This is called primary immune deficiency.

  • Get a disease that weakens your immune system. This is called acquired immune deficiency.

  • Have an immune system that is too active. This may happen with an allergic reaction.

  • Have an immune system that turns against you. This is called autoimmune disease.

Immune system disorders

Here are some common examples:

  • Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID). This is an example of an immune deficiency that is present at birth.  Children are in constant danger of infections from bacteria, viruses, and fungi. This disorder is sometimes called “bubble boy disease.” In the 1970s, a boy had to live in a sterile environment inside a plastic bubble. Children with SCID are missing important white blood cells.

  • Temporary acquired immune deficiencies. Your immune system can be weakened by certain medicines, for example. This can happen to people on chemotherapy or other drugs used to treat cancer. It can also happen to people following organ transplants who take medicine to prevent organ rejection. Also, infections like the flu virus, mono (mononucleosis), and measles can weaken the immune system for a brief time. Your immune system can also be weakened by smoking, alcohol, and poor nutrition.

  • AIDS. HIV, which causes AIDS, is an acquired viral infection that destroys important white blood cells and weakens the immune system.  People with HIV/AIDS become seriously ill with infections that most people can fight off. These infections are called “opportunistic infections” because they take advantage of weak immune systems. 

An overactive immune system

If you are born with certain genes, your immune system may react to substances in the environment that are normally harmless. These substances are called allergens. Having an allergic reaction is the most common example of an overactive immune system. Dust, mold, pollen, and foods are examples of allergens.

Some conditions caused by an overactive immune system are:

  • Asthma. The response in your lungs can cause coughing, wheezing, and trouble breathing. Asthma can be triggered by common allergens like dust or pollen or by an irritant like tobacco smoke.

  • Eczema. An allergen causes an itchy rash known as atopic dermatitis.

  • Allergic rhinitis.  Sneezing, a runny nose, sniffling, and swelling of your nasal passages from indoor allergens like dust and pets or outdoor allergens like pollens or molds. 

Autoimmune disease

In autoimmune diseases, the body attacks normal, healthy tissues. The cause is unknown. It is probably a combination of a person’s genes and something in the environment that triggers those genes.

Three common autoimmune diseases are:

  • Type 1 diabetes. The immune system attacks the cells in the pancreas that make insulin. Insulin removes sugar from the blood to use as energy.

  • Rheumatoid arthritis. This type of arthritis causes swelling and deformities of the joints. An auto-antibody called rheumatoid factor is in the blood of some people with rheumatoid arthritis.

  • Lupus. This disease that attacks body tissues, including the lungs, kidneys, and skin. Many types of auto-antibodies are found in the blood of people with lupus.

No one knows exactly what causes autoimmune diseases, but many factors seem to be involved. If you have an immune system disorder, learn as much as you can about it. And work closely with your healthcare providers to manage it.

Types, Diagnosis, Symptoms & Causes


What are connective tissue diseases?

A connective tissue disease is any disease that affects the parts of the body that connect the structures of the body together.

Connective tissues are made up of two proteins: collagen and elastin. Collagen is a protein found in the tendons, ligaments, skin, cornea, cartilage, bone and blood vessels. Elastin is a stretchy protein that resembles a rubber band and is the major component of ligaments and skin. When a patient has a connective tissue disease, the collagen and elastin are inflamed. The proteins and the body parts they connect are harmed.

What are the different types of connective tissue diseases?

There are more than 200 different types of connective tissue diseases. They may be inherited, caused by environmental factors, or most often, are of unknown cause. Connective tissue diseases include, but are not limited to:

  • Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA): Rheumatoid arthritis is one of the most common connective tissue diseases and can be inherited. RA is an autoimmune disease, meaning the immune system attacks its own body. In this systemic disorder, immune cells attack and inflame the membrane around joints. It also can affect the heart, lungs and eyes. It affects many more women than men (an estimated 71% of cases).
  • Scleroderma: An autoimmune condition that causes scar tissue to form in the skin, internal organs (including the GI tract), and small blood vessels. It affects women three times more often than men throughout life, occurring at a rate of 15 times greater for women during childbearing years.
  • Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis (GPA, formerly called Wegener’s): A form of vasculitis (inflammation of the blood vessels) that affects the nose, lungs, kidneys and other organs.
  • Churg-Strauss Syndrome: A type of autoimmune vasculitis that affects cells in the blood vessels of the lungs, gastrointestinal system, skin and nerves.
  • Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE): A disease that can cause inflammation of the connective tissue in every organ of the body, from the brain, skin, blood, to the lungs. It’s nine times more common in women than in men.
  • Microscopic Polyangiitis (MPA): An autoimmune disease that affects cells in blood vessels in organs throughout the body. This is a rare condition.
  • Polymyositis/dermatomyositis: A disease characterized by inflammation and degeneration of the muscles. When the condition also affects the skin, it’s called dermatomyositis.
  • Mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD), also called the Sharp syndrome: A condition that has some, but not all, features of various connective tissue diseases, such as SLE, scleroderma, and polymyositis. MCTD may also have features of Raynaud’s syndrome.
  • Undifferentiated connective tissue disease(s): Conditions that have characteristics of connective tissue diseases but don’t meet the guidelines as defined at a particular time. Some people with these conditions will eventually go on to develop a specific type of connective tissue disease, but most will not.

Symptoms and Causes

What causes connective tissue diseases?

These conditions can be caused by family genetics and are often known as heritable disorders of connective tissue. Connective tissue diseases can also be caused by things that exist in the environment. Non-inherited causes of autoimmune types of connective tissue disease may include:

  • Exposure to toxic chemicals, such as those found in air pollution and cigarette smoke.
  • Exposure to ultraviolet light.
  • Inadequate nutrition, including lack of vitamins D and C.
  • Infections.

What are the symptoms of connective tissue diseases?

Because there are so many different kinds of connective tissue diseases, symptoms may vary and may affect different parts of the body. Body parts that may be affected include:

  • Bones.
  • Joints.
  • Skin.
  • Heart and blood vessels.
  • Lungs. Some of the diseases, like the ones mentioned above, can cause serious pulmonary issues.
  • Head and face. Some of these diseases can make the face, head, eyes and ears look different than the faces and heads of other people.
  • Height. Some diseases cause the people who have them to be very tall or very short.

Diagnosis and Tests

How are connective tissue diseases diagnosed?

Your doctor may order various tests depending on what type of connective tissue disorder is suspected. The doctor will first ask for your medical history, a family history, and will do a physical examination. Further tests may include:

  • Imaging tests, such as X-rays and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans.
  • Tests for markers of inflammation, such as C-reactive protein and Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR).
  • Tests for antibodies, especially for autoimmune conditions.
  • Tests for dry eyes or dry mouth.
  • Blood and urine tests.
  • Tissue biopsy.

Management and Treatment

How are connective tissue diseases treated?

Because there are so many different types of connective tissue disorders, the treatments will vary depending on the person and the disease. Treatments might include vitamin supplements, physical therapy, and medications. You will probably have a regular schedule of appointments with your doctor. You might be asked to consult with specialists, such as eye doctors or dermatologists, depending on what type of connective tissue disorder you have.


Can you prevent connective tissue diseases?

You may be able to prevent exposures to toxins, and you are able to eat healthy foods that meet your vitamin and nutrient needs. However, you cannot prevent diseases that are inherited.

Outlook / Prognosis

What is the outlook (prognosis) for people who have connective tissue diseases?

The outlook for people with connective tissue diseases is different for everyone. The outlook depends on what type of disease you have, whether or not you get treatment, and how effective the treatment is. Some types of connective tissue diseases may have relatively minor consequences, and some can be fatal (if they affect the lungs, kidneys or heart.) Some types of these diseases are painful, while others have more mild symptoms.

You may be asked to make some lifestyle changes. Also, you may be asked to get vaccines for the flu or vaccine for pneumonia (when your connective tissue disease is in remission).

Living With

When should you contact your doctor if you have a connective tissue disease?

You should contact your healthcare provider if you have new or worsening symptoms, including:

  • Skin changes, such as changes in color or texture.
  • Vision changes.
  • Pain.
  • Feeling sick.
  • Muscle weakness.

