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Pamabrom side effects: Side Effects, Dosages, Treatment, Interactions, Warnings


Pamabrom Side Effects: Common, Severe, Long Term

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Applies to pamabrom: oral capsule

Medically reviewed by Drugs.com. Last updated on Nov 13, 2020.

What are some side effects that I need to call my doctor about right away?

WARNING/CAUTION: Even though it may be rare, some people may have very bad and sometimes deadly side effects when taking a drug. Tell your
doctor or get medical help right away if you have any of the following signs or symptoms that may be related to a very bad side effect:

  • Signs of an allergic reaction, like rash; hives; itching; red, swollen, blistered, or peeling skin with or without fever; wheezing;
    tightness in the chest or throat; trouble breathing, swallowing, or talking; unusual hoarseness; or swelling of the mouth, face, lips, tongue,
    or throat.

What are some other side effects of this drug?

All drugs may cause side effects. However, many people have no side effects or only have minor side effects. Call your doctor or get medical
help if any of these side effects or any other side effects bother you or do not go away:

  • This drug may change the color of urine to a gold color. This is normal and not harmful.

These are not all of the side effects that may occur. If you have questions about side effects, call your doctor. Call your doctor for medical
advice about side effects.

You may report side effects to the FDA at 1-800-332-1088. You may also report side effects at https://www.fda.gov/medwatch.

Further information

Always consult your healthcare provider to ensure the information displayed on this page applies to your personal circumstances.

Some side effects may not be reported. You may report them to the FDA.

Medical Disclaimer

What Is Pamabrom? (with pictures)

As an over-the-counter diuretic, pamabrom is typically recommended to women to alleviate symptoms associated with menstrual cycles. Medical professionals also prescribe the use of such a water pill for other conditions involving water-weight gain. The medication works, as all diuretics do, by pulling excessive water from throughout the body and increasing how frequently patients need to urinate. By flushing excess fluid from the system, patients gain relief from the uncomfortable bloating and swelling.

This drug is sold under a number of brand names, generic names, and store labels. Variants are also available which include both the diuretic and acetaminophen. With the addition of a pain reliever, women have a means to alleviate both bloating symptoms and pain associated with menstrual cramps with one pill. For simple pamabrom-only medications, the typical dosage is one tablet every four to six hours or four times per day. Formulas that also include acetaminophen may have slightly different dosing frequencies and medication strength.

When the two drugs are combined, the medication’s use is not limited to just women experiencing menstrual symptoms. Many over-the-counter formulations help alleviate the pain associated with minor back injuries or strained muscles. Other indications for use are possible under the careful guidance of a medical professional. A prescription is not necessary, but healthcare professionals may prescribe pamabrom as part of an overall treatment regime as needed for menstrual symptoms, back pain, or other conditions.

A chemical compound known as 8-bromothephylline is the active ingredient in pamabrom. It is known to cause few side effects, although patients with high blood pressure, kidney disease, or certain cardiovascular conditions should not take medications containing this compound. Severe allergic reactions, including hives, facial swelling, or breathing problems, require immediate medical attention or a visit to the local emergency room. Pharmacists and medical professionals may have additional information regarding common side effects and what factors might influence troublesome side effects.

Certain prescription and over-the-counter medications can interact with this drug. It is important that users not take it with other diuretics, including those prescribed to help lower high blood pressure. Common diuretics include torsemide, indapamide, and ethacrynic acid, among others. Users should follow proper dosing instructions, making sure not to take more than four tablets in a single day. Healthcare professionals may have recommendations regarding other medications and herbal supplements to avoid or dietary adjustments required for some patients.

The Truth Behind the Dangers and Benefits of Diuretics

Our bodies are delicate systems. When they’re operating as they should be, we don’t think about how the systems work. However, if there is a disruption in balance, the effects can be at the least annoying and at the most dangerous or deadly.

Though it isn’t something you think about very often, there’s a careful equilibrium with the fluids in the body. If too much fluid builds up, then our bodies naturally excrete it in urine. Diuretics increase this urination and thus decrease fluid retention.

General Overview of Diuretics

What is a Diuretic?

Diuretics, often called water pills, are medications or natural substances used to increase the amount of urine you make and increase the frequency with which you urinate. When taking a diuretic, any excess salt (sodium) is picked up by the kidneys and then excreted. This process adjusts the body’s homeostasis by decreasing the total fluid amount in the body.

Answering the question, “what is a diuretic?” is not easy because the drugs and supplements vary widely in how they work and what they’re used to treat. The examples of diuretics is potentially a long list, but all have the same function – increase urinary output – though each category works uniquely. 

Bottom Line: Diuretics alter the body’s fluid balance, so speak with your healthcare provider about safety and potential side effects before making any change.

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What are Diuretics Used For?

Diuretics are often prescribed to treat high blood pressure. High blood pressure is also known as hypertension. The diuretic lowers blood pressure by reducing the fluid amount held by the body and by excreting extra sodium. As a diuretic lowers blood pressure, the threat of stroke, heart failure, heart attack, and death are also reduced.

 Diuretics work by widening the blood vessels, which allows blood to flow more easily. When you combine lower sodium intake with diuretics, the effect on blood pressure tends to be positive.

Diuretics are also prescribed for the treatment of heart failure. Heart failure causes the heart to weaken over time, and as such, it struggles to remove excess water from the body. This results in the tissues soaking up the fluid, which causes edema or swelling, difficulty breathing, and weight gain, among other side effects. 

 Diuretics are used for more than just easing symptoms, however. When used for heart health, diuretics are often coupled with lifestyle changes and medications to slow the progress of heart disease.

There’s also some precedence in using diuretics for kidney and liver disease. Other uses have included the treatment of drug overdose or poisoning.

Liver disease, kidney disease, and heart disease affect millions of people. As lives extend, and people live longer, the diseases tend to grow more common. Because of the increased commonality, the use of diuretics will become more prominent in the coming years. 

Bottom Line: Prescription diuretics are commonly used to treat high blood pressure and heart failure, among other fluid-related diseases and conditions.

The Difference Between Noom and Other Plans and Programs

When it comes to learning how to eat and how to live for weight loss, Noom works from a psychological perspective. According to the Chief of Psychology for Noom, Dr. Andreas Michaelides, “By understanding the past behaviors and attitudes of all types of users, we know the best way to meet our users where they are in their journey to help them maximize their change of long-term weight-loss success.” Noom, as a weight-loss platform, uses the power of food logging, among other advanced technologies, to teach simple, key behaviors for lasting change. Behavior changes that include self-efficacy, motivation, and knowledge are just the start of how psychology can interact with food, so you lose more weight in a way that lasts a lifetime.

Noom works with tech-based tools partnered with support from real-life coaches in a structured program that connects the user with the social support and positive reinforcement needed to change behavior in a way that increases the likelihood of success.

Not all dietary changes are for everyone, and no two weight-loss plans should be the same, which is precisely how Noom works.

By identifying specific areas where changes can be made to reach goals of weight loss and health improvement successfully, users realize where their best changes are to be made and how those changes are incorporated into a lifestyle they can adopt for the long-term.

Types of Diuretics

Diuretics are often classified into three groups: thiazide, loop-acting, and potassium-sparing diuretics. Less common types include calcium sparing, osmotic, and carbonic anhydrase inhibitors. Each exerts a different effect on the body.

Thiazide diuretics are the most common. They are prescribed to treat high blood pressure (HBP) because of their ability to relax muscles in blood vessel walls. This increases blood flow. The Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure recommends thiazide diuretics be the initial treatment for HBP.

Loop-acting diuretics increase urine flow from the kidneys. This reaction has the effect of reducing water retention. They tend to be effective in the treatment of impaired kidney functions.

Potassium-sparing diuretics promote increased urination while leaving potassium levels unaffected. The potassium-sparing variety is used if other, more commonly used diuretics, cause mineral loss.

Sometimes patients are prescribed multiple types of diuretic pills at once or a combination of diuretics and other medication. This is a normal part of treatment. One diuretic is sometimes not sufficient on its own, so it might take some experimentation or trial and error before settling on a proper treatment.

Bottom Line: Because all diuretics have a different effect, the best diuretic really depends on what is suitable for your particular health condition.

Are There Any Diuretics Side Effects?

Since diuretics induce urine secretion, a common side effect is the loss of critical minerals from the body, including sodium, calcium, and potassium. Low levels of minerals in the blood are a serious medical problem, but not all mineral deficiencies are the same. Each one leads to a vast array of different symptoms, so it’s important to talk with your healthcare provider about potential problems.

Mineral loss is a very common side effect. Still, some diuretics may actually lead to the exact opposite problem: an excess amount of minerals in the blood. For example, potassium-sparing diuretics are meant to treat low levels of potassium in the blood. Still, if not carefully monitored, they may instead cause the retention of too much potassium, unless they’re taken with some kind of medication that counteracts the effect.

Another major side effect of fluid loss is dehydration. Usually, this is not an issue at low doses. Still, if you’re consuming a high dose of diuretics, it’s very possible to accidentally lose too much water through the urine. People on diuretics should always make sure they are staying properly hydrated, especially during intense physical activity or on a hot summer day.

Because the diuretics side effects are so broad, it’s difficult to generalize across all types of diuretics. But if you’re experiencing any kind of unusual symptoms, including headaches, dizziness, muscle cramps, weakness, vomiting, skin rash, numbness, diarrhea, joint disorders, irritability, incontinence, and impotence, then you should call your healthcare provider immediately. Do not stop taking your diuretic medications without explicit instruction from your healthcare provider, as it may make the problem worse.

Bottom Line: Diuretic use can upset the homeostasis and mineral balance in your body, so always follow explicit instructions from your healthcare provider and try to avoid taking an OTC diuretic for serious conditions.

Does a Natural Diuretic Exist?

Diuretics do exist in nature, and in theory, they have the same qualities and effects as a “synthetic” diuretic. Dandelions, ginger, parsley, hawthorn, and juniper, many of which are sold as supplements, are all examples of diuretic that occurs in nature. These are what’s known as an herbal diuretic, but many of them are poorly studied or less effective overall than normal medication.

There are two problems with taking an herbal diuretic or any other over the counter (OTC) diuretic. First, an OTC diuretic may not be effective enough to treat an underlying medical condition such as kidney or heart disease. Second, according to Katherine Zeratsky, a licensed dietician, “Some herbs and supplements can worsen medical problems you have or interact with medications you take.”

The caffeine in tea and coffee is also a “natural” diuretic. So if you have ever wondered, “Is tea a diuretic,” the answer is yes, but only a mild one. It’s a common belief that the consumption of caffeine increases the expression of urine, but the evidence for it is mixed.

In 2014, Claudia Hammond, a BBC journalist, reviewed the scientific literature for evidence of caffeine’s diuretic effect. The evidence suggests that caffeine and diuretic drinks do not have a very pronounced diuretic effect, as the expression of urine stayed mostly the same. Subjects in the study who drank a lot of caffeine and diuretic drinks also did not appear to be any more dehydrated than those who drank water alone.

Because diuretics alter the fluid balance in your body, it is not a good idea to consume supplements without knowing the possible effects. You may simply be putting yourself at risk of dehydration. If you’re hoping to lose water weight, you should focus instead on eating a healthier diet and increasing your physical activity.

Even though there are no diuretic foods that occur naturally (or at least diuretic foods that have been well-studied), it is possible to grind up diuretic pills and put them in foods if you have problems swallowing them.

Bottom Line: Taking a natural diuretic may help treat mild fluid retention, but you should talk with your healthcare provider before buying any herbal diuretic or natural over the counter diuretic.

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What is the Recommended Dose for Most Diuretics?

There is no recommended dose for most diuretics. Depending on the particular medical needs of the patient, diuretic use will vary from person to person.

The treatment goal with diuretics is almost always to achieve a healthy blood pressure or fluid level at the lowest possible dose. Your healthcare provider will first assess how much you need. Then he or she may adjust and fine-tune the dose multiple times during the treatment based on the reaction and side effects, with dehydration usually being the most common problem.

Diuretics do not linger very long in the body, so they are usually taken twice a day. They should generally be taken around the same time each day, so your body can adjust to their usage.

It is generally not recommended to take them at night before you sleep since they increase the expression of urine. Morning is typically the best time to take your first dose of the day.

During the course of your treatment, your healthcare provider will most likely schedule regular checkups so he or she can check minerals levels and monitor how your kidneys are working.

Bottom Line: Because the dose is based on healthcare provider discretion and not a common formula, you should take them exactly as you have been told.

Are There Any Drug Interactions I Should Be Aware of?

Diuretics do negatively interact with other drugs, but once again, it depends on the type and dose of the diuretic. You should generally avoid taking diuretics with digitalis and digoxin, lithium, antidepressants, and cyclosporine.

