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Pain relief for urine infection: The request could not be satisfied

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How to ease the discomfort

We include products we think are useful for our readers. If you buy through links on this page, we may earn a small commission. Here’s our process.

A urinary tract infection (UTI) can develop anywhere in the urinary tract, including the bladder. This common health issue can be unpleasant and affect a person’s sleep.

According to the National Kidney Foundation, 1 in 5 females experience at least one UTI at some point, though anyone can develop this type of infection.

Below, we describe ways to help relieve UTI pain, discomfort, and other symptoms at home.

Share on PinterestDrinking plenty of water during the day and less in the evening can help keep UTI symptoms from disrupting sleep.

Antibiotics can treat UTIs, but they may take at least 1–2 days to provide relief. In the meantime, home care strategies can help alleviate pain and discomfort.

It is crucial to finish the full course of antibiotics and follow the doctor’s recommendations, even if the symptoms improve early on.

A person can also take the following steps to relieve UTI symptoms:

Drink plenty of water

A UTI can cause a burning sensation and other types of pain while urinating, and it can also cause a person to pee more frequently than usual. In addition, the need to urinate may be more urgent.

Each of these issues may make it tempting to drink less. However, to help the body clear a UTI, a person should increase their water intake.

If a person does not drink enough water, the bladder can become more sensitive, and the urine can become more concentrated, exacerbating symptoms.

It is crucial to note, however, that this advice only applies during the day. Limit the intake of water late in the evening to prevent the urge to urinate from disrupting sleep.

Empty the bladder fully

When urine stays in the bladder for too long, resident bacteria can grow and multiply, as the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases note.

A person should empty their bladder fully each time they urinate. This is especially important during a UTI.

Use a heating pad

Some people find that using a heating pad helps reduce pain in the abdomen or lower back that results from a UTI.

A person can choose from a range of heating pads online.

Avoid caffeine

Caffeine can increase the risk of issues such as bladder spasms that can occur with a UTI, contributing to more frequent or intense urges to urinate.

Authors of a large-scale 2013 study found that, generally, caffeine made UTI symptoms worse.

Take sodium bicarbonate

According to the authors of a 2017 study, taking sodium bicarbonate may help reduce the level of acidity in urine, which may in turn help ease the symptoms of a UTI.

However, they had tested a high dosage that would not be suitable for everyone.

Try over-the-counter pain relievers

While waiting for antibiotics to take effect, a person may benefit from over-the-counter pain relief medication, such as acetaminophen (Tylenol) or ibuprofen (Advil).

Depending on the severity of the pain, a doctor may recommend a specific over-the-counter or prescription analgesic.

UTIs can cause a variety of symptoms, including:

  • a fever
  • a burning sensation or pain when urinating
  • frequent urination
  • pain around the bladder or in the lower back
  • strong-smelling urine
  • feeling an urgent need to urinate, even without passing urine
  • cloudy or bloody urine

The following strategies can help prevent this type of infection:

  • wiping from front to back
  • removing wet bathing suits or sweaty underwear as soon as possible
  • wearing loose-fitting clothes
  • avoiding holding in urine
  • taking showers instead of baths
  • urinating before and after sex
  • avoiding douching
  • keeping the genitals clean
  • switching from diaphragms, unlubricated condoms, or spermicide to a different form of birth control

Some people try using home remedies — such as apple cider vinegar or vitamin C — to combat or prevent UTIs.

Apple cider vinegar seems to kill harmful bacteria, including Escherichia coli, better known as E. Coli, according to the authors of a 2018 study, who pointed out that these bacteria can cause UTIs.

It is possible that drinking a diluted preparation of the vinegar may help the body clear the infection.

Some people believe that vitamin C can help prevent UTIs. However, a review of studies found that there was insufficient scientific evidence to support the claims.

Anyone who experiences any symptoms of a UTI — such as a burning sensation while urinating, discomfort in the abdomen, or a frequent urge to urinate — should see a doctor for treatment.

A UTI can spread to the kidneys, causing a kidney infection, which can be dangerous. A person should seek medical help quickly if they experience:

  • a fever
  • chills
  • nausea
  • vomiting
  • pain in the lower back

If a person has recurring UTIs, the doctor may refer them to a urologist for further treatment.

A UTI is an infection in any part of the urinary tract. A person with this issue tends to experience discomfort or pain while urinating and a sense of urinary urgency.

These infections are common, and doctors treat them with antibiotics.

A person can also take steps to ease UTI symptoms at home, such as using a heating pad and staying well-hydrated during the day but limiting the intake of liquids before bed to prevent the symptoms from disrupting sleep.

It is crucial to complete the full course of antibiotics as directed, even if symptoms improve early on.

How to ease the discomfort

We include products we think are useful for our readers. If you buy through links on this page, we may earn a small commission. Here’s our process.

A urinary tract infection (UTI) can develop anywhere in the urinary tract, including the bladder. This common health issue can be unpleasant and affect a person’s sleep.

According to the National Kidney Foundation, 1 in 5 females experience at least one UTI at some point, though anyone can develop this type of infection.

Below, we describe ways to help relieve UTI pain, discomfort, and other symptoms at home.

Share on PinterestDrinking plenty of water during the day and less in the evening can help keep UTI symptoms from disrupting sleep.

Antibiotics can treat UTIs, but they may take at least 1–2 days to provide relief. In the meantime, home care strategies can help alleviate pain and discomfort.

It is crucial to finish the full course of antibiotics and follow the doctor’s recommendations, even if the symptoms improve early on.

A person can also take the following steps to relieve UTI symptoms:

Drink plenty of water

A UTI can cause a burning sensation and other types of pain while urinating, and it can also cause a person to pee more frequently than usual. In addition, the need to urinate may be more urgent.

Each of these issues may make it tempting to drink less. However, to help the body clear a UTI, a person should increase their water intake.

If a person does not drink enough water, the bladder can become more sensitive, and the urine can become more concentrated, exacerbating symptoms.

It is crucial to note, however, that this advice only applies during the day. Limit the intake of water late in the evening to prevent the urge to urinate from disrupting sleep.

Empty the bladder fully

When urine stays in the bladder for too long, resident bacteria can grow and multiply, as the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases note.

A person should empty their bladder fully each time they urinate. This is especially important during a UTI.

Use a heating pad

Some people find that using a heating pad helps reduce pain in the abdomen or lower back that results from a UTI.

A person can choose from a range of heating pads online.

Avoid caffeine

Caffeine can increase the risk of issues such as bladder spasms that can occur with a UTI, contributing to more frequent or intense urges to urinate.

Authors of a large-scale 2013 study found that, generally, caffeine made UTI symptoms worse.

Take sodium bicarbonate

According to the authors of a 2017 study, taking sodium bicarbonate may help reduce the level of acidity in urine, which may in turn help ease the symptoms of a UTI.

However, they had tested a high dosage that would not be suitable for everyone.

Try over-the-counter pain relievers

While waiting for antibiotics to take effect, a person may benefit from over-the-counter pain relief medication, such as acetaminophen (Tylenol) or ibuprofen (Advil).

Depending on the severity of the pain, a doctor may recommend a specific over-the-counter or prescription analgesic.

UTIs can cause a variety of symptoms, including:

  • a fever
  • a burning sensation or pain when urinating
  • frequent urination
  • pain around the bladder or in the lower back
  • strong-smelling urine
  • feeling an urgent need to urinate, even without passing urine
  • cloudy or bloody urine

The following strategies can help prevent this type of infection:

  • wiping from front to back
  • removing wet bathing suits or sweaty underwear as soon as possible
  • wearing loose-fitting clothes
  • avoiding holding in urine
  • taking showers instead of baths
  • urinating before and after sex
  • avoiding douching
  • keeping the genitals clean
  • switching from diaphragms, unlubricated condoms, or spermicide to a different form of birth control

Some people try using home remedies — such as apple cider vinegar or vitamin C — to combat or prevent UTIs.

Apple cider vinegar seems to kill harmful bacteria, including Escherichia coli, better known as E. Coli, according to the authors of a 2018 study, who pointed out that these bacteria can cause UTIs.

It is possible that drinking a diluted preparation of the vinegar may help the body clear the infection.

Some people believe that vitamin C can help prevent UTIs. However, a review of studies found that there was insufficient scientific evidence to support the claims.

Anyone who experiences any symptoms of a UTI — such as a burning sensation while urinating, discomfort in the abdomen, or a frequent urge to urinate — should see a doctor for treatment.

A UTI can spread to the kidneys, causing a kidney infection, which can be dangerous. A person should seek medical help quickly if they experience:

  • a fever
  • chills
  • nausea
  • vomiting
  • pain in the lower back

If a person has recurring UTIs, the doctor may refer them to a urologist for further treatment.

A UTI is an infection in any part of the urinary tract. A person with this issue tends to experience discomfort or pain while urinating and a sense of urinary urgency.

These infections are common, and doctors treat them with antibiotics.

A person can also take steps to ease UTI symptoms at home, such as using a heating pad and staying well-hydrated during the day but limiting the intake of liquids before bed to prevent the symptoms from disrupting sleep.

It is crucial to complete the full course of antibiotics as directed, even if symptoms improve early on.

How to ease the discomfort

We include products we think are useful for our readers. If you buy through links on this page, we may earn a small commission. Here’s our process.

A urinary tract infection (UTI) can develop anywhere in the urinary tract, including the bladder. This common health issue can be unpleasant and affect a person’s sleep.

According to the National Kidney Foundation, 1 in 5 females experience at least one UTI at some point, though anyone can develop this type of infection.

Below, we describe ways to help relieve UTI pain, discomfort, and other symptoms at home.

Share on PinterestDrinking plenty of water during the day and less in the evening can help keep UTI symptoms from disrupting sleep.

Antibiotics can treat UTIs, but they may take at least 1–2 days to provide relief. In the meantime, home care strategies can help alleviate pain and discomfort.

It is crucial to finish the full course of antibiotics and follow the doctor’s recommendations, even if the symptoms improve early on.

A person can also take the following steps to relieve UTI symptoms:

Drink plenty of water

A UTI can cause a burning sensation and other types of pain while urinating, and it can also cause a person to pee more frequently than usual. In addition, the need to urinate may be more urgent.

Each of these issues may make it tempting to drink less. However, to help the body clear a UTI, a person should increase their water intake.

If a person does not drink enough water, the bladder can become more sensitive, and the urine can become more concentrated, exacerbating symptoms.

It is crucial to note, however, that this advice only applies during the day. Limit the intake of water late in the evening to prevent the urge to urinate from disrupting sleep.

Empty the bladder fully

When urine stays in the bladder for too long, resident bacteria can grow and multiply, as the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases note.

A person should empty their bladder fully each time they urinate. This is especially important during a UTI.

Use a heating pad

Some people find that using a heating pad helps reduce pain in the abdomen or lower back that results from a UTI.

A person can choose from a range of heating pads online.

Avoid caffeine

Caffeine can increase the risk of issues such as bladder spasms that can occur with a UTI, contributing to more frequent or intense urges to urinate.

Authors of a large-scale 2013 study found that, generally, caffeine made UTI symptoms worse.

Take sodium bicarbonate

According to the authors of a 2017 study, taking sodium bicarbonate may help reduce the level of acidity in urine, which may in turn help ease the symptoms of a UTI.

However, they had tested a high dosage that would not be suitable for everyone.

Try over-the-counter pain relievers

While waiting for antibiotics to take effect, a person may benefit from over-the-counter pain relief medication, such as acetaminophen (Tylenol) or ibuprofen (Advil).

Depending on the severity of the pain, a doctor may recommend a specific over-the-counter or prescription analgesic.

UTIs can cause a variety of symptoms, including:

  • a fever
  • a burning sensation or pain when urinating
  • frequent urination
  • pain around the bladder or in the lower back
  • strong-smelling urine
  • feeling an urgent need to urinate, even without passing urine
  • cloudy or bloody urine

The following strategies can help prevent this type of infection:

  • wiping from front to back
  • removing wet bathing suits or sweaty underwear as soon as possible
  • wearing loose-fitting clothes
  • avoiding holding in urine
  • taking showers instead of baths
  • urinating before and after sex
  • avoiding douching
  • keeping the genitals clean
  • switching from diaphragms, unlubricated condoms, or spermicide to a different form of birth control

Some people try using home remedies — such as apple cider vinegar or vitamin C — to combat or prevent UTIs.

Apple cider vinegar seems to kill harmful bacteria, including Escherichia coli, better known as E. Coli, according to the authors of a 2018 study, who pointed out that these bacteria can cause UTIs.

It is possible that drinking a diluted preparation of the vinegar may help the body clear the infection.

Some people believe that vitamin C can help prevent UTIs. However, a review of studies found that there was insufficient scientific evidence to support the claims.

Anyone who experiences any symptoms of a UTI — such as a burning sensation while urinating, discomfort in the abdomen, or a frequent urge to urinate — should see a doctor for treatment.

A UTI can spread to the kidneys, causing a kidney infection, which can be dangerous. A person should seek medical help quickly if they experience:

  • a fever
  • chills
  • nausea
  • vomiting
  • pain in the lower back

If a person has recurring UTIs, the doctor may refer them to a urologist for further treatment.

A UTI is an infection in any part of the urinary tract. A person with this issue tends to experience discomfort or pain while urinating and a sense of urinary urgency.

These infections are common, and doctors treat them with antibiotics.

A person can also take steps to ease UTI symptoms at home, such as using a heating pad and staying well-hydrated during the day but limiting the intake of liquids before bed to prevent the symptoms from disrupting sleep.

It is crucial to complete the full course of antibiotics as directed, even if symptoms improve early on.

Urinary Tract Infections and Self-Care Options

US Pharm. 2017;9(42):4-7.

Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are the most commonly occurring infections, affecting approximately 150 million people worldwide each year.1 In the United States alone, the societal costs of UTIs are estimated to be $3.5 billion annually.1 UTIs can affect both men and women, but they are especially common in women of childbearing age.2 Most women will experience at least one episode during their lifetime; by 32 years of age, more than half of all women will have reported having at least one urinary tract infection.2,3 Almost 25% of women will have a recurrent infection within a year.2

A UTI is an infection of the urinary system. UTIs are classified as uncomplicated and complicated.4Uncomplicated UTIs are those occurring in healthy, premenopausal women with no urinary tract abnormalities.3Complicated UTIs are caused by abnormalities that compromise the urinary tract, such as urinary obstruction, urinary retention, immunosuppression, renal failure, renal transplantation, and presence of foreign objects; pregnancy is another cause.1 Indwelling catheters account for one million cases, or 70% to 80%, of complicated UTIs in the U.S. per year.1 Complicated UTIs occur in both sexes and often affect the upper and lower urinary tracts. UTIs are further categorized based on location: lower UTIs (cystitis) and upper UTIs (pyelonephritis). Pharmacists will frequently encounter patients inquiring about relief from UTI-related symptoms, so it is important that they understand the various OTC products marketed for the management of UTIs.

