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Pcr test results: Coronavirus Disease 2019 Testing Basics

Coronavirus Disease 2019 Testing Basics


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You’ve probably heard a lot about coronavirus disease (COVID-19) testing. If you think you have COVID-19 and need a test, contact your health care provider or local health department immediately. You can also find a community testing site in your state, or buy an FDA-authorized at-home test. Some FDA-authorized at-home tests give you results within minutes. Others require you to mail the sample to a lab for analysis.

Understanding COVID-19 testing is key to making an informed decision that meets your needs.

Types of Tests

There are different types of tests – diagnostic tests and antibody tests.

Diagnostic tests can show if you have an active COVID-19 infection and need to take steps to quarantine or isolate yourself from others. Molecular and antigen tests are types of diagnostic tests than can detect if you have an active  COVID-19 infection. Samples for diagnostic tests are typically collected with a nasal or throat swab, or saliva collected by spitting into a tube.

Antibody tests look for antibodies in your immune system produced in response to SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19. Antibody tests should not be used to diagnose an active COVID-19 infection. Antibodies can take several days or weeks to develop after you have an infection and may stay in your blood for several weeks or more after recovery. Samples for antibody tests are typically blood from a finger stick, or blood drawn by your doctor or other medical personnel.

Getting Tested

If you are tested, you should quarantine and isolate yourself at home until you receive your test results and follow the advice of your health care provider or a public health professional.

When should I get a test?

  • If you have symptoms of COVID-19, even after vaccination
  • If you have had close contact (within 6 feet for a total of 15 minutes or more) with someone with confirmed COVID-19, even after vaccination
  • If you took part in activities that put you at higher risk for COVID-19 because you could not socially distance as needed, such as travel, attending large social or mass gatherings, or being in crowded indoor settings
  • If you have been asked or referred to get tested by your health care provider, or local or state health department

Your school, workplace or community may also establish a screening program, in which they test individuals who are part of a group (at work, at school) even if there is no reason to suspect those individuals are infected with COVID-19. The FDA issued more information about screening programs in this fact sheet.

To find a local testing site, you should contact your health care provider or go to your state or local health department’s website.

Do COVID-19 tests check for the delta and other variants?

There are no authorized COVID-19 antigen or molecular tests that specifically report the presence of the SARS-CoV-2 delta variant. Currently, COVID-19 tests are designed to check broadly for the SARS-CoV-2 virus, including the SARS-CoV-2 delta variant.  It is common for all viruses to change and mutate over time, resulting in different virus strains. The FDA works closely with test developers to identify potential impacts of virus mutations on FDA authorized COVID-19 tests and help ensure there is minimal impact on test performance.

Local, state, and federal public health agencies, including the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, track the SARS-CoV-2 virus variants so we can understand which strains of the virus are spreading. 

Health care providers treat patients who have COVID-19 based on the patient’s symptoms and not based on the strain of virus. For more information on treatment options see Know Your Treatment Options for COVID-19 and discuss your symptoms with a health care provider.
 

Ordering a Test

Many tests, including some home collection and at-home tests, require a prescription or order from a health care provider.

Prescription Tests – Health care providers can determine whether you need a test, and ensure you get the most appropriate test and that you know what the results mean. For example, certain tests are authorized only for people suspected of having COVID-19 or for people with COVID-19 symptoms that started within a certain number of days. A health care provider can help determine which test is best for your situation. Prescription-only home collection and at-home tests may require you to answer some questions online so that a health care provider can determine whether to prescribe or order a specific test.

Non-Prescription Tests – Some tests are available without a prescription. Home collection and at-home tests available without a prescription may be called “direct-to-consumer” (DTC) or “over-the-counter” (OTC). DTC and OTC tests may be available to purchase at a pharmacy or online, but they may not be available everywhere.

Home Collection and At-Home Tests

Can I get an at-home test? What is the difference between home collection and at-home tests? What kit do I need to order? To answer these questions, it is important to understand the differences in COVID-19 tests, and home collection tests versus at-home tests.

Why is this important? These differences determine where the sample is collected, where the test is processed, and how quickly you find out the results. While at-home tests may be the quickest and most convenient option, they may not be the most appropriate for all situations.

If you want to be sure the test you are buying is authorized by the FDA, visit our tables of molecular, antigen, and serology and adaptive immune response in vitro diagnostic emergency use authorizations (EUA) for more information.

Using the search box in the EUA tables you can use keywords to search and filter the type of test or collection kit you are looking for. Using this search, as new tests are authorized for use, consumers can access up-to-date information on authorized tests and collection kits.

Types of Samples

Different tests are authorized to be used with different types of samples. The most common sample types are:

Swab samples use a swab (similar to a long Q-Tip) to collect a sample from the nose or throat. The types of samples include:

  • Anterior Nares (Nasal) – takes a sample from just inside the nostrils
  • Mid-turbinate – takes a sample from further up inside the nose
  • Nasopharyngeal – takes a sample from deep inside the nose, reaching the back of the throat
  • Oropharyngeal – takes a sample from the middle part of the throat (pharynx) just beyond the mouth

Saliva samples are collected by spitting into a tube rather than using a nose or throat swab.

Blood samples are only used to test for antibodies and not to diagnose COVID-19. Venous blood samples are typically collected at a doctor’s office or clinic. Some antibody tests use blood from a finger stick.

Pooled Sample Testing

One way for laboratories to test more people for COVID-19 is by combining samples from several people into one sample and testing them together, also called “pooling.” Pooling is most helpful in areas where most samples are expected to be negative. This saves time and test materials when only a very small number of positives are expected, allowing labs to test more samples.

If the test is negative, or doesn’t detect SARS-CoV-2, then none of the people whose samples were included in the pooled sample are likely to have an active COVID-19 infection.

If the test is positive, showing the presence of the virus that causes COVID-19, everyone is retested separately, either by taking a new sample or testing a remaining portion of the original sample, to find the samples that are positive.

Understanding Your Test Results

Generally, for diagnostic tests, a negative result means the test did not detect the SARS-CoV-2 virus, and a positive result means the test did detect the SARS-CoV-2 virus and you are very likely to have COVID-19.

However, no test is perfect. There is always a chance that a test will return a false result. For diagnostic tests, a false negative means the test says you don’t have COVID-19 but you are infected, and a false positive means that the test says you have COVID-19 but you are not infected.

Because of this, even if you receive a negative result, you should keep practicing preventive measures, such as distancing, washing hands, and wearing masks,  to reduce the risk of spreading COVID-19.

If you are sick, you should stay home and isolate from others, even if you receive a negative test result. Talk with your health care provider to determine if you should be retested or for advice on managing your symptoms.