You should also avoid taking certain mineral supplements. For instance, you would want to avoid consuming extra potassium supplements if you are also taking potassium-based diuretics, as it might raise blood potassium levels too high.

Bottom Line: Diuretics are often taken in conjunction with other medication to treat serious medical conditions, so they are generally safe in most cases.

Is It Possible to Develop a Resistance to Diuretics?

In a minority of patients, resistance to diuretics does appear to develop as the kidneys adapt to chronic diuretic use. It seems to be more common in patients with congestive heart failure. Congestion persists despite the continuation of diuretic use.

Resistance to diuretics is not entirely understood, but when it does develop, combining two different diuretics together, like a loop-acting diuretic and thiazide, may be an effective treatment.

Bottom Line: Resistance to diuretics is difficult to treat and may require higher doses to achieve the same effect.

What Should I Tell My Healthcare Provider?

You should provide your healthcare provider with a full medical history and a list of prescriptions, and over the counter medications, you are taking. Also, you should prepare a diuretic list of any past diuretics you have taken. This will influence the course of your treatment.

Tell your healthcare provider about any past or present medical conditions, including diabetes, pancreatitis, lupus, gout, or menstrual problems. Diuretics can make each of these problems worse.

Tell your healthcare provider if you are pregnant, want to become pregnant, or are breastfeeding your baby. Tell your healthcare provider if you dehydrate easily or if you are allergic to any diuretic medications. Any of these issues may increase your sensitivity to diuretics.

Bottom Line: Your healthcare provider will recommend a suitable diuretic based on your medical history, medication, and diuretic list.

A Detailed Look at Diuretics

A diuretic is a medication, herb, or natural substance that facilitates diuresis. Diuresis is also known as the production of urine. There are several types of diuretics, including loop-acting diuretics, potassium-sparing diuretics, and thiazide diuretics. These three diuretics are by prescription only. There is also a long list of foods, drinks, and supplements that also work as diuretics, though mostly on a smaller scale.

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Types of Diuretics

Prescription Diuretics

Loop Diuretics

The term loop diuretics actually does refer to a loop in your body. The loop of Henle is a part of your kidney where water and salts are reabsorbed into the bloodstream.

Loop diuretics work by binding to carrier proteins in the loop of Henle. This prevents the loop from absorbing salt and water as it would normally. Your body needs a way to deal with those excess salts, so the materials are flushed through urination instead.

The final benefit of loop diuretics is that they reduce the oxygen dependency of the organs they interact with. This makes the cells less vulnerable to failure.

Bumetanide (Bumex)

Bumetanide is a popular diuretic that’s used to treat fluid retention that might be caused by heart, kidney, or liver problems. In some cases, it’s also prescribed for high blood pressure.

Bumetanide takes the form of an oral tablet that needs to be taken once a day. Additional doses may be prescribed to treat extreme swelling.

Ethacrynic Acid (Edecrin)

Like other diuretics, ethacrynic acid is frequently used to treat fluid problems associated with the heart, kidney, and liver. However, this diuretic can also be used to treat patients with diabetes that may not be responding to other medications.

Furosemide (Lasix)

Furosemide is a classic diuretic that’s used to treat high blood pressure and kidney-related issues. Furosemide is usually prescribed as a tablet, but it can also come in the form of an oral liquid or even an injection.

Torsemide (Demadex)

Torsemide is another diuretic used directly to treat fluid retention. Although it can treat high blood pressure on its own, torsemide is often used in conjunction with other medications. Although side effects can occur when two diuretics are used together, some doctors prescribe both to ensure that the medication has a strong enough impact to help with your medical condition.

Thiazide Diuretics

Thiazide diuretics also work by inhibiting salt absorption in the kidney; the main difference is that the targeted area is the distal convoluted tubule. This tubule contains thiazide receptors, which can be inhibited by both thiazide and thiazide-like diuretics.

Thiazide diuretics are typically used to treat hypertension, also known as high blood pressure. Thiazide diuretics may also be used to reduce calcium levels, which helps treat kidney stones.

Chlorothiazide (Diuril)

Chlorothiazide is a medication that’s used to treat fluid retention caused by a variety of issues. You might take chlorothiazide if you have heart problems, kidney failure, or even swelling caused by increased hormone levels. Like other diuretics, chlorothiazide can cause problems if you already have low blood pressure or gout.


Chlorthalidone is another popular diuretic used to treat high blood pressure. Chlorthalidone may also be used to reduce the symptoms of kidney or liver disease. Finally, some doctors prescribe chlorthalidone to help drain excess fluid from the lungs.

Hydrochlorothiazide (Microzide)

Hydrochlorothiazide is used to treat high blood pressure and swelling related to fluid retention. Hydrochlorothiazide might be prescribed for people with heart conditions, liver problems, kidney failure, or artificially inflated hormone levels.


Indapamide is a relatively new diuretic with effects comparable to both thiazide and loop diuretics. Unlike other diuretics, indapamide does not seem to raise cholesterol levels. Indapamide is used to treat hypertension, fluid retention, and similar medical conditions.


Metolazone is a standard diuretic used to treat fluid retention and high blood pressure. Metolazone is often prescribed to reduce the risk of a stroke or to assist with physical symptoms related to heart, kidney, or even lung conditions.

Potassium-sparing Diuretics

One of the main problems with diuretics is that using them can drastically reduce your body’s potassium intake. That’s why many doctors will prescribe the aptly-named potassium-sparing diuretics in addition to other diuretics to treat conditions like hypertension or heart failure.

If you’re using potassium-sparing diuretics, it’s important to make sure that you’re not taking a potassium supplement at the same time. This will increase your risk of hyperkalemia, or extremely high potassium levels in your bloodstream.


Amiloride is a diuretic used for patients who have low potassium levels in addition to high blood pressure or heart problems. Amiloride is typically prescribed alongside stronger diuretics and should not be taken by patients with high potassium levels.

Eplerenone (Inspra)

Eplerenone is a substance that blocks aldosterone, the hormone that typically causes your kidneys to reject potassium and retain sodium. When patients take eplerenone, potassium is retained, and sodium is rejected instead. Eplerenone is prescribed for heart conditions and high blood pressure.

Spironolactone (Aldactone, Carospir)

In addition to the normal effects of a potassium-sparing diuretic, spironolactone can be used to reduce the effects of hyperaldosteronism or the excessive production of aldosterone by the adrenal gland. Spironolactone can be prescribed on its own or in addition to other diuretics.

Triamterene (Dyrenium)

Triamterene is a classic diuretic that is typically prescribed to reduce the swelling caused by heart, kidney, or liver conditions. Like other diuretics, triamterene can cause dehydration symptoms; make sure to drink plenty of water.

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Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors

As the name suggests, carbonic anhydrase inhibitors block the body’s absorption of carbonic anhydrase, an enzyme that helps carry carbon dioxide through the blood. Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors have some impact on the kidneys, but they also prevent bicarbonate absorption in other parts of the body.

Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors are a weak diuretic typically used for the treatment of glaucoma or high blood pressure behind the eyes. You might also take a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor to treat epilepsy, high altitude sickness, and similar problems related to your internal fluid levels.


Acetazolamide decreases fluid production inside the eye. This medication is typically used to treat altitude sickness and can reduce symptoms like dizziness or nausea. Acetazolamide can also be prescribed alongside other medications to reduce swelling. In some cases, acetazolamide can be used to reduce the risk of seizure.


Dichlorphenamide is a unique carbonic anhydrase inhibitor that is used to treat an inherited muscle condition called primary periodic paralysis. Patients with this condition suffer from random attacks of muscle weakness, but taking dichlorphenamide can reduce the frequency and severity of the attacks.


Methazolamide is another carbonic anhydrase inhibitor that is primarily used to decrease ocular fluid production. Methazolamide can reduce headaches and is often used to prevent long-term vision loss caused by high pressure in the eyes.

Over the Counter Diuretics


Caffeine is a stimulant found in more than 50 plants around the world. On some labels, caffeine may be listed as 1,3,7-trimethylxanthine. When you take into account how many people use caffeine on a daily basis, it is considered the most used psychoactive drug of all time. The most common sources of caffeine are tea, coffee, and soda. After taking or drinking caffeine, the effects will only last up to three hours. Along with being used in weight loss and weight control supplements, caffeine is also found in over the counter diuretics. 

What does science say?

Caffeine may have a diuretic effect, but the effect is mild, at best. When caffeine is taken before exercise, the effect is negated. Women often see better diuretic results when taking caffeine than do men.


There’s very little information on pamabrom. We know it works as a diuretic or water pill, and it can be used for the natural treatment of a variety of illnesses, with the permission of your healthcare provider. However, the most common use for pamabrom is as a diuretic in over-the-counter water pills. 

What does science say?

We were unable to find research that showed any proven connection between pamabrom and diuresis. We know the drug has been used since the 1950s to treat fluid retention, but the science just doesn’t support this use.

Natural and Herbal Diuretics


Dandelion is more than just a weed growing in your yard. This plant is packed with healthy vitamins and nutrients, and just about every part is edible or usable in supplement form. In terms of diuretic effects, there’s not a lot of research out there on humans. However, dandelion remains one of the most commonly used natural diuretics.

What does science say?

T. officinale ethanolic extract shows promise as a diuretic in humans. Further studies are needed to establish the value of this herb for induction of diuresis in human subjects.”

Uva Ursi

Uva ursi is a shrub found in Europe and North America. The plant is also known as bearberry because bears are fond of the fruit produced by the plant. The history of the use of uva ursi dates back to Native American interactions with settlers. There’s tons of information and advice on how uva ursi is used for diuresis and how long it’s been used (more than 1000 years). But, is there any science to back up these claims, or are they anecdotal?

What does science say?

Science doesn’t appear to focus on the use of uva ursi as a diuretic. Instead, it appears that it is more commonly used to treat or as an adjunct treatment for urinary tract issues.

Diuretic use for weight loss is a controversial subject with confusing science, but there’s nothing confusing about the clinical evidence that Noom works!

Horsetail Stem

Three hundred million years ago, there was a huge plant that was the ancestor of today’s horsetail stem. You can choose to purchase horsetail as a tea or supplement. Often, over-the-counter herbal diuretics include horsetail as an ingredient. Though the plant has been around for millions of years, what has science proven?

What does science say?

“The E. arvense extract produced a diuretic effect that was stronger than that of the negative control and was equivalent to that of hydrochlorothiazide without causing significant changes in the elimination of electrolytes.”

Juniper Berry

The juniper berry is the fruit from a plant that looks similar to a pine cone. The plant is often used as a spice for cooking, but there are also uses in natural medicine that have been explored. The berry is often used in herbal diuretics to increase urine output. Does science support this use?

What does science say?

Though the effect of taking juniper berries as a diuretic has not been validated by clinical research, there is research that shares how the herb has been used for many years throughout the world, including countries like Turkey and Romania.

Stone Root

Stone root falls into the same category as mint. But, the root doesn’t smell anything like mint. Noted for its foul smell, the herb is typically used as a natural treatment for urinary problems and edema – excessive fluid retention. 

What does science say?

Science doesn’t say anything about stone root. We were unable to find any research on animals or in humans that showed any health benefits.

Hawthorn Berry

There’s not much more today about hawthorn berry other than it’s in the rose family and has been used as a natural treatment for centuries. You can find hawthorn berry in a wide range of natural supplements, including diuretics. The berry is also used to brew tea. 

What does science say?

Like many other natural diuretics, there’s little research definitively linking the herb to water loss. However, we did find some research showing that hawthorn can lower blood pressure. Diuretics are often prescribed for the treatment of high blood pressure, so there could be a connection there.

Parsley Leaf

Parsley leaf is a plant you’d think of as a garnish for food before thinking of it as a natural medicinal treatment. However, parsley has been used for decades for fluid retention. Does this herb work as well for diuresis as it does for garnish? 

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What does science say?

Research published in 2002 verifies that parsley does work as a diuretic. More recent research, this time published in 2017, came to the same results, as shared in the American Journal of Clinical and Experimental Urology.

Buchu Leaf

Buchu leaves grow on shrubs found in South America. The leaves are leathery with oily undertones. Natural medicine has been using buchu for kidney and urinary disorders, cystitis, gout, and other conditions. Buchu has also been used, often in combination with other herbs and extracts, as a natural diuretic. 

What does science say?

“Buchu remains a popular ingredient in over-the-counter herbal diuretic preparations. Despite the lack of evidence, buchu is still used today in western herbal medicine for urinary tract ailments, cystitis or urethritis prophylaxis, and prostatitis. It also is used in combination with other herbs such as cornsilk, juniper, and uva-ursi. Buchu also is listed in the German Commission E Monographs to treat inflammation, kidney, and urinary tract infections and also is used as a diuretic, but the monograph explains that the plant’s activity in these claimed uses has not been substantiated.”