Etiology and Risk Factors

Urine is generally sterile, and the causative agents for most UTIs originate in bowel flora that enter the periurethral area. Most UTIs are caused by one organism; UTIs caused by multiple organisms may indicate contamination. The causative agents are gram-positive and gram-negative organisms, as well as some fungi.1 The gram-negative bacterium Escherichia coli accounts for almost 90% of all episodes.3,5 Other common causative agents include Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterococcus faecalis, group B streptococcus, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, and Candida species.

Women are more likely to develop a UTI because their urethras are shorter than men’s.5 Other risk factors include previous episodes of UTI, sexual intercourse, spermicide use, new sexual partner, reduced mobility, changes in vaginal flora, pregnancy, menopause, diabetes, urinary incontinence, kidney stones, prostate enlargement, and history of UTI in a first-degree relative.2,4,5 In the elderly population, other risk factors to consider are age-related changes in immune function, increased exposure to nosocomial pathogens, and an increased number of comorbidities.6 Certain behaviors are thought to contribute to the development of UTIs, such as frequency of urination and delayed voiding, not voiding pre- and postcoitally, consumption of certain beverages, hot tub usage, douching, wiping patterns, and choice of clothing; BMI may also be a factor. A case-control study found no increased risk of UTI development with these practices.7

Clinical Presentation and Diagnosis

Patients with cystitis often present with a frequent, persistent urge to urinate despite passing a small amount, dysuria or a burning sensation during urination, or suprapubic heaviness.7 Patients with pyelonephritis often experience flank pain or tenderness, a low fever (<101 F), chills, nausea, vomiting, and malaise with or without symptoms of cystitis.2 Patients with a lower or upper UTI may experience hematuria or notice that their urine is cloudy or has a strong odor. Elderly patients tend to present with nonspecific symptoms including altered mental status, change in eating habits, lower abdominal pain, and gastrointestinal symptoms such as constipation.6

In most patients who present with signs and symptoms of UTIs, a history of illness is the most important diagnostic tool, especially when symptom onset is sudden or severe and when vaginal discharge and irritation are not present.2,3 Sometimes, however, UTI diagnosis cannot rely solely on patient symptoms because some patients are asymptomatic; this is more common in older adults than in younger adults.6 Laboratory tests, urine-sample tests, and pelvic examinations should be performed in patients with urinary tract symptoms to properly diagnose UTIs.2,3 Laboratory tests for UTIs include assessments for the presence of bacteriuria and pyuria, nitrite, leukocyte esterase, and antibody-coated bacteria.2

Commercially available dipsticks may be used to detect the presence of a UTI. The pharmacist can recommend an OTC UTI home test kit to determine whether causative agents of UTI are present. After use, the patient should call the physician with the results for evaluation and treatment. The available test kits detect leukocyte esterase and nitrite. Testing for these substances increases overall sensitivity and specificity and reduces the risk of false-negative results.8 Self-testing for UTIs has been proven accurate with proper use, but to avoid inaccurate or false results, patients should be advised to obtain a clean-catch urine specimen and to avoid consuming more than 250 mg of vitamin C within 24 hours of testing; women should not test during their menses.8,9 A strict vegetarian diet, tetracycline, and phenazopyridine may cause inaccurate results.9

Preventive Measures

Almost 25% of women experience recurrent episodes of UTI.10 This is defined as either two uncomplicated UTIs in 6 months or three or more positive cultures within the preceding 12 months.10 UTIs can occur even when precautions are taken, but pharmacists can recommend preventive measures to reduce a patient’s risk for recurrent infections. If a woman is using spermicide-containing contraceptives, she should be counseled about the possible connection between her contraceptive method and recurrent infections, and an alternative form of contraception should be considered. Although studies have not indicated a correlation, behavioral modifications such as staying hydrated, urinating before and after sexual activity, urinating regularly, using tampons instead of sanitary pads and changing them every 3 hours, wiping from front to back, wearing clean cotton underwear and loose-fitting, breathable clothing, and taking showers instead of baths may be helpful. Topical estrogen therapy in postmenopausal women may help prevent UTI recurrences by altering the vaginal flora.6,11 Evidence for use of acupuncture and immunoprophylactic regimens is limited.12

There is little evidence of the efficacy of natural supplements in the prevention of UTIs. Research suggests that the antioxidant proanthocyanidin and the fructose in cranberries can help prevent bacteria, particularly E coli, from clinging to the walls of the urinary tract.13 Cranberry products are available in an array of dosage forms: juice, syrup, capsules, and tablets. Data on the efficacy of cranberry juice in preventing recurrent UTIs are conflicting. A recent Cochrane review determined that cranberry products do not significantly reduce the risk of recurrences compared with placebo.13 Similarly, the use of probiotics has also been considered for the prevention of UTIs. Probiotics support the body’s normal flora, and it is theorized that probiotics form a barrier against pathogens ascending the urinary tract, preventing the adherence, growth, and colonization of the urogenital epithelium by uropathogenic bacteria.14,15 To date, data regarding a protective effect of probiotics against future UTIs have been inconsistent, and additional large, well-designed studies are needed to determine the effectiveness of probiotics.14

Management: Nonprescription Products

Active ingredients found in OTC urinary tract analgesics include phenazopyridine hydrochloride, methenamine, and sodium salicylate (TABLE 1). Phenazopyridine, which provides relief from the pain, burning, itching, and urgency of UTIs, is available in both prescription (100-mg and 200-mg tablets) and OTC form (95-mg and 97.5-mg tablets). The recommended OTC dosage is two tablets three times daily during or after meals with a full glass of water for up to 2 days. Patients with kidney disease or an allergy to dyes should not take this medication. Patients should be advised that their urine may become reddish-orange in color, which is not harmful but can stain clothing. Common adverse effects (AEs) include headache, dizziness, and upset stomach.

Methenamine (an antibacterial) and sodium salicylate (a nonsteroidal inflammatory drug [NSAID]) work in conjunction with one another; sodium salicylate stabilizes the urine pH, allowing methenamine to slow the growth of bacteria along the urinary tract and control the UTI. The recommended dosage is two tablets three times daily. Patients should be advised not to take this product if they are allergic to salicylates, are on a low-sodium diet or anticoagulant therapy, or have stomach problems.

Patients may also take pain relievers, such as NSAIDs or acetaminophen, for general relief of UTI-associated pain.

Role of the Pharmacist

It is imperative that pharmacists urge patients who present with UTI symptoms to consult with their healthcare provider as soon as possible to receive appropriate care. Pharmacists should counsel patients on nonpharmacologic treatments and present the option of nonprescription products and UTI home test kits. Patients who decide to use UTI home test kits should be advised on how to avoid inaccurate results and to discuss their results with their healthcare provider. Patients who decide to use OTC urinary tract analgesics should be counseled on the recommended maximum dosage and duration and on common AEs. It is imperative to remind patients that these products are intended only to provide relief of pain and other related symptoms until the healthcare provider is seen. These products do not eradicate bacteria or replace the use of antibiotic treatment, and they should not be used as monotherapy.

What Causes UTIs?

The bacterium that causes most UTIs is Escherichia coli. UTIs can affect both men and women, but they are more common in women. Although UTIs can affect anyone, some factors that can increase your chance of contracting a UTI include sexual intercourse, menopause, spermicides, pregnancy, older age, obesity, genetics, and antibiotic use.

How Can I Tell if I Have a UTI?

Not all UTIs have obvious symptoms, but signs and symptoms of a possible UTI include the need to urinate often, pain and burning sensations during urination, low fever, nausea, vomiting, feeling ill, and back or abdominal pain. You may also notice that your urine is bloody, cloudy, or odorous.

See your doctor immediately if you think you have a UTI, or ask your pharmacist about purchasing a UTI test kit. If you decide to use the take-home UTI test strips, follow the instructions carefully and be sure to discuss your test results with your doctor.

What Can I Take to Relieve Pain?

Phenazopyridine hydrochloride may relieve your pain, burning, itching, and urgency to urinate within 20 minutes. Avoid taking it if you have kidney disease or are allergic to dyes. Do not worry if your urine turns reddish-orange when you take this medication. This common effect is not harmful, but it can stain clothing.

Methenamine (an antibacterial agent) and sodium salicylate (a nonsteroidal inflammatory drug [NSAID]) work together to slow bacterial growth along the urinary tract and to control the UTI. Do not take this medication if you are allergic to aspirin,  are on a low-sodium diet or anticoagulant therapy, or have stomach problems.

You can also take other pain relievers, such as NSAIDs (aspirin, ibuprofen, naproxen, celecoxib) or acetaminophen (Tylenol).

What Natural Supplements Can I Take to Prevent Another UTI?

There is little evidence that natural supplements can prevent UTIs, but you can try cranberry supplements or probiotics. Cranberries contain antioxidants that may help prevent bacteria in the urinary tract from sticking to the walls of the urinary tract. Drinking 10 to 30 oz of cranberry juice per day may be beneficial. Probiotics may help prevent UTIs by supporting the body’s natural microorganisms in the flora.

What Steps Can I Take to Prevent Another UTI?

Drink lots of water, urinate before and after sexual activity, change tampons regularly, wipe from front to back, wear cotton underwear and loose-fitting clothing, and take showers instead of baths.

Remember, if you have questions, Consult Your Pharmacist.

REFERENCES

1. Flores-Mireles AL, Walker JN, Caparon M, Hultgren SJ. Urinary tract infections: epidemiology, mechanisms of infection and treatment options. Nat Rev Microbiol. 2015;13:269-284.
2. Hooton TM. Clinical practice. Uncomplicated urinary tract infection. N Engl J Med. 2012;366:1028-1037.
3. Colgan R, Williams M. Diagnosis and treatment of acute uncomplicated cystitis. Am Fam Physician. 2011;84:771-776.
4. Mody L, Juthani-Mehta M. JAMA patient page. Urinary tract infections in older women. JAMA. 2014;311:874.
5. Minardi D, d’Anzeo G, Cantoro D, et al. Urinary tract infections in women: etiology and treatment options. Int J Gen Med. 2011;4:333-343.
6. Rowe TA, Juthani-Mehta M. Urinary tract infection in older adults. Aging Health. 2013;9:10.2217/ahe.13.38.
7. Scholes D, Hooton TM, Roberts PL, et al. Risk factors for recurrent urinary tract infection in young women. J Infect Dis. 2000;182:1177-1182.
8. Scolaro KL, Lloyd KB, Helms KL. Devices for home evaluation of women’s health concerns. Am J Health-Syst Pharm AJHP Off J Am Soc Health-Syst Pharm. 2008;65:299-314.
9. Azo Test Strips. FAQs. www.azoproducts.com/products/azo-test-strips. 2017. Accessed August 9, 2017.
10. Epp A, Larochelle A, Lovatsis D, et al. Recurrent urinary tract infection. J Obstet Gynaecol Can. 2010;32:1082-1101.
11. Beerepoot MA, Geerlings SE, van Haarst EP, et al. Nonantibiotic prophylaxis for recurrent urinary tract infections: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. J Urol. 2013;190:1981-1989.
12. Arnold JJ, Hehn LE, Klein DA. Common questions about recurrent urinary tract infections in women. Am Fam Physician. 2016;93:560-569.
13. Jepson RG, Williams G, Craig JC. Cranberries for preventing urinary tract infections. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012;(10):CD001321.
14. Schwenger EM, Tejani AM, Loewen PS. Probiotics for preventing urinary tract infections in adults and children. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015;(12):CD008772.
15. Falagas ME, Betsi GI, Tokas T, Athanasiou S. Probiotics for prevention of recurrent urinary tract infections in women: a review of the evidence from microbiological and clinical studies. Drugs. 2006;66:1253-1261.

To comment on this article, contact [email protected]

Over The Counter Treatment for UTI Symptoms

The material provided below is for informational purposes only. It is not intended to replace the diagnosis or
treatment by a qualified healthcare professional. You should always seek medical advice before consuming any new
medicines or supplements. AZO products referenced on this website are not intended to treat, cure, or prevent any
disease such as overactive bladder, urinary tract infections, or vaginal infections.

When you’re in the grips of the agony that comes along with a UTI, every second feels like an hour. Before you can see a doctor, or until the antibiotic starts to work, you have some options to keep the pain in check.

First line of defense

If you’re just feeling the first hint of a UTI, you can get ahead of the infection with AZO Urinary Tract Defense®. It includes a pain reliever to help soothe and a powerful antibacterial agent to help control your infection. If you’re beyond that stage, relieve painful UTI symptoms FAST with an over-the-counter urinary pain reliever like AZO Urinary Pain Relief® or for a higher dose of the active ingredient, AZO Urinary Pain Relief® Maximum Strength.

Remember: There’s no over-the-counter cure for a UTI. Only your doctor can prescribe a UTI antibiotic to rid the bacteria causing the infection.

Other ways to help manage a UTI:

  • Drinking plenty of water may help to dilute your urine and help flush out bacteria that causes UTIs.
  • Avoid coffee, alcohol and soft drinks that contain citrus juices and caffeine. They can irritate your bladder and aggravate your need to urinate. No thanks.
  • Place a heating pad over your abdomen to help ease pressure and discomfort.
  • Once your UTI is treated, maintain a healthy urinary tract with AZO Cranberry®, in the form of your choice: caplets, softgels or gummies.*

Phew, it’s over. But, will it come back?

There’s good news … and there’s bad news. The bad news: one out of five women who get a UTI will get another one. (Source: US Department of Health and Human Services Office on Women’s Health.) If you do get another UTI, speak with your doctor about UTI treatment options, he or she may prescribe a longer course of antibiotics or have other UTI treatment options for you. The good news: changing up some of your daily habits and following some of our tips above may also help you protect yourself. When it comes to keeping UTIs away, knowledge is power.

AZO Urinary Pain Relief® | #1 Most Trusted Brand for UTI Pain

WHAT CAUSES UTIS (URINARY TRACT INFECTION)?

Bacteria entering the urinary tract system and attaching to the bladder wall typically cause urinary tract infections. The most common bacteria to cause a UTI is E.coli.1


WHAT ARE THE SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS OF A UTI?

The most common UTI symptoms are:

  • Pain or painful urination
  • Frequent need to urinate
  • Burning sensation while urinating
  • Bladder spasm
  • Lower back pain
  • Fever

If you experience any of these symptoms, immediately consult your physician. Learn more about common UTI symptoms and about diagnosing a UTI.


WILL AZO URINARY PAIN RELIEF CURE MY UTI?

No. The only clinically proven cure for a UTI is a prescription antibiotic. AZO Urinary Pain Relief will only provide fast temporary UTI relief from pain, burning and urgency.


HOW LONG CAN I TAKE AZO URINARY PAIN RELIEF?

The recommended dosage is two (2) tablets three times a day. Do not use for more than 2 days (12 tablets) without consulting a healthcare professional.