You should keep the schedule of appointments that your healthcare provider suggests.

Amyloidosis | Cedars-Sinai

Not what you’re looking for?


Amyloidosis is a condition in which too much of a particular protein (amyloid) collects in the organs, so that they are not able to work normally. Amyloidosis can affect the heart, kidneys, liver, spleen, nervous system, stomach or intestines. The condition is rare (affecting fewer than 4,000 people in the United States each year), but it can be fatal.

Amyloidosis sometimes develops when a person has certain forms of cancer, such as multiple myeloma, Hodgkin’s disease or familial Mediterranean fever (an intestinal disorder). It also sometimes occurs in people with kidney disease who have undergone dialysis for a long time.

There are three major forms of amyloidosis:

  • Primary amyloidosis, which is the most common. It occurs without another associated disease and most often affects the heart, lungs, skin, tongue, nerves and intestines.
  • Secondary or acquired amyloidosis, which is associated with chronic diseases, such as tuberculosis, rheumatoid arthritis or osteomyelitis. It most often affects the kidneys, spleen, liver and intestines. If the underlying disease is treated, this form of amyloidosis will go away.
  • Hereditary amyloidosis, which runs in families. This type often affects the nervous and digestive systems.


Symptoms vary widely from person to person and depending on which organs are affected. Some people do not even have symptoms, which makes the condition difficult to diagnose.

When amyloidosis is associated with another disease, symptoms may be masked. The underlying disease may be fatal before amyloidosis is found.

Symptoms include:

  • An enlarged liver
  • An enlarged tongue (macroglossia)
  • An irregular heartbeat
  • Diarrhea alternating with constipation
  • Difficulty swallowing
  • Dizziness or feeling faint
  • Loss of weight
  • Numbness or tingling in the hands or feet
  • Severe fatigue
  • Shortness of breath
  • Skin changes
  • Swelling of the ankles and legs
  • Weakness

The severity of amyloidosis depends on which organs it affects. It can be life threatening if it causes kidney or heart failure.

If the amyloidosis affects the kidneys, their ability to filter the blood becomes impaired. Protein leaks from the blood into the urine. The loss of protein from the blood can cause fluid to leak out of the blood vessels, resulting in swelling in the feet, ankles and calves. Eventually, there is so much damage to the kidneys that they are not able to remove waste products from the body and they fail.

If amyloidosis affects the heart, the first symptom typically is shortness of breath even with only light activity. Climbing a flight of stairs or walking long distances may be difficult without having to stop. The buildup of amyloid in the heart lessens its ability to fill up with blood between heartbeats. As a result, less blood is pumped with each beat, and the heart is not able to keep up with the body’s needs. The buildup of amyloid can also cause problems with the electrical system of the heart, resulting in irregular heartbeats (arrhythmia).

Other effects of amyloidosis include:

  • A burning sensation as a result of nerves being irritated by the amyloid
  • Alternating bouts of constipation and diarrhea, if the protein deposits affect the nerves that control the bowels
  • Bowel obstruction
  • Carpal tunnel syndrome, which causes pain, numbness or tingling in the fingers. Approximately four out of 10 people with amyloidosis develop this syndrome.
  • Disruption of the nervous system
  • Dizziness or nearly fainting when standing up too quickly. This can happen if the condition affects the nerves that control blood pressure and a sudden drop in blood pressure occurs when standing up.
  • Numbness or lack of feeling in the toes or feet
  • Weakness in the legs, which can be a result of nerves irritated by the amyloid

Diseases that are associated with amyloidosis include multiple myeloma, Hodgkin’s disease, some types of tumors and Mediterranean fever that runs in families. It may also be associated with aging. Amyloid is often found in the pancreas of people who develop diabetes as adults.

Causes and Risk Factors

The cause for amyloid to be produced and to collect in the tissues is not known. The risk of getting amyloidosis is not connected to what a person eats (including how much protein) or does for a living or to the amount of stress in one’s life

The disease starts in the bone marrow. Bone marrow creates red and white blood cells, platelets and antibodies that protect the body against infection. After the antibodies have done their work, the body breaks them down. When the bone marrow cells produce antibodies that cannot be broken down, amyloidosis develops. The antibodies build up in the blood and eventually get deposited in the tissues as amyloid.

The risk of developing amyloidosis is greater in people who:

  • Are older than 50
  • Have a chronic infection or inflammatory disease
  • Have a family history of amyloidosis
  • Have multiple myeloma. Between 10 and 15% of people who have multiple myeloma develop amyloidosis.
  • Have a kidney disease that has required dialysis for more than five years


Blood and urine tests may reveal an abnormal protein in the body, but the only way to diagnose amyloidosis for certain is to take a sample of tissue for analysis under a microscope. Tissue is usually taken from the fat around the abdomen or the tissues of the rectum, which can be done on an outpatient basis. Samples can also be taken from the skin, nerves, kidneys, liver or gums – in which case, a hospital stay may be required. The samples are stained with a dye that reacts with amyloid and then examined under a microscope.


There is no cure for amyloidosis. Treatment of an underlying illness – if there is one – can cause the amyloidosis to go away. 

Drugs and diet can help manage symptoms and help prevent the production of more of the protein.

Among the drugs that have been helpful in treating amyloidosis are:

  • Melphalan (Alkeran), which is used to treat some types of cancer
  • Prednisone, a corticosteroid that reduces inflammation (swelling and tenderness)
  • Pain relievers

Several drugs (such as thalidomide, which is being used to treat multiple myeloma) are being studied for their ability to treat amyloidosis.

A nutritionally sound diet provides the body with a good energy supply. Diet may also be helpful to treat the many complications that can arise from amyloidosis. Special diets are usually based on symptoms and which organs have been affected by amyloidosis. For example, a doctor may recommend a low-salt diet or diuretics if the kidneys have been affected.

In secondary amyloidosis, the goal is to treat the underlying condition.

In the case of amyloidosis of the kidney, kidney transplantation may be done. Dialysis may be helpful as well. However, amyloid will eventually appear in the donor kidney. Research is underway to study the effect of stem cell transplantation to treat organs with amyloidosis.

In the case of amyloid heart disease, heart transplantation may also be done. Persons who have amyloid heart disease need to be careful if they are taking digitalis because it can precipitate arrhythmias. Myocardial amyloidosis is the most common cause of death. This is usually due to arrhythmias or intractable heart failure.

In some cases of inherited amyloidosis, liver transplantation can help because it removes the source that produces the mutant protein.

Research is underway to find other treatments for amyloidosis. One area under investigation is stem cell transplantation, which involves using chemotherapy and transfusions of immature blood cells (stem cells) that have been collected to replace diseased or damaged bone marrow. The cells may be collected from a patient’s own body (autologous transplant) or from a donor (allogeneic transplant).

© 2000-2021 The StayWell Company, LLC. All rights reserved. This information is not intended as a substitute for professional medical care. Always follow your healthcare professional’s instructions.

Not what you’re looking for?

Common Reproductive Health Concerns for Women | Reproductive Health

Endometriosis is a problem affecting a woman’s uterus—the place where a baby grows when a woman is pregnant. Endometriosis is when the kind of tissue that normally lines the uterus grows somewhere else. It can grow on the ovaries, behind the uterus, on the bowels, or on the bladder. Rarely, it grows in other parts of the body.

This “misplaced” tissue can cause pain, infertility, and very heavy periods. The pain is usually in the abdomen, lower back, or pelvic areas. Some women have no symptoms at all, and having trouble getting pregnant may be the first sign they have endometriosis.

Uterine fibroids are the most common noncancerous tumors in women of childbearing age. Fibroids are made of muscle cells and other tissues that grow in and around the wall of the uterus, or womb. The cause of fibroids is unknown. Risk factors include being African-American or being overweight. The symptoms of fibroids include

  • Heavy or painful periods or bleeding between periods.
  • Feeling “full” in the lower abdomen.
  • Urinating often.
  • Pain during sex.
  • Lower back pain.
  • Reproductive problems, such as infertility, multiple miscarriages, or early labor.