For serology tests, a negative result means the test did not detect antibodies to the virus that causes COVID-19.  A positive result means the test did detect antibodies to the virus that causes COVID-19, and it is possible that you had a recent or prior COVID-19 infection and you have developed an adaptive immune response to the virus.  

We do not know how long antibodies stay in the body following infection with the virus that causes COVID-19. We do not know if antibodies give you protective immunity against the virus, so results from a serology test should not be used to find out if you have immunity from the virus. The FDA cautions patients against using the results from any serology test as an indication that they can stop taking steps to protect themselves and others, such as stopping social distancing or discontinuing wearing masks.

Key Terms

  • SARS-CoV-2: the virus that causes COVID-19
  • COVID-19: the illness caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus
  • Home Collection Test: sample is collected at home but analyzed in a laboratory
  • Direct to Consumer (DTC) Test: home collection tests available without a prescription, but the sample is analyzed in a laboratory
  • At-home Testing: consumer completes sample collection and testing at home
  • Over the Counter (OTC) Test: consumer completes sample collection and testing at home, without a prescription
  • Diagnostic Test: shows if you have an active COVID-19 infection
  • Molecular Test: a diagnostic test that detects genetic material from the virus
  • Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR): one type of molecular diagnostic test
  • Nucleic Acid Amplification Test (NAAT): one type of molecular diagnostic test
  • Antigen Test: a diagnostic test that detects specific proteins from the virus
  • Antibody (Serology) Test: detects antibodies that are made by your immune system in response to a threat, such as a specific virus; not used to diagnose active infection
  • Pooled Sample Testing: testing several samples together

Report Adverse Events

The FDA encourages health care professionals and patients to report adverse events or side effects as well as performance issues related to the use of COVID-19 tests or other medical products to the FDA’s MedWatch Safety Information and Adverse Event Reporting Program:

  • Complete and submit the report online through the FDA’s MedWatch website.
  • Download the form or call 1-800-332-1088 to request a form, then complete and return to the address on the form or submit by fax to 1-800-FDA-0178.

CityMD | CityMD

Detects if you are actively infected with the COVID-19 virus.

Detects if you have had prior exposure to or infection with COVID-19 and have built antibodies for the virus. For most viral illnesses, a positive antibody means prior exposure to a virus and possible immunity to future infection. As COVID-19 is a novel (new) infection, it is unclear if a positive antibody offers immunity. CityMD recommends universal precautions (Hand washing, social distancing and masks when appropriate).

This test potentially identifies antibodies created by you in response to vaccination against the COVID-19 virus. It can also detect antibodies made in response to a COVID-19 infection.

Expect to receive your results within approximately 15 minutes. Your results will be provided via email and come from [email protected] net email address. If you do not receive an email in your inbox, please be sure to check your spam or junk folder.

Due to increased demand, the average turnaround time for PCR (Nasal Swab) lab results is currently 3-5 days, but can take longer depending on lab partner and other factors. Your results can be viewed via you’re My Summit Health app account. Click here to learn more and download the My Summit Health app. Please note – When you create your account, you’ll need to establish a new login and password, instead of using your existing Summit Health or CityMD patient portal login credentials you may already have.

Please allow 3-5 days to receive your results. Your results can be viewed via you’re My Summit Health app account. Click [here] to learn more and download the My Summit Health app. Please note – When you create your account, you’ll need to establish a new login and password, instead of using your existing Summit Health or CityMD patient portal login credentials you may already have.

 

Prior to visiting CityMD for asymptomatic COVID-19 testing for clearance, travel or work, we recommend contacting your insurance provider ahead of your visit to confirm they will cover the cost of your CityMD visit and testing. CityMD will submit a bill to your insurance company but some insurance plans may deny COVID-19 related claims as guidelines under the CARES Act are updated. For patients without insurance, we will continue to submit the claim to the Government sponsored agency. Please note, evaluation by a provider is required for all patients requesting a COVID-19 test.


What Precautions Do I Take Based On My Results?

Negative

 

– Asymptomatic

 

Continue to exercise universal precautions such as social distancing, quarantining, frequent hand washing, wearing of
a mask or face cloth in public, and other CDC guideline recommendations.

– Symptomatic

 

A confirmatory PCR test will be sent to an outside lab to ensure result accuracy. You should quarantine at home until
your PCR result is available.

Positive

 

– Asymptomatic

 

You are recommended to isolate for 10 days from the day of the test. You may end your isolation period after 10 days
assuming you either remain symptom free or any symptoms you develop are significantly improved AND you have not
had a fever for 24 hours (without using fever reducing medications like acetaminophen or ibuprofen).

 

– Symptomatic

 

You are recommended to self quarantine for 10 days from onset of symptoms. After 10 days, you may return to work
provided your respirator symptoms (ie. cough, runny nose) are improving AND you are fever-free for 24 hours (without
using fever reducing medications like acetaminophen or ibuprofen).


Serum Antibody IgG and Spike Protein Antibody (Blood Tests)

Regardless of your results, you should continue to exercise universal precautions such as social distancing, quarantining, frequent hand washing, wearing of a mask or face cloth in public, and other CDC guideline recommendations. Remember, COVID-19 is a new infection, and it is unclear if a positive antibody definitively offers immunity.

Negative

Continue to exercise universal precautions such as social distancing, quarantining, frequent hand washing, wearing of a mask or face cloth in public, and other CDC guideline recommendations.

 

Positive

You are recommended to self-quarantine for 10 days from onset of symptoms. After 10 days, you may return to work provided your respiratory symptoms (ie cough, runny nose) are improving AND you are fever-free for 24 hours (without using fever reducing medications like acetaminophen or ibuprofen).

 

Disclaimer: All COVID test results are sent to the DOH. The DOH may contact you and modify the above recommendations based on their findings. If so, DOH guidance will supersede the above CityMD recommendations.

All Serology (Antibody) and Molecular/PCR tests are sent to our commercial lab partners.

 

For serology, our lab partners use the Abbott Architect platform or the Siemens platform, both of which have FDA Emergency Use Authorization.

 

For PCR, our national lab partners use the Roche Cobas or PANTHER Hologic platform, which also has FDA Emergency Use Authorization.

 

For Rapid Testing, we use BD Veritor and Quidell Sophia 2. Both platforms have FDA Emergency Use authorization.

 

For Spike Protein Antibody Testing, we use the Roche e411 lab platform.

Understanding Your PCR (Nasal Swab) Test Results

Update: Due to increased demand, the average turnaround time for PCR (nasal swab) lab results is currently 3 to 5 days, but can take longer depending on lab partner and other factors.

 

All PCR testing is performed by one of our commercial lab partners. The testing platforms used are Roche Cobus or Hologic Panther, both with Emergency Use Authorization by the FDA. Both platforms search for 2 targets; target 1 that is specific to SARS-CoV-2 (the coronavirus causing COVID-19) and target 2 for general Corona Viruses (including but not limited to SARS-CoV-2).