CAN I TAKE AZO URINARY PAIN RELIEF FOR MORE THAN TWO DAYS?

Please consult your healthcare professional before taking AZO Urinary Pain Relief for more than two days.


CAN MEN TAKE AZO URINARY PAIN RELIEF?

Yes. AZO Urinary Pain Relief will effectively provide relief from UTI symptoms in both men and women.


CAN I TAKE AZO URINARY PAIN RELIEF IF I AM PREGNANT OR BREASTFEEDING?

Please consult your healthcare professional before taking, especially if you are pregnant or breastfeeding. It is recommended to take a pregnancy test and consult with a healthcare professional prior to taking the product.


HOW LONG DOES AZO URINARY PAIN RELIEF REMAIN IN THE BODY?

AZO Urinary Pain Relief reaches the bladder within one hour as indicated by a change in urine color and may stay in your system for up to 24 hours.


WILL AZO URINARY PAIN RELIEF INTERFERE WITH DRUG TESTS?

AZO Urinary Pain Relief may interfere with the reading of any colorimetric urine analysis (such as AZO Test Strips), as the active ingredient, an organic dye, will color the test pads and may make them difficult to read. If you are concerned about potential test interference, please contact your healthcare professional.


CAN I TAKE ONLY HALF OF AN AZO URINARY PAIN RELIEF TABLET?

No, the tablets are intended to be taken whole. Cutting the tablet will break the thin protective coating and may cause staining on the skin and any other surface they come in contact with.


CAN I CHEW THE AZO URINARY PAIN RELIEF TABLETS?

No, chewing the tablets will cause the teeth and mouth to become stained. The tablets are intended to be taken whole, and should not be cut, chewed or crushed.


WILL AZO URINARY PAIN RELIEF STAIN MY SKIN?

Care must be taken when handling AZO Urinary Pain Relief as any objects that come in contact with them may become stained.


HOW CAN AZO URINARY PAIN RELIEF STAIN MY CONTACT LENSES?

Care must be taken when handling AZO Urinary Pain Relief products. If the tablets are handled in such a way as to transfer its contents onto your skin, then there is the possibility of transferring the medicine from your fingers to your contact lenses. Care must be taken when handling AZO Urinary Pain Relief as any objects that come in contact with the tablets may get stained.


WHAT KIND OF FOOD ALLERGIES DO THE AZO URINARY PAIN RELIEF PACKAGES REFER TO?

Phenazopyridine hydrochloride is an organic dye. If you are sensitive to dyes in foods then you may be sensitive to AZO Urinary Pain Relief. We recommend you consult your healthcare professional before taking, especially when concerned about potential allergies.


CAN I GIVE AZO URINARY PAIN RELIEF TO A CHILD?

AZO Urinary Pain Relief is not recommended for children under the age of 12, unless specifically instructed by a healthcare professional.


WILL AZO URINARY PAIN RELIEF CHANGE THE COLOR OF MY URINE?

Yes. This is normal as the active ingredient is an organic dye.


i-Health, Inc. RETURN POLICY

If you are not satisfied with the product you purchased, we recommend that you ask the authorized retailer that sold it to you to refund your money. If the authorized retailer will not accept the product, you may return it directly to us.

If you would like to return an i-Health, Inc. product for a refund, please follow the instructions below.

To process a refund request, please send:

  • Your store receipt from an authorized retailer, clearly indicating the store where the item was purchased and circle the item and purchase price of the product being returned.
  • The box and unused portion of the product being returned.
  • A note briefly explaining why you are returning the item for a refund or exchange, and also include your name, mailing address, and telephone number.

Please send all of the materials above to:

i-Health, Inc.

Attn: Consumer Resources

55 Sebethe Dr.

Suite 102

Cromwell, CT 06416

PLEASE BE ADVISED:

  • If you do not have all of the information and documentation requested above, we will not be able to provide a refund.
  • Refunds are only for the value of the product. Shipping expenses and taxes will not be reimbursed.
  • We recommend shipping via certified mail, UPS, or some other service that will confirm delivery of your items.
  • i-Health, Inc. will not accept expired product.
  • Items must be returned/exchanged within 90 days of purchase.
  • Maximum return limit of 2 items of the same brand.
  • Please allow 6-8 weeks for your return to be processed.

Urinary Tract Infection (UTI): Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

What Is a Urinary Tract Infection?

A urinary tract infection, or UTI, is an infection in any part of your urinary system, which includes your kidneys, bladder, ureters, and urethra.

If you’re a woman, your chance of getting a urinary tract infection is high. Some experts rank your lifetime risk of getting one as high as 1 in 2, with many women having repeat infections, sometimes for years. About 1 in 10 men will get a UTI in their lifetime.

Here’s how to handle UTIs and how to make it less likely you’ll get one in the first place.

Symptoms of UTIs

The symptoms of a UTI can include:

  • A burning feeling when you pee
  • A frequent or intense urge to pee, even though little comes out when you do
  • Cloudy, dark, bloody, or strange-smelling pee
  • Feeling tired or shaky
  • Fever or chills (a sign that the infection may have reached your kidneys)
  • Pain or pressure in your back or lower abdomen

Types of UTIs

An infection can happen in different parts of your urinary tract. Each type has a different name, based on where it is.

  • Cystitis(bladder): You might feel like you need to pee a lot, or it might hurt when you pee. You might also have lower belly pain and cloudy or bloody urine.
  • Pyelonephritis(kidneys): This can cause fever, chills, nausea, vomiting, and pain in your upper back or side.
  • Urethritis(urethra): This can cause a discharge and burning when you pee.

Causes of UTIs

UTIs are a key reason why doctors tell women to wipe from front to back after using the bathroom. The urethra — the tube that takes pee from the bladder to the outside of the body — is close to the anus. Bacteria from the large intestine, such as E. coli, can sometimes get out of your anus and into your urethra. From there, they can travel up to your bladder and, if the infection isn’t treated, can continue on to infect your kidneys. Women have shorter urethras than men. That makes it easier for bacteria to get to their bladders. Having sex can introduce bacteria into your urinary tract, too.

Some women are more likely to get UTIs because of their genes. The shape of their urinary tracts makes others more likely to be infected. Women with diabetes may be at higher risk because their weakened immune systems make them less able to fight off infections. Other conditions that can boost your risk include hormone changes, multiple sclerosis, and anything that affects urine flow, such as kidney stones, a stroke, and a spinal cord injury.

UTI Tests and Diagnosis

If you suspect that you have a urinary tract infection, go to the doctor. You’ll give a urine sample to test for UTI-causing bacteria.

If you get frequent UTIs and your doctor suspects a problem in your urinary tract, they might take a closer look with an ultrasound, a CT scan, or an MRI scan. They might also use a long, flexible tube called a cystoscope to look inside your urethra and bladder.

Treatments for UTIs

If your physician thinks you need them, antibiotics are the most common treatment for urinary tract infections. As always, be sure to take all of your prescribed medicine, even after you start to feel better. Drink lots of water to help flush the bacteria from your body. Your doctor may also give you a medication to soothe pain. You might find a heating pad helpful.

Cranberry juice is often promoted to prevent or treat UTIs. The red berry contains a tannin that might prevent E. coli bacteria — the most common cause of urinary tract infections — from sticking to the walls of your bladder, where they can cause an infection. But research hasn’t found that it does much to reduce infections.

Experts are also looking at new ways to treat and prevent UTIs, including vaccines and things that boost your immune system.

Chronic UTIs

If a man gets a UTI, they’re likely to get another. About 1 in 5 women have a second urinary tract infection, and some have them again and again. In most cases, each infection is brought on by a different type or strain of bacteria. But some bacteria can invade your body’s cells and multiply, creating a colony of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. They then travel out of the cells and re-invade your urinary tract.

Chronic UTI Treatment

If you have three or more UTIs a year, ask your doctor to recommend a treatment plan. Some options include taking:

  • A low dose of an antibiotic over a longer period to help prevent repeat infections
  • A single dose of an antibiotic after sex, which is a common infection trigger
  • Antibiotics for 1 or 2 days every time symptoms appear
  • A non-antibiotic prophylaxis treatment

At-home urine tests, which you can get without a prescription, can help you decide whether you need to call your doctor. If you’re taking antibiotics for a UTI, you can test to see whether they’ve cured the infection (although you still need to finish your prescription). t.

How to Prevent UTI Re-Infection

Following some tips can help you avoid getting another UTI:

  • Empty your bladder often as soon as you feel the need to pee; don’t rush, and be sure you’ve emptied your bladder completely.
  • Wipe from front to back after you use the toilet.
  • Drink lots of water.
  • Choose showers over baths.
  • Stay away from feminine hygiene sprays, scented douches, and scented bath products; they’ll only increase irritation.
  • Cleanse your genital area before sex.
  • Pee after sex to flush out any bacteria that may have entered your urethra.
  • If you use a diaphragm, unlubricated condoms, or spermicidal jelly for birth control, you may want to switch to another method. Diaphragms can increase bacteria growth, while unlubricated condoms and spermicides can irritate your urinary tract. All can make UTI symptoms more likely.
  • Keep your genital area dry by wearing cotton underwear and loose-fitting clothes. Don’t wear tight jeans and nylon underwear; they can trap moisture, creating the perfect environment for bacteria growth.

90,000 PHYTOLYSIN: nature is on guard for your health!

Spring is the beginning of a long-awaited time, the awakening of nature. However, now, during the off-season and changes in many processes in the body, doctors have noted a sharp increase in the number of complaints related to diseases such as cystitis and pyelonephritis. This is not surprising, because according to statistics, inflammatory diseases of the urinary tract occupy one of the leading positions among infectious diseases.

The main reason for the development of urinary tract diseases is a decrease in the body’s defenses, which are able to resist the penetration of bacteria into the urinary tract, in addition, there are many other factors: local and general hypothermia, changes in the local microflora of the urinary tract due to the use of local antiseptics (for example spermicides), stagnation urine in the bladder, menopause in women, non-observance of personal hygiene rules, active sex life and diagnostic procedures.

Such a wide range of causes of urinary tract infections, as well as the resistance of many microorganisms to systemic antibacterial drugs, causes these problems to appear in a large part of the population. Most of the cases are chronic, and it is this feature that makes both manufacturers and doctors look for alternative treatments. Perhaps this is the reason that recently, in the treatment of diseases of the urinary tract, doctors are giving preference to herbal preparations.This minimizes side effects and makes it possible to use drugs for a long period, which is especially important in the treatment of chronic diseases.

That is why the PHYTOLISIN paste, produced by the Herbapol plant (Pruszkow, Poland), has not lost its relevance for more than a decade. The production of this drug is based on the company’s many years of experience, modern technologies and high quality of all production processes. The company has long established itself in the international pharmaceutical market as a leading European manufacturer of phytopreparations, and FITOLISIN paste – as an effective remedy for the treatment of urinary tract diseases.

The FITOLISIN paste, which has been produced for over 60 years, contains thick extracts of goldenrod herb, horsetail herb, lovage root and wheatgrass rhizomes, knotweed herb, onion husks, birch leaves, fenugreek seeds, parsley root, and essential oils (orange, sage, pine and peppermint). They promote the elimination of excess fluid from the body, eliminate inflammation, relax smooth muscles, have antispasmodic and antimicrobial effects, promote the removal of stones from the kidneys and ureters, and have an analgesic effect.

Experts recommend FITOLISIN for inflammatory diseases of the kidneys (nephritis, pyelonephritis), bladder (cystitis), urinary tract, kidney stones. The positive point of using the drug lies in the fact that it prevents the formation of new formations in the kidneys (sand, stones), prevents an increase in existing stones, and can be used to prevent and prevent recurrence of urolithiasis.

Pasta FITOLIZIN produced by the Herbapol company – health given by nature!

For purchasing and consulting, please call the “hot line”: 0 (800) 501-71-40.

Press service of “Weekly APTEKA”

Tsikava Information for You:

KANEFRON® N: rational therapy of urinary tract infections

Exacerbation of diseases of the kidneys, bladder and urinary tract is a fairly frequent occurrence, especially in autumn and spring. Due to unpredictable weather, we run the risk of facing such delicate diseases as inflammation of the bladder (cystitis), kidneys (pyelonephritis). Moreover, women are susceptible to such problems much more often than men, which is explained by a number of reasons, including anatomical features.Today there are many remedies indicated for the treatment of cystitis and pyelonephritis. The leader of this group of drugs is the combined herbal preparation KANEFRON ® H of the German pharmaceutical company Bionorica. In preparing the material, the data of the analytical system of the market research “PharmXplorer” / “Pharmstandard” of the “Proxima Research” company were used.

Urinary tract infections are among the most common diseases in urological practice (Sultanova E.A., Shpot E.V., 2011). The most common manifestation of uncomplicated lower urinary tract infection is acute cystitis (inflammation of the lining of the bladder). This disease is common among both women and men. But more often cystitis is noted in women due to the anatomical structure of the genitourinary apparatus. In most cases, cystitis develops suddenly, after exposure to one of the provoking factors. It manifests itself by frequent painful urination, cuts in the urethra, pain in the lower abdomen.Frequent hypothermia, infections of the genitourinary organs, irritation with chemicals lead to the development of cystitis (Izotova N.A., Sarafanova N.A., 2007).

Chronic cystitis is a manifestation of a complicated bladder infection. Inflammation of the bladder can be the first sign of any urological disease or complicate its course. Chronic cystitis can cause the development of an inflammatory process in the kidneys (Skryabin G.N., Aleksandrov V.P., 2007).

Pyelonephritis is an inflammatory disease of the kidneys.It is most often caused by intestinal and para-intestinal bacilli (less often staphylococci, streptococci, salmonella, viruses, fungi, etc.). Acute pyelonephritis is characterized by an increase in body temperature, weakness, pain in joints, muscles, lower back, urinary disorders (increased frequency, delay, pain). Chronic pyelonephritis often occurs due to acute. In some cases, the disease has a latent, latent course, manifested by general weakness, fatigue, slight pain in the lumbar region (Turishchev S.N., 2005).

PROPERTIES AND EFFECT OF CANEFRON H

Plants with healing properties have long been used to treat various diseases, including the urinary system. Thanks to the accumulated knowledge in the field of phytotherapy, as well as the development of production technologies, high-quality and effective herbal preparations with a favorable safety profile have appeared, developed according to the phytoneering concept. This scientific and technological concept is inextricably linked with the activities of the Bionorica company.

Bionorica is one of the leading manufacturers of phytopreparations. The company’s products include medicines used for diseases of the respiratory system, urinary tract, gynecological diseases, etc.

For the treatment of diseases of the urinary system, a combined herbal preparation KANEFRON ® H.

is used

CANEFRON H contains extracts of centaury herb (Centaurium erythraea), lovage root (Levisticum officinale) and rosemary leaves (Rosmarinus officinali).

The components of the herbal remedy have a complex activity, which manifests itself in anti-inflammatory action and elimination of urinary tract spasm, diuretic and vasodilatory effects.