But some women will have no symptoms. That is why it is important to see your health care provider for routine exams.

CDC provides information and educational materials for women and health care providers to raise awareness about the five main gynecologic cancers. Gynecologic cancer is any cancer that starts in a woman’s reproductive organs. Gynecologic cancers begin in different places within a woman’s pelvis, which is the area below the stomach and in between the hip bones.

  • Cervical cancer begins in the cervix, which is the lower, narrow end of the uterus.
  • Ovarian cancer begins in the ovaries, which are located on each side of the uterus.
  • Uterine cancer begins in the uterus, the pear-shaped organ in a woman’s pelvis where the baby grows when a woman is pregnant.
  • Vaginal cancer begins in the vagina, which is the hollow, tube-like channel between the bottom of the uterus and the outside of the body.
  • Vulvar cancer begins in the vulva, the outer part of the female genital organs.

HIV can be spread through breast milk, so mothers in the US who have HIV should not breast-feed their babies.

HIV is the human immunodeficiency virus. HIV affects specific cells of the immune system (called CD4 cells). Over time, HIV can destroy so many of these cells that the body can’t fight off infection anymore. The human body cannot get rid of HIV—that means once a person has HIV, he or she has it for life. There is no cure at this time, but with proper medical care, the virus can be controlled. HIV is the virus that can lead to acquired immune deficiency syndrome, or AIDS. AIDS is the late stage of HIV infection, when a person’s immune system is severely damaged.

HIV in Women
Women who are infected with HIV typically get it by having sex with a man who is infected or by sharing needles with an infected person. Women of minority races/ethnicities are especially affected, and black or African American women are the most affected group.

Pregnant Women
All pregnant women should know their HIV status. Pregnant women who are HIV-positive can work with their health care providers to ensure their babies do not contract HIV during pregnancy, delivery, or after delivery (through breast milk). It is possible for a mother to have HIV and not spread it to her baby, especially if she knows about her HIV status early and works with her health care provider to reduce the risk.
Learn more from CDC’s Act Against AIDS campaign including how HIV is spread, and how to prevent HIV.

Interstitial cystitis (IC) is a chronic bladder condition resulting in recurring discomfort or pain in the bladder or surrounding pelvic region. People with IC usually have inflamed or irritated bladder walls that can cause scarring and stiffening of the bladder. IC can affect anyone; however, it is more common in women than men. Some people have some or none of the following symptoms:

  • Abdominal or pelvic mild discomfort.
  • Frequent urination.
  • A feeling of urgency to urinate.
  • Feeling of abdominal or pelvic pressure.
  • Tenderness.
  • Intense pain in the bladder or pelvic region.
  • Severe lower abdominal pain that intensifies as the urinary bladder fills or empties.

Polycystic ovary syndrome happens when a woman’s ovaries or adrenal glands produce more male hormones than normal. One result is that cysts (fluid-filled sacs) develop on the ovaries. Women who are obese are more likely to have PCOS. Women with PCOS are at increased risk of developing diabetes and heart disease. Symptoms may include

  • Infertility.
  • Pelvic pain.
  • Excess hair growth on the face, chest, stomach, thumbs, or toes.
  • Baldness or thinning hair.
  • Acne, oily skin, or dandruff.
  • Patches of thickened dark brown or black skin.

Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs)

STDs are infections that you can get from having sex with someone who has the infection. The causes of STDs are bacteria, parasites, and viruses. There are more than 20 types of STDs. Read more about specific STDs from these CDC fact sheets.
Most STDs affect both men and women, but in many cases the health problems they cause can be more severe for women. If a pregnant woman has an STD, it can cause serious health problems for the baby.

If you have an STD caused by bacteria or parasites, your health care provider can treat it with antibiotics or other medicines. If you have an STD caused by a virus, there is no cure, but antiviral medication can help control symptoms. Sometimes medicines can keep the disease under control. Correct usage of latex condoms greatly reduces, but does not completely eliminate, the risk of catching or spreading STDs.

Sexual Violence (SV) is a significant problem in the United States. SV refers to sexual activity where consent is not obtained or freely given. Anyone can experience SV, but most victims are female. The person responsible for the violence is typically male and is usually someone known to the victim. The person can be, but is not limited to, a friend, coworker, neighbor, or family member. Learn more about sexual violence risk and protective factors. The ultimate goal is to stop sexual violence before it begins.

Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a serious, preventable public health problem that affects millions of Americans. The term intimate partner violence describes physical, sexual, or psychological harm by a current or former partner or spouse. This type of violence can occur among heterosexual or same-sex couples and does not require sexual intimacy.



Find a Health CenterExternal
Health Resources Services Administration (HRSA) health centers care for you, even if you have no health insurance. You pay what you can afford, based on your income.

Womenshealth.gov:  A—Z Health TopicsExternal

Connective Tissue Disease: Types, Symptoms, Causes

Connective tissue disease refers to a group of disorders involving the protein-rich tissue that supports organs and other parts of the body. Examples of connective tissue are fat, bone, and cartilage. These disorders often involve the joints, muscles, and skin, but they can also involve other organs and organ systems, including the eyes, heart, lungs, kidneys, gastrointestinal tract, and blood vessels. There are more than 200 disorders that affect the connective tissue. Causes and specific symptoms vary by the different types.

Inherited Disorders of Connective Tissue

Some connective tissue diseases — often called heritable disorders of connective tissue (HDCTs) — are the result of changes in certain genes. Many of these are quite rare. Following are some of the more common ones.

Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS). Actually a group of more than 10 disorders, EDS is characterized by over-flexible joints, stretchy skin, and abnormal growth of scar tissue. Symptoms can range from mild to disabling. Depending on the specific form of EDS, other symptoms may include:

Epidermolysis bullosa (EB). People with EB have skin that is so fragile that it tears or blisters as a result of a minor bump, stumble, or even friction from clothing. Some forms of EB may involve the digestive tract, the respiratory tract, the muscles, or the bladder. Caused by defects of several proteins in the skin, EB is usually evident at birth.

Marfan syndrome. Marfan syndrome affects the bones, ligaments, eyes, heart, and blood vessels. People with Marfan syndrome tend to be tall and have extremely long bones and thin “spider-like” fingers and toes. Other problems may include eye problems due to abnormal placement of the eye lens and enlargement of the aorta (the largest artery in the body), which can lead to a fatal rupture. Marfan syndrome is caused by mutations in the gene that regulates the structure of a protein called fibrillin-1.

Osteogenesis imperfecta. Osteogenesis imperfecta is a condition of brittle bones, low muscle mass, and lax joints and ligaments. There are several types of this condition. Specific symptoms depend on the specific type and may include:

The disease occurs when a mutation in two genes responsible for type 1 collagen reduces the amount or quality of the protein. Type 1 collagen is important to the structure of bone and skin.

Autoimmune Diseases

For other forms of connective tissue disease, the cause is not known. In some cases, researchers believe the disorder may be triggered by something in the environment of people who may be genetically susceptible. In these diseases, the body’s normally protective immune system produces antibodies that target the body’s own tissues for attack.

These diseases include the following.

Polymyositis and dermatomyositis. These are two related diseases in which there is inflammation of the muscles (polymyositis) and skin (dermatomyositis). Symptoms of both diseases can include:

  • Muscle weakness
  • Fatigue
  • Difficulty swallowing
  • Shortness of breath
  • Fever
  • Weight loss

People with dermatomyositis may also have a skin involvement around the eyes and the hands.

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Rheumatoid arthritis is a disease in which the immune system attacks the thin membrane (called the synovium) lining the joints, causing pain, stiffness, warmth and swelling of the joints, and inflammation throughout the body. Other symptoms may include:

RA can lead to permanent joint damage and deformity.

Scleroderma. Scleroderma is a term for a group of disorders that causes thick, tight skin, buildup of scar tissue, and organ damage. These disorders fall into two general categories: localized scleroderma and systemic sclerosis.

Localized scleroderma is confined to the skin and, sometimes, the muscle beneath it. Systemic sclerosis also involves the blood vessels and major organs.