 

Positive Results: You have tested positive for Sars-CoV-2, the virus causing COVID-19. Either target 1 alone or both targets 1 and 2 were detected (our lab partners do not specifically call out if you tested positive for target 1 alone or target 1 and 2 as it is not relevant, either scenario is positive). You are likely actively contagious and should home quarantine (sleep alone in bed, if possible use your own bathroom, wipe down surfaces, and wear a mask when in the same room as others). Please note, a small percentage of patients with active infection may be completely asymptomatic. CityMD recommends the CDC’s most up to date return to work recommendation of the rule of 10/3. If you did not have symptoms at the time of your PCR nasal swab, you may return to work in 10 days (provided you do not have a fever 3 days prior to return to work).  If you are asymptomatic and test positive, you are still likely contagious to others. A positive PCR test does not yield any information about potential immunity. Please be re-evaluated immediately for worsening symptoms such as shortness of breath or lightheadedness.

 

Negative Results: With a high likelihood, the results state you were not infected with Sars-CoV-2 at the time of testing. Neither target 1 or target 2 were detected. We recommend following quarantine recommendations and universal precautions (hand washing, social distancing, and when appropriate PPE such as masks and gloves). This test does not give information about past infections or future immunity.

 

Inconclusive Results (Presumptive Positive) or Presumed Positive: Inconclusive/Presumptive Positive or Presumed Positive means target 1 was not detected but target 2 was detected. It is presumed if you had symptoms consistent with COVID-19 and test positive for target 2, you have COVID-19. You are likely actively contagious and should home quarantine (sleep alone in bed, if possible use your own bathroom, wipe down surfaces, and wear a mask when in the same room as others). Please note, a small percentage of patients with active infection may be completely asymptomatic. CityMD recommends the CDC’s most up to date return to work recommendation of the rule of 10/3. If you did not have symptoms at the time of your PCR nasal swab, you may return to work in 10 days (provided you do not have a fever 3 days prior to return to work). A positive PCR test does not yield any information about potential immunity. Please be re-evaluated immediately for worsening symptoms such as shortness of breath or lightheadedness.

 

Sunrise Labs will report your test as: 

 

Quest Labs will report your test as:

 

If you have any questions or need to discuss your results further, please call Aftercare at 844-824-8963 Extension 8120. We apologize as we are currently experiencing high call volumes to our Aftercare Department. We appreciate your patience and understanding during this time.

 

Virtual Line Information | CityMD

Effective Aug. 9, 2021, CityMD is resuming its virtual line system at all locations. This system allows us to safely accommodate the increase in patient visits for typical urgent care needs and COVID-19 testing. It also provides you a more convenient experience by eliminating the need to wait in a physical line outside a CityMD location.

 

If you’re new to the CityMD virtual line process or need a refresher, here’s how it works:

 

1. Upon arriving at CityMD, go to the front desk and let our team know the reason for your visit.

 

2. A front desk team member will take your name and mobile phone number and provide you with an estimated wait time.

 

3. You will receive a welcome text message from CityMD. You’re then free to wait in your car, home or another location for an update from us. Your welcome text message will include a link where you can see what spot you are in line.

 

4. When you have reached the front of the virtual line you will receive another text message asking that you come back to the CityMD location within 30 minutes to complete your registration.

 

5. Once you’ve returned to the CityMD location, visit the front desk again to confirm your arrival and complete registration.

 

Please note the following:

 

1. Please make every effort to return to your CityMD location within 30 minutes of receiving your return-to-office notification. We will move on to the next patient after 30 minutes, and you will then need to re-enter the virtual line.

 

2. Every patient is our priority, and we’re committed to providing thorough care as quickly as possible. If you believe you are experiencing a life-threatening condition, please alert our team or call 911.

 

3. The virtual line text messaging system offers a Spanish language option.

 

Find a CityMD location near you.

Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) Information for Patients

Who

Anyone who shows symptoms or meets CDC* testing criteria should be tested.

*Center for Disease Control and Prevention

Anyone who shows symptoms and is concerned about spreading the virus should be tested.

Anyone who wants to know if they have antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 or want to donate plasma for COVID-19 research.

How

Where

  • at home using Pixel by Labcorp*
  • at a hospital
  • at a healthcare provider’s office
  • at a healthcare provider-designated site (drive-thru or pharmacy)

*Must be 18+

  • at a Labcorp Patient Service Center
  • at a hospital
  • at a healthcare provider’s office
  • at a healthcare provider-designated site (drive-thru or pharmacy
  • at a Labcorp Patient Service Center
  • at a hospital
  • at your doctor’s office

Results

Results take 1 – 2 days**

**from the date of specimen pick up 

Results take 1 – 2 days**

**from the date of specimen pick up 

Results take 2 – 3 days**

**from the date of specimen pick up 

The Science

PCR tests use polymerase chain reaction technology to detect the genetic components of an active COVID-19 virus.

This test is also known as a chemiluminescent immunoassay test. It determines whether a person with COVID-19 is still infectious by measuring how much of the virus is present.

Also known as serology testing, this test scans the blood for antibodies that the body develops after exposure to COVID-19.

Interpreting SARS-CoV-2 Test Results | Pathology and Laboratory Medicine | JAMA

A 53-year-old woman was referred to the gastroenterology clinic for endoscopy because of a submucosal gastric nodule. She had not received a COVID-19 vaccination and lived in Maryland, which had a 7-day cumulative COVID-19 case rate of 70 per 100 000 individuals at the time of her visit. Review of systems was unremarkable except for intermittent abdominal pain. She had no fever, cough, shortness of breath, difficulty breathing, muscle aches, headache, sore throat, anosmia, dysgeusia, or diarrhea. SARS-CoV-2 reverse transcriptase–polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) testing prior to the procedure was performed, in accordance with the American Society of Anesthesiologists Statement on Perioperative Testing1 for monitored anesthesia. Results of preoperative testing are shown in Table 1.

Table 1.  Patient’s Test Results

Based on the results, additional history was obtained. The patient reported testing positive for SARS-CoV-2 30 days prior at another hospital. At that time, she had symptoms of dry cough, low-grade fever, and body aches, which resolved after 14 days. Fourteen days before the current presentation, results of a rapid antigen test performed at a local pharmacy were negative for SARS-CoV-2.