The plant components that make up KANEFRON® N contain substances (phenol carboxylic acids, essential oils, etc.) that determine the effectiveness of the antimicrobial action of the drug.

CANEFRON ® N is indicated as the main (basic) therapy, as well as a component of complex therapy for acute and chronic infections of the bladder (cystitis) and kidneys (pyelonephritis), for chronic non-infectious kidney diseases (glomerulonephritis, interstitial nephritis), for prevention the formation of urinary stones, including after their removal.

In the domestic pharmaceutical market, the KANEFRON ® H brand is presented in two dosage forms – tablets and drops. KANEFRON ® H has a favorable safety profile, therefore it is approved for use in children: in the form of drops – from 1 year old, in the form of tablets – from 6 years old.

Adults are prescribed 2 tablets 3 times a day, and children over the age of 6 years – 1 tablet 3 times a day.

CANEFRON ® N in the form of drops for children aged 1 to 5 years should be taken 15 drops 3 times a day, over 6 years old – 25 drops 3 times a day.Adults can take 50 drops 3 times a day. Adults, as a rule, take drops in undiluted form, and for children, it is better to dilute CANEFRON ® N drops by adding them to juice or tea.

The drug can also be used during pregnancy or lactation if the recommendations for use are followed and after the doctor has assessed the ratio of benefits to the mother and risks to the fetus (child).

RETAIL

KANEFRON ® N, well known to Ukrainian consumers for many years, continues to fight cystitis and pyelonephritis at different times of the year.Over the years, this brand has proven itself to be a dynamic and sought-after product. An important indicator characterizing the demand for the drug among Ukrainian consumers is the dynamics of its pharmacy sales.

Over the years, the pharmacy sales of KANEFRON N have been showing permanent growth in monetary terms. Thus, over the past 10 years, the annual volume of retail sales of the drug has increased almost 20 times (Fig. 1).

Fig. 1

Dynamics of pharmacy sales of KANEFRON ® N in monetary terms based on the results of 2004–2014.

On the Ukrainian pharmaceutical market, the KANEFRON ® N brand is represented in the competitive group of drugs used in urology G04B X50 ** “Various drugs, including combinations”.

It is important to emphasize that in the ranking of marketing organizations in terms of sales of drugs of the G04B X50 ** group in monetary terms, for many years Bionorica has taken a leading position (Table 1). It should also be noted that in a similar rating in terms of sales in volume terms, the company ranks 2nd.

90 095 Top-5 marketing organizations by the volume of pharmacy sales of drugs of the G04B X50 group ** in monetary terms at the end of 2014, indicating positions for the same period 2012–2013.

Table 1
Marketing organization 2014 2013 2012
Bionorica (Germany) 1 1 1
Arterium Corporation (Ukraine) 2 2 2
Stada (Germany) 3 3 3
Omega Pharma (Belgium) 4 4 4
Health Group of companies (Ukraine) 5 8 9

At the end of 2014pharmacies sold 1.2 million packs of KANEFRON ® N for the amount of UAH 128 million. The brand demonstrated outstripping growth rates compared to the drugs of the competitive G04B X50 ** group (Fig. 2). This year, following the results of January-February, 167 thousand packages of the drug KANEFRON ® N were sold in pharmacies for the amount of UAH 24 million.

Fig. 2

The volume of pharmacy sales of the drug KANEFRON ® N
and drugs of the G04B X50 ** group in monetary terms based on the results of 2012–2014.with an indication of the growth rate compared to the previous year

Among the drugs of the competitive group G04B X50 ** KANEFRON ® N has been the leader in terms of pharmacy sales in monetary terms for several years (Table 2). At the end of 2014, the brand ranks second in a similar rating in physical terms.

90 095 Top-5 drug brands of the G04B X50 group ** in terms of pharmacy sales in monetary terms at the end of 2014with the indication of positions for the same period 2012–2013.

Table 2
Brand 2014 2013 2012
KANEFRON 1 1 1
UROLESAN 2 2 2
VITAPROST 3 3 3
GENTOS 4 4 4
TRIBESTAN 5 5 5

Noteworthy is the fact that the KANEFRON ® N brand occupies a significant share in the total volume of pharmacy sales of drugs in the G04B X50 ** group.Thus, among more than two dozen drugs in the group, it accumulates more than a third of pharmacy sales in monetary terms (Fig. 3).

Fig. 3

Share of KANEFRON ® N in the total pharmacy sales of competitive group G04B X50 ** drugs in monetary terms in January 2012 – February 2015

The specific weight of KANEFRON ® N in the total sales of the G04B X50 ** group at the end of 2014 amounted to 37% in monetary terms (Fig. 4).

Fig. 4

Share of KANEFRON ® N in the total pharmacy sales of the competitive group G04B X50 ** in monetary terms based on the results of 2012–2014.

DOSAGE FORMS

The most popular among consumers is KANEFRON ® N in the form of tablets (Fig. 5).

Fig. 5

Share of KANEFRON ® N in terms of dosage forms in the total pharmacy sales of drugs from the competitive group G04B X50 ** in monetary terms based on the results of 2012–2014.

CANEFRON ® N can be used not only by adults, but also by children. The drug in tablets can be taken by schoolchildren (from 6 years old), and in drops – from 1 year old.

REGIONAL SALES STRUCTURE

The regional structure of sales of the drug KANEFRON ® N is uneven, which is due to many factors, in particular the demographic situation, infrastructure and individual development of individual regions (Fig. 6). Maximum sales of the drug in monetary terms at the end of 2014recorded in pharmacies in Kiev and Dnepropetrovsk region. The total volume of pharmacy sales of the KANEFRON ® N brand at the end of 2014 demonstrates positive dynamics in monetary terms in almost all regions of Ukraine.

Fig. 6

The volume of pharmacy sales of the drug KANEFRON ® N in monetary terms in the context of regions of Ukraine at the end of 2012–2014.

It should be noted the contribution of those regions of Ukraine, in which the growth rates of the drug sales volume significantly exceeded those for the brand as a whole.In 2014, in comparison with the previous year, in 16 regions of Ukraine, the outstripping dynamics of sales in monetary terms was recorded in comparison with the brand as a whole. The maximum growth rates were noted in the Kirovograd, Zaporozhye, Chernigov and Kherson regions.

PROMOTIONAL ACTIVITY

Of great importance in the successful market development of a drug is its reputation among healthcare professionals, because often it is the doctor’s prescription or the recommendation of a pharmacist that are weighty arguments in favor of purchasing a particular drug.They are formed under the influence of the marketing activity of the manufacturer.

Taking into account that in the competitive group of drugs G04B X50 ** the company – the manufacturer of KANEFRONA N – Bionorica has been consistently occupying a leading position in terms of pharmacy sales in monetary terms over the past few years, it knows how to successfully promote its brand.

Bionorica has focused the lion’s share of efforts to promote KANEFRON H on such an important promotion channel as visits of medical representatives to healthcare professionals.It is important to note that for several years the company has been leading the rating of marketing organizations in terms of the number of memories of healthcare professionals about promotion for drugs of the G04B X50 ** group through visits of medical representatives (Table 3).

90 095 Top-5 marketing organizations by the number of memories of healthcare professionals about the promotion for drugs of the G04B X50 group ** through visits of medical representatives at the end of 2014with indication of positions in a similar rating for 2012–2013.

Table 3
Marketing organization 2014 2013 2012
Bionorica (Germany) 1 1 1
Stada (Germany) 2 2 2
Arterium Corporation (Ukraine) 3 3 4
Health Group of companies (Ukraine) 4 7 7
Farmak (Ukraine) 5 5 3

Maximum share in the total number of memories of doctors of various specialties about the promotion of the KANEFRON ® H brand through visits of medical representatives at the end of 2014occupied by gynecologists (34.8%) and urologists (33%). In addition to the target audience of doctors (urologists, gynecologists), information on the pharmacotherapeutic properties of KANEFRON ® N is received by doctors of other specialties – pediatricians, therapists / family doctors and other specialists.

STOCK IN PHARMACIES

Today, in a highly competitive pharmacy business, consumer loyalty is formed not only by the pricing policy of outlets, discounts, promotions, but also by the availability of the drug in the required quantity.Taking into account the active market development of the drug KANEFRON ® H, it is advisable to take care of a sufficient stock of the drug and prevent its defect.

Pharmaceutical stock requirements at retail outlets may vary depending on the type of pharmacy and the amount of revenue.

Inventory planning can be based on the analysis of the volume of sales of the drug in various pharmacies. When conducting the analysis for pharmacies, the categories of the outlet (pharmacy, pharmacy) and their financial characteristics were taken into account.When forming groups of retail outlets by financial characteristics, we used data for March 2014

When planning a stock, a number of external and internal factors should be taken into account that affect the needs and possibilities of implementation in retail outlets, including their format (pharmacies, pharmacies) and financial characteristics. This publication was based on data on retail sales of the drug KANEFRON ® N for February 2015

The average number of sold packages of KANEFRON N varies depending on the size of the turnover of the outlet.On average, pharmacies in Ukraine sell from 2 to 14 packages of the drug KANEFRON ® N.

Table 4 provides recommendations on the size of the monthly stock of the drug KANEFRON ® N, formed on the basis of data on its sales in pharmacies with different financial characteristics in February 2015

Table 4 Recommended monthly stock for KANEFRON ® N in various retail outlets, grouped by financial characteristics (based on data on pharmacy sales for February 2015.)
Monthly revenue, thousand UAH Pharmacies Pharmacy points
Up to 150 3–5 2-4
150-230 4-10 3–5
230-330 6-12 4-8
330-480 7-15 5-13
480-700 11-18 10-18
700-1000 15-20 15-20
More than 1000 20-40 15-30

P.S.

Plant-based preparations, which include the combined preparation KANEFRON ® N, have already won the trust of Ukrainian consumers and professional audience. Successful market dynamics, leading position in the competitive environment only confirm the demand for KANEFRON ® N and its successful development in the domestic pharmaceutical market in the G04B X50 ** “Various drugs, including combinations” segment.

Today KANEFRON ® N has a strong market position and continues to develop.

The drug KANEFRON ® N has a complex effect: anti-inflammatory, diuretic, antimicrobial, nephroprotective, antispasmodic (eliminates urinary tract spasm). The favorable safety profile of the drug allows it to be used not only in adults, but also in children (over the age of 1 year), as well as in pregnant women under the supervision of a physician after assessing the risk / benefit ratio.

Ekaterina Dmitrik

Development of PROJECT PHYTOTEK

® / PHYTOTHEK ®

Bionorica pays great attention to the development of the Phytothek ® / Phytothek ® project, the purpose of which is to attract the attention of Ukrainian consumers to high-quality herbal medicines and to create a culture of treatment with OTC drugs.

Phytothek

® / Phytothek ® is:

  • high-quality and effective herbal medicines;
  • professional advice on phytotherapy;
  • specialized information and suggestions to help the health of consumers.

TRAINING BASE FOR EXPERTS IN PHYTOTHERAPY

Innovative herbal-based preparations have a whole range of pharmacological effects, so the consultation of competent specialists is especially important.The Phytothek ® / Phytothek ® project operates a training program for pharmacists and pharmacists with an emphasis on herbal medicine, which helps to increase their competence in consulting in pharmacies.

On March 19, 2015, in Odessa, employees of a number of pharmacy chains in Kiev, Odessa, Vinnitsa and Dnepropetrovsk were trained under the “Expert in herbal medicine” program (which is carried out within the framework of the “Phytoteka” project).

Pharmaceutical workers of the pharmacy chains “Pharmacy” (Odessa), “Pharmastor” (Kiev, Odessa), “Koneks” (Vinnitsa), “Vitalyuks” (Kiev), “RUAN” (Dnepropetrovsk) received an excellent opportunity to undergo special certified training.

The topic of the training event is “Respiratory system. Immunotherapy”. The training was conducted by the Department of Clinical Pharmacology and Clinical Pharmacy of the National Pharmaceutical University (NUPh) with the support of the Pharmacy Professional Association of Ukraine (APAU) and the Bionorica company:

  • Igor Zupanets, Doctor of Medical Sciences, Professor, Head of the Department of Clinical Pharmacology with pharmaceutical care, NUPh,
  • Tatyana Sakharova, Doctor of Medical Sciences, Professor of the Department of Clinical Pharmacology with pharmaceutical care, NUPh,
  • Natalya Bezuglaya, Candidate of Medical Sciences, Associate Professor of the Department of Clinical Pharmacology with pharmaceutical care of NUPh.

Thanks to the “Expert in Herbal Medicine” training program, pharmacists and pharmacists were able not only to get acquainted with the idea of ​​the Phytoteka ® / Phytothek ® pharmacy departments, but also to improve their knowledge of innovative herbal medicines.

The next block of training will take place in Lviv on April 19, 2015. The theme of the event is “Urogenital system. Gynecological Diseases “.

“HEALTH CARE” PROMOTION

The company “Bionorica”, following its mission – to provide people with access to the healing powers of nature, provides support to its consumers, especially in such a difficult time for the country.

During March – April 2015, a special promotional program is running, which will help fix the price of Bionorica products. Now the buyer can be sure of the price and not save on his health.

Kanephron N

Tsikava Information for You:

90,000 Inflammation of the appendages (adnexitis) causes, symptoms and treatment in St. Petersburg.

Adnexitis or sanpilgophoritis is an inflammatory disease that affects the appendages: the ovaries and fallopian tubes on one or both sides.It ranks first among gynecological pathologies. According to statistics, more than 50% of patients of reproductive age with regular sexual activity go to the doctor with inflammation of the appendages. Adnexitis is dangerous in all forms. It leads to menstrual dysfunction, tight adhesions in the tubes, obstruction and tubal infertility, chronic pelvic pain and purulent formations that can burst into the abdominal cavity with the development of sepsis and carry a risk not only to health, but also to life.

Appointment to a doctor

Causes of adnexitis

The main cause of inflammation of the appendages is an infectious factor.Both pathogenic and opportunistic pathogens, including a combination of several pathogens, play a role in the development of the disease.

Adnexitis cause:

  • sexually transmitted infections – Trichomonas, gonococci, chlamydia and their combination with opportunistic pathogens;
  • microorganisms that can become pathogens against a background of decreased immunity – Klebsiella, enterococci, Proteus, Clostridia;
  • hypothermia and stress, leading to a decrease in the body’s defenses and an increase in the pathogenic properties of microorganisms;
  • trauma of the endometrium during abortion, diagnostic curettage, insertion or removal of the IUD, in which inflammation develops and the infection begins to spread further;
  • unprotected sex.

Most often, microorganisms enter the tubes and ovaries along the ascending path – inflammation of the appendages becomes a complication of cervicitis, endometritis, colpitis, cystitis.

Signs of inflammation of the appendages

Doctors distinguish two forms of inflammation of the appendages – acute and chronic, in which there are periods of exacerbation.