Celery Seed

You can use celery seed in cooking, but did you know it’s also used as natural medicine? Though used for thousands of years for everything from arthritis to muscle spasms to inflammation, the most common use remains as a diuretic.  

What does science say?

We found plenty of information on how celery seed is used as a diuretic, but science is lacking. There is research into one area often related to diuretics – high blood pressure. According to research on rats, celery seed significantly reduces blood pressure. “It can be concluded that celery seed extracts have antihypertensive properties…”


“Goldenrod has also been used to treat tuberculosis, diabetes, enlargement of the liver, gout, hemorrhoids, internal bleeding, asthma, and arthritis. In folk medicine, it is used as a mouth rinse to treat inflammation of the mouth and throat.

A few animal and test-tube studies suggest goldenrod may help reduce inflammation, relieve muscle spasms, fight infections, and lower blood pressure. It does seem to act as a diuretic. It is used in Europe to treat urinary tract inflammation and to prevent or treat kidney stones. In fact, goldenrod is often found in teas to help “flush out” kidney stones and stop inflammatory diseases of the urinary tract.

What does science say?

Science says goldenrod works well as an antioxidant and antimicrobial but says nothing about use as a diuretic. However, like other natural diuretic ingredients on this list, it has been used in natural therapies for high blood pressure. Diuretics are often used for this purpose.


Bladderwrack is a form of seaweed used in traditional and natural medicine. Typically, the extract is used for thyroid issues, but it has also been used for “obesity, arthritis, joint pain…atherosclerosis, digestive disorders, heartburn…constipation, bronchitis, emphysema, urinary tract disorders, and anxiety.”

There are so many potential uses for bladderwrack, but what about using this extract as a natural diuretic? 

What does science say?

We did not find a single bit of research on bladderwrack. This is a little surprising because this ingredient is used in hundreds, if not thousands, of supplements.  

Couch Grass

Couch grass is considered a weed over anything else. Categorized as an invasive weed, it takes control of the entire area around where it’s growing, often killing other plants in the process. Despite the harshness of the natural actions of couch grass, history shows it is commonly used to treat a variety of conditions such as “constipation, cough, bladder swelling (inflammation), fever, high blood pressure, or kidney stones. It is also used for water retention [as a diuretic].”

What does science say?

Again, like far too many natural diuretics, there’s no research indicating couch grass should be used for any health condition. This includes water retention, edema, high blood pressure, or other conditions.


Hibiscus is a flowering plant often associated with the Hawai’ian islands. The colorful flower, also known as rosemallows, is found throughout the world in warm and tropical regions.  

What does science say?

“Recent studies of Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn. have demonstrated that it presents diuretic, natriuretic, and potassium-sparing effects.”

Further research claims, “The compound presents in Hibiscus sabdariffa as quercetin had effect on the vascular endothelium causing oxide nitric release, increasing renal vasorelaxation by increasing kidney filtration. Therefore, the diuretic effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa may be mediated by nitric oxide release.”


Asparagus is a healthy vegetable that’s packed with nutrients. Though thought of first as food, asparagus has also been used as a natural treatment for urinary conditions and as a natural diuretic. 

What does science say?

“Asparagus contains high levels of the amino acid asparagine, making it a natural diuretic. In other words, eating more of the spears can help flush excess fluid and salt from your body, which may help prevent urinary tract infections.

If you’re having trouble losing weight and you’re thinking about turning to diuretics for weight loss, why not take a little time to talk with your own personal coach at Noom.

You can talk about the best ways to lose weight that don’t involve the potential risk that comes with these pills and supplements. 

Diuretic Supplements and Electrolytes

“Diuretics are commonly used to treat high blood pressure (hypertension) because they lower blood pressure by helping your body eliminate sodium and water through your urine. However, some diuretics can also cause you to eliminate more potassium in your urine. This can lead to low potassium levels in your blood (hypokalemia).”

If you’re experiencing low potassium levels, you may feel tired or weak. You could experience muscle cramping or constipation. Eventually, if potassium drops low enough, it can affect heart function. 

The Science on Potassium and Diuretics

Non-potassium sparing diuretics, including natural diuretics, can cause a loss in potassium. Researchers suggest adopting a special diet to combat the loss and reduce the chances of negative side effects. 

“Hypokalemia induced by the use of diuretics is common. Those at risk include the elderly, women, patients with edematous states, and patients in whom higher doses and/or the more potent agents are used. Prevention should include a low-salt diet rich in potassium, magnesium, and chloride (either through foods enriched with these elements or through potassium chloride supplements)…”

There’s also evidence that diuretic overuse, leading to unhealthy rises or falls in electrolyte levels, can lead to life-threatening heart arrhythmias.

Diuretic Foods and Drinks

Not all diuretics come in pill or tea form. There are natural diuretic properties found in many foods and drinks. Some of the most common foods and drinks include:

  • “Watermelon
  • Grapes
  • Berries
  • Celery
  • Asparagus
  • Onion
  • Garlic
  • Bell Peppers”
  • Green Tea and Black Tea 
  • Caffeine

How Do Foods and Drinks Work as Diuretics?

Certain foods are high in potassium and water. These foods increase urine output by helping balance sodium levels in the blood. The potassium helps relieve blood vessel constriction, and fluid is moved around and out, more quickly and efficiently.

How Are Diuretics Used? 

After looking at what diuretics are, how they work in the body, and some possible risks and side effects, we can turn to the effects diuretics have on health and wellness in a medical setting. Studies in medicine are typically completed using prescription diuretics, so the below-mentioned information is not relevant to natural, herbal diuretics, foods, or drinks. 


Over the years, diuretics have grown in popularity as treatments for a variety of health conditions associated with water retention. Let’s take a look at what health and medical conditions diuretics are used to treat.

Combat high blood pressure

A common use of diuretics is for the treatment of high blood pressure. Often, these medications are the first line of treatment. Diuretics can be combined, if needed, for added effect in particularly difficult cases. Other prescription drugs can be combined with diuretics, under the care of your healthcare provider, to maximize benefit. 

“The European Society of Cardiology/European Society of Hypertension (ESC/ESH) guidelines recommend that thiazide diuretics should be considered as suitable as β-blockers, calcium antagonists, ACE inhibitors, and angiotensin receptor blockers for the initiation and maintenance of antihypertensive treatment.”

Research also shows that “diuretics have long been cherished as drugs of choice for uncomplicated primary hypertension. Robust mortality and morbidity data are available for diuretics to back this strategy.”


Edema is an unnatural collection of fluid under the skin. Edema can occur throughout the body, but it is most common in extremities. The causes of edema may include side effects from medications, side effects from supplements, and disease (heart disease, kidney disease).

Research into the effects of diuretics on edema spans back more than 40 years. Much of the research repeats the same thing over and over again. Thus, leading to the simple statement, “treatment of edema with diuretics is often straightforward.”


“Glaucoma is a disease that damages your eye’s optic nerve. It usually happens when fluid builds up in the front part of your eye. That extra fluid increases the pressure in your eye, damaging the optic nerve. Glaucoma is a leading cause of blindness for people over 60 years old. But blindness from glaucoma can often be prevented with early treatment.”

Because diuretics help reduce water retention and build-up, they can be used to reduce pressure on the eye caused by glaucoma. According to research in Current Medical Research and Opinion, the use of adjunct therapies, like diuretics, in the treatment of glaucoma shows promise. 

There’s no indication, based on science, that diuretics are an effective or safe way to lose weight.

Noom, however, does have strong clinical support. Take a look!

Osteoporosis in postmenopausal women

Osteoporosis, which literally means porous bone, is a disease in which the density and quality of bone are reduced. As bones become more porous and fragile, the risk of fracture is greatly increased. The loss of bone occurs silently and progressively. Often there are no symptoms until the first fracture occurs,” according to the International Osteoporosis Foundation.

There have been several medical studies into the effect of diuretics on osteoporosis. In one published in Osteoporosis International, after four years of taking hydrochlorothiazide, patients showed significant improvements in bone health and a reduction in bone loss. 

Additional research, this time in the American Journal of Medicine, showed, again, that hydrochlorothiazide, a prescription diuretic, “slows cortical bone loss in normal postmenopausal women. It may act directly on bone as well as on the renal tubule.” 

Diabetes insipidus

“Diabetes insipidus is a rare disorder that occurs when a person’s kidneys pass an abnormally large volume of urine that is insipid—dilute and odorless. In most people, the kidneys pass about 1 to 2 quarts of urine a day. In people with diabetes insipidus, the kidneys can pass 3 to 20 quarts of urine a day.”

As for diuretic use in cases of diabetes insipidus, which can be a chronic or temporary condition, surprisingly, despite the excessive urine output, certain diuretics have been shown to help treat the disease, especially when caused by certain medications, according to the Journal of the American Society of Nephrology

Heart failure

“Heart failure is a condition in which the heart can’t pump enough blood to meet the body’s needs. In some cases, the heart can’t fill with enough blood. In other cases, the heart can’t pump blood to the rest of the body with enough force. Some people have both problems.

The term “heart failure” doesn’t mean that your heart has stopped or is about to stop working. However, heart failure is a serious condition that requires medical care,” according to the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. 

As for research into how diuretics work to combat heart failure, Medicina Clinica published research in 2014 that shared the fact that diuretics are “prescribed to the majority of HF [heart failure] patients.” This is because removing excess fluid from the body is a critical factor in controlling the disease. 

Additional research, this time in European Cardiology Review, shares that “Research of new physiology-based approaches designed to offset the primary determinants of water retention could improve the management of patients affected by CHF [congestive heart failure]. Until then, diuretic therapy will remain the cornerstone in CHF.”

Liver failure

There are multiple causes of liver failure, including the use of certain medications, medical conditions, and addiction, such as is the case with alcoholism. 

According to the International Journal of Nephrology, “Effective and adequate diuresis can be achieved in patients with cardiac failure, cirrhosis, and nephrotic syndrome with ideal therapeutic approach of diuretics therapy.”


There are times when diuretics are used for purposes other than medical conditions. These uses include weight loss, fasting, detox, sports, and bodybuilding, among others. Recreational use of diuretics is not typically monitored by a healthcare provider. Some would say the same risk of side effects, like an unhealthy drop in potassium levels, is a risk that comes with both prescription and natural diuretics. 

Let’s take a look at how diuretics are used and the risks that come with the use.

Weight loss

Most of the research into diuretics and weight loss pertains to patients with underlying medical conditions. For instance, 2017 research published in Zhonghua Xin Xue Guan Bing Za Zhi showed that in patients with chronic congestive heart failure, the use of diuretics did result in weight loss. This could be because the body is holding on to excess fluid as a symptom of heart failure.

Risks of Using Diuretics for Weight Loss

Using a water pill to lose weight is not an effective strategy. The water you lose is being held by the body for a reason. That could be an underlying medical condition or the body’s natural balance mechanism. Either way, once you stop taking the diuretic, you will regain any weight loss because the underlying cause hasn’t been addressed. 

There’s also the potential issue of electrolyte imbalance. Extreme electrolyte imbalance has been known to cause serious heart-related side effects and death in some extreme athletes.


Because diuretics are often used to treat heart-related conditions, as the symptoms of heart failure, there is information out there about how best to follow a fast without increasing the risk of effects to your health. 

We did find research using rats that showed that when fasting, diuretics don’t work as they should. That means if someone with a health condition that causes fluid retention decides to fast, it could negate the effectiveness of diuretic supplements or medications. 

Risks of Diuretic Use in Fasting

The main risk of using diuretics while fasting is that they don’t work as well as they would when taking with a diet that includes food sources. The exact reason for the effectiveness of diuretics is not well understood, but it could have something to do with the fact that fasting already has a diuretic effect. 


Detoxes typically include diuretics of some sort to flush the “toxins” out of the body. We know based on research and how the body naturally works, that there are no toxins to flush out. The body takes care of all toxins naturally, but that doesn’t stop the supplement market from claiming a detox once in a while is good for health and wellness. 

There is no relevant or reliable research into the effects of detoxing on diuretic effects or the effects of taking a diuretic on toxin levels in the body.

Risks of Diuretic Use in Detox

The biggest problem with using a diuretic, like those found in detox supplements, is that they are often partnered with colon cleansers or natural laxatives. This poses a problem with dehydration. The laxative forces fluid out of the body, as does the diuretic. Dehydration and electrolyte imbalance could result. 

If you’ve chosen to detox, you may want to keep track of what you’ve consumed to make sure you stay on track.