Box Section Ref ID

What Would You Do Next?
  1. Cancel the endoscopy procedure due to likely reinfection

  2. Cancel the endoscopy procedure due to persistent infection

  3. Proceed with endoscopy, the patient is clinically recovered and not contagious

  4. Repeat the RT-PCR testing now because this is likely a false-positive result

C. Proceed with endoscopy, the patient is clinically recovered and not contagious

SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR is the primary diagnostic test for COVID-19 (Medicare reimbursement, $75). The test amplifies targeted nucleic acid sequences to detect SARS-CoV-2 RNA. RT-PCR testing detects SARS-CoV-2 RNA at low levels, with analytic sensitivity of 98% and specificity of 97%.2 Analytic sensitivity and specificity refer to RT-PCR detection of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in laboratory samples, while clinical sensitivity and specificity refer to identifying patients with and without COVID-19. Clinical sensitivity is approximately 90% and clinical specificity is approximately 95%.3-5 Time from symptom onset, specimen source, and user error all affect clinical sensitivity (Table 2). Sensitivity of RT-PCR to detect patients with SARS-CoV-2 that can be cultured and infect others is 99%; however, specificity is limited by persistent detection of noninfectious viral RNA. 4,5,7

Table 2.  Factors That Affect the Clinical Sensitivity or Specificity of SARS-CoV-2 Tests

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention advises that immune-competent adults are not infectious more than 10 days after symptom onset.7 RT-PCR testing detects noninfectious viral RNA up to 12 weeks after infection.7 To distinguish infectious from noninfectious virus, cycle thresholds may be used. The cycle threshold is the number of cycles a sample must be amplified in the laboratory before virus can be detected. A low cycle threshold value correlates with higher viral load and contagiousness because fewer cycles are required to detect virus. Cycle threshold values are also affected by collection technique and vary by assay, reducing their reliability.8

Application to This Patient

This patient had persistently positive RT-PCR test results for SARS-CoV-2 less than 90 days from prior infection. Because she remained asymptomatic, retesting provided no useful information. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommend that patients infected within the past 90 days without new COVID-19 symptoms should not be retested.9 Reinfection with SARS-CoV-2 is rare (risk of reinfection, 0.17%).10 However, whether reinfection rates will increase due to Delta or other variants is unknown. There is no evidence of altered test performance with variants.

Patients undergoing asymptomatic screening have a pretest probability of COVID-19 that mirrors local prevalence. Thus, at the time of testing in this patient, the pretest probability of COVID-19 was approximately 0.35% (7-day cumulative average [0.07%] multiplied 5-fold to account for undertesting). Estimating 90% sensitivity and 95% specificity, the test positive predictive value was 24% but declined to approximately 0% given the patient’s recent history of COVID-19.

The ability of preprocedural testing to prevent nosocomial COVID-19 transmission varies with disease prevalence, infection history, the patient’s immunization status, employee vaccination rate, and personal protective equipment availability. Testing programs must consider what procedures have a high risk of transmission (eg, intubation and bronchoscopy aerosolize particles from the respiratory tract and are associated with higher transmission risk) and balance transmission risk reduction with potential harms to patients that result from delayed procedures following a positive test result.

What Are Alternative Diagnostic Testing Approaches?

Alternative tests include point-of-care antigen tests, which are less sensitive than RT-PCR but better predict contagiousness, indicated by correlation with viral culture and higher viral loads.4,6 Using viral culture as criterion standard, small studies of antigen tests have reported sensitivity of approximately 90% and specificity greater than 98%.4-6

Consultation from an infectious disease specialist determined that the patient did not pose a transmission risk to medical staff. However, after further review the patient did not require endoscopic evaluation of the submucosal nodule for another 6 months, and the procedure was postponed.

Box Section Ref ID

Clinical Bottom Line
  • SARS-CoV-2 reverse transcriptase–polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) testing is highly sensitive (99%) but less specific (approximately 95%) for contagious COVID-19 and may be positive for ≥90 days after infection

  • Viral antigen tests have lower analytic sensitivity than RT-PCR but are more specific for contagious disease

  • Preprocedural COVID-19 testing can delay access to care, and testing asymptomatic low-risk patients undergoing an aerosol-generating procedure is not recommended when procedure-based personal protective equipment is available2

Corresponding Author: KC Coffey, MD, MPH, University of Maryland School of Medicine, 10 S Pine St, MSTF 257-B, Baltimore, MD 21201 ([email protected]).

Published Online: September 17, 2021. doi:10.1001/jama.2021.16146

Conflict of Interest Disclosures: Dr Diekema reported receiving grants from bioMerieux, Inc for clinical research and personal fees for consulting from Inflammatix, Inc and OpGen, Inc for consulting outside the submitted work. Dr Morgan reported receiving grants from the Veterans Association, Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and having an editorial role at Nature Springer outside the submitted work. No other disclosures were reported.

Additional Contributions: We thank the patient for granting permission to publish this information.

3.Miller
 TE, Garcia Beltran
 WF, Bard
 AZ,
 et al.  Clinical sensitivity and interpretation of PCR and serological COVID-19 diagnostics for patients presenting to the hospital.   FASEB J. 2020;34(10):13877-13884. doi:10.1096/fj.202001700RRPubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref 4.Pekosz
 A, Parvu
 V, Li
 M,
 et al.  Antigen-based testing but not real-time polymerase chain reaction correlates with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 viral culture.   Clin Infect Dis. 2021;ciaa1706. doi:10.1093/cid/ciaa1706PubMedGoogle Scholar5.Prince-Guerra
 JL, Almendares
 O, Nolen
 LD,
 et al.  Evaluation of Abbott BinaxNOW rapid antigen test for SARS-CoV-2 infection at two community-based testing sites: Pima County, Arizona, November 3-17, 2020.   MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2021;70(3):100-105. doi:10.15585/mmwr.mm7003e3PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref 6.Schuit
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 et al.  Diagnostic accuracy of rapid antigen tests in asymptomatic and presymptomatic close contacts of individuals with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection: cross sectional study.   BMJ. Published online July 27, 2021. doi:10.1136/bmj.n1676Google Scholar8.Rhoads
 D, Peaper
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 et al.  College of American Pathologists (CAP) Microbiology Committee Perspective: caution must be used in interpreting the cycle threshold (Ct) value.   Clin Infect Dis. 2021;72(10):e685-e686. doi:10.1093/cid/ciaa1199PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref 10.Abu-Raddad
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 et al.  SARS-CoV-2 antibody-positivity protects against reinfection for at least seven months with 95% efficacy.   EClinicalMedicine. 2021;35:100861. doi:10.1016/j.eclinm.2021.100861PubMedGoogle Scholar