Characteristic symptoms:

  • elevated temperature – up to 38 and higher in acute form;
  • pain of varying intensity in the lower abdomen, sometimes radiating to the lower back;
  • sensations of cutting and burning when urinating;
  • menstrual dysfunction — profuse or scant intermenstrual bleeding;
  • purulent and mucopurulent yellow discharge;
  • cheesy discharge with an unpleasant odor.

In more than half of the cases, the acute form becomes chronic. The causes of exacerbations are a decrease in immunity – seasonal or against the background of other diseases, hypothermia, menstruation, secondary infection, untreated sexually transmitted diseases.

Diagnostics of adnexitis

For the diagnosis of adnexitis, a comprehensive examination is carried out and gynecological, instrumental and laboratory methods are used.

To diagnose the doctor:

  • collects anamnesis and information about provoking factors – abortions, a long-established intrauterine device, curettage, sexual partners;
  • conducts an examination in the mirrors to detect discharge from the cervical canal and inflammation;
  • performs a bimanual examination, draws attention to the condition of the appendages and painful sensations during movements;
  • takes tests from the urethra, cervical canal and vagina to identify gonococcus, chlamydia, Trichomonas and opportunistic pathogens;
  • directs general urine and blood tests to assist in differential diagnosis;
  • performs transvaginal ultrasound to assess the condition of the pelvic organs, the presence of fluid in the tubes.

In some cases, the doctor may prescribe a diagnostic laparoscopy. It allows you to take analyzes of the contents of the tubes, detect their swelling and hyperemia, discharge and accumulation of purulent fluid.

Treatment of inflammation of the appendages

The tactics of treatment depends on the form of the disease and is selected for the individual. Methods can be combined to improve efficiency.

For the treatment of adnexitis and its complications apply:

  • antibacterial and antifungal drugs for action on pathogens;
  • anti-inflammatory and pain relievers for pain relief, fever, discomfort when urinating;
  • immunotherapy and vitamin complexes to strengthen the immune system and improve the general condition;
  • endoscopic operations for the removal of purulent fluid, dissection of adhesions in the fallopian tubes.

After the course of treatment, a second examination is carried out to control the result.

Prevention of adnexitis

To prevent inflammation of the appendages, you need to be careful about your health. Protected sexual intercourse, which minimizes the transmission of STIs, and regular examinations by a gynecologist to detect inflammatory diseases and latent infections can reduce the risk of adnexitis. The correct contraception, which helps to exclude abortion, and the timely replacement of the intrauterine device are important.

At the Danae Medical Center you can undergo a full diagnosis in one day. Our clinics are located in the Vyborgsky district near the metro station “pr. Education “and” Ozerki “and in the Kirovsky district near the metro station” Leninsky Prospekt “. You can make an appointment with a gynecologist at a convenient time on the website and by calling the branches.

Patient Information

  • How to treat inflammation of the appendages?
    • Treatment is selected only by a gynecologist, taking into account the form of the disease, test results, ultrasound or USGSS.
  • How long is the inflammation of the appendages treated?
    • With proper treatment, the acute process is stopped in 8-14 days, the doctor should evaluate the effectiveness.
  • What is the pain with adnexitis?
    • Inflammation is characterized by pain of varying intensity in the lower abdomen above the bosom, which can only be on the right or left if one appendage is affected.
  • What are the signs of inflammation of the appendages?
    • The main signs are fever, pain in the lower abdomen, discomfort and burning sensation when urinating, purulent discharge or strong leucorrhoea with an unpleasant odor, pain during sexual intercourse.

Reception is conducted:

Cystoscopy – how to carry out, what is

Cystoscopy is an endoscopic method for diagnosing diseases of the bladder. The procedure consists in examining the bladder using a special instrument – cystoscope. The cystoscope is inserted into the bladder through the urethra. The remaining urine is released. The bladder is filled with sterile saline.After this, a thorough examination of the bladder mucosa is carried out.

During cystoscopy, you can obtain a urine sample for analysis, as well as obtain a small piece of tissue for examination (biopsy) or carry out medical manipulations – removal of bladder tumors, destruction and removal of stones, obstructions in the bladder, stopping bleeding from the bladder Source:
Utegaliev B.I. Cystoscopy / B.I. Utegaliev // Bulletin of Surgery of Kazakhstan. – 2010. – No. 3. – S.85..

Indications for cystoscopy

Cystoscopy is performed in order to establish a diagnosis when:

  • interstitial and interstitial cystitis;
  • frequent exacerbations of cystitis;
  • blood in urine;
  • urinary incontinence or overactive bladder;
  • detection of atypical cells in the analysis of urine;
  • the need for bladder catheterization;
  • painful urination;
  • chronic pelvic pain;
  • urinary retention due to enlargement of the prostate gland;
  • stricture or narrowing of the urinary tract;
  • stones in the urinary tract, polyps or tumors of the urinary tract;
  • Difficulty or frequent urination.

Contraindications for cystoscopy

Local contraindications:

  • inflammatory diseases of the urinary bladder in the acute stage;
  • inflammatory diseases of the urethra in the acute stage.

General contraindications:

  • renal failure in the stage of decompensation;
  • liver failure in the stage of decompensation;
  • myocardial infarction;
  • pregnancy.

Preparation for cystoscopy

Before performing cystoscopy, the specialist processes the patient’s external genitalia and sterilizes the medical device. This allows you to exclude the introduction of infection. For a quality examination, the bladder must be filled. If the patient urinated shortly before the procedure, then immediately before the procedure, the doctor will fill the organ cavity with water through the inserted tube.

How the survey is performed

One of two types of device can be used for cystoscopy – movable (bending) or stationary (non-bending).The choice depends on the indications for the examination and its goals. The procedure itself is practically painless, and the patient’s discomfort is associated with the direct introduction of the apparatus. In addition, when the bladder fills, there is a natural tolerant urge to urinate. During the examination, the doctor is constantly interested in the patient’s well-being. Often during cystoscopy, a biopsy (tissue / cell collection) is performed to analyze the biomaterial. The whole procedure lasts an average of 15–20 minutes.In the future, the patient may have painful sensations when urinating, which usually disappear after a few days.

Cystoscopy at the “CM-Clinic”

Specialists of “CM-Clinic” in St. Petersburg have significant experience and practice an individual approach to each patient. Here you can do cystoscopy and undergo other measures for the diagnosis of diseases of the bladder. SM-Clinic doctors help to identify the presence of pathology and its causes. Therapy and treatment regimen are selected in each case individually, depending on the results of the examination.

Frequently Asked Questions

What is included in the preparation for cystoscopy?

Cystoscopy does not require any special preliminary preparation. The main thing to do is to conduct thorough hygiene of the external genital organs before leaving the house and arrive at the clinic on an empty stomach. Immediately before the procedure, the doctor will additionally treat the genital area. Correct disinfection will ensure maximum safety of the examination and exclude the possibility of introducing infections during cystoscopy.A medical device also undergoes mandatory sterilization in accordance with sanitary standards.

How do you feel after cystoscopy?

When the anesthesia wears off, there will be minor discomfort. It may be pain, a slight burning sensation in the urinary tract area. The symptoms are worse when urinating, especially in men. In this case, both frequent urge to the toilet and urinary retention can be observed. If the examination was carried out using a rigid endoscope, light pink mucous discharge may also occur.In rare cases, the temperature rises, chills appear.
The unpleasant sensations will go away on their own within 1-2 days. To speed up the recovery process, you need to drink more fluids, take painkillers as prescribed by your doctor. If the symptoms persist within 3 days, or bloody discharge, chills are added to them, you should definitely consult a doctor.

How is cystoscopy done?

The patient lies on the couch on his back or is placed in a special chair.Before starting the study, anesthesia is used to relieve pain. The method of pain relief is selected individually. The doctor processes the endoscope, lubricates the device with petroleum jelly or glycerin. After that, the device is inserted through the urethra. When the device reaches the bladder, the remaining urine is removed through the tube, and the organ is filled with a special solution. If pus or blood is found in the bladder, it is pre-washed.
The doctor examines the bladder, determines the presence of pathologies, if necessary, takes a biopsy or makes other manipulations.On average, the procedure lasts no more than 15-20 minutes. During the examination, the doctor is necessarily interested in the patient’s well-being, and closely monitors his condition.

Does cystoscopy hurt?

The procedure is carried out exclusively under anesthesia. The choice of the type of anesthesia depends on the individual indications. This can be general anesthesia, spinal anesthesia, novocaine or icecaine solutions, and other types of anesthesia. General or spinal anesthesia is often prescribed for men, as they experience more severe pain during the procedure, and, if necessary, carry out a long examination.Thanks to the use of anesthesia, the procedure is almost painless. Only slight discomfort is felt, which is associated with the introduction of a cystoscope into the urethra. When the doctor fills the bladder with saline, there is a natural urge to urinate.

Reception of an endoscopist in our clinics

Danube Avenue, d.47 (m.Dunaiskaya)

Operating hours:

Daily
from 9.00 to 22.00

Udarnikov Avenue, 19 bldg. 1 (m. Ladozhskaya)

Operating hours:

Daily
from 9.00 to 22.00

Vyborgskoe highway, d. 17 bldg. 1 (metro Prospect Prosveshcheniya)

Operating hours:

Daily
from 9.00 to 22.00

Marshal Zakharova, 20 (metro Leninsky Prospect)

Operating hours:

Daily
from 9.00 to 22.00

Malaya Balkanskaya, 23 (metro Kupchino)

Operating hours:

Daily
from 9.00 to 22.00

“CM-Clinic” – patients trust us!

Make an appointment and we will help you solve your problems! You can clarify the cost of the consultation by calling the phone number indicated on the page.

Sources 90,743

  1. B.I. Utegaliev Cystoscopy / B.I. Utegaliev // Bulletin of Surgery of Kazakhstan. – 2010. – No. 3. – P. 85.

Urolithiasis – Central Clinical Hospital “Russian Railways-Medicine”

Urolithiasis (Urolithiasis) is a fairly widespread disease, however, it is rather difficult to calculate the exact number of patients.

Concrement (stone) – solid mass formed by urine crystals in the urinary tract.Stones can be found in the kidneys or ureters, as well as in the bladder.

Concrements can independently pass through the urinary tract without causing any discomfort, however, the development of renal colic is accompanied by significant pain.

Today, due to changes in diet and lifestyle, ICD is more common.

Urolithiasis facts:

• ICD is a fairly common disease (1 in 10 people).
• The probability of calculus formation during your life is 5 to 10%.
• Men suffer from ICD more often than women, the ratio is approximately 3: 1 90 185
• The most likely formation of calculi at the age of 30 to 50 years.
• In patients with KSD, calculi form more often than once in a lifetime.

Causes of calculus
What is calculus?
Calculus (stone) is a dense, solid mass that forms in the gallbladder, bladder and kidneys. Concrements vary in chemical composition, size, localization.

Stones form in the kidneys and then either remain in them or migrate to the ureter. Kidney stones form when minerals or salts crystallize in the urine.
Most stones leave your body when you urinate.
Sometimes calculi cannot leave the ureter on their own, block the normal outflow of urine and cause symptoms of renal colic. Also, calculi can be so large that they cannot leave the kidney or ureter. In both cases, you may need specialized treatment to remove calculi.

Symptoms of urolithiasis.

Quite often, urolithiasis is associated with a strong pain symptom. In fact, symptoms can vary from severe pain to no pain at all, depending on the following characteristics of the calculus: size, shape, and location in the urinary tract (Figure 1).

Severe pain (renal colic).

If the calculus blocks the normal flow of urine from the kidney, you will experience severe pain known as renal colic.This is acute pain in the lumbar region and lateral abdominal region. If the calculus has moved from the kidney to the ureter, then you may feel pain in the groin or thigh area. Men may notice pain in the testicular area. (fig. 1)

Figure 1: Possible localization of pain in renal colic.

Renal colic is based on a sudden increase in pressure in the urinary tract. The pain is paroxysmal and does not disappear when changing position. It is described as the most intense and comparable to labor pain.

Other symptoms that may accompany renal colic:

1. Nausea
2. Vomiting
3. Blood in urine (urine turns pink)
4. Painful urination
5. Fever

Renal colic is an emergency and you need to urgently see a doctor or the nearest hospital for pain relief. In case of an increase in body temperature, emergency hospitalization is required.

Dull pain or no symptoms

Stones can cause recurring, dull pain in the lumbar region.Such pain can be a symptom of other diseases, which requires additional examination to exclude urolithiasis.

Some stones do not cause discomfort at all. They are called asymptomatic stones and are usually small in size. They do not interfere with the outflow of urine, because located in the lower calyces of the kidney or attached to the wall of the ureter. Usually, such stones are an accidental finding during examination.

Diagnosis of urolithiasis

To determine the cause of your symptoms, your doctor needs to do a series of tests.First of all, the doctor will conduct a survey and physical examination. He will then do an ultrasound scan and other examinations if required.

Visualization techniques

To determine the location of your stone, the doctor needs to apply visualization methods of your internal organs. You will undergo an ultrasound scan, which uses high-frequency sound to produce an image. In addition to the ultrasound, you may need an X-ray of the urinary tract (plain urography).The doctor can determine whether a stone is impairing the flow of urine from the kidney by determining the extent to which the renal pelvis and calyx are dilated.

Another common imaging technique is computed tomography (CT). In case of urolithiasis, CT scan is performed without contrast. With this study, you can accurately determine the size, shape and density of the stone.

In some cases, the doctor may prescribe you a CT scan with the introduction of a contrast agent or intravenous urography. This study provides additional information about the function and anatomy of your kidneys.

Calculus analysis and other tests

If you have kidney colic, your blood and urine will be tested to determine if there is an infection and if your kidneys are impaired.

If your stone can pass on its own with urine flow, your doctor will recommend that you filter your urine to find the stone.

Subsequently, the doctor will analyze the stone to determine its type. This information is important for the selection of the optimal further treatment and prevention of stone reoccurrence.

If you have a high risk of recurrent stone formation, additional tests will be performed to assess metabolic disorders (metabolic disorders).

Interesting fact:
Every year, 1 or 2 people in 1000 suffer an attack of renal colic.

Usually, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are used to relieve pain, which you can take in the form of tablets or rectal suppositories. If first-line drugs do not help, then you will be prescribed stronger pain medications – opioids.They are usually given intravenously. The main drawback of opioids is that they cause nausea.

In rare cases, drugs do not have the desired effect. Then the specialist needs to ensure the outflow of urine from the kidney. This is called decompression.

There are two main decompression methods

1. Inserting a JJ ureteral stent into your ureter through the urethra. (fig. 1)

2. Percutaneous nephrostomy – insertion of a drainage tube through the skin.(Fig.2a and 2b)

Both methods are equally effective.

Figure 1: Installed a JJ stent to normalize the outflow of urine through the urinary tract.

Blocked and infected kidney (obstructive pyelonephritis).

If you have renal colic accompanied by fever or you notice a significant deterioration in the general condition, then you need to urgently seek specialized help.