With the help of a personal coach, you can choose the best plan for losing weight and keeping it off with Noom. 

Water Loss – Sports

Diuretics are commonly used in sports as a means of quickly reducing weight. In sports like boxing and wrestling, water weight can mean the difference between weighing in for a specific class and breaking the weight limit, which could cause the athlete to forgo competition. However, there are other reasons why athletes use diuretics. 

Research from 2010 published in the British Journal of Pharmacology shows that athletes sometimes use diuretics to flush illegal drugs, often performance-enhancing drugs, out of the body before a drug test. This anti-doping technique is rarely effective, but the World Anti-Doping Agency has listed diuretics on the banned substance list, nonetheless. 

There’s also the problem with dehydration in athletes. Published research in Medical Science in Sports and Medicine showed that runners who used diuretics suffered from dehydration, especially those competing in longer distances. Dehydration affects performance and recovery. 

Risks of Diuretic Use in Sports

The same risks of using diuretics in medicine exist across all sports. When using diuretics, especially in conjunction with exercise and training, dehydration is a common side effect. Typically, however, in sports that require weigh-ins, the athlete rehydrates soon after the weigh-in, sometimes gaining as much as 10 or 15 pounds or more.

Water Loss – Bodybuilding

Bodybuilding is another sport that uses diuretics for competition. Still, unlike other sports, the use is concentrated for a few weeks before a competition. In professional competition, there have been cases where athletes have used one or more diuretics to the point that overall health was affected. 

Research published in Sports in 2018 talks about how diuretics are used by bodybuilders. “Bodybuilders attempted to remove superfluous water by exploiting the diuretic/polyuria effect associated with water loading/restriction.” Among the natural bodybuilders followed in the study, “Carbohydrate and water manipulation were the most frequently employed strategies in the present investigation.” 

Risks of Diuretic Use in Bodybuilding

The main risk of using diuretics during bodybuilding is extreme fluid loss. When an extreme fluid loss occurs, it can cause an imbalance in electrolytes. In some cases, the intense effect of using one or more diuretics can cause death. 

During our research, we also found a disproportionate number of bodybuilders who have suffered from kidney disease and/or required a kidney transplant. In some cases, the bodybuilders died before the age of 50. While there’s no definitive clinical proof that diuretics were to blame, diuretics do cause kidneys to work harder, thus potentially leading to kidney disease and failure. 

General Risks of Using Diuretics

Diuretic use is common across many health conditions, including high blood pressure and heart disease, but what are the risks associated with the use and do the risks outweigh the benefits? 

Electrolyte loss

Electrolytes are minerals that are found in the human body. These minerals have an electric charge, which makes them quite unique. In terms of health, electrolytes work to help:

  • “Balance the amount of water in your body
  • Balance your body’s acid/base (pH) level
  • Move nutrients into your cells
  • Move wastes out of your cells
  • Make sure that your nerves, muscles, the heart, and the brain work the way they should

According to NCBI StatPearls, “Electrolytes are essential for basic life functioning such as maintaining electrical neutrality in the cells, generation, and conduction of action potentials in the nerves and muscles. Sodium, potassium, and chloride are the significant electrolytes along with magnesium, calcium, phosphate, and bicarbonates. Electrolytes come from our food and fluids. 

These electrolytes can have an imbalance, leading to either high or low levels. A high or a low level of electrolytes disrupts the normal bodily functions. It can lead to even life-threatening complications.” 

What to do: According to Harvard Health, “People with high blood pressure or heart failure are often advised to limit how much salt or sodium they consume. One way to do that is to use salt substitutes, but these products are high in potassium—a quarter teaspoon of one brand contains about 800 mg of potassium.”

Drinking water isn’t enough to replenish electrolytes.

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Elevated blood potassium levels

In patients taking a potassium-sparing diuretic, potassium supplements, and salt replacements that contain potassium can cause an excessive build-up of potassium. This condition is called hyperkalemia, according to the American Kidney Fund.

What to do: Few symptoms are leading up to complications of hyperkalemia. When in advanced stages, the condition can affect heart health, increasing the risk of heart attack, and, over time, cause death. If you are taking a potassium-sparing diuretic, talk with your doctor about having potassium levels tested regularly. This is especially important if you’re following a low-salt diet for high blood pressure or other conditions as some low-salt foods replace the salt with potassium. 


There is some indication, based on information from the Mayo Clinic, that taking diuretics increases the risk of gout. Gout is a form of arthritis. When uric acid crystals buildup in joints, it causes the condition. 

According to research, weight and higher body fat increase the risk of gout, but the research also showed that diuretic use independently increased risk as well. That means that the effect was not localized to the participants with higher weights or body fat measurements.

What to do: There are some tips for fighting gout, including to eat lots of vegetables and plant proteins, skip the alcohol, and lose those extra pounds. The idea is to improve overall health, so the diuretic is no longer needed, thus reducing the increased risk of gout associated with it. 

Increased blood glucose

Increased blood glucose is also called hyperglycemia. The condition is a symptom in people with type 1 and type 2 diabetes. But, there’s also a connection between using diuretics and an increased risk of high blood sugar. 

According to DiabetesSpectrum from the American Diabetes Association, “Thiazide antihypertensive drugs (e.g., hydrochlorothiazide) and thiazide-like drugs (e.g., metolazone) are often prescribed to control blood pressure in people with diabetes. Thiazide diuretics are known to promote hyperglycemia and, in some cases, contribute to the new onset of diabetes.” So, diuretics may cause an increase in blood glucose in patients that would otherwise not have developed diabetes. 

What to do: There are many types and varieties of blood pressure medications. If your blood glucose levels have increased since starting on a diuretic, talk with your healthcare provider immediately as there may be a connection. People with diabetes should never take an over-the-counter or natural diuretic unless specified by their healthcare provider who’s aware of the diabetes diagnosis. 


Unfortunately, much research has been published into the relationship between diuretic use and death. Some results of completed research show a positive correlation. 

Clinical and Experimental Hypertension – 1996

As far back as 1996, research has shown death can be a side effect of taking diuretics. 

“We conclude that the available evidence strongly suggests that hypertensive patients on non-potassium-sparing diuretic therapy are at an increased risk of sudden death.”

Circulation – 1999

Jumping forward to 1999 and we find the same results. 

“These data suggest that diuretic-induced electrolyte disturbances may result in fatal arrhythmias in patients with systolic left ventricular dysfunction.”

Journal of the American College of Cardiology – 2003

Now things change a little with research published in 2003. 

“The use of PSDs [potassium-sparing diuretics] in HF [progressive heart failure] patients is associated with a reduced risk of death from, or hospitalization for [HF].” 

Journal of Cardiac Failure – 2006

As of 2006, research is back on track with results showing an increased risk of death with diuretic use in some patients. 

“NPSDs [non-potassium sparing diuretics] are associated with increased risk of death, CVD [cardiovascular disease], progressive HF [heart failure] death, SCD [sudden cardiac death], and HF hospitalization.”

European Heart Journal – 2008

When we take a look at 2008 research, this time results from a study of more than 75000 people, we find that “Chronic diuretic use was associated with increased long-term mortality and hospitalizations in a wide spectrum of ambulatory chronic systolic and diastolic HF [heart failure] patients.”

ESC Heart Failure – 2018

Now we jump forward a decade with results from a review of all available, qualifying research. The research results concurred with nearly all previous research in that diuretic use causes an increased risk of death in patients with heart failure.

Medication Interactions

It’s important to share all current medications with all healthcare providers you visit. There is the potential for medication interactions with taking a prescription diuretic, and possibly, other natural or over-the-counter varieties. 

Possible interactions exist between diuretics and:

Glucocorticoids → increased hypokalemia

Carbamazepine → increased hyponatremia

ACE inhibitors → hypotension (especially first-dose hypotension)

Propranolol → increased hyperlipidemia and hyperglycemia

NSAIDs → ↓ diuretic effect, ↑ Effects of digitalis, methotrexate, and lithium

The possible interactions between medications and diuretics are something that’s been studied for decades. As far back as 1984, researchers knew of many possible interactions. 

“Interactions between diuretics and other substances may have beneficial or adverse consequences. Co-prescription of diuretics with antihypertensive agents, potassium, magnesium or acid salts, probenecid, quinidine, anticoagulants, lithium, cardiac glycosides, or other diuretics can result in both beneficial and adverse interactions. Laxatives, oral antidiabetic agents, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, adenylate cyclase activators, mineralocorticoids, hypolipidaemic agents, neuromuscular blockers, chloral hydrate, carbenoxolone, drugs likely to produce the syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone and some antibiotics may be involved in adverse interactions with diuretics.”

After another look through research, we found research dating back to 1978 discussing medication interactions of diuretic use.

There’s no need to risk medication interactions by taking diuretics if you’re looking to lose weight.

Noom is a clinically-proven method of weight loss that’s safe and effective.

Side Effects of Using Diuretics

Diuretic use is associated with life-saving medical outcomes, but there are risks and side effects to consider. In many cases, healthcare providers first treat the condition and then the patient. This means some potential side effects are considered “worth it” if the medication is working to help control a medical condition. 

However, even if this is the case with your healthcare provider, it is important to report any events of side effects as they could be a sign of a more serious condition. 

“Dizziness or headache


Rash or itching

Higher blood glucose or cholesterol level

Changes in your sexual function or menstrual period

Muscle cramps (loop diuretics)

Ringing in the ears (loop diuretics)

Low sodium, potassium, and/or magnesium levels in the blood (loop diuretics)

High potassium levels in the blood (potassium-sparing diuretics)

Enlarged breasts in men (Aldactone and Inspra),” according to EverydayHealth.com.

Other side effects may include dehydration, joint disorders, breast enlargement in men, and impotence.

Diuretics and Exercise

Diuretics aren’t always used for medical conditions, or use for medical conditions affects how the body reacts to exercise. Here’s a take from the experts on how diuretics and exercise are related. 

According to the American Council on Exercise (ACE), diuretics can cause excessively low blood pressure after exercise. If blood pressure is well within the normal range, especially in the lower normal range, you may experience some symptoms of hypotension or low blood pressure. Post-exercise blood pressure numbers drop. If you’re already at the lower end of normal, the extra drop could cause issues. ACE Fitness suggests gradually cooling down to ensure blood pressure doesn’t drastically drop. 

There’s also evidence that, in patients with stable angina, diuretic use decreases anginal effects.

Exercise Response to Cardiac Medications 

According to the Health Education Assessment Rehabilitation Toolkit, taking diuretics while exercising requires you to “Monitor for symptoms of hypotension and unexpected rapid weight changes. Over diuresis or fluid loss through vomiting or diarrhoea in the presence of diuretics, may exacerbate hypotension.” 

Diuretics and Weight Loss

As was the case with sports and bodybuilding, diuretics are often used for issues other than medical problems. One such use is as a weight-loss aid. 

There is no scientific evidence that shows taking diuretics, whether prescription or over-the-counter, is a treatment for weight loss. When patients have a condition that causes fluid retention, weight gain is common. The diuretic simply removes excess fluid, so the patient’s new weight is their actual weight. 

In one study from 1988, the amount of weight loss was directly linked to how much medication was required to reduce water weight.

The Final Take on Diuretics

Diuretics play a critical part in healthcare. Providers prescribe diuretics for patients with high blood pressure, heart failure, and other life-threatening conditions. No doubt, using these water pills is of benefit to millions, but there’s a darker side. 

Diuretics are often used for recreational purposes like water loss before an athletic competition, weight loss, and as part of a home detox or cleansing program. In all cases, the risk of hypokalemia, or low potassium levels, increases. Potassium, which is an electrolyte, is required for various functions, including heart function. 

Diuretics must be used with caution and under the care of a healthcare provider. Using diuretics for recreational purposes may put the user at increased risk of life-threatening side effects.  

Check out Noom today for natural, effective weight-loss solutions backed by the power of psychology and clinical research. 

Diuretics Questions and Answers

 What are the three types of diuretics?

 The three most well-known types of diuretics are loop acting diuretics, potassium sparing diuretics, and thiazide diuretics.

 How do diuretics work?

 Diuretics work by “increasing the amount of salt and water that comes out through your urine. Too much salt can cause extra fluid to build up in your blood vessels, raising your blood pressure. Diuretics lower your blood pressure by flushing salt out of your body, taking this unwanted extra fluid with it.” This is also how diuretics work to decrease water retention, as per Blood Pressure UK.

 What drinks are diuretics?

 Some diuretic drinks include coffee, dandelion tea, green tea, and black tea. Caffeine sources of all kinds also have a diuretic effect.

 Why are diuretics banned?

 Diuretics are banned in sports because they can increase weight loss and facilitate the removal of drugs from the system through increased urination.