COVID-19 Testing in Maine | Covid-19

York CVS Biddeford More info PCR, Antigen 384 ELM ST.
Biddeford, 04005
Androscoggin CVS Auburn More info PCR  
Cumberland CVS Westbrook More info PCR  
Androscoggin CVS Lewiston More info PCR 446 SABATTUS ST.
Lewiston, 04240
Cumberland CVS Portland More info PCR, Antigen 111 AUBURN ST.
Portland, 04103
Kennebec CVS Waterville More info PCR 1 KENNEDY MEMORIAL DR.
Waterville, 04901
Cumberland CVS South Portland More info PCR, Antigen 51 MARKET ST.
South Portland, 04106
York CVS Wells More info PCR 11 STEEPLE WAY
Wells, 04090
Androscoggin CVS Auburn More info Antigen 8 UNION STREET
Auburn, 04210
Kennebec CVS Augusta More info PCR 24 STONE ST., SUITE 120
Augusta, 04330
York CVS Kennebunk More info PCR 48 PORTLAND RD.
Kennebunck, 04043
Washington Eastport Health Care – Calais Calais 55 Franklin Street
Calais, 04619
Tuesday, September 7th, 8:30am-12:30pm
Wednesday, September 8th, 12:30pm-4:30pm

207-454-3022

NAAT 55 Franklin Street
Calais, 04619
Kennebec MaineGeneral Workplace Health Augusta More info PCR 21 Enterprise Dr
Augusta, 04330
Hancock Mount Desert Island Hospital Bar Harbor More info PCR 22 Hancock Street
Bar Harbor, 04609
Aroostook Northern Light A.R. Gould Hospital Presque Isle More info PCR 140 Academy St.
Presque Isle, 04769
Hancock Northern Light Blue Hill Hospital Blue Hill More info PCR 57 Water Street, Northern Light Sussman Health Center
Blue Hill, 04614
Piscataquis Northern Light CA Dean Hospital Greenville More info PCR 364 Pritham Avenue
Greenville, 04441
Kennebec Northern Light Inland Hospital Waterville More info PCR 174 Kennedy Memorial Drive
Waterville, 04901
Hancock Northern Light Maine Coast Hospital Ellsworth More info PCR 32 Resort Way, Northern Light Health Center
Ellsworth, 04605
Piscataquis Northern Light Mayo Hospital Dover-Foxcroft More info PCR 897 W Main St
Dover-Foxcroft, 04426
Cumberland Northern Light Pharmacy Portland More info PCR 195 Fore River Parkway, Medical Office Building, Suite 170
Portland, 04102
Somerset Northern Light Sebasticook Valley Hospital Pittsfield More info PCR 470 Somerset Avenue
Pittsfield, 04967
Aroostook Northern Maine Medical Center – Fort Kent Fort Kent More info PCR 194 East Main Street 
Fort Kent, 04743
Penobscot Penobscot Community Health Care Bangor More info PCR 1012 Union Street
Bangor, 04401
Penobscot Penobscot Community Health Care Bangor More info PCR Penobscot Pediatrics
6 Telcom Drive
Bangor, 04401
Penobscot Penobscot Community Health Care Bangor More info PCR Adult Wellness Center
1068 Union Street
Bangor, 04401
Penobscot Penobscot Community Health Care Brewer More info PCR Brewer Community Health Center
735 Wilson Street Brewer
Brewer, 04412
Penobscot Penobscot Community Health Care Old Town More info PCR Helen Hunt Health Center
242 Brunswick Street
Old Town, 04468
Waldo Penobscot Community Health Care Belfast More info PCR Seaport Community Health Center
53 Schoodic Drive
Belfast, 04915
Penobscot Penobscot Valley Hospital Lincoln More info
252 Enfield Road
Lincoln, 04457 (207) 794-7185
PCR Penobscot Valley Hospital Medical Arts Building Specialty Clinic
252 Enfield Road
Lincoln, 04457
Somerset Redington-Fairview General Hospital Skowhegan More info PCR 46 Fairview Ave.
Skowhegan, 04976
Androscoggin Walgreens Auburn More info PCR 61 Union Street
Auburn, 04210
Androscoggin Walgreens Auburn More info PCR 608 Minot Avenue
Auburn, 04210
Androscoggin Walgreens Lewiston More info PCR 430 Sabattus Street
Lewiston, 04240
Cumberland Walgreens Naples More info PCR 665 Roosevelt Trl
Naples, 04055
Cumberland Walgreens Portland More info PCR 616 Forest Ave
Portland, 04101
Cumberland Walgreens Yarmouth More info PCR 478 Route 1
Yarmouth, 04096
Franklin Walgreens Farmington More info PCR 317 Main St
Farmington, 04938
Knox Walgreens Rockland More info PCR 28 Park St
Rockland, 04841
Lincoln Walgreens Damariscotta More info PCR 365 Main Street
Damariscotta, 04543
Oxford Walgreens Norway More info PCR 53 Paris St
Norway, 04268
Oxford Walgreens Rumford More info PCR 7 Portland Street
Rumford, 04276
Sagadahoc Walgreens Topsham More info PCR 77 Mallett Drive
Topsham, 04086
Washington Walgreens Calais More info PCR 223 North Street
Calais, 04619
York Walgreens Buxton More info PCR 226 Parker Farm Rd
Buxton, 04093
Aroostook Walgreens Madawaska More info Antigen 429 Main St
Madawaska, 04756-1082
Aroostook Walgreens Presque Isle More info Antigen 320 Main St.
Presque Isle, 04769-2809
Cumberland Walgreens Gorham More info Antigen 120 Main St.
Gorham, 04038-1306
Cumberland Walgreens Gray More info Antigen 62 West Gray Road
Gray, 04039
Cumberland Walgreens Naples More info Antigen 665 Roosevelt Trl.
Naples, 04055
Cumberland Walgreens Portland More info Antigen 616 Forest Avenue
Portland, 04103
Cumberland Walgreens Scarborough More info Antigen 233 US Route 1
Scarborough, 04074
Cumberland Walgreens Scarborough More info Antigen 600 U.S. Route 1
Scarborough, 04074
Cumberland Walgreens Westbrook More info Antigen 465 Main St.
Westbrook, 04092
Cumberland Walgreens Windham More info Antigen 741 Roosevelt Trl.
Windham, 04062
Cumberland Walgreens Yarmouth More info Antigen 478 US Route 1
Yarmouth, 04096
Franklin Walgreens Farmington More info Antigen 317 Main St.
Farmington, 04938
Hancock Walgreens Blue Hill More info Antigen 17 South St.
Blue Hill, 04614
Hancock Walgreens Ellsworth More info Antigen 226 High Street
Ellsworth, 04605
Kennebec Walgreens Augusta More info Antigen 403 Water St.
Augusta, 04330
Kennebec Walgreens Augusta More info Antigen 2007 N Belfast Ave
Augusta, 04330
Kennebec Walgreens Gardiner More info Antigen 9 Spring St.
Gardiner, 04345
Kennebec Walgreens Manchester More info Antigen 943 Western Ave.
Manchester, 04351
Kennebec Walgreens Oakland More info Antigen 19 Main St.
Oakland, 04963
Kennebec Walgreens Waterville More info Antigen 210 Main St.
Waterville, 04901
Kennebec Walgreens Winslow More info Antigen 36 China Road
Winslow, 04901
Kennebec Walgreens Winthrop More info Antigen 16 Peck Farm Rd.
Winthrop, 04364
Knox Walgreens Rockland More info Antigen 28 Park St.
Rockland, 04841
Lincoln Walgreens Boothbay Harbor More info Antigen 223 Townsend Ave.
Boothbay Harbor, 04538
Lincoln Walgreens Damariscotta More info Antigen 365 Main St.
Damariscotta, 04543
Oxford Walgreens Bethel More info Antigen 28 Mayville Rd.
Bethel, 04217
Oxford Walgreens Lincoln More info Antigen 2 W. Broadway
Lincoln, 04457
Oxford Walgreens Norway More info Antigen 53 Paris St.
Norway, 04268
Oxford Walgreens Rumford More info Antigen 7 Portland St.
Rumford, 04276
Penobscot Walgreens Bangor More info Antigen 706 Broadway
Bangor, 04401
Penobscot Walgreens Bangor More info Antigen 566 Union Street
Bangor, 04401
Penobscot Walgreens Brewer More info Antigen 437 Wilson St.
Brewer, 04412
Penobscot Walgreens Hampden More info Antigen 65 Western Ave.
Hampden, 04444
Penobscot Walgreens Newport More info Antigen 36 Moosehead Trl.
Newport, 04953
Piscataquis Walgreens Dover-Foxcroft More info Antigen 151 E. Main St.
Dover-Foxcroft, 04426
Piscataquis Walgreens Guilford More info Antigen 3 Hudson Ave., #147
Guilford, 0444
Piscataquis Walgreens Milo More info Antigen Walgreens
Sagadahoc Walgreens Bath More info Antigen 11 State Rd., P.O. Box 1019
Bath, 04530
Sagadahoc Walgreens Topsham More info Antigen 77 Mallett Dr.
Topsham, 04086
Somerset Walgreens Pittsfield More info Antigen 506 Somerset Ave.
Pittsfield, 04967
Somerset Walgreens Skowhegan More info Antigen 225 Madison Ave.
Skowhegan, 04976
Waldo Walgreens Belfast More info Antigen 268 Main St.
Belfast, 04915
Washington Walgreens Calais More info Antigen 223 North Street
Calais, 04619
Washington Walgreens Machias More info Antigen 144 Dublin St.
Machias, 04654-3409
York Walgreens Biddeford More info Antigen 335 Alfred St.
Biddeford, 04005
York Walgreens Buxton More info Antigen 226 Parker Farm Rd.
Buxton, 04093
York Walgreens Cornish More info Antigen 151 Maple St.
Cornish, 04020
York Walgreens Kennebunk More info Antigen 37 Portland Rd.
Kennebunk, 04043
York Walgreens Kittery More info Antigen 15 Shapleigh Rd.
Kittery, 03904
York Walgreens Old Orchard Beach More info Antigen 15 Saco Ave.
Old Orchard Beach, 04064
York Walgreens Sanford More info Antigen 868 Main Street
Sanford, 04073
York Walgreens Wells More info Antigen 1036 Post Rd.
Wells, 04090
York Walgreens York More info Antigen 400 U.S. Route 1
York, 03909
York Nasson Health Care – York County Community Action Sanford More info PCR 15 Oak Street
Sanford, 04083
Kennebec Walgreens Waterville More info PCR  
York Walgreens Sanford More info PCR  
Penobscot Walgreens Bangor More info PCR  
Hancock Walgreens Ellsworth More info PCR  
Waldo Walgreens Belfast More info PCR  
Penobscot Walgreens Bangor More info PCR  
Penobscot Walgreens Brewer More info PCR  
Sagadahoc Walgreens Bath More info PCR  
York Walgreens Kittery More info PCR  
Cumberland Walgreens Gray More info PCR  
Cumberland Walgreens Scarborough More info PCR  
Cumberland Walgreens Windham More info PCR  
Penobscot Walgreens Hampden More info PCR  
York Walgreens York More info PCR  