Sjögren’s syndrome. Sjögren’s syndrome is a chronic disease in which the immune system attacks the moisture-producing glands, such as those of the eyes and mouth. The effects can range from mildly uncomfortable to debilitating. Although dry eyes and mouth are the main symptoms of Sjögren’s, many people also experience extreme fatigue and joint pain. The condition also increases the risk of lymphoma and may cause problems with the kidneys, lungs, blood vessels, and digestive system as well as nerve problems.

Systemic lupus erythematosus. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE or simply lupus) is a disease characterized by inflammation of the joints, skin, and internal organs. Symptoms may include:

  • A butterfly-shaped rash on the cheeks and bridge of the nose
  • Sensitivity to sunlight
  • Mouth ulcers
  • Hair loss
  • Fluid around the heart and/or lungs
  • Kidney problems
  • Anemia or other blood cell problems
  • Problems with memory and concentration or other nervous system disorders

Vasculitis. Vasculitis is a general term for more than 20 different conditions characterized by inflammation of the blood vessels. These can affect blood flow to the organs and other body tissues. Vasculitis can involve any of the blood vessels.

Mixed connective tissue disease. People with MCTD have some features characteristic of several diseases, including lupus, scleroderma, polymyositis or dermatomyositis, and rheumatoid arthritis. When this occurs, doctors often make the diagnosis of mixed connective tissue disease.

While many people with mixed connective tissue disease have mild symptoms, others may experience life-threatening complications.


90,000 Respiratory diseases – GBUZ JSC Regional clinical anti-tuberculosis dispensary

Ministry of Health of the Astrakhan Region
GBUZ JSC “Center for Medical Prevention”

Diseases of the respiratory system

Causes of respiratory diseases

Let us consider the main causes of diseases of the respiratory system.Respiratory diseases include bronchitis, tracheitis, bronchial asthma, pneumonia, etc. The main reason is microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, fungi, less often parasites).

The leading role belongs to such bacterial pathogens as: pneumococci, haemophilus influenzae, mycoplasma, chlamydia, legionella (these pathogens mainly cause pneumonia), mycobacterium tuberculosis, influenza viruses type A and B, respiratory viral infections. Most often, the disease is caused by one type of pathogen (monoinfection), but sometimes (old age, AIDS and other immunodeficiency diseases) there can be several of them (mixed infections).

Also, quite often the cause of damage to the respiratory system is external allergens. These include:

  • Household allergens – house dust, which contains allergens of fungi, insects, pets, human skin particles and others. Household mites (the main cause of bronchial asthma) have the greatest allergenic properties.
  • Animal allergens , they are found in saliva, dandruff and animal urine.
  • Allergens of molds and yeasts , namely their spores.
  • Plant pollen (herbs: nettle, plantain, wormwood flowers: buttercup, dandelion, poppy, shrubs: rose hips, lilacs, trees: birch, poplar and others), fungal spores, insect allergens.
  • Professional factors (electric welding – nickel salts, steel evaporation).
  • Food allergens (cow’s milk).
  • Medicines (antibiotics, enzymes).

Provoke the occurrence of diseases of the respiratory system, air pollution, household pollution that are contained in modern living quarters (household chemicals, synthetic materials, varnishes, paints, glue), smoking (active, passive) due to the negative effect of tobacco smoke, adverse climatic conditions (low temperature, high humidity, strong fluctuations in atmospheric pressure).

Also, the provoking factors include alcohol abuse, hypothermia, the presence of diseases of other organs and systems (diabetes mellitus, heart disease), the presence of foci of chronic infection, hereditary anomalies and many others.

Symptoms in diseases of the respiratory system.

Dyspnea is physiological (with increased physical exertion), pathological (with diseases). It can also be inspiratory with difficulty in breathing (diseases of the larynx, trachea), expiratory with difficulty in exhalation (with damage to the bronchi) and mixed (thromboembolism of the pulmonary artery).

The most severe form of shortness of breath is dyspnea (with acute pulmonary edema). If suffocation occurs in the form of a sudden attack, then this is asthma (bronchial – spasm of small bronchi, cardiac – due to weakening of the heart).

The next symptom of respiratory diseases is cough (a reflex defensive reaction to the accumulation of mucus in the larynx, trachea or bronchi, as well as to a foreign body that has entered the respiratory system). By its nature, the cough can be dry, without sputum (laryngitis, dry pleurisy) and moist, with sputum of varying quantity and quality (morning cough with chronic bronchitis, evening cough with pneumonia, night cough with tuberculosis, cancer).It can also be permanent (with inflammation of the larynx, bronchi) and periodic (with flu, acute respiratory infections, pneumonia).

Another symptom is hemoptysis (discharge of blood with sputum when coughing). It can manifest itself both in diseases of the respiratory system (lung cancer, tuberculosis, lung abscess), and in diseases of the cardiovascular system (heart defects). The blood released from coughing up sputum may be fresh (scarlet) or altered. Scarlet blood is found in tuberculosis, ascariasis.With croupous pneumonia in stage 2 of the disease, it is rusty in color (rusty sputum).

Another thing that patients can complain about is Pain. It can be different in origin and localization, in nature, intensity, duration, in connection with the act of breathing, coughing and body position.

Research methods.

Correctly collected complaints, examination and competently conducted examination (palpation, auscultation, percussion) are the key to a correct diagnosis.With all this, additional signs of diseases can be identified.

  • Instrumental and laboratory research methods . X-ray research methods (fluoroscopy, radiography, tomography, bronchography, fluorography) are the most important in the diagnosis of respiratory diseases. Endoscopic research methods (bronchoscopy, thoracoscopy). Bronchoscopy is important for the diagnosis of purulent and neoplastic diseases. But it is used not only as a diagnostic, but also as a therapeutic one (for example, to remove foreign bodies).
  • Functional diagnostic methods . These methods do not allow diagnosing the disease that led to respiratory failure, however, they make it possible to identify its presence, often long before the first symptoms appear.

Spirography is a measurement of lung volume. With the help of spirography, the doctor analyzes the level of oxygen consumption, i.e. reveals the reserves of the respiratory system, the need for which may arise when performing hard physical work or with a disease of the respiratory system.

Ergospirography is a method that allows you to determine the amount of work that the examinee can do without the appearance of signs of respiratory failure.

Spirometry is a fairly simple and informative method for studying the function of external respiration, which includes measuring the volumetric and speed indicators of respiration in order to identify chronic bronchopulmonary pathology and assess the effectiveness of treatment. Spirometry can also be used as a motivational tool, for example, when it is necessary to convince a smoker to stop smoking by showing him test results that indicate impaired lung function.

  • Laboratory research methods. Microscopic examination of sputum, to determine its composition, it can be mucus, serous fluid, blood cells and airways, protozoa, helminths and their eggs. Other laboratory methods include a general and biochemical blood test, a general urine test.

Prevention of respiratory diseases

The main thing is to maintain a healthy lifestyle: giving up bad habits (smoking, alcohol and others), regular physical education, adherence to work and rest regimes, good sleep and more.Preventive measures include annual medical examinations, even if nothing bothers you, it is necessary to take general tests and be sure to undergo a fluorographic examination every year. If symptoms appear, you need to see a doctor, and not self-medicate!

In case of existing chronic diseases (chronic bronchitis, bronchial asthma) – try to eliminate allergens from the air, thoroughly sanitize foci of chronic infection and follow the doctor’s prescription.

Compliance with these measures will help to avoid or in time to identify and timely begin treatment of diseases or achieve a stable remission of chronic pathology.

Ministry of Health of the Astrakhan Region
GBUZ JSC “Center for Medical Prevention”

More information here:

414024, Astrakhan, pl.Svobody / st. Kotovskogo, 2/6
Tel. (fax) 8 (8512) 51-24-77,
e-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

90,000 Treatment of diseases of the respiratory system in the sanatorium

Diseases of the human respiratory system

From the very first breath at birth, respiration plays a vital role in the human body.And the growth of respiratory diseases is of great concern to specialists. Progress does not stand still, every day new enterprises appear in the world, cities grow and at the same time forests are destroyed, swamps are drained. All this leads to a deterioration of the ecological situation on the planet, which also affects the quality of the air we breathe. Skeptics believe that very soon it will be the most valuable resource. But, for sure, no one can know this, it is in our power to take care of our health now.We will tell you about the work, malfunctions and treatment of organs that take part in the most important process of breathing. Without which no man on earth can survive.