You will be examined to exclude the presence of obstructive pyelonephritis.

If you have obstructive pyelonephritis, you should decompress immediately to relieve the pressure in your kidney. After decompression, you will be prescribed antibiotics to treat pyelonephritis. Removal of calculus can be carried out only after the cure of pyelonephritis.

Figure 2a: A percutaneous nephrostomy tube drains urine from the kidney into a drainage bag.

Figure 2b: Percutaneous nephrostomy inside the kidney.

Treatment of urolithiasis.

You have been diagnosed with urolithiasis. Together with the attending physician, you can choose the method of treatment that is best for you.

Factors that may affect the method of treatment:

1. Your symptoms
2. Characteristics of stone
3. Your history
4. Opportunities of the hospital you applied to and your doctor’s personal experience
5. Your personal preferences

If your stone can go away on its own, your doctor will prescribe medication to facilitate the passage of the stone.This is called conservative therapy.

If your stone continues to grow or causes frequent and severe pain, then you need active treatment.

Conservative treatment.

Most kidney and ureteral stones can pass through the urine stream. However, this depends on the size and location of the stone, and it will take some time to get rid of the stone. You may experience bouts of renal colic when the stone moves. If your stone is small, then it will go away on its own within 2-3 weeks with a probability of 95%.

You need to understand:

1. The closer the stone is to the bladder, the higher the chance of its spontaneous discharge.

2. The larger the stone, the lower the chance of its independent release.

There are 2 main methods of conservative therapy: lithokinetic therapy (“expulsion” of stones) and litholytic therapy (dissolution of stones). Both of these methods involve prescribing medications for you.

Active ICD treatment

Active treatment should be carried out in the event of:
one.Continued growth stone
2. High risk of another stone formation
3. Presence of infection
4. Large size stone
5. Your choice of active method of treatment.

The doctor will recommend removing a stone from the ureter in case:
1. Too large for self-discharge
2. While taking medications, you still have pain
3. Your kidneys have stopped or may stop performing their function.

There are 3 main methods of minimally invasive stone removal
1. Shock wave lithotripsy (Fig. 3)
2. Ureteroscopic method (contact ureterolithotripsy using various types of energy) Fig. 4
3. Percutaneous nephrolithotomy (Fig. 5a and b)

Which active treatment method is best for you depends on many aspects. The most important factor is the symptoms that the stone causes. Based on the size and location of your stone, your doctor may suggest a variety of treatments.

Fig. 3 Extracorporeal lithotripsy

Fig. 4 Contact lithotripsy or extraction

Fig. 5a Percutaneous nephrolithotomy

Fig. 5b Fragmentation of calculus

Prevention of urolithiasis.

After the calculus has passed or been removed, your doctor will determine the risk of calculus re-formation. For this, it is necessary to conduct a chemical analysis of the stone. In addition, the doctor will take into account the blood and urine tests taken before the treatment.

If you have a high risk of recurrent stone formation, the doctor will conduct an additional examination, on the basis of which preventive measures and a plan for further regular examination will be recommended to you.

General recommendations for the prevention of urolithiasis:

In the case of a low risk of recurrent calculus, your doctor will only recommend a few lifestyle changes. These measures will reduce the risk of re-stone formation and improve your overall health.Recommendations for adult patients are listed below.

Drink more.
1. Make sure you drink 2, 5 – 3 liters daily
2. Drink evenly throughout the day
3. Choose pH – neutral drinks such as water or milk
4. Keep track of how much fluid you pass in your urine. There should be 2 – 2, 5 liters daily.
5. Note the color of the urine: it should be light. Try to drink more if you live in hot climates or do a lot of exercise.This will help compensate for fluid loss.

Adjust your diet.
Depending on your individual situation, your doctor may recommend a diet correction. Diet adjustments should first be discussed with your doctor.

Healthy habits
1. Try to exercise 2 or 3 times a week
2. Avoid stressful situations.

Translation of the recommendations for patients of the European Association of Urology.
Ayvazyan D.R.
Editing: d.m.s. Yagudaev D.M.

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90,000 Cystitis in a cat, a dog: how to treat? – Animal Health

– “Do dogs have cystitis?”;

– “Is the cat cystitis?”;

– “ Can animals also get sick with this disease?”

With these and similar questions, pet owners turn to veterinarians when faced with the main clear signs of the disease.

Cystitis is an inflammatory process that affects the mucous membrane of the urinary bladder of an animal, and develops as a result of stagnation of urine, as well as the presence of infection: most often it is bacteria, less often fungi, viruses. Unfortunately, in recent years, this phenomenon is quite common in animals. Cystitis can be acute or chronic. Very often, this pathology begins with an acute form and quickly turns into a chronic one. Cystitis may disappear for a while, but under convenient circumstances, it will appear again throughout the life of your furry pet.Pet owners need to know how to identify cystitis in cats and cystitis in dogs , and what to do when confirming the diagnosis.

In this article, we will consider the main causes and signs of cystitis in pets, learn how this disease is treated and what a person needs to know and take so that his four-legged friend does not get sick with this ailment.

The main causes of cystitis in animals.

  • Banal hypothermia.
  • Weakening of the immune system and, as a result, the penetration of infection into the pet’s body.
  • Injury of internal organs. Most often this happens when the animal falls.
  • Urolithiasis.
  • The presence of parasites in the body of the animal.
  • Diabetes mellitus, unfortunately, our younger brothers also suffer from it.
  • Lack of fluid in the animal’s body.
  • Stress – for example, moving, being separated from the owner, new people in the family.
  • Gynecological problems.
  • Poor nutrition – overeating or, conversely, malnutrition of the animal.

If you have studied all the possible causes of the occurrence and did not find them in your pet, and the disease is confirmed, the diagnosis is made – idiopathic cystitis in cats and dogs.

Main

symptoms of cystitis in a cat and a dog.

Remember we said that the insidiousness of this disease lies in the frequency and speed of the transition of an acute form to a chronic one? So, in order to avoid this and stop the process of transition to a chronic disease in time, each animal owner needs to know the main symptoms of the disease in the animal. So, the owner of the doggie should be alerted by the following things:

  • Frequent and painful urination is the main signs of cystitis in cats and dogs;
  • Pain during urination – the animal makes plaintive sounds when urinating, you will see a change in its behavior;
  • Frequent licking a sign indicating of cystitis in cats, the symptoms of which are quite obvious;
  • Changes in the smell of urine – it becomes very pungent and sharp;
  • Dog relieves the need for a sitting position – this is a very indicative symptom of cystitis in a dog ;
  • Frequent incontinence – the cat may go to the toilet “outside the litter box” and the dog may leave small puddles on the floor;
  • Feverish condition;
  • Thirst;
  • The animal’s abdomen becomes very elastic and does not allow touching;
  • Possibly blood in the urine of the animal;
  • The animal becomes inactive, its activity decreases sharply.

Diagnosis of the disease.

Any animal can get cystitis, but cats and dogs can be identified, which are at increased risk. The most susceptible to cystitis, of course, are weakened animals – which have recently suffered the disease, old and newborn. Since their immune system is reduced, any hypothermia, any stress can cause an inflammatory process in them.

Also, experts note that cats are more susceptible to cystitis than cats.The same picture is observed in dogs – much more often the pathology is observed in bitches, which is due to the peculiarities of the anatomy of the urinary system. In addition, frequent hormonal changes, as a result of pregnancy, childbirth, estrus, contribute to a decrease in immunity, weakening of the body and, as a result, increased reproduction of bacteria. Also in a special risk group are castrated cats and dogs, and spayed animals – treatment of cystitis in of them is a fairly frequent procedure. Perhaps this is due to a weakening of the immune system, but the fault may also be in the infection brought in during the operation. Below we will talk in detail about the symptoms and basics of treatment of cystitis in castrated cats and dogs, in spayed animals, in young and old individuals.

Well, let’s start with the fact that the diagnosis of the disease always takes place in the veterinary clinic, where you will need to bring your pet. First, the veterinarian makes a thorough examination, takes anamnesis and makes a preliminary diagnosis – cystitis in a cat .After that, an ultrasound examination of the genitourinary system is performed. In some cases, an x-ray may be ordered. Ultrasound shows changes in the bladder wall, the presence of sediment, suspension, stones; changes in the kidneys, reproductive organs. Urinalysis is also required. It allows you to correctly assess the degree of the inflammatory process, where it is located, to determine the presence of salt crystals. Sometimes the animal needs a cystoscopy. Inspection with a cystoscope makes it possible to directly inspect the bottom and walls of the bladder, at the same time to carry out medical manipulations, for example, the introduction of antiseptic solutions.In rare cases, as mentioned earlier, and only with a doctor’s prescription, an X-ray examination is prescribed.

Types of cystitis in animals

The following types of cystitis in animals are distinguished:

  • Hemorrhagic cystitis in cats, which almost always proceeds in an acute form. Treatment of hemorrhagic cystitis in cats is a rather long process and requires maximum patience, endurance and care of the four-legged friend from the owners. Hemorrhagic cystitis occurs as a result of injury to the bladder.Blood in urine in a cat most often indicates this type of cystitis , and requires immediate treatment ;
  • serous-catarrhal cystitis – characterized by the presence of turbidity and mucus in the discharge of a cat;
  • purulent cystitis – characteristic of this species is the presence of pus in the urine;
  • idiopathic cystitis in cats – occurs for no apparent reason and does not depend on any factors. Treatment of idiopathic cystitis in cats is a rather complicated process and requires high qualifications and extensive practical experience of the doctor of the veterinary clinic;
  • eosinophilic cystitis – appears when an animal has parasites in the body.It can also occur as a result of a reaction to allergens and microbes;
  • poloiploid cystitis – provokes the formation of polyps;
  • ossifying cystitis – appears as a result of the presence of malignant tumors in the body of the animal and metastasis of neoplasms to the bone tissue;
  • emphysematous cystitis – develops due to the activity of microorganisms that emit gases.

As mentioned earlier, there is acute cystitis in cats and dogs and a chronic form of cystitis.Also, primary and secondary inflammation are distinguished. Primary inflammation develops on its own. Secondary – as a result of another disorder in the body, such as helminthiasis or oncology. The disease can be descending or ascending. In the first case, the infection enters the urinary system with the blood stream or from the kidneys – it is rarely observed, mainly, this is a consequence of pyelonephritis. Ascending cystitis develops in most cases, the urethra, vagina, anus can become a source of infection.

Treatment of cystitis in pets

On the Internet you can find many tips and suggestions as well as how to treat cystitis animal ( cat or dog) at home conditions.You can find a lot of folk recipes that you can water your animal with and which are very effective and have helped millions of pets. However, you should already understand – one cure for cystitis for cats and dogs cannot be so universal and help in all cases. Depending on which one (and we have already considered how many species there are) cystitis in a cat, the symptoms and treatment of will be different. And in order to help, and not harm your pet, only a veterinary clinic specialist will be able to tell how to treat cystitis in a dog, prescribe tablets for cystitis for cats and, in general, answer the question: “ The cat has cystitis, what do ? “Only a competent veterinarian, based on the results of analyzes and examinations, will be able to say which of these drugs can help your pet in recovery:

  • Antibiotics. The doctor will prescribe only if a bacterial infection is confirmed. In no case should you prescribe and give antibiotics to an animal on your own !;
  • If the animal uses antibiotics to preserve the intestinal microflora, it should be given probiotics and enterosorbents.Probiotics are preparations containing live microcultures. Enterosorbents – absorb and then remove toxic substances that enter the gastrointestinal tract from the outside;
  • Pain relievers. Most often, animals are prescribed “Aspirin”. This drug is effective not only for humans, but also for our four-legged brothers. First, it has been used and tested for a long time. Secondly, it is very affordable.
  • Antispasmodics. “Papaverine” or “No-Shpa” injections work well.No-shpa – refers to strong antispasmodics. It lowers the tone of smooth muscles, reduces their motor activity and slightly dilates the blood vessels. Most often, the administration of the drug is prescribed by injection, since it is easier and faster to give the desired effect. “No-shpa” for a cat with cystitis is prescribed exclusively in complex therapy. The dosage of the drug can only be prescribed by a specialist in a veterinary clinic.
  • Hemostatic drugs. For example “Vikasol” or “Dicinon”;
  • Drugs or operations that treat the underlying cause of cystitis;
  • Diuretic, anti-inflammatory and antibacterial agents on a natural basis.These include the drug “ Stop-Cystitis” for dogs and cats, on which we will dwell in sufficient detail, due to its effectiveness and an affordable price . Let’s immediately understand that there are separate drugs: “ Stop-Cystitis for cats ” and “ Stop-Cystitis for dogs “. In veterinary pharmacies, you can find this medication in the form of tablets and suspensions.

Stop Cystitis for Cats.

“Stop-Cystitis” tablets for cats – a natural preparation for the prevention and treatment of diseases of the urinary tract and urinary stone disease.Tablets are prescribed for the treatment and prevention of acute and chronic inflammatory and infectious diseases of the urinary tract, such as cystitis, and urolithiasis; prevention of infections during diagnostic procedures; in the postoperative period, after removal of urinary stones in cats and dogs. The drug has anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antiseptic, diuretic effects; reduces crystallization and prevents the formation of urinary stones. As mentioned earlier, this drug is made on the basis of natupal medicinal plants, such as knotweed herb, nettle leaves, field horsetail, lingonberry leaves, licorice roots, birch leaves.It also contains vitamins and minerals, flavonoids and tannins. And also in its composition, as well as in the composition of the drug “No-shpa”, contains drotaverine, which relieves pain spasms in the animal.

Instruction on the use of tablets “ Stop-Cystitis for cats “.

Application:

The drug is administered to animals individually with food or injected directly onto the root of the tongue for therapeutic purposes – 2 times a day, with prophylactic purposes – 1 time per day for 5 – 7 days.The duration of the course of using the drug is determined by the attending veterinarian, depending on the physiological state of the animal and the course of the disease.

Contraindications:

  • acute heart and liver failure;
  • individual intolerance to the components of the drug;
  • During pregnancy and lactation, only with the appointment of a veterinarian.
  • In very rare cases, allergic reactions are possible in hypersensitive animals.When these signs appear, the use of the drug is discontinued, if necessary, antihistamines should be prescribed to the animal.

The price of for the drug “Stop-Cystitis for Cats ” depends on the packaging (packaging can contain 15 and 30 tablets) and, as we said earlier, is quite affordable.

Instruction for use Stop-Cystitis for cats suspension

Before use, the bottle with the feed additive should be shaken thoroughly for 1 – 2 minutes.

Stop cystitis Bio is used in cats and dogs to normalize and improve the functioning of the urinary system, as well as in combination with drugs for urological syndrome, urolithiasis and in the postoperative period after removal of urinary stones.

The preparation is given to the animals individually with food or injected directly onto the root of the tongue using a syringe-dispenser 2 times a day, for 10 – 14 days.