90,000 Rospotrebnadzor has changed the timing of the provision of PCR tests for visitors :: Society :: RBK

Citizens returning to Russia will have to post the results of PCR tests on the portal of state services within four calendar days, and not three, as it is now.This measure will come into force on July 30

Photo: Petr Kovalev / TASS

Russians arriving from abroad must upload the results of PCR tests for coronavirus infection COVID-19 to the website of state services within four days after arrival.This is stated in the order of the chief state sanitary doctor Anna Popova, which is published on the portal of legal information.

The document says that from July 30, Russian citizens who come from abroad will have to post the results of PCR tests on a single portal of public services within four calendar days, and not three, as it is now.

Peskov refused to link control over wearing masks and elections

According to the decree, citizens must be tested for COVID-19 by PCR within three calendar days from the date of arrival in Russia, and until the result is obtained, observe the isolation regime at the place of residence or stay.

90,000 How can I find out the test results for COVID-19 on the public services portal?

Russian Prime Minister Mikhail Mishustin approved a resolution that will allow Russians to view the results of coronavirus tests in their personal account on the public services portal. This was reported by “Arguments and Facts” with reference to the press service of the Cabinet.

Can the first and second COVID-19 vaccinations be given in different locations?

As noted in the decree, this applies to both PCR tests and antibody tests (including after vaccination).This decision was the final step in a pilot project for processing test data for COVID-19, which was launched in November 2020. The main goals of digitalization of this process are to save time in obtaining results and to combat fraud. In addition, citizens returning from abroad will not have to send their test data to Rospotrebnadzor on their own.

How will it work?

First, data from laboratories will be sent through secure channels to a special Rospotrebnadzor reference center, and then to a personal account on the public services portal.In the application on mobile devices, this data will be in the form of a QR code for convenience. In the same way, vaccination data will be uploaded to the personal account on the public services portal.

As back in November 2020, it was noted in a message on the website of the Ministry of Digital Science, we are talking about tests carried out in laboratories integrated with the information system of Rospotrebnadzor. According to the press service of the ministry, the data will come to the portal of public services just an hour after the test is ready, and users will receive a notification.

Accordingly, to get acquainted with the results, you will only need to go to your personal account on the public services portal. For the service to work, the account on the portal must have a confirmed status, that is, the user must pass identity verification (through service centers, Russian Post, their bank or using an electronic signature). You will also need to agree to the transfer of information from the laboratories.

As noted in the decree, the following information will be transferred to Rospotrebnadzor: order number, data of the organization that took the biomaterial and the laboratory that studied it, as well as the dates of collection and research, test results, series and number of the identity document of the person who passed testing, his insurance number of an individual personal account (SNILS) and full name.