Respiratory diseases

  1. Respiratory system structure
  2. Reasons for violations
  3. Symptoms and types of diseases
  4. Treatment and contraindications
  5. Prevention of ailments

Respiratory system structure

Respiratory organs form one of the most important systems in our body.At the same time, their functionality is much wider than saturating cells with oxygen and removing carbon dioxide. For example, the larynx is also a respiratory organ, which is also included in the vocal apparatus. And in the lungs themselves, in addition to gas exchange, the most important process of maturation of blood cells takes place. Let us examine the structure of these organs in more detail.

The respiratory system consists of the respiratory organs and the airways.

Respiratory organs include:

  • light
  • airway
  • throat
  • larynx
  • trachea
  • bronchi and bronchioles

The intercostal muscles and the diaphragm are also referred to as the respiratory system, since they make it possible for the lungs to contract.

Reasons for violations

The respiratory organs are more often than other systems exposed to harmful effects. It is through them that the easiest way to get into the body is an infection, which in a few days can turn a healthy person into a sick person. Banal hypothermia, which is not uncommon in countries with cold winters, can also lead to disastrous results. But even in the tropics, people get sick with the flu and SARS. Perhaps, on the entire planet, you cannot find a person who does not know what a cold is.And sometimes these are more complex diseases – tonsillitis, pleurisy or pneumonia.

What are the main causes of problems in the respiratory system? All respiratory diseases are divided into four types:

  • infectious, caused by the ingestion of viruses, bacteria, fungi and manifested by inflammatory processes (Pr. Bronchitis, pneumonia, tonsillitis)
  • allergic caused by inhalation of pollen, food, household and other particles and manifested in a violent reaction to a specific allergen (Pr.bronchial asthma)
  • autoimmune, the cause of which lies in the malfunction of the body in the form of the production of substances that attack its own cells (Pr. Idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis)
  • hereditary, a predisposition to which is transmitted to humans genetically

External factors such as work in poorly ventilated rooms also contribute to the development of respiratory system diseases. This increases the risk of colds, bronchitis, tonsillitis. Even a working printer is a pathogenic agent, as it can cause allergies and provoke the development of bronchial asthma.Also, respiratory diseases can provoke some diseases and bad habits.

Symptoms and types of diseases

Diseases of the respiratory system usually have pronounced symptoms, and therefore it is difficult to confuse them with anything else. At the same time, this makes diagnosis easier. However, often patients “start” the disease, deciding to endure unpleasant symptoms, which in no case should be done. The earlier treatment is started, the less the likelihood of complications and the greater the likelihood of a favorable outcome with minimal health consequences.

Most common symptoms of respiratory diseases:

  1. Shortness of breath
  2. Cough
  3. Pain
  4. Hemoptysis
  5. Choking

Also, a particular symptom can have its own varieties. For example, shortness of breath can occur both during exercise and at rest. A cough can be dry or wet, persistent or intermittent. Based on the symptoms, various diseases of the respiratory system are distinguished.Many of them can be both acute and chronic. Let’s dwell on the most common ones.

  1. Bronchitis

The leader in popularity in sick leave of patients with respiratory diseases. This is an infectious disease, which consists in the defeat of the bronchi by bacteria, viruses, or due to the appearance of atypical flora.

In addition to acute bronchitis, there are chronic, obstructive and non-obstructive bronchitis. Symptoms: cough, with obstructive bronchitis – shortness of breath.

  1. Bronchial asthma

Also one of the most common diseases of the respiratory system of an autoimmune nature, which tends to be characterized by the expansion of the walls of the airways and narrowing of the lumen. Because of this, each bronchus fills with mucus and makes breathing difficult. This pathology manifests itself in attacks of shortness of breath up to suffocation.

The disease is chronic, that is, seizures can occur throughout life, sometimes leading to life-threatening situations.

Symptoms: cough, wheezing, shortness of breath, choking.

  1. Chronic acute pneumonia

Pneumonia itself is caused by infection of the lung tissue. Inflammation develops in the alveoli that make up the lungs, causing fluid to accumulate. Untreated pneumonia can develop into a chronic form against the background of a decrease in the body’s immunological resistance. And then the mucus begins to accumulate in the bronchi, the walls of which are stretched, thinned and replaced by connective tissue.

Symptoms: chest pain, cough, weakness, shortness of breath, fever.

  1. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)

Obstruction means impaired patency, which is the underlying cause of this disease. It is caused by interaction with aggressive substances – aerosols, particles, gases. As a result, the bronchi become inflamed, narrowed, and gas exchange processes in the body are disrupted. The disease is considered chronic, since its consequences are irreversible or partially reversible.

Symptoms: cough, sputum, shortness of breath.

Treatment and contraindications

In some diseases, treatment is reduced to eliminating the cause and takes a couple of weeks, in others it is impossible and all that remains is to reduce the intensity and frequency of the symptom. Thirdly, the treatment consists in the prevention and strengthening of the immune system. In the sanatorium “Pridneprovsky” attention is paid to all three main areas of work with patients – and diagnosis, and treatment, and prevention.

The following methods and procedures are used to treat diseases of the respiratory system:

  1. Mud therapy

This type of procedure has a positive effect on the entire body, as it stimulates the immune response, activates metabolic processes and improves blood circulation. In the sanatorium “Pridneprovskiy” you will be offered several of the most effective options for mud therapy procedures for influencing the respiratory organs, for example, mud applications on the interscapular region.

  1. Magnetic and laser therapy

These types of treatment are combined into one item, as they have a similar healing effect – they restore injured areas of the body and prevent fibrosis of the lung tissue.

  1. Physical therapy or mechanotherapy

The beneficial effect of the procedures is provided by a group of special breathing exercises. Their implementation improves the mobility of the chest, strengthens the respiratory muscles and stimulates the stretching of the pleural adhesions.

  1. Chest massage

Quite easy, effective and pleasant way of healing, which is preferred by many patients. And if you pay attention to a specific area of ​​the body during massage, then you can extend the beneficial effect to vulnerable organs, for example, the respiratory system. For example, on the lungs. Their ventilation, along with the mobility of the chest, is just improved under the influence of massage.

  1. Speleotherapy

This method of treatment has a stimulating effect on the respiratory tract, as well as the most important function of restoring the patency of the bronchi.Also, due to the presence in the microclimate of caves, grottoes and salt mines, immunity is activated and tissue regeneration, in general, is accelerated.

  1. Oxygen cocktail

Saturation of blood with oxygen, improvement of metabolic processes and an increase in the body’s resistance to colds – oxygen cocktails made from natural juices have such a positive effect. This, of course, is not a drug, but it is also effectively used as a means of treatment in the Pridneprovsky sanatorium.

  1. Healing baths

The therapeutic effect of baths saturated with iodine, bromine or pine extracts is based on normalizing sleep, reducing anxiety levels, improving blood microcirculation and activating metabolic processes.

  1. Phytotherapy

Special herbal preparations are also an integral part of the treatment, as they have a strengthening effect on the entire body. People with diseases of the respiratory system, first of all, will benefit from breast and vitamin supplements, which not only strengthen the immune system, but also cleanse the lungs of phlegm.

  1. Magnetoturbotron

A special device has a powerful effect on the respiratory system and the entire body, namely, it is able to control the state of the respiratory system, have anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects, as well as improve blood circulation and normalize sleep.

Also one of the main factors of health improvement, along with a complex of medical procedures in the sanatorium “Pridneprovsky”, is climatotherapy. The mild temperate climate of Belarus, as well as the fresh air of coniferous and mixed forests, give a powerful charge to strengthen the immune system and improve the body’s health.

However, there are a number of contraindications for spa treatment, which you can find at the link.

Prevention of ailments

For the normal functioning of the respiratory system, clean fresh air is important, only in this case the respiratory organs can function without interruption and resist infections. Provided, of course, normal functioning of the immune system and, in general, the health of the body. What else needs to be remembered in order to resist diseases and protect the respiratory system from negative factors?