 Are diuretics dangerous?

 Diuretics are not considered dangerous when used as prescribed. All ages, from children to aging adults, are prescribed diuretics for various health concerns. Natural or supplemental diuretics have not been tested on anyone under the age of 18.

 Are coffee, tea, or caffeine a diuretic?

 Yes. Coffee, tea, and all caffeinated drinks have a diuretic effect.

 What is a natural diuretic?

 A natural diuretic is one that occurs in nature and was not developed in a laboratory. Typically over-the-counter supplements and diuretics include natural ingredients, whereas prescription medications don’t tend to be natural.

 What does a diuretic do?

 A diuretic forces extra salt and water out of the body through urination. The extra fluid is naturally flushed out.

 What are diuretics used for?

 Diuretics are used for various health conditions, including high blood pressure, congestive heart failure, kidney disease, and edema.

 Is water a diuretic?

 Yes. Water is a natural diuretic. 

Acetaminophen+Pamabrom drug information | DrugsUpdate India

See Available Brands of Acetaminophen+Pamabrom in India

Acetaminophen+Pamabrom is indicated for the treatment of mild aches and pains including backache, headache, premenstrual and menstrual cramps, menstrual period associated symptoms including fluid retention and bloating.


No information available


No information available

Acetaminophen+Pamabrom Indications / Acetaminophen+Pamabrom Uses

No information available

Acetaminophen+Pamabrom Adverse Reactions / Acetaminophen+Pamabrom Side Effects

Hepatic-related serious adverse events are the commonly reported adverse events of Acetaminophen/Pamabrom.


Acetaminophen/Pamabrom is contraindicated in patients with allergy to Acetaminophen.

Special Precautions

No information available

Other Drug Interactions

Do not take Acetaminophen-containing formulations concomitantly while taking Acetaminophen/Pamabrom.

Other Interactions

Limit or avoid consuming alcohol while taking Acetaminophen/Pamabrom.


Adults and children (12 years and above):
Take 2 pills every 4-6 hours (Acetaminophen 500 mg and Pamabrom 25 mg). The maximum daily dose should not exceed 8 pills.


Acetaminophen/Pamabrom can be taken before or after food intake. Take after meals, if it causes GI discomforts.

List of Contraindications

Acetaminophen+Pamabrom and Pregnancy

No information available

Acetaminophen+Pamabrom and Lactation

Nursing mothers should consult a physician before taking Acetaminophen/Pamabrom tablets

Acetaminophen+Pamabrom and Children

No information available

Acetaminophen+Pamabrom and Geriatic

No information available

Acetaminophen+Pamabrom and Other Contraindications

No information available


Store at room temperature. Avoid exposure to heat and light.

Lab interference

Store at room temperature. Avoid exposure to heat and light.

Diuretics – Mayo Clinic


Diuretics, also called water pills, are a common treatment for high blood pressure. Find out how they work and when you might need them.

By Mayo Clinic Staff

Diuretics, sometimes called water pills, help rid your body of salt (sodium) and water. Most of them help your kidneys release more sodium into your urine. The sodium takes with it water from your blood, decreasing the amount of fluid flowing through your veins and arteries. This reduces blood pressure.

Examples of diuretics

There are three types of diuretics:

  • Thiazide
  • Loop
  • Potassium sparing

Each type affects a different part of your kidneys. Some pills combine more than one type of diuretic or combine a diuretic with another blood pressure medication.

Which diuretic is best for you depends on your health and the condition being treated.

Examples of oral thiazide diuretics include:

  • Chlorothiazide (Diuril)
  • Chlorthalidone
  • Hydrochlorothiazide (Microzide)
  • Indapamide
  • Metolazone

Examples of loop diuretics include:

  • Bumetanide (Bumex)
  • Ethacrynic acid (Edecrin)
  • Furosemide (Lasix)
  • Torsemide (Demadex)

Examples of potassium-sparing diuretics include:

  • Amiloride
  • Eplerenone (Inspra)
  • Spironolactone (Aldactone, Carospir)
  • Triamterene (Dyrenium)

When diuretics are used

Thiazide diuretics are recommended as one of the first drug treatments for high blood pressure.

If diuretics aren’t enough to lower your blood pressure, your doctor might add other blood pressure medications to your treatment plan.

Diuretics are also used to prevent, treat or improve symptoms in people who have:

  • Heart failure
  • Liver failure
  • Tissue swelling (edema)
  • Certain kidney disorders, such as kidney stones

Side effects

Diuretics are generally safe. Side effects include increased urination and sodium loss.

Diuretics can also affect blood potassium levels. If you take a thiazide diuretic, your potassium level can drop too low (hypokalemia), which can cause life-threatening problems with your heartbeat. If you’re on a potassium-sparing diuretic, you can have too much potassium in your blood.

Other possible side effects of diuretics include:

  • Dizziness
  • Headaches
  • Dehydration
  • Muscle cramps
  • Joint disorders (gout)
  • Impotence

Oct. 19, 2019

Show references

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  2. Mann JFE. Choice of drug therapy in primary (essential) hypertension. https://www.uptodate.com/contents/search. Accessed June 25, 2019.
  3. Cifu AS, et al. Prevention, detection, evaluation and management of high blood pressure in adults. JAMA. 2017;18:2132.
  4. Brater DC, et al. Mechanism of action of diuretics. https://www.uptodate.com/contents/search. Accessed June 25, 2019.
  5. Drug record: Diuretics. National Institutes of Health. https://livertox.nlm.nih.gov/Diuretics.htm. Accessed June 25, 2019.
  6. Reboussin DM, et al. Systematic review for the 2017 ACC/AHA/AAPA/ABC/ACPM/AGS/APhA/ASH/ASPC/NMA/PCNA guideline for the prevention, detection, evaluation, and management of high blood pressure in adults: A report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Clinical Practice Guidelines. Circulation. 2018;138:e595.
  7. Aronson JK. Diuretics. In: Meyler’s Side Effects of Drugs. 16th ed. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier; 2016. https://www.clinicalkey.com. Accessed June 26, 2019.
  8. Whelton PK, et al. 2017 ACC/AHA/AAPA/ABC/ACPM/AGS/APhA/ASH/ASPC/NMA/PCNA guideline for the prevention, detection, evaluation, and management of high blood pressure in adults: A report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Clinical Practice Guidelines. Hypertension. 2018;71:e13.

See more In-depth


Diurex Reviews: Can Water Pills Help Weight Loss?

Diurex Water Pills (by Alva-Amco Pharmacal Companies)



  • Contains Caffeine
  • Available in stores


  • Potential side effects
  • Few Ineffective Ingredients
  • Critical Customer Reviews

Diurex Summary

Most of Diurex products contain Caffeine as its main diuretic ingredient. Caffeine is not an effective diuretic as the drug Pamabrom. There may be caffeine-related side effects with most Diurex products. Diurex Water Pills contain a NSAID for pain relief so there are more potential side effects. There are mixed reviews about Diurex’s water retention abilities. There is no evidence showing that Diurex can effectively help with weight loss.

If you want a natural way to lose weight, shrink that waistline, and feel energized, check out our top fat burner.

Diurex Water Pill Reviews

Diurex or also known by its generic name “pamabrom” is a diuretic water pill, meaning that it works by increasing urination.

It claims to do the following things:

  • Relieve water weight gain
  • Relieve bloat, swelling & fatigue
  • Relieve menstrual discomforts

Can Diurex really help you with weight loss and bloating?

We’ll take a closer look in this Diurex review and see if Diurex will work for you.

How Does Diurex Work?

To understand how Diurex works, we have to understand how a diuretic works.

Generally, diuretics increase urination in the body. It does this by making your kidneys release more sodium in your urine. The sodium then takes water from your blood along with it into your urine. This decreases the amount of fluid in your bloodstream, which decreases the pressure in the blood vessel walls. This leads to the reduction of swelling, bloating, and fullness.

Diurex Ingredients

Here’s the list of active ingredients in Diurex Water Pills:

  • Caffeine (50 mg)
  • Magnesium Salicylate (162.5 mg)

Let’s see what each of these ingredients do and how they can help you.


Caffeine is commonly found in coffee or processed synthetically in labs. It’s also a diuretic ingredient.

Some benefits of Caffeine are decreased fatigue, improved memory, and mental functioning.

Caffeine is also used in diet pills and weight loss supplements for its appetite suppressing and metabolism-boosting abilities.

The dosage of Caffeine in Diurex is the same amount as one cup of coffee.

This is a good ingredient to have in Diurex to fight fatigue and boost your energy.

Magnesium Salicylate

Magnesium Salicylate is a NSAID (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug) that reduces substances in the body that cause mild-to-moderate pain, fever, and inflammation.

It can also treat pain, swelling, or stiffness associated with arthritis or premenstrual/menstrual periods.

This ingredient in Diurex is good for relieving minor aches and pains and bloating.

Diurex Water Pills Ingredients Summary

Diurex Water Pills contain Caffeine, which is good to reduce your fatigue and boost your energy. It also has Magnesium Salicylate which is effective in reducing pain, inflammation, and bloating.

Diurex Dosage

Diurex Water Pills dosage contains 50 mg of Caffeine and 162.5 mg of Magnesium Salicylate.

The label states that adults should take 2 pills every 4 to 6 hours, not exceeding 8 pills a day. It’s also recommended by the label to drink 6 to 8 glasses of water daily with it.

Diurex Side Effects

Magnesium Salicylate can cause severe allergic reactions such as:

  • hives
  • facial swelling
  • asthma
  • shock

If you have a history of allergies to aspirin or any other NSAIDs, consult a doctor before taking Diurex.

It is also recommended to limit the use of other caffeine products, food, or beverages to reduce unwanted caffeine-related side effects.

Diurex Product Warnings

Diurex Water Pills contains a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug and is not recommended for:

  • Children and teenagers
  • Pregnant or breastfeeding women
  • People over the age of 60
  • People with a history of stomach ulcers or stomach bleeding
  • People who take other drugs containing NSAIDs
  • People who consume excessive alcohol

It is highly recommended to talk to your doctor before taking Diurex Water Pills.

Diurex Walgreens

You can buy Diurex products over the counter or in the drug section of local retailers like Walgreens, CVS, Walmart, and Target.

Diurex Before and After Pictures

There are currently no reliable Diurex before and after pictures available on the internet. If there are, they may be fake before and after pictures or pictures meant for a different product.

Diurex Customer Reviews

We’re going to check out the “Verified Purchase” reviews on Amazon about Diurex Water Pills.

“Was not able to tell a difference in fluid retention.”

This user stated that they were not able to benefit from Diurex. It was not effective in helping them lose water weight and relieve bloating.

“This product worked for me just a little pricey and not enough pills!”

This user claimed that Diurex did work for them. However, they also thought there were not enough capsules included in one pack of Diurex for the expensive price.

“I do not think these pills work as good as some others, or like they used to a few years ago in my opinion, because I can barely tell I am losing any water bloat from them. Usually I will go a lot during the day and I KNOW they are working. Not so with these water pills soI will not buy them again once they’re gone & I will look for another method to reduce water bloat.“

This user complained that they didn’t feel like they were any less bloated. They have tried other water pills and claims that the other ones do help increase urination for them. However, Diurex has not done that for them and this user will not be re-purchasing Diurex again.

Diurex Max Review

Diurex Max is a “maximum strength” diuretic water pill that claims to relieve:

  • Water weight gain
  • Bloat & puffiness
  • Water retention

Let’s take a look at how effective Diurex Max is for weight loss.

Diurex Max Ingredients

The main active ingredient in Diurex Max is Pamabrom (50 mg).

Pamabrom is a known diuretic drug that is used to treat bloating, swelling, feelings of fullness, and water weight gain associated with menstrual periods.

It is also unknown if Pamabrom will help you weight loss but it will help you with bloating and puffiness.

Diurex Max Side Effects

A common side effect of Diurex Max may be gold-colored urine, which is normal and not a cause for concern.

Diurex Ultra Water Weight Loss Review

Diurex Ultra Water Weight Loss pill is the caffeine-based version in the Diurex diuretic water pill product line.

It claims to help you:

  • Re-energize
  • Feel better and less heavy
  • Effectively relieve bloat

Let’s take a closer look at what Diurex Ultra really does.

Diurex Ultra Ingredients

The main active ingredient in Diurex Ultra is Caffeine Anhydrous (100mg)

Caffeine Anhydrous is a dehydrated and synthetically processed form of Caffeine. It’s much more potent and concentrated than regular caffeine.

The benefits of Caffeine Anhydrous are that it gives you a boost of energy, increases your metabolism, and suppresses your appetite.

This is good for weight loss and fatigue but doesn’t do much for relieving bloat and swelling.