90,000 COVID-19 Testing – Public Area

Testing at Vaclav Havel Airport Prague is primarily intended for passengers who have purchased a valid ticket or are planning to travel abroad. Other persons who pay for the test on their own are accepted subject to the availability of vacancies at the test point. The test site is not intended for patients who are referred for testing by a physician. We ask all persons who have received a referral or recommendation to take a test from a doctor not to come to the airport and go to another drop-off point, primarily to medical institutions.

The test taker will know the result within the standard period of up to 24 hours. The result will be sent in an SMS message to the client’s mobile phone number with an international code or to an e-mail address. GHC Genetics is responsible for the processing time.

For testing purposes, there are paid test points directly at the Prague airport. In them, passengers can be tested for COVID-19 and at the same time receive the necessary confirmation upon return to the Czech Republic or before departure.Airport testing is performed by medical personnel from GHC Genetics, which uses an accredited laboratory for sample analysis. One test point is located at in the public area of ​​the airport in the passage between Terminals 1 and 2 . It is primarily intended for departing passengers who require a negative test to enter the country of destination, as well as for arriving passengers. In case of an increase in demand, depending on the current flight schedule, another test point may also be opened, which is located in the inner zone in front of passport control in Terminal 1. First of all, arriving passengers will be able to pass the test at this point, who, according to the current measures, are required to present a negative PCR test for COVID-19 disease to the local sanitary-epidemiological service after their return from certain countries. Also, the test can be taken by everyone who wants to check their health, at their own request. The new service at the airport is primarily intended to reduce the rate of spread of the disease, as well as to ensure travel safety.

Passengers and the general public can take the test at Vaclav Havel Airport Prague daily from 04:00 to 00:00 at the test point located in the passage between the terminals, as well as from 07:00 to 19:00 in front of passport control at the Terminal 1, and then according to demand . Samples are analyzed in a remote, specially equipped laboratory. The client will know the result within the standard period of up to 24 hours. The result will be sent in an SMS message to the client’s mobile phone number with an international code or to an e-mail address. GHC Genetics is responsible for the processing time.

As a general rule, we recommend that passengers who need to present a negative COVID-19 test result at check-in or directly in the country of destination and who want to take the test at the airport, allow sufficient time to take the test and receive the result before departure from Prague.

Sampling at test points is carried out on a first come, first served basis. Recording at a specific time is not possible due to high demand.

In the event of increased passenger demand for COVID-19 test sampling, GHC Genetics will promptly increase the capacity of the drop-off point by one window located in the same location as the existing drop-off point in the crossing between terminals.

The service is provided by GHC Genetics.

Prices of coronavirus tests:

  • PCR TEST BASIC (810 CZK / 32 EURO) – the client receives the test result within the legal period of 48 hours only in the form of an SMS message containing all the data required by law.With this test, you cannot buy a certificate of absence of infection in accordance with the requirements of the Ministry of Health of the Czech Republic, which is necessary for traveling abroad. In the case of tests carried out at the Airport. Vaclav Havel Prague, the laboratory will be able to give results within 24 hours. Thus, the laboratory meets the specific needs of clients at the airport and takes into account the reduced flexibility in time of passengers, whose test results are associated with fixed departure times.
  • PCR TEST STANDARD (1750 CZK / 70 EURO) – the client receives the test result within 24 hours in the form of an SMS message, and then receives an email.e-mail a secure laboratory reference.
  • PCR TEST TRAVEL (2000 CZK / 80 EURO) – the client receives the test result within 24 hours in the form of an SMS message, and then receives an email. e-mail a secure laboratory reference. The price of the test includes obtaining an international certificate of the absence of infection in accordance with the requirements of the Ministry of Health of the Czech Republic, which is necessary for traveling abroad.
  • PCR TEST Expres (7,500 CZK / 280 EURO) is an express service, within which the client receives a test result within 2 hours.The test is carried out directly at the sampling points. Clients receive the result in the form of an SMS message, and then receive an email. e-mail a secure laboratory reference. The price of the test includes obtaining an international certificate of the absence of infection in accordance with the requirements of the Ministry of Health of the Czech Republic, which is necessary for traveling abroad.

Nothing changes for people who have undergone PCR tests as prescribed by a doctor or sanitary and epidemiological surveillance. With the test, you can buy a certificate of absence of infection in accordance with the requirements of the Ministry of Health of the Czech Republic for 250 CZK / 10 EURO, which is necessary for traveling abroad.

  • Antigen test TEST TRAVEL (800 CZK / 32 EURO) – the client receives the test result directly at the sampling point within 15 minutes, and then receives an email. e-mail a secure laboratory reference. The price of the test includes obtaining an international certificate of the absence of infection in accordance with the requirements of the Ministry of Health of the Czech Republic, which is necessary for traveling abroad. Currently, a PCR test is strictly required to travel abroad (with the exception of

Slovakia). However, always check the current information before traveling.

Payment is possible at all sampling points or by bank transfer using a payment card, or in cash. The cost of the test can be paid in kroons or euros.

90,000 PCR (COVID-19) (result in English and Russian) SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus RNA

PCR study detects SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus RNA in a swab from the nasopharynx and oropharynx. The result is given in Russian and English.

Please note that it is impossible to additionally receive the result in English after passing the test with the result in Russian only! When registering a test in Russian and English, the data of both Russian and foreign passports of the patient are entered into the program at the same time, do not forget to take your passports with you.

The SARS CoV-2 coronavirus is a new type of coronavirus that caused the COVID 19 pandemic (COrona VIrus Disease is an English abbreviation). SARS CoV-2 is a highly contagious infection that is transmitted from person to person. Ways of spread – airborne (when talking, sneezing, coughing), air-dust, contact (through handrails in vehicles, door handles, household items). A person becomes infectious already during the incubation period (the latent period of the disease, before the onset of symptoms) and spreads the virus during the course of the disease, even if the infection is mild or asymptomatic.Signs suggestive of COVID 19: change in the perception of smell and taste, dry cough, high fever, muscle pain, difficulty breathing, shortness of breath, decreased oxygen saturation (tissue oxygenation, measured with a pulse oximeter). Possibly asymptomatic course, mild, moderate and severe with signs of respiratory failure and the need to connect mechanical ventilation.

PCR study of SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) coronavirus RNA with a result in English and Russian is carried out upon presentation of Russian and foreign passports (data of two passports are required) to persons without signs of SARS and who have not had contact with a COVID 19 patient for a period 14 days before the study.It is not possible to take a smear anonymously.

If there are signs of ARVI, contact the local medical service at your place of residence.

When is the study ordered?

  • When planning a trip abroad or for presentation at the place of request

What do the test results mean?

The result is given in a quality format (detected / not found).