In short, proper nutrition, physical activity, healthy sleep and minimizing stress are the key to strong immunity, on which the body’s resistance to various infections depends.Therefore, here is a complete list of recommendations for the prevention of respiratory diseases:

  1. Give up bad habits – smoking and drinking alcohol
  2. Strengthen immunity – take vitamins, add onions, garlic, honey, raspberries, sea buckthorn, ginger, lemon juice to food; work hardening (sauna, contrast shower)
  3. Eat right – eat small meals, avoid fried foods, limit animal fats, add fruits and vegetables to the diet
  4. Lead an active lifestyle – exercise, go to the gym, ride a bike, sign up for a pool or go for a run
  5. Get proper rest – alternate physical and mental stress
  6. Avoid stress and be optimistic!

Also observe reasonable precautions and good hygiene practices:

  • Dress for the weather to stay warm and warm
  • protect yourself from getting wet due to precipitation
  • breathe through your nose in cold and dusty environments
  • do not touch your face with dirty hands, wash your hands more often
  • Wear a medical mask in crowded areas
  • Maintain a social distance of at least 1 meter
  • avoid people with signs of illness
  • Ventilate the room at home and at work
  • Seek help promptly if you have symptoms of illness

And, most importantly, remember: a healthy lifestyle is the best disease prevention!

Respiratory diseases and their prevention


The organs of the respiratory system are susceptible to many infectious diseases.

Infectious diseases are diseases caused by pathogens such as bacteria, viruses or protozoa.

Most microorganisms and dust are retained by the mucous membrane of the upper respiratory tract, neutralized and removed from them along with the mucus. However, some of the microorganisms that have entered the respiratory system can cause various diseases: influenza, tuberculosis, sore throat, diphtheria, etc.

Distinguish between airborne and droplet-dust infections.

Airborne infections are transmitted through direct contact with a sick person (by coughing, sneezing or talking).

Dust-droplet infections are transmitted by contact with objects used by the patient.

Influenza and ARVI

Influenza and ARVI (acute respiratory viral infections) are caused by viruses and transmitted by airborne droplets (the household route of transmission of influenza is also possible, for example, through household items).

Influenza viruses are found in the mucus secreted from the nose of sick people, in their sputum and saliva.When sick people sneeze and cough, millions of droplets containing viruses invisible to the eye are thrown into the air. If they enter the respiratory organs of a healthy person, he can contract the flu or SARS.

Influenza begins abruptly and violently (from infection to the manifestation of clinical symptoms, it takes from several hours to two days). The patient’s body temperature quickly rises to 39-40 ° C, chills, aches and weakness in the body, headache, cough and runny nose appear (there may not be a cough or runny nose).

Influenza is dangerous for its complications. Often, after this disease, serious complications are observed associated with disruption of the work of internal organs – lungs, bronchi, heart, etc.

Influenza spreads very quickly, therefore, sick people should not be allowed to work in enterprises, institutions, and classes in educational institutions. When coughing and sneezing, cover your mouth and nose with a handkerchief to prevent contamination of others. When communicating with people with influenza, you need to cover your mouth and nose with a cotton-gauze bandage (or mask), which allows air to pass through, but retains droplets that contain pathogens.

The main method of prevention against influenza is vaccination. The virus contained in the vaccine stimulates the body to produce antibodies that prevent viruses from multiplying, so that the disease is prevented even before it begins.


Tuberculosis of the lungs is caused by a bacterium – Koch’s bacillus (tuberculosis bacillus), named after the scientist who described it. Tubercle bacillus broadly

is common in nature. It can be in the inhaled air, in droplets of sputum, on dishes, clothes, towels and other items used by the patient (therefore, tuberculosis spreads not only by droplets, but also with dust).

Usually, the immune system of a healthy person actively suppresses the development of Koch’s bacillus. However, under unfavorable conditions (unsanitary conditions, dampness, insufficient nutrition, reduced immunity), the disease can turn into an acute form, leading to physical destruction of the lungs. Unfortunately, now this disease is more and more common even in people leading a correct lifestyle.

Tuberculosis pathogens remain viable for a long time in damp, not illuminated by sunlight.In dry, well-lit places, they quickly die.

Maintenance of cleanliness in houses, on city streets, in public premises helps to prevent the disease.

Also, for the purpose of preventing and treating tuberculosis, regular examinations of the adult and child population are carried out.

Bronchial asthma

Bronchial asthma is a common lung disease. With this disease, the muscles that enter the walls of the bronchi contract, and an attack of suffocation occurs.Asthma is caused by an allergic reaction to the most seemingly harmless substances: household dust, animal hair, pollen, etc.

A number of medicines are used to eliminate the painful and dangerous suffocation. Some of them are injected into the lungs in the form of aerosols, and they act directly on the bronchi, expanding them.

Oncological (cancerous) diseases

Respiratory organs are also susceptible to oncological (cancerous) diseases. They are most common in chronic smokers.

Diagnosis of respiratory diseases

For early diagnosis of lung diseases, fluorography is used – photographing an image of the chest, illuminated by X-ray radiation. Fluorography should be done at least once every two years. This allows you to identify a number of the most dangerous diseases in the early stages.

If any disease of the respiratory system has arisen, then it must be treated as early as possible.

Prevention of infectious diseases of the respiratory system

Prevention of infectious diseases of the respiratory system is to limit contact with already sick people or reduce the degree of exposure to these organs of harmful impurities contained in the air: dust, exhaust gases, industrial emissions, tobacco smoke, since all these impurities are negative affecting the respiratory organs, make them more susceptible to pathogens of infectious diseases.

It is necessary to constantly increase the body’s resistance to infections, systematically tempering it. There are various complexes of hardening: rubdown, bathing, air baths, etc. The hardening should be long and gradual, only in this case you can achieve the desired result. At

With a gradual increase in the degree of exposure to hardening factors on the body, there is an increase in the resistance of all body systems to unfavorable climatic factors: cold, dampness.

Very good results are obtained by special physical training, which strengthens the respiratory muscles and improves ventilation of the lungs.

Electronic cigarettes

Testimonials of doctors about electronic cigarettes: electronic cigarette – harm or benefit?

Such an innovation as electronic cigarettes immediately attracted the majority of smokers, so the question of their dangers faded into the background. And this is not surprising – “electronic” can be smoked at work, in a restaurant, in bed and in general everywhere where smoking classic cigarettes has long been banned.The difference, at first glance, is only that instead of smoke, steam is emitted with a very pleasant smell and without harm to suffering passive smokers. What are the other advantages of “electronic”?

· An ordinary cigarette is ammonia, benzene, cyanide, arsenic, harmful tar, carbon monoxide, carcinogens, etc. There are no such components in the “electronics”.

· There are no marks on the teeth and fingers from the “electronics” in the form of a yellow plaque.

· There is no smell of tobacco smoke at home (on clothes, in the mouth).

· You don’t have to worry too much about fire safety – if you fall asleep with an “electronic” device, nothing will happen.

· In terms of money, “electronic” is cheaper than regular cigarettes. It is enough to buy several bottles of liquid (one is enough for several months) – different in aroma and dosage of nicotine, as well as replaceable cartridges.

At first glance, solid pluses. And no harm! But – not everything is so simple.

Firstly, electronic devices are not subject to mandatory certification.What does it mean? This means that they are not amenable to either supervision or control. That is, a cigarette bought at the checkout of a store may not be as safe as the manufacturers are trying to convince us.

Secondly, the WHO did not subject e-cigarettes to serious research – there were only cursory tests, carried out more out of curiosity than for reasons of public safety.

Well, and thirdly, the opinions of specialists about electronic devices are not the most optimistic:

· Despite the external “harmlessness” of the electronic device, nicotine is still present in it.On the one hand, this is a plus. Because the abandonment of the usual

cigarettes flow easier – nicotine continues to enter the body, and the imitation of a cigarette “deceives” the hands, accustomed to the “smoking stick”. The well-being of electronic smokers also improves – after all, harmful impurities stop entering the body. And even oncologists said (although they could not provide evidence based on in-depth research) that liquid for refueling cigarettes cannot cause cancer. But! Nicotine continues to enter the body.That is, you will not be able to quit smoking anyway. Because as soon as having received one dose of nicotine (it does not matter – from a regular cigarette, patch, electronic device or chewing gum), the body immediately begins to demand a new one. It turns out a vicious circle. And there is no point in talking about the dangers of nicotine – everyone knows about it.