Diurex Ultra Side Effects

There may be caffeine-related side effects associated with the Caffeine Anhydrous in Diurex Ultra.

Depending on your sensitivity to caffeine, you may experience these side effects:

  • Nervousness
  • Irritability
  • Sleeplessness
  • Rapid heart rate
  • Headaches
  • Nausea

Talk to your doctor before using Diurex Ultra if you have any concerns or allergies.

Diurex Ultimate Review

Diurex Ultimate is a caffeine-based diuretic pill, almost identical to Diurex Ultra.

It claims to help relieve:

  • Water retention
  • Bloating and swelling
  • Fatigue
  • Full feeling

Does Diurex Ultimate really help relieve all this?

Diurex Ultimate Ingredients

Similar to Diurex Ultra, Diurex Ultimate contains Caffeine Anhydrous (100mg) as its main active ingredient.

Caffeine Anhydrous is a synthetically processed and potent form of caffeine. It’s also the main diuretic ingredient.

It can also help with weight loss by increasing your metabolism and energy and reducing your appetite.

Diurex Ultimate Side Effects

If you are sensitive to caffeine, there may be some caffeine-related side effects in Diurex Ultimate such as:

  • Jitteriness
  • Insomnia
  • Increased heart rate
  • Headaches
  • Nausea

Consult a health professional before use if you have any allergies or concerns.

Does Diurex Help You Lose Weight?

Diurex claims to be able to help you lose your water weight, relieve bloating and fatigue. We’ve looked at most of the products in the Diurex product line and here’s what you need to know:

  1. Diurex Water Pills and Aqua Gels use Caffeine as their main diuretic ingredient.
  2. Diurex Water Pills + Pain Relief contain Caffeine and Magnesium Salicylate, a NSAID used for pain relief.
  3. Diurex Ultra and Diurex Ultimate are essentially the same product that used Caffeine Anhydrous (100 mg) as their main diuretic ingredient.
  4. Diurex Max is caffeine-free and uses Pamabrom (50mg) as its main diuretic ingredient.

Caffeine and Caffeine Anhydrous are less effective diuretic ingredients that can also be used for weight loss. It can help you raise your metabolism, suppress your appetite, and give you a boost in energy. However, it is not known to relieve bloating and swelling.

If you’re looking for a good diuretic, note that Pamabrom is a much more effective diuretic ingredient than Caffeine. Pamabrom is known to help reduce swelling, bloating, and inflammation.

Caffeine is found in a lot of products and supplements, so we wouldn’t recommend paying top dollar for a diuretic that is mainly caffeine.

If you’re serious about losing weight and shedding pounds, then we would recommend an all-natural fat burning supplement.

What’s good about an all-natural fat burner:

  • Natural ingredients – reduces the potential for serious side effects
  • More fat burning ingredients to help take your weight loss further than water weight
  • Works with your diet to help you maximize your fat-burning results

This is if you’re looking to effectively lose weight. Diurex is good if you want an energy boost from the caffeine or looking to temporarily reduce the bloating and swelling.


  • What are Diurex water pills used for?

Diurex water pills are used to increase urination and help you relieve bloating, fatigue, swelling, and fullness.

  • What are the side effects of Diurex?

The side effects of Diurex depend on the Diurex product but the most common side effects may be caffeine-related side effects such as headaches, restlessness, sleeplessness, and rapid heart rate.

Diurex Water Pills + Pain Relief contain Magnesium Salicylate which is a NSAID and can cause serious allergic reactions, so consult your doctor first before using.

  • Does Diurex help you lose weight?

Diurex claims to help you lose water weight by increasing urination but there’s no evidence that Diurex helps you effectively lose weight.

  • How long does it take for Diurex to work?

Depending on your sensitivity to caffeine and pamabrom, it can work as fast as your body responds to it. Results will vary from person to person.

  • What does Diurex do to your body?

Depending on the Diurex product, the caffeine in Diurex can increase your metabolism, causing you to increase urination.

Pamabrom in Diurex increases the amount of salt and water in your kidney to release into your urine. The sodium takes water from your blood and decreases the amount of fluid in your blood vessels. This reduces the pressure on your blood vessel walls and causes the reduction in swelling and bloating.

  • Is Diurex good for weight loss?

Diurex is not good for weight loss because it mainly increases urination and reduces swelling. It has no effect on fat-burning or weight loss in the body.

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Why menstrual cramps hurt so much and the best painkillers to try

If you suffer from bad menstrual cramps or know someone who does, you’d know that it’s not just in the mind – and saying things like “just deal with it” and “other women also have it” just doesn’t help.

Many women do indeed experience painful menstrual cramps or primary dysmenorrhoea that is not caused by gynaecological disease.



This is different from the period pain caused by reproductive disorders such as endometriosis, fibroids and pelvic inflammatory disease, which is known as secondary dysmenorrhoea. The cramps caused by intrauterine contraceptive devices, especially copper ones, are also classified as secondary dysmenorrhoea.

READ: Is heavy menstrual bleeding normal? And what does eating pineapple have to do with it?

In fact, dysmenorrhea is one of the common gynaecological problems among women, according to Dr Susan Logan, a senior consultant at National University Hospital’s Division of Reproductive Endocrinology & Infertility, under the Department of Obstetrics & Gynaecology. 

“The prevalence of dysmenorrhoea can vary between 16 per cent and 91 per cent in women of reproductive age.”



Yet, despite the monthly pain, only about 6 per cent consulted a doctor for their problem, according to a 1992 community-based questionnaire survey on 415 women aged 15 to 54 in Clementi, cited Dr Logan, who is also the co-lead for women’s health at Alexandra Hospital.

(Photo: iStock/bernie photo)


“Pain tolerance is different in every woman but dysmenorrhoea is not an uncommon referral to emergency departments,” said Dr Logan.


Women with primary dysmenorrhoea tend to have raised levels of prostaglandins (fat compounds that have hormone-like effects), which cause more intense contractions of the uterus than normal.

According to Dr Logan, prostaglandins are secreted by the uterine lining at the beginning of menstruation, usually in the first one or two days. These prostaglandins are what cause the uterus to contract and dislodge the lining, which women experience as the monthly menstrual flow. “The intensity of the pain is proportionate to the amount of prostaglandins released,” she said.

Dysmenorrhoea is not an uncommon referral to emergency departments.

Other hormones that can cause painful periods include progesterone and vasopressin, said Dr Logan. For progesterone, it is a drop in its level that leads to the cramps. Meanwhile, vasopressin also causes uterine contractions like prostaglandins.

“Menstrual cycles, where ovulation does not take place, are usually less painful or painless,” said Dr Logan. That’s right, women do not always ovulate every month and this phenomenon can be caused by extreme stress or medical issues such as hypothyroidism.  

However, despite knowing the hormones that come into play, “the pathophysiology of primary dysmenorrhoea is not completely understood”, said Dr Logan.

(Photo: iStock/pepifoto)


Until companies and human resource departments implement menstrual leave or make work-from-home arrangements an option, women continue to pad up and soldier on when it comes to the time of the month.

But there are pain relief methods that purportedly help to alleviate the monthly discomfort. CNA Lifestyle poses these methods to the experts to find out how they work.

If you’re not opposed to taking painkillers, they are actually the “simple, natural choice for dysmenorrhoea”, said Dr Tan Toh Lick, an obstetrician and gynaecologist with Thomson Women’s Clinic (Jurong) and Thomson Surgical Centre.

Paracetamol is the most common painkiller here. “It is useful for women who are unable to take nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs,” said Dr Tan. (More about NSAIDs in a bit.)

“It also does not typically have bad gastrointestinal side effects” and “can be taken with or without food”, he added.

READ: What causes water retention and how to deal with swollen ankles and fingers

What about Panadol Menstrual versus regular Panadol? The menstrual version has pain-relieving paracetamol as well as pamabrom, which is a mild diuretic to help relieve water retention and bloating. So, if cramps are the main problem (and not bloating), regular Panadol will do the trick.

But paracetamol’s availability may sometimes cause people to be complacent. For instance, it should not be taken if you have acute or severe liver disease, cautioned Dr Tan. “It can also affect other medication, including anti-convulsants.”

(Photo: iStock/Milos Dimic)

Although less commonly used in Singapore, NSAIDs such as the prescription-only mefenamic acid are also available.

In fact, mefenamic acid can be more effective than paracetamol as it can “block prostaglandin action”, said Dr Tan. Like other NSAIDs, mefenamic acid can also “inhibit prostaglandin synthesis”.

Mefenamic acid has its downsides though. It has to be taken with food, and it should not be used if you have gastric bleeding or ulcer; inflammatory bowel disease; renal, liver or heart disease; a history of asthma; or an allergy to NSAIDs such as aspirin, cautioned Dr Tan.

Furthermore, mefenamic acid can interact with medications such as those for blood pressure. It may also have a “negative effect” on ovulation, he advised, which may make it unsuitable for women trying to conceive.

Google “period pain” and you’ll see advertisements that advocate certain vitamins and minerals for dysmenorrhoea. But do they work? “There is a paucity of evidence with most data limited to a few small studies,” said Dr Tan.

But if you’re still keen to give vitamins a go, 50,000 IU of Vitamin D a week for eight weeks “appear to reduce dysmenorrhoea in women with Vitamin D deficiency” in studies, he said.

Dietitian Caleb Mok with PanAsia Surgery highlighted that “Vitamin D deficiency is widespread nowadays” and it is “recommended to check your blood Vitamin D levels and replenish accordingly”.

Still, taking 50,000 IU of Vitamin D a week, or more than 7,100 IU a day (you need only 400 IU to 800 IU daily) is astronomically high, said Dr Tan. If you wish to supplement with Vitamin D, it is prudent to see a doctor or dietitian about the dosage you need.

(Photo: iStock/enviromantic)

The nutrient most commonly associated with milk and cheese can purportedly reduce cramps by 58 per cent. Some studies even associate more muscle spasms and contractions in the uterus with low calcium levels, said Jaclyn Reutens, a dietitian and the founder of Aptima Nutrition & Sports Consultants.

As for the dosage and frequency, they vary, she said. For instance, one study suggested 500mg to 1,000mg a day, while another recommended 1,000mg of calcium on the 15th day of the menstrual cycle to reduce the impending menstrual cramps.

There is a low risk of over-dosing as the daily recommended allowance for calcium, according to the Healthhub website, is about 800mg to 1,000mg. If you’re concerned about the dosage, check with your doctor first before starting supplementation.

“Avoid taking calcium with iron and zinc supplements, thyroid medications and certain antibiotics,” cautioned Reutens.

(Photo: Unsplash/Amanda Jones)

Magnesium acts like a muscle relaxant, according to Reutens. “It helps to soothe and tone the uterine muscles, and reduces the prostaglandins that cause pain,” she said.

It also appears to work well when taken together with Vitamin B6, which is associated with the nervous system, Reutens noted. “In a clinical study of 150 women, the combination of magnesium (250mg) and Vitamin B6 (40mg) had the best pain relief as compared to the placebo group or the group taking only magnesium (250mg).”

Reutens recommended a daily dose of 250mg to 350mg of magnesium but no more than 350mg a day to avoid over-dosing.

READ: Not sure if you can exercise during your period? Here’s what the experts say

However, magnesium isn’t suitable for individuals with severe kidney impairment. Also, avoid taking magnesium with antibiotics as the supplement can decrease certain antibiotics’ effectiveness or reduce the amount of antibiotics your body absorbs.

Your best bet: Take the antibiotics at least two hours before, or four to six hours after magnesium supplements.

“In our typical diet, the arachidonic acid from animal-derived foods collects in the uterus and this can lead to inflammation,” said Reutens. “Omega-3 fatty acids are known for their anti-inflammatory properties that can help to relieve pain.”

READ: Sharper brain, higher pain threshold – here’s how to take advantage of your cycle

Omega-3 fatty acids may also contribute to “healthy clotting mechanisms” by suppressing the production of prostaglandins, she said, adding that the pills also provide heart-healthy benefits.

Reutens suggested taking 1,000mg daily to help with menstrual cramps but avoid taking omega fatty acids with anti-coagulants, anti-platelet medicine, or any blood-thinning medicines or supplements.

(Photo: Unsplash/leohoho)

There are some common natural remedies that may help to relieve primary dysmenorrhea, said Mok. They usually do so by “promoting muscle relaxation, balancing the natural chemicals in the body that cause uterine contractions, and reducing inflammation that causes pain”, he said.

Still, he said that it is “strongly advisable” to consult your doctor first, especially if you have other health issues or are taking medications, before taking any herbs.