The suspension is packaged in a 30 ml polymer bottle with a plastic screw cap.Vials are packed individually in a cardboard box along with instructions for use and a syringe-dispenser.

Store the drug in sealed manufacturer’s packaging, protected from direct sunlight, separately from food and feed at temperatures from 0 ° C to 25 ° C. Must be stored out of the reach of children.

Shelf life if stored properly is 2 years from the date of production.

According to the reviews of cat owners, the drug “Stop-Cystitis for Cats” is an excellent prophylactic drug, it helps well with urinary stone disease, is very effective in the treatment of cystitis and is very convenient to use.

Now you know what the drug “ Stop-Cystitis for cats ” is, have read instructions for use , we just have to find out the price of for the drug and find out reviews of owners of fluffy cats.

According to reviews preparation “Stop-Cystitis for cats ” is easy to use (see instruction ), has a mild effect, affordable price , is economically consumed and has a very good prophylactic effect.

The drug “Stop cystitis tablets for dogs”, as well as the drug “Stop cystitis suspension for cats” has the same actions as the drug for cats, which were described above. The only difference is the amount of active substances and the packaging of the drug. For example, Stop-Cystitis for Dogs is sold in a blaster that contains 20 tablets. The price for Stop-Cystitis for Dogs is also quite affordable, and in the instruction , which you will find inside the package, you will learn how to use the drug in household conditions in the presence of symptoms of cystitis in a dog.

Traditional medicine in the treatment of cystitis in animals

All traditional medicine methods should be used only as an additional type of treatment, and only with the permission of a veterinary clinic specialist. Unfortunately, it is simply impossible to cure the disease only with folk recipes, but it will definitely work out to translate the acute form of the disease into a chronic one. In addition, some herbal preparations can not only neutralize the effects of drugs, but also react with them, leading to serious side effects.And they can also cause a fairly strong allergic reaction and aggravate the condition of the pet.

As a rule, diuretic and anti-inflammatory herbs and preparations are used for cystitis. The most popular are linden, dandelion, calendula, birch, bearberry. The prepared infusion is given to the pet in small quantities (in accordance with age) several times a day.

Sometimes it is advised to put warming compresses on the cat or to put a heating pad on the bed. But we do not recommend doing this, because.because such measures can lead to an absolutely opposite result – to cause exacerbation or complications, deterioration of the animal’s condition.

Diet for cystitis:

  • The first 2-3 days of hunger. If the outflow of urine is normal, the animal can be given chicken broth;
  • Eliminate cereal-based feed;
  • Include foods rich in vitamin C in the diet;
  • Increase the amount of liquid. Bearberry broth and cranberry juice work well.

Remember, the diet must be agreed with your veterinarian.We only give general advice, and a veterinary clinic specialist will prescribe an individual nutritional plan for your pet’s speedy recovery.

Prevention of cystitis in cats and dogs.

Unfortunately, no animal is insured against cystitis. This disease lies in wait for us both in winter and in summer and does not particularly depend on the age of the pet. This means that any animal is under threat. And in order to avoid and prevent the development of inflammation, you must follow these simple rules:

  • It is necessary to protect the animal from frost, hypothermia and drafts.Miniature pets must be insulated with special clothes in winter or late autumn. Now there is no problem with that. Clothes of the right size and quality are easy to find in specialized stores in your city. Those dogs that live in open-air cages on the streets in severe frost must be allowed into the warm housing of the owners or the open-air cage must be insulated so that the animal does not freeze;
  • The place of the animal should not be located in a draft, near an air conditioner or fan;
  • The animal must always have a bowl of clean water.Keep track of how much water your pet consumes. If the animal has reduced the amount of water consumption or even refused it altogether, this is a very bad sign that speaks of a serious illness in your pet’s body;
  • It is mandatory to carry out deworming once every 6 months – a mandatory procedure that can protect the dog not only from the parasites themselves, but also from a large number of other diseases, including cystitis;
  • Vaccinate your pet once a year.The fact is that a correctly selected and timely made vaccine promotes the formation of immunity in an animal against a number of diseases that can provoke cystitis;
  • Remember to eat the right diet for your pet. Buy quality ready-to-eat food or natural meat, vegetables and cereals plus vitamins. A proper diet strengthens the immune system, improves metabolism, and helps the body resist diseases. Without fail, you need to control the weight of the animal, avoiding obesity or exhaustion;
  • Watch your animals, do not ignore preventive examinations.Every disease of an animal (even the most insignificant) should not be ignored. You already know that any other disease can lead to cystitis. This is especially true for diseases of the genital area;
  • An animal that has had cystitis should be shown to a specialist periodically to make sure that the disease has not become chronic. It is better to do this once every 6 months;
  • Try to make sure that your pet does not endure unnecessary stress. Surround him with care and love.

Inflammatory diseases of the female genital organs

The problem of inflammatory gynecological diseases occupies an important place in the activities of an obstetrician-gynecologist.

These diseases in gynecological patients occur much more often than other diseases of the genital organs.

The importance of inflammatory diseases is especially great, since it is known that they are often exacerbated, leading patients to disability and even disability.In addition, inflammatory processes of the genital organs often lead to violations of menstrual function, cause infertility, general intoxication of the body with the involvement of the nervous system, liver, kidneys and other vital organs and systems in the pathological process.

The cause of the development of inflammatory diseases of the female genital organs is usually microbial or viral pathogens.

Routes of entry of microbes into the genitals:

  1. Sexual – active transport of microbes from the vagina to the overlying organs is realized by spermatozoa and Trichomonas.Sperm cells have a negative charge, which is a kind of receptor for microbes.
  2. Passive transport (independent spread of microbes and viruses through the genitals).
  3. Hematogenous transport (from other organs with blood flow).
  4. Lymphogenous (through the lymphatic system), for example, from the intestines with purulent appendicitis.

Factors contributing to the spread of infection (provoking factors):

  1. Hypothermia, weakening of the general defenses of the body as a result of diseases of other organs and systems.
  2. Physiological (menstruation, childbirth) or artificial (abortion, intrauterine devices, intrauterine diagnostic and therapeutic interventions, operations on the abdominal organs, IVF, etc.) weakening or damage to the protective (barrier) mechanisms of the cervix.
  3. Social factors: chronic stressful situations, low standard of living (inadequate and inappropriate nutrition, unfavorable living conditions), chronic alcoholism and drug addiction.
  4. Behavioral factors: early onset of sexual activity, high frequency of sexual intercourse, a large number and frequent change of sexual partners, while using hormonal rather than barrier contraception, unconventional forms of sexual intercourse (orogenital, anal), sexual intercourse during menstruation, frequent douching and self-medication, improper use of intravaginal tampons, etc.

The onset of the disease is often associated with a change in sexual partner.

Experts classify inflammatory diseases of the female genital organs by the causative agents that caused them, by the place of localization, by the age and severity of symptoms.

By the type of pathogen , diseases in gynecology can be specific and nonspecific:

  1. Specific inflammations are caused by sexually transmitted infections. These include HIV, gonorrhea, herpes, trichomoniasis, gonococcus, Trichomonas, chlamydia and others.Sometimes several infections can act as pathogens at once.
  2. Nonspecific inflammations are caused by a woman’s own flora, which is activated if the body malfunctions: E. coli, streptococcus, staphylococcus, etc. In the past few years, viruses and protozoan fungi, which are normally part of the normal microflora of the vagina, have become more and more problematic for women.

As such, there is no difference between specific and non-specific diseases, but there is a general rule – to begin treatment immediately after the first symptoms appear.

By the nature of inflammation can be acute, subacute, chronic and exacerbated:

  1. The acute course of the process occurs for the first time and is accompanied by vivid clinical manifestations.
  2. Subacute also worries the woman for the first time, but not so clearly.
  3. Chronic course lasts more than four weeks. Complaints from the patient during this time, as a rule, are absent and appear only with an exacerbation of the chronic process.Complaints may also be associated with complications of the chronic process that have already occurred (menstrual dysfunction, infertility, dysfunction of other organs and systems).

The course of the inflammatory process depends on the nature of the pathogen and the characteristics of the defenses of the body of women. If the body’s defenses are disrupted, the process may spread (sepsis).

At the site of the lesion female diseases are divided into two types – lesions of the upper and lower genitals.

  1. Lesions of the upper section combine the following diseases: salpingo-oophoritis (inflammation of the ovaries and fallopian tubes), endometritis (inflammation of the mucous membrane of the uterine body), pelvioperitonitis (inflammation of the peritoneum), parametritis (inflammation of the peritoneal tissue), tubo-ovarian abscess (purulent inflammation of the uterine appendages).

    The most common inflammatory disease in women is salpingo-oophoritis .

    Symptoms:

    Most often, acute, purulent salpingo-oophoritis begins acutely:

    1. Fever, sometimes accompanied by chills.The range of temperatures can be different, characterized by an evening rise in temperature with normal or subfebrile readings in the morning.
    2. Pain in the lower abdomen. They arise sharply. At the onset of the disease, they are usually local in nature, and the patient can clearly indicate the area of ​​the lesion; in the presence of concomitant inflammation of the uterus and surrounding tissues, pain can be widespread and radiate to the lower back, rectum and thigh).
    3. Abundant purulent (less often serous-purulent) leucorrhoea and cuts during urination.As a rule, they are accompanied by purulent discharge from the urethra, which also leads to the appearance in patients of frequent, small portions, painful urination or severe cuts during urination.
    4. Subsequently, symptoms of purulent intoxication (weakness, tachycardia, muscle pain, dry mouth), dyspeptic and emotional-neurotic and functional disorders join.

    Complete cure, as a rule, does not occur, more often the disease acquires a chronic course with periodic exacerbations.Exacerbation of chronic salpingo-oophoritis can begin under the influence of many external factors: hypothermia, overheating, fatigue, less often associated with reinfection. During the period of exacerbation, the temperature rises, pains in the lower abdomen appear or intensify, and the amount of discharge increases. Usually, the pain intensifies before and during menstruation, sometimes the cycle is disrupted. Up to half of patients note sexual dysfunctions: libido disappears, coitus becomes painful. With a prolonged course and frequent relapses, the urinary, nervous, endocrine, vascular systems are involved in the pathological process, and the disease takes on the character of a polysystemic process.

    Endometritis

    Symptoms:

    The acute form of the disease usually develops after undergoing medical and diagnostic interventions on the uterus, operations. The contributing factors are the leaving of the membranes in the uterus during abortion, blood clots, a large number of pathogenic and opportunistic (Escherichia, Proteus, etc.) microorganisms in the vaginal biocenosis.

    The acute form begins with an increase in body temperature, pains appear in the lower abdomen, discharge from the genital tract of a different nature (purulent, bloody-purulent), women complain of weakness, headache.

    Without treatment, inflammation can spread to all layers of the uterus and parametrium – the fiber located between the leaves of the wide ligaments of the uterus. The parameter develops. The acute form of parametritis can lead to a parametric abscess, which sometimes spontaneously opens into the rectum, uterus, abdominal cavity or bladder.

    With inadequate treatment, development becomes chronic.

    Chronic endometritis is characterized by light serous discharge from the genital tract, periodic uterine bleeding outside of menstruation.Sometimes the chronic process proceeds without any external symptoms, but at the same time leads to menstrual irregularities, miscarriage, infertility.

    Pelvioperitonitis – inflammation of the pelvic peritoneum. More often it is a complication of the above diseases.

    Symptoms: the disease is characterized by acute abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, bloating, stool and gas retention, fever, increased heart rate. Tongue dry, coated with white bloom.With a modern (erased) course, a small severity of symptoms or the absence of some of them is possible.

    Patients need special supervision in connection with the possibility of the transition of pelvioperitonitis to diffuse peritonitis, which requires an emergency operation.

  2. Lesions of the lower section include vulvitis, colpitis (vaginitis), urethritis, bartholinitis and cervicitis (exocervicitis, endocervicitis).

    Vulvitis – inflammation of the mucous membrane of the vestibule.Develops mainly in girls. Infection is facilitated by diaper rash, scratching, abrasions, endocrine pathology (IDDM), helminthic infestations, and childhood viral infections. In adults, as a rule, vulvitis is combined with inflammation of the vaginal mucosa.

    Clinic: pain, vulvar edema, purulent discharge.

    Bartholinitis is an inflammation of the large glands of the vestibule of the vagina. Very often, if the rules of hygiene of the genital organs are not followed, various bacteria and STIs enter it.Its excretory duct is clogged and an inflammatory process occurs in the gland. One-sided lesion of the Bartholin gland is more common.

    It manifests itself first by redness around the external opening of the excretory duct, then inflammatory edema can clog the duct of the gland, preventing the release of purulent secretions, which, lingering in the duct, stretches it, forming a false abscess (abscess), which protrudes the inner surface of the labia majora and closes the entrance to vagina.The body temperature may rise, soreness in the perineal region. In rare cases, the inflammatory process can directly capture the tissue of the gland, while a true abscess occurs with strong suppuration and enlargement of the gland. The large and small labia are swollen. The inguinal lymph nodes are enlarged. The body temperature rises. A true abscess differs from a false abscess in constant pain, sharp swelling of the labia, immobility of the skin over the abscess, high temperature.

    The abscess can spontaneously open with the outflow of thick yellow-green contents, after which the condition improves.The inflammatory process can subside on its own (without suppuration). In this case, there is a compaction and a slight increase in the gland. However, quite often, after a while, the inflammatory process resumes and becomes more complicated.

    Colpitis – inflammation of the vagina (vaginitis).

    In the clinical picture there is a triad of symptoms: pain, leucorrhoea, itching.

    Colpitis can be caused by gonococci, Trichomonas, chlamydia, as well as opportunistic microorganisms such as staphylococci, streptococci, Candida fungi, Escherichia coli, etc.Allocate acute and persistent vaginitis. In an acute process, women complain of itching in the vaginal vestibule, burning, pressure, heat in the genitals and small pelvis, many note dysuric disorders. Profuse discharge is characteristic – leucorrhoea. The inflammatory process caused by various pathogens has its own characteristics. For example, profuse, frothy, yellowish-green discharge with an unpleasant odor is characteristic of Trichomonas vaginitis; allocation of a white cheesy look – for a fungal.In chronic forms of inflammation, pain is absent, mostly patients complain of discharge, itching, burning, small ulceration in the vestibule of the vagina.

    Bacterial vaginosis (diagnosed since 1980) Gardner’s disease. Complaints only about increased discharge of leucorrhoea (abundant discharge, foul smelling). There are no symptoms of inflammation. Often women complain of discomfort and burning sensation in the vagina. Recently, bacterial vaginosis is considered as a kind of vaginal dysbacteriosis, which occurs when the number of lactobacilli secreting lactic acid decreases, and the pH of vaginal secretions increases (more than 4.5).This creates conditions for massive reproduction of microorganisms such as gardnerella and obligate anaerobic bacteria. This disease is rare in prepubertal girls and in postmenopausal women, which indicates the great importance of the hormonal component in the occurrence of such an imbalance.