· This fact is also confirmed by psychiatrists: electronic devices are the change of one “nipple” to a more fragrant one.

· Narcologists also join them: craving for nicotine does not disappear, does not decrease, and the options for dosing nicotine do not matter.

· The “harmlessness” of electronic cigarettes plays a significant role in the formation of interest in smoking in our children. If it is not harmful, then it is possible! Yes, and somehow more solid, with a cigarette.

· As for toxicologists, they look at e-cigarettes with suspicion. Because the absence of harmful substances and smoke in the air is by no means proof of the harmlessness of electronics. And there were no proper tests, and there are still no.

· US FDA against electronic cigarettes: analysis of cartridges showed the presence of carcinogenic substances and a discrepancy between the declared composition of the cartridges and the real one.In particular, nitrosamine found in the composition is capable of causing oncology. And in nicotine-free cartridges, again, contrary to the manufacturer’s statement, nicotine was found. That is, when buying an electronic cigarette, we cannot be sure that there is no harm, and the “filling” of the electronics remains a mystery for us, covered in darkness.

· Electronic cigarettes are good business. What many unscrupulous manufacturers use.

· Inhalation of smoke and steam are different processes. The second option does not bring the satiety that a regular cigarette gives.Therefore, the nicotine monster begins to demand a dose more often than with regular smoking. To regain the “charm” of old sensations, many begin to smoke even more often or increase the strength of the filled liquid. Where does this lead? Nicotine overdose. To the same leads the temptation – to smoke everywhere and at any time, and the illusion of harmlessness.

· WHO warns that the safety of e-cigarettes has not been proven. And the tests that were carried out on these fashionable devices indicate serious discrepancies in the quality of the composition, the presence of harmful impurities and the amount of nicotine.And a high concentration of propylene glycol leads to respiratory problems.

To smoke or not to smoke? And what exactly is smoking? Everyone chooses for himself. It will be possible to say about the harm or benefit of these devices only after many years. But to the question – will the electronic device help to quit smoking – the answer is clear. Will not help. Changing an ordinary cigarette for a beautiful and fragrant one, you will not rid your body of nicotine, and you will not stop being a smoker.

doctor appointment online – DocDoc SPb

Gastroenterologists of St. Petersburg – latest reviews

Overall, the reception went well enough.The doctor promptly collected an anamnesis, prescribed tests and additional studies. A preliminary diagnosis was made and treatment was prescribed. I will apply again after I have followed all the recommendations of the specialist.


October 20, 2021

At the reception, the doctor listened to me, answered all the questions, gave her recommendations and prescribed treatment.The reception lasted about forty minutes. This time was enough to resolve my question. The doctor is attentive, explains everything clearly and easily. I can recommend this specialist to my friends, if necessary, and if necessary, I can apply again. I was pleased with the quality of the reception.


October 19, 2021

We really liked both the reception and the doctor.Yuliana Gennadievna is a very good, intelligent, kind doctor. The specialist very carefully, meticulously approached our problem. As a result, she prescribed the necessary treatment, which we are now successfully carrying out. If necessary, we will still contact this specialist and recommend her to friends.


October 15, 2021

The doctor spoke about the problem in detail.She ordered tests. Reception liked


05 October 2021

A doctor from the Soviet past, competent, good, adequate, normal, laconic.He is well versed in everything. All on time. At the reception, Ivan Borisovich asked everything, competently, made a clear appointment. He explained everything clearly, clearly, without lyrical digressions. Such a polling system has been built. Things are good. As a result, I was prescribed what I needed, confirmed the diagnosis, nothing superfluous, I did not hang noodles on my ears. I didn’t guess, I didn’t think, but I said it clearly. It does not overload anything, but you will have to pass the tests. I passed everything and calmed down. I can appreciate the effect of the treatment, everything is fine.


05 October 2021

I liked the doctor.Very competent, benevolent, it is clear that he understands his profession, well-mannered, delicate. I explained everything well, all the processes that take place in the body in my part. Everything went well. At the reception, Evgeny Nikolaevich conducted an examination, consultation, and prescribed medications.


September 10, 2021

The doctor examined me at the appointment, gave advice, recommendations and issued effective prescriptions.An excellent doctor, very polite and kind. I watched a specialist in reviews and work experience. I myself will turn to Victoria Sergeevna again, if necessary, and advise others!


28 Aug 2021

An attentive and friendly doctor.She asked everything and wrote that I need to get tested. I was satisfied!


May 25, 2020

The doctor did not like it.Haughty. He only grinned at my health complaints. On the problem, he did not help and prescribed the wrong treatment, which only made it worse. Then I had to be treated by another doctor


October 23, 2021

Nice welcome.Victoria Gennadievna conducted a high-quality examination, prescribed a course of treatment, and consulted. She is punctual and kind. I have already contacted her again.


October 22, 2021

Show 10 reviews of 3,366 90,000 Respiratory Diseases | GBUZ JSC “City polyclinic №8 named after N.I. Pirogov

Ministry of Health of the Astrakhan Region

GBUZ JSC “Center for Medical Prevention”


Causes of respiratory diseases

Consider the main causes of diseases of the respiratory system. Respiratory diseases include bronchitis, tracheitis, bronchial asthma, pneumonia, etc.The main reason is microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, fungi, less often parasites).

The leading role belongs to such bacterial pathogens as: pneumococci, haemophilus influenzae, mycoplasma, chlamydia, legionella mycobacterium tuberculosis, influenza A and B viruses, respiratory viral infections. Most often, the disease is caused by one type of pathogen (monoinfection), but sometimes (old age, AIDS and other immunodeficiency diseases) there can be several of them (mixed infections). Also, quite often the cause of damage to the respiratory system is external allergens.These include:

  • Household Allergens – Household dust that contains allergens from fungi, insects, pets, human skin particles and others. Household mites (the main cause of bronchial asthma) have the greatest allergenic properties.

  • Animal allergens, found in saliva, dandruff and animal urine.

  • Allergens of molds and yeasts, namely their spores.

  • Plant pollen (herbs: nettle, plantain, wormwood flowers: buttercup, dandelion, poppy, shrubs: rose hips, lilacs, trees: birch, poplar and others), fungal spores, insect allergens.

  • Professional factors (electric welding – nickel salts, steel evaporation).

  • Food allergens (cow’s milk).

Provoke the occurrence of diseases of the respiratory system, air pollution, household pollution that are contained in modern living quarters (household chemicals, synthetic materials, varnishes, paints, glue), smoking (active, passive) due to the negative effect of tobacco smoke, adverse climatic conditions (low temperature, high humidity, strong fluctuations in atmospheric pressure).

Alcohol abuse, hypothermia, the presence of diseases of other organs and systems (diabetes mellitus, heart disease), the presence of foci of chronic infection, hereditary and genetic abnormalities, and many others are also provoking factors.

Symptoms in diseases of the respiratory system.

Dyspnea is physiological (with increased physical exertion), pathological (with diseases).It can also be inspiratory with difficulty in breathing (diseases of the larynx, trachea), expiratory with difficulty in exhalation (with damage to the bronchi) and mixed (pulmonary embolism).

The most severe form of dyspnea is dyspnea (with acute pulmonary edema). If suffocation occurs in the form of a sudden attack, then this is asthma (bronchial – spasm of small bronchi, cardiac – due to weakening of the heart).

Cough – (a reflex defense reaction to the accumulation of mucus in the larynx, trachea or bronchi, as well as a foreign body that has entered the respiratory system).By its nature, the cough can be dry, without sputum (laryngitis, dry pleurisy) and moist, with sputum of various quantities and quality (morning cough with chronic bronchitis, evening cough with pneumonia, night cough with tuberculosis, cancer). It can also be permanent (with inflammation of the larynx, bronchi) and periodic (with flu, acute respiratory infections, pneumonia).