(Photo: Unsplash/Katrina Wright)

Fennel seeds and their extract have been used by parents to soothe the muscle spasms in colicky infants, said Mok, and the herb’s muscle-calming ability may also apply to painful menstrual cramps.  “The benefit may be related to the inhibition of pain-inducing cytokines in the body,” said Mok.

“In one study, consuming capsules containing 30mg of fennel extract four times a day for three days prior to the start of the menstruation has shown significant reduction in menstrual pain among the study group,” he said.

The oil is rich in anti-inflammatory fatty acids, such as gamma-linolenic acid, which may modulate the inflammatory signals in the body that are associated with pain.

“Studies have found evening primrose oil or GLA to be effective in reducing menstrual cramps and premenstrual syndrome,” said Mok.

According to Healthline, the recommended dose is eight to 12 capsules a day, at 500mg per capsule.

(Photo: iStock/botamochi)

No stranger in Asian cuisines, ginger has also been used by proponents of natural remedies to help alleviate cramps, said Mok.

He added: “Ginger is rich in anti-inflammatory and antioxidative phytochemicals that can combat inflammation, and balance the chemicals in the body which cause pain”.

READ: Period-proof underwear is a thing – and can help ladies during awkward moments

In fact, a review of seven studies, including over 600 women, found that consuming 750mg to 2,000mg of ginger powder during the first three to four days of their period appeared to help reduce period pain.

A study on 168 female college students noted that taking 200mg of ginger (in capsules) every six hours was as effective as Novafen, which is a combination of ibuprofen, acetaminophen and caffeine, at reducing menstrual pain.

(Photo: Unsplash/Kim Cruickshanks)

If you’re not keen to buy ginger capsules from the pharmacy (although the studies showing ginger’s efficacy is based on capsules), you could make a ginger tea by grating the root into hot water, suggested Mok.

According to Mok, chamomile tea may increase glycine, which is a nerve and muscle relaxant, in the body.

“In addition, the phytochemicals in chamomile may also reduce the production of prostaglandins in the uterus,” he said.

Mok suggested drinking two cups of chamomile tea a day for a week before the start of every period.

Acetaminophen and Pamabrom | Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center

This document, provided by Lexicomp ® , contains all the information you need to know about the drug, including the indications, route of administration, side effects and when you should contact your healthcare provider.

Trade names: USA

Cramp Tabs [OTC]; Midol Caffeine Free [OTC]; Tylenol Women’s Menstrual Relief [OTC] [DSC]

Trade names: Canada

Painaid PMF Premenstrual

What is this drug used for?

  • Used to relieve pain during the menstrual cycle.
  • This medicinal product can be used for other indications. Consult your doctor.

What should I tell my doctor BEFORE taking this drug?

  • If you are allergic to acetaminophen, pamabrom, or any other component of this medicine.
  • If you are allergic to this drug, any of its ingredients, other drugs, foods or substances. Tell your doctor about your allergy and how it manifested itself.

Combination of this drug with certain medications and medical conditions may be adverse.

Tell your doctor and pharmacist about all the medicines you take (both prescription and over-the-counter, natural products and vitamins) and your health problems. You need to make sure that this drug is safe for your medical conditions and in combination with other drugs you are already taking. Do not start or stop taking any drug or change the dosage without your doctor’s approval.

What do I need to know or do while taking this drug?

  • Tell all healthcare providers that you are taking this drug. These are doctors, nurses, pharmacists and dentists.
  • It is not recommended to use other medicinal products containing acetaminophen. Read the instructions for medicines carefully. Taking too much acetaminophen can lead to liver problems.
  • This medicine contains acetaminophen.Liver disorders have been reported during acetaminophen use. In some cases, these disorders required liver transplantation or resulted in death. In most cases, liver problems have occurred in patients taking more than 4,000 milligrams (mg) of acetaminophen per day. Often, patients used not one, but several drugs containing acetaminophen.
  • Follow the instructions exactly. Do not exceed your prescribed daily dose of acetaminophen.If you are unsure of the daily dose of acetaminophen, ask your doctor or pharmacist for it. Some patients may take this drug in doses of up to 4,000 milligrams (mg) per day as directed by a healthcare practitioner. Some patients (such as those with liver disease and children) require a lower acetaminophen dose. If you have exceeded your daily dose of acetaminophen, contact your doctor immediately, even if you do not feel worse.
  • Consult a physician before drinking alcohol.
  • This drug is not approved for use in children under 12 years of age. Consult your doctor.
  • Tell your doctor if you are pregnant or planning to become pregnant. The benefits and risks of taking this drug during pregnancy will need to be discussed.
  • Tell your doctor if you are breastfeeding. It is necessary to consult if the drug poses any risk to the child.

What side effects should I report to my doctor immediately?

WARNING. In rare cases, some people with this drug can have serious and sometimes deadly side effects. Call your doctor or get medical help right away if you have any of the following signs or symptoms, which may be associated with serious side effects:

  • Signs of an allergic reaction such as rash, hives, itching, reddened and swollen skin with blistering or scaling, possibly associated with fever, wheezing or wheezing, tightness in the chest or throat, difficulty breathing, swallowing or speaking, unusual hoarseness, swelling in the mouth, face, lips, tongue, or throat.
  • Signs of liver problems such as dark urine, feeling tired, lack of appetite, nausea or abdominal pain, light stools, vomiting, yellowing of the skin and eyes.
  • Possible severe skin reaction (Stevens-Johnson syndrome / toxic epidermal necrolysis). This can lead to serious and permanent health problems and sometimes death. Get immediate medical attention if you experience symptoms such as redness, skin swelling with blistering or scaling (with or without a high fever), eye redness or irritation, or ulceration in the mouth, throat, nose, or eyes.

What are some other side effects of this drug?

Any drug can have side effects. However, many people have little or no side effects. Contact your doctor or get medical help if you are concerned about any side effects, or if the side effects are persistent.

This list of possible side effects is not exhaustive. If you have any questions about side effects, please contact your doctor.Talk to your doctor about side effects.

You can report side effects to the National Health Office.

You can report side effects to the FDA at 1-800-332-1088. You can also report side effects at https://www.fda.gov/medwatch.

What is the best way to take this drug?

Use this drug as directed by your healthcare practitioner. Read all the information provided to you.Follow all instructions strictly.

  • Take this medication with or without food.

What should I do if a dose of a drug is missed?

  • If you are taking this medication regularly, take the missed dose as soon as you can.
  • If it is time for your next dose, do not take the missed dose and then return to your normal dose schedule.
  • Do not take 2 doses at the same time or an additional dose.
  • In most cases, this drug is used as needed. Do not take this medicine more often than prescribed by your doctor.

How do I store and / or discard this drug?

  • Store at room temperature.
  • Store in a dry place. Do not store in the bathroom.
  • Store all medicines in a safe place. Keep all medicines out of the reach of children and pets.
  • Dispose of unused or expired drugs.Do not empty into toilet or drain unless directed to do so. If you have any questions about the disposal of your medicinal products, consult your pharmacist. Your area may have drug recycling programs.

General information on medicinal products

  • If your health does not improve or even worsens, see your doctor.
  • You should not give your medicine to anyone and take other people’s medicines.
  • Some medicines may have different patient information sheets. If you have questions about this drug, talk with your doctor, nurse, pharmacist, or other healthcare professional.
  • Some medicines may have different patient information sheets. Check with your pharmacist. If you have questions about this drug, talk with your doctor, nurse, pharmacist, or other healthcare professional.
  • If you think there has been an overdose of a drug, call a Poison Control Center immediately or seek medical attention. Be prepared to tell or show which drug you took, how much and when it happened.

Use of information by the consumer and limitation of liability

This information should not be used to make decisions about taking this or any other drug. Only the attending physician has the necessary knowledge and experience to make decisions about which drugs are appropriate for a particular patient.This information does not guarantee that the drug is safe, effective, or approved for the treatment of any disease or specific patient. Here are only brief general information about this drug. It does NOT contain all available information on the possible use of the drug with instructions for use, warnings, precautions, information about interactions, side effects and risks that may be associated with this drug. This information should not be construed as a treatment guide and does not replace information provided to you by your healthcare professional.For complete information on the possible risks and benefits of taking this drug, consult your doctor. Use of this information is governed by the Lexicomp End User License Agreement available at https://www.wolterskluwer.com/en/solutions/lexicomp/about/eula.


© UpToDate, Inc. and its affiliates and / or licensors, 2021. All rights reserved.

90,000 official instructions for use, analogs, price, availability in pharmacies

Currently, the drug is not listed in the State Register
medicines or the specified registration number is excluded from the register.

Registration number:

P N015016 / 01

Trade name of the preparation:


Dosage form:

film-coated tablets.


Active Ingredients:
paracetamol 500 mg
pamabrom 25 mg
pyrilamine maleate 15 mg

Inactive ingredients:
Calcium sulfate, cross-carmellose sodium, lactose, magnesium oxide, magnesium silicate, magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose, mineral oil, polyethylene glycol, potassium gluconate, sodium lauryl sulfate, sodium lauryl sulfate, sodium starch, stearic acid.
Sheath: Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, titanium dioxide

Tablets are biconvex, oval in shape with a white shell, the color of the tablets at the break is white. One of the sides is embossed with CPC 2444, the other is smooth.

Pharmacotherapeutic group:

analgesic non-narcotic drug

ATX code: N02BE51.

Pharmacological properties.
Combined drug action, which is due to the effects of its constituent ingredients (pamabrom – a diuretic that promotes the elimination of fluid from the body, paracetamol – an analgesic that eliminates pain, pyrilamine maleate – an antagonist of H 1 -histamine receptors). The drug Femizol is intended to relieve such symptoms of premenstrual syndrome as: bloating, weight gain due to fluid retention in the body, headaches and back pain.

treatment of premenstrual syndrome.

Dosage and administration

Take 1-2 tablets with water. Reception can be repeated every 4-6 hours, as needed, but not more than 8 tablets per day.

Side effects:

Drowsiness, dizziness.
Rarely – allergic reactions (skin rash, urticaria, angioedema). With prolonged use in high doses, a hepatotoxic effect is possible.In isolated cases: thrombocytopenia. hemolytic anemia.

Children under 15 years old.
Hypersensitivity to the ingredients of the preparation.
Severe liver and / or kidney dysfunctions.

Special instructions.
Femizol should not be taken for more than 10 days in a row, unless prescribed by your doctor. If pain persists for more than 10 days, see your doctor immediately.Do not take this drug unless directed by your doctor if you have a respiratory problem or if you have glaucoma. Avoid drinking alcoholic beverages while taking this drug. During lactation, it should be prescribed only if clearly necessary.


Excitatory effect on the central nervous system (hallucinations, impaired coordination of movements, convulsions). Treatment is symptomatic.

Influence on the ability to drive a car and other mechanisms:
While taking Femizol, you should refrain from driving vehicles and working with mechanisms.

Release form.
24 tablets in white HDPE round vials with white polypropylene screw cap sealed with foil. The bottle, together with the instructions for use, is placed in a cardboard box.

Storage conditions.
Store in a dry place, out of the reach of children, at a temperature of 15 – 30 ° C.

Expiry date.
2 years.
Do not use after the expiry date stated on the package.

Conditions for dispensing from pharmacies.
Without prescription.


Sagmel, Inc., Chicago, USA. 1580 South Milwaukee Avenue, 415, Libertville, IL 60048.

For more information, please contact:
107113 Moscow, 3rd Rybinskaya St., 18, bldg. 2

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FEMIZOL: instructions, reviews, analogues, price in pharmacies

FEMIZOL: instructions, reviews, analogues, price in pharmacies – Medcentre.com.ua

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How do you assess the effectiveness of FEMIZOL?

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Preparation Femizol is a combined analgesic agent used in gynecology.
Acetaminophen (paracetamol) is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug that has an analgesic, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory effect by affecting the center of thermoregulation and inhibiting the synthesis of prostaglandins in the central nervous system.
Pamabrom is a diuretic of the xanthine group, has an antispasmodic and diuretic effect. The antispasmodic effect is associated with the accumulation of cAMP, which interferes with the ability of myosin to interact with actin and reduces the contractile ability of smooth muscles. The diuretic effect is associated with a decrease in tubular reabsorption of water, sodium and chloride.
Pyrilamine maleate is a blocker of H1-histamine receptors, which has an antihistamine effect, primarily by blocking the allergic component of the inflammatory reaction.
Femizol eliminates the symptoms of premenstrual syndrome (lower abdominal pain, headache, back pain, cramps, bloating, swelling, irritability, sleep disturbances).

Indications for use

Femizol is indicated for the symptomatic treatment of premenstrual syndrome.

Directions for use

Femizol take 1-2 tablets with water.
Reception can be repeated every 4-6 hours, as needed, but not more than 8 tablets per day.
Duration of treatment – no more than 5-7 days.