    Cervicitis is an inflammation of the cervix, which occurs as a result of penetration into the cervical canal of gonococci, Trichomonas, chlamydia, staphylococci, streptococci and other bacteria, less often viruses.The occurrence is facilitated by ruptures of the cervix during childbirth, prolapse of the genitals, infectious processes in the vagina and, conversely, in the internal genital organs. In an acute process, a woman is worried about weak pain in the lower abdomen, discomfort in the vagina, sometimes itching, mucous or purulent mucous discharge from the vagina, painful sensations during sexual intercourse. In a chronic process, complaints are less pronounced.

    Endocervicitis – inflammation of the mucous membrane of the cervical canal.It can occur with the penetration of various bacteria (staphylococci, streptococci, gonococci, intestinal escherichia, etc.). Endocervicitis is often combined with an inflammatory process in other parts of the reproductive apparatus – colpitis, salpingo-oophoritis, erosion of the cervix.

    Symptoms: mucopurulent vaginal discharge, no pain. Clinical signs are poorly expressed. In the acute stage, hyperemia around the external pharynx and mucopurulent discharge are determined. In the chronic stage, there is almost no hyperemia, the discharge remains.With a long course of the process, hypertrophy (thickening) of the cervix develops – cervicitis

    Genital warts (multiple growths on the surface of the external genital organs and the vaginal opening). Can spread to the perineum, vagina, cervix. The cause of genital warts is a filterable virus (human papillomavirus), the development of the process is facilitated by abundant discharge from the genital tract with colpitis and endocervicitis. Very quickly, genital warts grow during pregnancy.

    Symptoms: condylomas are most often localized on the external genitals, perineum, around the anus. In cases of necrosis of genital warts and the addition of a secondary infection, purulent discharge appears. Vaginal and cervical warts during pregnancy and childbirth can cause bleeding. Diagnosis is by physical examination.

Examination program for pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)

Name of survey

Information that examination can provide

General blood test

Leukocytosis, stab shift to the left, accelerated ESR, lymphopenia in acute and 1 m variant of exacerbation of chronic PID

SRV, seromucoids

Increased level in acute and 1st variant of exacerbation of chronic PID

Total protein, protein fractions

Decrease in the level of total protein, albumin, increase in the content of globulins in acute and 1st variant of exacerbation of chronic PID

Medium molecules, medium molecular peptides for the assessment of endogenous intoxication

Increase in the level (norm: average molecules -56.8 ± 1.3 U / ml; average molecular peptides -85.4 ± 1.8 μg / ml) in acute and 1st variant of exacerbation of chronic PID

Ultrasound of the pelvic organs

Informative in combination with anamnestic, clinical and clinical laboratory data in the diagnosis of serous and purulent TOVO, abscesses of the small pelvis, pathological changes: the structure of the ovaries, adhesions, infiltrative changes in the organs and tissues of the small pelvis, when assessing the results of conservative treatment in dynamics

Immunogram

In acute and exacerbation of a chronic process: an increase in the absolute and relative number of neutrophilic granulocytes in the peripheral blood, as well as their functional activity in the NBT test with a low functional reserve; decrease in phagocytosis indicators; increased IL-1 – producing activity of monocytes; increased serum lysozyme content; increased levels of IgM and IgG in peripheral blood; decrease in the number and functional activity of peripheral blood lymphocytes; an increase in the value of the T4L8 ratio (helpers / suppressors).
In a chronic process without exacerbation: a decrease in the quantitative and functional parameters of the cellular elements of the mononuclear phagocyte system; secondary immunodeficiency in the T- and B-cell immunity system; a decrease in the level of IgA, an increase in the amount of IgM and IgG; raising the level of the CEC.

Primary microscopy of native material from the vagina, cervical canal, uterine cavity, small pelvis (punctate), fallopian tube (laparoscopy)

Key cells, Trichomonas, fungal flora, leukocytosis.

Gram-stained smear from the vagina, cervical canal, uterine cavity, small pelvis (punctate), fallopian tube (laparoscopy)

Diagnostics of gonorrhea, trichomoniasis, bacterial vaginosis, candidiasis; leukocytosis, the degree of functional activity of leukocytes. Assessment of the degree of contamination of the material separately for gram-negative and gram-positive rods, gram-positive cocci, fungi using the following criteria: in large numbers – more than 100 microorganisms in the field of view; in moderation – 20-100 microorganisms in the field of view; in small quantities – 5-20 microorganisms in the field of view; microflora is not determined.To determine the invasiveness (aggressiveness) of the fungal microflora, the presence of budding yeast cells, elements of mycelium and pseudomycelium is noted. The result is obtained within 1 hour.

Culture for aerobic and anaerobic microflora, determination of sensitivity to antibiotics of the contents of the vagina, cervical canal, uterine cavity, fallopian tubes and small pelvis

Determination of the nature of the vaginal biocenosis, identification of etiologically significant aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms and their antibiotic sensitivity.

Determination of the pathogen by PCR or quantitative methods (tank culture, Femoflor) in scrapings from the cervical canal, endometrium, fallopian tubes, small pelvis (chlamydia, mycoplasma, ureaplasma, viruses)

Confirmation of the diagnosis of chlamydia, mycoplasmosis, ureaplasmosis, viral infection of the genitals. The result is obtained within 1 day.

Aspiration biopsy of the endometrium

Assessment of the functional capabilities of the ovaries and the reception of the endometrium by histological changes in the uterine mucosa, diagnostics of the nature of the inflammatory process in the endometrium, histobacterioscopic characteristics of the pathogen, obtaining ideas about the state of local immunity (immunomorphological reactions) and protective capabilities of the mucus-forming apparatus of the uterus (lectinohistochemical studies).

Hysteroscopy

It is carried out with chronic PID for: identifying the most altered areas of the endometrium; targeted biopsy of the endometrium for histological, histochemical studies and identification of the pathogen; detection of concomitant pathology.

Laparoscopy – the “gold” standard for diagnostics of acute PID

Establishing the nature of inflammation, the degree of changes in the fallopian tubes, the presence of complicated PID.Differential diagnosis. Biopsy of material for bacteriological and histological (immunomorphological, lectinohistochemical) studies. Therapeutic measures.

Treatment of inflammatory diseases of female genital organs

Important to remember !!!

It is a serious mistake to choose a treatment method on your own, based on the experience of friends, relatives or information in the media, literature. Only contacting an obstetrician-gynecologist immediately when the first symptoms appear will help to avoid serious complications and the transition of the inflammatory process to a chronic one.Since there are no two identical people, the treatment regimen is always prescribed individually, taking into account the characteristics of the organism, examination indicators, the presence of diseases of other organs in a woman, etc. In this case, the doctor pays attention to possible allergic reactions, the state of immunity.

Also, do not forget that chronic diseases are very difficult to treat and you can get rid of them only with the help of a highly qualified specialist. Otherwise, relapses and complications are inevitable, which are often more dangerous than the disease itself.

Chronic gynecological diseases are often the root cause of an unstable emotional state and a decrease in the quality of sexual life. It is worth remembering about the real danger of dysfunction of the reproductive system, that is, the inability to conceive and give birth to a child. Whatever the consequences of illness, they always change a woman’s life for the worse.

The general principles of successful treatment are:

  1. Timely and accurate diagnostics, including control after a course of treatment
  2. Timely start of treatment
  3. Individual, comprehensive and competent approach
  4. Simultaneous treatment of sexual partners
  5. Compliance with diet during treatment
  6. Prevention of complications and exacerbations

!!!! Treatment of inflammatory diseases of the female genital organs should be complex, that is, to influence all the mechanisms of the development of the disease !!!!

So, the following methods of treatment are in the arsenal of gynecologists:

  1. In acute inflammation, exacerbation of chronic, antibacterial antiviral drugs are prescribed, which are designed to fight the pathogen.
  2. Correction of immune disorders is carried out in parallel.
  3. To reduce the body’s response to the destruction of microbes, desensitizing therapy is performed.
  4. To remove toxic substances from the body, detoxification therapy is prescribed
  5. If necessary, during the course of treatment, treatment of accompanying complaints and symptoms is prescribed (for example, drugs for itching, pain, etc.)
  6. Enzyme preparations and probiotics are prescribed to prevent the negative effects of drugs on other organs, as well as to ensure that the prescribed drugs “work” with more full efficiency.*
    * Preparations for the above methods can be prescribed both in tablet form for oral administration, and in the form of various injections. Injections of drugs must be carried out in a medical institution under the supervision of medical personnel (usually in a procedure room)
  7. Local treatment (douching, baths, tampons with drugs, treatments, applications, irrigation, etc.) are used to enhance the effect of antibacterial and antiviral therapy, as well as as an independent type of treatment for certain diseases.It is carried out in a treatment room or at home. For local treatment, various drugs are used, the action of which is aimed at combating the pathogen, relieving the symptoms of inflammation, removing the decay products of microbes, etc.
  8. Phytotherapy – treatment with herbal preparations. It can be used in combination with other methods and independently. For general treatment as well as for local treatment.
  9. Drug-free treatment combines a large number of methods:
    1. Surgical (usually used when conservative treatment is ineffective or to remove pathological formations in the “cold period”, that is, after the acute inflammation subsides).It is carried out in a hospital setting.
    2. Acupuncture – impact on biologically active points (mesotherapy, electrical stimulation of active points, finger massage, acupuncture)
    3. Physiotherapy exercises
    4. Diet food
    5. Spa treatment
    6. Physiotherapy is one of the methods of treatment in which not chemical factors (drugs) are used, but physical ones: currents, magnetic fields, laser, ultrasound, etc.

Physiotherapy (in gynecology in particular) in medicine and, like drug therapy, is selected individually, depending on many, many characteristics of a person and his illness.The beauty of physical therapy is that it helps and complements the treatment of conditions that do not always respond well to conventional therapy.

The use of physical factors has traditionally been an important component in the prevention and treatment of obstetric and gynecological pathology. Physical factors can be the main or auxiliary method in the complex of therapeutic measures. Physiotherapy is especially relevant in the treatment of acute inflammatory processes and in the treatment of chronic ones.For example, in a number of chronic diseases of the female genital area, blood flow to the pelvic organs can be impeded due to changes in tissues and blood vessels. In this case, the drug effect is ineffective, since the active substance with the blood flow does not enter the organ or tissue in the proper volume, while exerting a general, often negative effect on the woman’s body as a whole. The combination of the same medicine with physiotherapy, an integrated approach to the treatment of the disease can improve the condition and quality of life of a woman with minimal drug load.

Physiotherapy is often the only treatment for some diseases . For example, chronic pelvic pain as a result of adhesions and neuralgia of the pelvic nerves after inflammatory diseases, surgical interventions exhaust patients physically and mentally, disrupting the normal lifestyle and harmony of sexual relations. The carried out physiotherapeutic treatment helps not only to shorten the length of the recovery period, but also prevents the formation of adhesions.The latter fact is especially important for women with infertility. Thus, , during the physiotherapy treatment , a number of positive effects are observed:

  • reduction of treatment time
  • mild painless healing effects
  • prevention of complications and relapses
  • no side effects typical of drug treatment
  • reducing the drug load or, in some cases, eliminating them

The following hardware physical factors are most commonly used today in gynecology:

  • Electric and magnetic fields. The active factor of the electromagnetic field can be mainly its electric or magnetic component. Magnetotherapy is mainly characterized by an anti-inflammatory effect, which is associated with the anti-edema effect of the factor. This makes it possible to widely use the magnetic field in gynecology in the early postoperative period after surgical interventions.
  • Electrotherapy (use of electric current). It is possible to use direct current (galvanization, drug electrophoresis), pulse currents (interference therapy, electrical stimulation, etc.). Treatment with impulse currents relieves spasm of blood vessels and smooth muscles, which improves the blood supply to tissues, and has an analgesic effect.
  • Action of mechanical factors (ultrasound therapy). Ultrasonic (US) effects carry out a kind of micromassage of cells and tissues, accompanied by the appearance of heat, and provide an analgesic effect, “softening of adhesions”, improve the blood supply to tissues and increase the hormonal activity of the ovaries.
  • Phototherapy. Light therapy – the use of ultraviolet (UV), infrared and visible rays. Short-wave UV rays, for example, with direct contact with pathogenic microorganisms located directly on the skin or mucous membrane, cause a pronounced bactericidal effect and are used in the treatment of inflammation of the mucous membrane of the external genital organs and vagina. Phototherapy also includes the use of laser radiation. Low-intensity laser radiation is included in the treatment of endocervicitis (inflammation of the cervical canal), colpitis (inflammation of the vaginal mucosa) and inflammatory diseases of the pelvic organs.

In inflammatory diseases of the female genital area, the following physical effects are more often used:

  1. Induction therapy
  2. UHF
  3. Electrophoresis of drugs, phonophoresis
  4. Ultrasound
  5. Low frequency impulse currents
  6. Paraffin therapy
  7. Mud therapy
  8. Ozokerite
  9. Balneotherapy

Non-traditional methods of treatment are also used, such as hirudotherapy (treatment with leeches), apitherapy (treatment with bees and bee products).

Prevention of inflammatory diseases in women

He who is forewarned is armed, therefore experts strongly recommend that girls and women follow a number of simple rules that will help avoid serious health problems.

  1. Eat as many citrus fruits and legumes as possible, fish and potato dishes, and fermented milk products (especially those containing bifidobacteria). This will avoid dysbacteriosis of the external genital organs.
  2. During menstruation, use tampons during the day and pads at night as needed. Remember that super absorbent tampons, or tampons that remain in the vagina for six hours or more, promote the growth of microorganisms.
  3. Do not purchase specific intimate hygiene products: colored tampons and toilet paper, perfumed soap and sprays – this can cause irritation of the mucous membranes and the development of dysbiosis and inflammation.
  4. After swimming or swimming in the sea, try not to walk for a long time in a wet swimsuit, as this is fraught with the danger of hypothermia of the pelvic organs and activation of microbial and viral flora in these organs.Plus, you unwittingly create ideal greenhouse conditions for germs.
  5. Give preference to underwear made from natural fabrics – synthetic fabrics hardly absorb moisture and do not provide sufficient air circulation in the genital area. Cotton underwear does not allow the formation of an alkaline environment on the vaginal mucosa.
  6. Limit high sugar foods in your diet. According to many well-known doctors, refined sugar has properties sufficient to maintain chronic candidiasis.
  7. Pay attention to even minor discomfort when urinating – it can be a harbinger of serious discomfort.
  8. Do not eat too much bread and mushrooms, do not overuse alcohol, especially beer – all of these foods favor the occurrence of chronic fungal infections.
  9. Practice good hygiene and use only your shaving razors and other toiletries.
  10. During hygiene procedures of the genital and perianal area, your movements should be directed towards the anus in order to avoid the introduction of intestinal diseases from the anus into the genitals.