Hemoptysis – (discharge of blood with sputum when coughing). It can manifest itself both in diseases of the respiratory system (lung cancer, tuberculosis, lung abscess), and in diseases of the cardiovascular system (heart defects).The blood released from coughing up sputum may be fresh (scarlet) or altered. Scarlet is found in tuberculosis, ascariasis. With croupous pneumonia in stage 2 of the disease, it is rusty in color (rusty sputum).

Research methods.

Correctly collected complaints, examination and competently conducted examination (palpation, auscultation, percussion) are the key to a correct diagnosis. With all this, additional signs of diseases can be identified.

Instrumental and laboratory research methods.X-ray research methods (fluoroscopy, radiography, tomography, bronchography, fluorography) are the most important in the diagnosis of respiratory diseases. Endoscopic research methods (bronchoscopy, thoracoscopy). Bronchoscopy is important for the diagnosis of purulent and neoplastic diseases. But it is used not only as a diagnostic, but also as a therapeutic one (for example, to remove foreign bodies).

  • Methods of functional diagnostics.These methods do not allow diagnosing the disease that led to respiratory failure, however, they make it possible to identify its presence, often long before the first symptoms appear. Spirography is the measurement of lung volumes. Also, studies of the intensity of pulmonary ventilation are carried out. All these tests make it possible to study the state of pulmonary ventilation and its reserves, the need for which may arise when performing heavy physical work or in case of respiratory disease. Ergospirography is a method that allows you to determine the amount of work that the examinee can do without the appearance of signs of respiratory failure.The study of blood gases, determine the oxygen content in a given volume, the amount of oxygen that a unit of a given blood can bind, the percentage of blood oxygen saturation, the content of carbon monoxide (CO2).

  • Laboratory research methods. Microscopic examination of sputum, to determine its composition, it can be mucus, serous fluid, blood cells and airways, protozoa, helminths and their eggs. Other laboratory methods include a general and biochemical blood test, a general urine test.

Prevention of respiratory diseases

The main thing is to maintain a healthy lifestyle: giving up bad habits (smoking, alcohol and others), regular physical education, adherence to work and rest regimes, good sleep, and more. Preventive measures include annual medical examinations, even if nothing bothers you, it is necessary to undergo general tests and be sure to undergo a fluorographic examination every year.If symptoms appear, you need to see a doctor, and not self-medicate!

Material prepared

by the department of preparation and replication

medical information materials “CMP”

90,000 Diseases of the digestive system – School of Health – GBUZ City Polyclinic 25 Krasnodar MH KK

March 14, 2019

The most common diseases of the digestive system are:

  • gastritis
  • colitis
  • duodenitis
  • pancreatitis
  • gastric ulcer (PUD) and duodenal ulcer (duodenal ulcer)
  • dysbiosis
  • Among the main reasons provoking the development of diseases of this group, it is necessary to highlight unbalanced nutrition, namely: the frequency of food intake, the size of the portion of the intake – overeating or malnutrition, the use of “unhealthy” or low-quality food, spicy dishes, etc.d.
    • bad habits: smoking and vaping, drinking alcohol
    • frequent consumption of carbonated drinks, coffee, strong tea
    • use of drugs that have a negative effect on the digestive system: antibiotics, analgesics, NSAIDs, etc.
    • Regular stress, high psychological and / or physical stress, violation of the daily routine, sleep disturbance
    • low mobility
    • obesity, overweight
    • concomitant diseases, including other gastrointestinal diseases: severe poisoning, infectious diseases, diabetes mellitus, allergic diseases, helminthiases, Zollinger-Ellison syndrome, gastrinoma, cholelithiasis and others.
    • Basic measures for the prevention of diseases of the digestive system:

      1. Proper balanced nutrition. It is recommended that an individual diet is prescribed, taking into account the history, physical condition and, in part, the patient’s personal taste preferences. Food should be taken correctly (chewing thoroughly), regularly at the same time, observing the frequency: 5-6 receptions. Each meal should be supplemented with fruit or vegetables. Overeating, eating “fast foods”, fatty, fried, spicy, excessively hot or cold foods, “dry food” should be avoided.Lists of food additives dangerous for the stomach, useful and harmful products for the formation of the correct preventive diet for diseases of the gastrointestinal tract – see at the end of the article.
      2. It is not recommended to drastically change the diet and excessively limit the use of already familiar products. Diet foods should be introduced into the diet, gradually, excluding “harmful” foods. A drastic change in diet can be stressful and ultimately lead to abandonment of all diets.
      3. You should carefully evaluate the quality and freshness of the food you eat, check the expiration dates and the composition of the food for the presence of harmful food additives “E”, properly process fruits, vegetables, meat products before use.
      4. It is imperative to stop drinking and smoking.
      5. Regular walks in the fresh air, moderate physical activity, and sports are useful.
      6. It is recommended to reduce emotional stress, avoid overwork, stressful situations.Sleep should be on average 7-8 hours. For more details, see the article: PREVENTION OF EMOTIONAL DISORDERS
      7. In some cases, weight control is necessary, but you should not lose weight dramatically.
      8. Timely treatment and prevention of concomitant diseases.
      9. Vitamin therapy. The usual course of multivitamin supplementation is 1 month. Preparations with the maximum balanced content of vitamins and minerals: Supradin, Duovit, Vitrum, Farmaton.
      10. When prescribing medicines, you should carefully study the instructions for side effects from the gastrointestinal tract. In case of concomitant diseases of the musculoskeletal system, and the forced regular use of anti-inflammatory drugs of the NSAID group, preference should be given to selective COX2 blockers: meloxicam (Movalis, Melox), nimesulide (Nimesil, Nimid), Celecoxib (Celebrex), Rofikoxib (Roxofica) ), since they have a less negative effect on the gastrointestinal tract than traditional drugs from this group: diclofenac, ibuprofen, indomethacin, ketorolac, piroxicam, aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid), etc.e. The latter, with prolonged use, can cause gastric bleeding and stomach ulcers.
      11. After and during the course of antibiotic therapy, pre- and / or probiotics should be taken: Linex, Laktovit, Hilak Forte, Yoghurt in capsules or use kefir and yoghurt of our own preparation based on the starter cultures “Bifilak”, “VIVO”, “Good food”, “ Evitalia “, etc.
  • 90,060 90,000 Respiratory diseases are leading in Transbaikalia

    In adult Transbaikal residents, respiratory diseases take the first place – such data were provided by the Minister of Health Valery Kozhevnikov at the final meeting on the activities of the department in 2019 and tasks for 2020 under the regional government.

    Dirty air, smog, which for more than four months does not allow Transbaikal people to breathe deeply, adversely affects human health. During this period, exacerbations of cardiovascular and pulmonary diseases can occur – bronchitis, bronchial asthma and others. As a rule, the elderly, children and pregnant women are at risk. In November 2019, 30% more patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease were hospitalized in Chita and the Trans-Baikal Territory.

    “The medical community is not confronted with the root cause of pollution, we are dealing with the consequences, but right now we can help the residents of our city. For the first time last year, a regional benefit for lung diseases appeared in Transbaikalia (for those who have a chronic disease, but do not have a disability): modern drugs have been purchased, which are provided free of charge in polyclinics as prescribed by a doctor, ”said the chief pulmonologist of the region Sergey Lukyanov.

    In addition, in 2019, the region received the first vaccine against pneumonia – an antipneumococcal vaccine, which will reduce the incidence and mortality of this disease.It is put in clinics for citizens of the older age group.

    “I urge all residents of our city to undergo regular medical examinations, to check the state of the respiratory and cardiovascular systems, if there is a medical indication – to undergo antipneumococcal vaccination free of charge. If, unfortunately, the disease has already developed, carefully follow the doctor’s recommendations, ”the doctor said.

    According to data from open sources: the leader of the poisonous violators of the air border of the regional center is phenol.This winter, it exceeded the norm in almost all areas of the city twice. Three times more hydrogen sulfide in the air was recorded. Dust (suspended particles) also beat the records of winter Chita – it exceeded adequate indicators by more than one and a half times.