Side effects

Side effects when taking Femizol can be observed in case of an overdose or hypersensitivity to the ingredients of the drug.
From the side of the central nervous system – drowsiness, sleep disturbances.
From the gastrointestinal tract – epigastric pain, nausea, vomiting, allergic reactions (skin rash, itching).
With prolonged use – anemia, impaired liver and kidney function.


Contraindications to the use of the preparation Femizol are: increased individual sensitivity to the ingredients of the preparation; pregnancy; severe violations of the liver and kidneys.


Pregnancy is a contraindication for the use of the drug Femizol .

Interaction with other medicinal products

Acetaminophen slows down the elimination of antibiotics from the body.
Sedative effect of the drug Femizol enhances the effect of such CNS depressants as alcohol, tranquilizers, hypnotics and sedatives.


Overdose Femizol can manifest itself with agitation, dizziness, sleep disorders, in severe cases – impaired liver and kidney function.Treatment is symptomatic.

Storage conditions

At a temperature of 15-30 ° C, in a dry place.
Keep out of the reach of children!

Release form

Femizol – tablets .
There are 24 tablets in a bottle.


1 tablet Femizol contains active ingredients: acetaminophen 500 mg, pamabrom 25 mg, pyrilamine maleate 15 mg.
Excipients: calcium sulfate, croscarmellose sodium, lactose, magnesium oxide, magnesium silicate, magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose, potassium gluconate, silicon dioxide, sodium starch glycolate, sorbitol, starch, stearic acid.
Sheath: Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, mineral oil, sodium lauryl sulfate, triacetin, titanium dioxide.


You should not take Femizol without a doctor’s instructions in the presence of emphysema, chronic bronchitis, glaucoma.
Alcoholic beverages should be avoided while taking.

Basic parameters


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Diuretics: Uses, Common Brands and Safety Information | SingleCare – Product Information

Product Information

List of Diuretics | What are diuretics? | How They Work | Uses | Types | Who can take diuretics? | Security | Side Effects | Expenditure

Diuretics, commonly known as water pills, increase the amount of fluid excreted in the urine.One of the best known natural diuretics is caffeine, which is often found in coffee and tea. However, caffeine is a mild diuretic and is not commonly used as a diuretic in healthcare settings.

The modern history of diuretics began in 1919 when a medical student discovered that injections containing mercury were effective in removing water from the body of patients with syphilis. It was until the 1950s and 1960s that commonly prescribed thiazides and loop diuretics were discovered and widely used.Today, diuretics are commonly prescribed to treat high blood pressure and other conditions.

Continue reading to learn more about the different types of diuretics, their uses and side effects.

USD 56 for 30 25 mg tablets

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Other diuretics17 DIOROTHYDYL

  • Naturetin (bendroflumethiazide)
  • Enduron (methythiazide)
  • Renese (polythiazide)
  • Saluron (hydroflumethiazide)
  • Diamox (acetazolamide)
  • Daranid (dichlorphenamide)
  • Osoltamide (mannitol)

    What is diuretics?

    Diuretics, also known as water tablets, are medicines that increase the amount of salt and water that is excreted from the body.These medications increase the production of urine in the kidneys, resulting in increased urine flow or urine output. Diuretics are commonly used to treat high blood pressure (hypertension) and fluid retention or edema that develops as a symptom of heart failure, kidney problems, and liver failure. Some diuretics can also be used to treat cerebral edema caused by a serious head injury, or edema in the eyes caused by eye conditions such as glaucoma.

    How do diuretics work?

    Diuretics act by altering the balance of water, salt and electrolytes in the body.

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    In particular, they affect various processes in the kidneys that play a role in the reabsorption of sodium and electrolytes. There are several different types of diuretics. Each of them can work in different parts of the kidney, the filtering organ of the body. Due to the increased concentration of sodium excreted by the kidneys, more water is excreted from the body in the urine.

    It may be important to understand the structure of the kidney and how it works in order to fully understand how diuretics work.Each kidney contains over 1 million nephrons, which are filter elements that remove waste and produce urine in the body. Depending on the type of diuretic, these drugs usually act in the proximal convoluted tubule, the ascending loop of Henle, the distal convoluted tubule, or the collecting duct.

    What are diuretics used for?

    Diuretics can be used to treat a variety of conditions that affect the heart, kidneys and liver.They are also used as antihypertensives to lower blood pressure. People with eating disorders sometimes abuse diuretics to lose weight. Diuretics can only be obtained by prescription and used for treatment:

    • Heart failure
    • Left ventricular failure
    • High blood pressure
    • Acute renal failure
    • Oliguric renal failure
    • Kidney stones
    • Acute kidney injury
    • Disease
    • Liver disease
    • Pulmonary edema
    • High blood calcium levels (hypercalcemia)
    • High blood potassium levels (hyperkalemia)
    • Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus
    • High intracranial pressure
    • Glaucoma



    Thiazides target the sodium chloride cotransporter to block sodium reabsorption, which helps regulate sodium and blood pressure levels.As a class of drugs, thiazide diuretics block the reabsorption of approximately 5% sodium in the distal convoluted tubule. Thiazides also block potassium reabsorption, which can lead to excess potassium excretion from the body. Low potassium levels (hypokalemia) can lead to, among other things, an irregular heartbeat. Because of their effects, thiazides are often used as first-line therapy for hypertension instead of ACE inhibitors. Examples of thiazides include microside (hydrochlorothiazide) and hygroton (chlorthalidone).

    Loop diuretics

    Like thiazides, loop diuretics also help regulate kidney sodium levels. However, loop diuretics act on the ascending part of Henle’s loop in the nephron. These drugs target the sodium-potassium-chloride cotransporter to block sodium and water reabsorption. Loop diuretics can also decrease the absorption of potassium, which can lead to a decrease in potassium levels in the body. Loop diuretics can be used to treat heart failure, kidney failure, high potassium levels (hyperkalemia), high calcium levels (hypercalcemia), and most types of edema such as pulmonary edema.Examples of loop diuretics include Bumex (bumetanide) and Lasix (furosemide), and Demadex (torsemide).

    Potassium-sparing diuretics

    Potassium-sparing diuretics do not cause increased urinary potassium secretion. Potassium-sparing diuretics such as amiloride bind to sodium channels, reducing sodium reabsorption into the blood. This increases fluid loss without lowering potassium levels. Other potassium-sparing diuretics such as spironolactone act in the distal tubules and collecting ducts to block the action of aldosterone, a steroid hormone that increases sodium reabsorption.Examples of potassium-sparing diuretics include Midamor (amiloride), Direnium (triamterene), Aldactone (spironolactone), and Inspra (eplerenone).

    Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors

    Carbonic anhydrase is an enzyme found in various parts of the body, including red blood cells and the proximal convoluted tubule of the kidney. This enzyme helps the body reabsorb sodium, bicarbonate, and chloride. Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors block this enzyme to remove these substances and excess water from the body.Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors are often used to treat glaucoma. Examples include Diamox (acetazolamide) and Neptazan (metazolamide).

    Other diuretics

    Xanthine diuretics are a type of mild diuretic that blocks the reabsorption of fluid in the proximal renal tubule. Examples of xanthine diuretics include caffeine and diurex (pamabrom). Osmotic diuretics use the osmosis process to remove fluid and reduce fluid retention. Osmotic diuretics primarily act in the proximal tubule and loop of Henle.Osmitrol (mannitol) is a widely used osmotic diuretic used to lower intracranial pressure and treat acute renal failure.

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    Who can take diuretics?


    Diuretics are commonly used to treat edema and other cardiovascular disease in adults. The use of diuretics in adults will depend on the condition being treated.


    Children may be prescribed diuretics to reduce fluid overload caused by congestive heart failure and kidney failure. The use of diuretics in children will depend on the condition being treated. The dosage of diuretics in children is often based on body weight.

    Are diuretics safe?

    Diuretics are generally safe drugs when used as directed.Because of their effect on the reabsorption of water, salt and electrolytes, they can cause fluid and electrolyte imbalances. Excessive fluid loss can also lead to dehydration in some patients. Low potassium levels can also be a problem with many diuretics, with the exception of potassium-sparing diuretics.

    The combined use of diuretics and digoxin or lithium may need to be controlled or avoided. Talk with your doctor about other possible drug interactions with diuretics.

    Remembers diuretics

    As of March 2021, there are no reviews of diuretics.

    Diuretic restrictions

    Do not take diuretics if you are allergic to the ingredients in the diuretics. Some diuretics contain sulfamide, which can cause an allergic reaction in people who have experienced an allergic reaction to sulfa drugs such as sulfamethoxazole.

    Some older adults may need to be monitored for diuretics.Diuretics can increase the risk of dizziness or falls in older people due to: postural hypotension, or a rapid drop in blood pressure when changing sitting and standing positions.

    Can I take diuretics while pregnant or breastfeeding?

    During pregnancy, diuretics are sometimes prescribed for hypertension or heart disease. However, their safety has not been confirmed by research. Diuretics should only be used if the benefits outweigh the risks.High doses of diuretics can interfere with milk production and suppress lactation in lactating women. Talk to your healthcare professional before using diuretics if you are pregnant or breastfeeding.

    Are diuretics controlled by substances?

    No, diuretics are not controlled substances.

    Common side effects of diuretics

    The most common side effects of diuretics include:

    • Frequent urination
    • Dizziness
    • Lightheadedness
    • Fatigue or tiredness
    • Headache
    • Rash
    • Muscle dysfunction
    • Elevated blood sugar

    Serious side effects of diuretics include low potassium or hypokalemia, which can lead to irregular heartbeats.Left untreated, low potassium levels can lead to life-threatening problems. Potassium-sparing diuretics are less likely to cause this side effect, but may instead cause high potassium levels (hyperkalemia). Diuretics can cause other electrolyte imbalances such as low sodium levels (hyponatremia) and low calcium levels (hypocalcemia).

    Diuretics can also cause dehydration by producing more fluid. Symptoms of dehydration can include intense thirst, confusion, and dark urine.

    Certain diuretics, such as thiazides, may temporarily raise cholesterol levels.

    Tell your doctor if you have a history of any of the following conditions before using a diuretic:

    • Diabetes
    • Gout
    • Kidney problems
    • Dehydration
    • Pancreatitis
    • Lupus
    • Menstrual concerns

    Talk to your doctor about other possible side effects, warnings, and precautions associated with diuretics.

    How much do diuretics cost?

    Diuretics are generally cheap and readily available drugs that are available in both branded and generic versions. Nearly all Medicare and insurance cover diuretics. The cost may vary depending on your insurance plan. Without insurance, the cost of diuretics may vary depending on the number of pills prescribed. However, using a SingleCare prescription discount card can help reduce the cost of diuretics.

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    Paracetamol price in Tashkent in a pharmacy, instructions and reviews on Osonapteka.uz

    With simultaneous use with inducers of liver microsomal enzymes, agents with hepatotoxic action, there is a risk of increased hepatotoxic action of paracetamol.

    With simultaneous use with anticoagulants, a slight or moderate increase in prothrombin time is possible.

    With simultaneous use with anticholinergics, it is possible to reduce the absorption of paracetamol.

    With simultaneous use with oral contraceptives, the excretion of paracetamol from the body is accelerated and its analgesic effect may decrease.

    When used simultaneously with uricosuric agents, their effectiveness decreases.

    With the simultaneous use of activated carbon, the bioavailability of paracetamol decreases.

    With simultaneous use with diazepam, it is possible to reduce the excretion of diazepam.

    There are reports of the possibility of enhancing the myelodepressant effect of zidovudine when used simultaneously with paracetamol. A case of severe toxic liver damage is described.

    Cases of manifestations of the toxic effect of paracetamol with simultaneous use with isoniazid are described.

    When used simultaneously with carbamazepine, phenytoin, phenobarbital, primidone, the effectiveness of paracetamol decreases, which is due to an increase in its metabolism (glucuronization and oxidation processes) and excretion from the body.Cases of hepatotoxicity have been described with the simultaneous use of paracetamol and phenobarbital.

    When using cholestyramine for a period of less than 1 hour after taking paracetamol, the absorption of the latter may decrease.

    With simultaneous use with lamotrigine, the excretion of lamotrigine from the body is moderately increased.

    With simultaneous use with metoclopramide, it is possible to increase the absorption of paracetamol and increase its concentration in blood plasma.

    With simultaneous use with probenecid, a decrease in the clearance of paracetamol is possible; with rifampicin, sulfinpyrazone – it is possible to increase the clearance of paracetamol due to an increase in its metabolism in the liver.

    With simultaneous use with ethinyl estradiol, the absorption of paracetamol from the intestines increases.