There is a QR code on the result form, which, when scanned, confirms the authenticity of the research performed by the laboratory.

Result – “not detected” means the absence of SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus at the time of the study (taking a smear). But this does not mean that the patient could not become infected after performing a smear.

Result – “found” indicates the presence of the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus. When a positive result is obtained, the patient’s data is transferred to Rospotrebnadzor. The patient must comply with quarantine for at least 2 weeks, even in the absence of signs of illness, until a negative result of the next PCR test for the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus is obtained.

Timing of the test.

Up to 2 days

How do I prepare for the analysis?

For research, you need to take a swab from the nasopharynx and oropharynx. The swab can be taken on an empty stomach in the morning or during the day. Before the study, refrain from topical administration of drugs and food intake for 2 hours. You need to have the data of two passports with you: Russian and foreign.

PCR test | Medicaver

Although PCR tests are now more common in the context of coronavirus, it should be borne in mind that this test is used in the diagnosis of many other diseases, both viral, bacterial, and parasitic.Given the nature of the test, it is classified as a molecular (genetic) test.

Contents

1. PCR test what is it?

2. Types of PCR tests

3. How accurate is the PCR test for coronavirus?

4. When should a PCR test for coronavirus be performed?

5. Results of PCR test for coronavirus

PCR test what is it?

PCR is a study based on the principles of molecular biology. Its name comes from the English term “polymerase chain reaction”.To conduct a test, you need to take a sample of material for testing, then analysis is carried out to identify specific genetic material characteristic of a particular virus. Modern laboratory methods make it possible to isolate a specific viral or bacterial nucleic acid from a selected sample – DNA or RNA, due to which it is possible to confirm the fact of infection of the examined person. The advantage of this test is that it detects a small amount of virus or detects a virus in very small samples.

Types of PCR tests

Now, for the diagnosis of the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus, the method recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) to confirm the infection is a molecular (genetic) test, which consists in checking that it contains this SARS-CoV-2 RNA sample (its genetic material). There are currently two types of PCR tests performed to confirm SARS-CoV-2 infection.

One of the tests is the FRANKD screening test.This is a PCR test, RT-LAMB (isothermal amplification from reverse transcriptase mediated). This allows one genetic sequence to be identified (as opposed to RT-PCR, which detects two – the so-called complete test). To carry out the test, you need to take a swab from the throat and nose or nasopharynx, and the result will be available the next day.

An RT-PCR test is also required in the case of a positive serological test (SARS-CoV-2 antibody) – a negative RT-PCR result, together with a positive SARS-CoV-2 antibody result, indicates a past infection.

RT-PCR results are generally available within 24-48 hours (depending on laboratory and test option). If you develop flu-like symptoms or have been in contact with someone with COVID-19, talk to your doctor about testing.

Or an Accurate PCR Test for Coronavirus?

RT-PCR and PCR tests are molecular tests that are performed under strictly defined laboratory conditions. Today, the RT-PCR test is the only recommended method for confirming SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus infection (the so-called gold standard), recognized by the WHO and the Ministry of Health of Ukraine.The test is highly sensitive and specific, although false negative results (negative test result despite infection) can occur if the amount of genetic material is insufficient or the time window for execution is missed (approximately the first 2 weeks after infection). Although the incubation period for COVID-19 is estimated to be approximately 5 days, it is possible to get a false negative result within the first 7 days of infection (Böger B. Am J Infect Control, 2020).

RT-PCR usually exhibits SARS-CoV-2 during the first week of symptom onset, up to about 3 weeks in total. Some people with severe ARVI-CoV-2 may have the virus for longer than 3 weeks. False negative results of the RT-PCR test appear mainly due to errors in the collection of material for research or the wrong timing for the test (Sethuraman N. JAMA, 2020).

When to do the RT-PCR test for coronavirus?

The RT-PCR test to confirm the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus infection is carried out in certain situations:

• confirmation of ARVI-CoV-2 infection in people with symptoms consistent with the infection (eg fever, shortness of breath, dry cough, loss or impairment of smell and / or taste),

• confirmation of infection after receiving a positive screening test (FRANKD, RT-LAMP) or serological test (anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies of the IgG, IgM or IgG and IgM classes).

It is important that, among other things, the reliability of the result depends on the correct collection of a sample of material for testing, as well as the collection time (time of the test from infection / onset of symptoms). symptoms indicating a possible infection.

Coronavirus test results

Taking into account the improvement of research methods, the results of tests for coronavirus appear relatively soon.Their interpretation depends on the type of test performed. Each time the result should be consulted with a doctor.

Receiving a positive RT-PCR test means that the person is infected with the coronavirus. This is a definite result, whereas a negative result does not completely rule out potential infection. Note that too early or incorrectly taken smears may result in a negative result error.

Source:

1. Ministry of Health of Ukraine, “Information on coronavirus”: https: // moz.gov.ua/koronavirus-2019-ncov

2.Official information portal of the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine: https://covid19.gov.ua/

3. World Health Organization: https://www.who.int/emergencies/diseases/novel-coronavirus-2019/advice-for-public

The time frame for transferring the results of PCR tests to the gosulug portal will be reduced to 2 hours

It is necessary to reduce the time for transferring the results of PCR tests from laboratories to the portal of public services to two hours from the moment they are ready.The corresponding order Rospotrebnadzor was given by Prime Minister Mikhail Mishustin, according to the website of the Cabinet.

“Rospotrebnadzor should prepare proposals to reduce the time for transferring the results of PCR tests from laboratories to the portal of public services – up to 2 hours from the moment the results are received,” the website says.

The Ministry of Health and the Ministry of Finance, together with regional authorities, must ensure that citizens’ appeals on coronavirus issues are considered through the public services portal within 24 hours.The government believes that this will help people more quickly receive information and resolve issues.

In addition, the Federal Antimonopoly Service and Rospotrebnadzor must, by July 19, check the validity of prices for PCR studies in private medical organizations and commercial laboratories. According to the head of government, the regions have recently reported that the receipt of test results is delayed, and the cost of the procedure itself is growing.

It is also necessary to control the situation with providing citizens with vaccines, Mikhail Mishustin said.In particular, we are talking about tracking the needs and availability of vaccines in the regions, since the pace of vaccination itself has accelerated.

In this regard, the Ministry of Industry and Trade was instructed to submit to the Government monthly plans for the release of vaccines by the main manufacturers until the end of 2021.

Read also:

• Media: the Ministry of Health is ready for long-term contracts for the purchase of drugs
• Muscovites were told how to receive a QR code by SMS
• Muscovites with a QR code will be able to receive services at the MFC without an appointment

Earlier, Minister of Health Mikhail Murashko said that several foreign manufacturers have applied for registration of their vaccine in Russia.Since January 18, a mass vaccination of the population against coronavirus has been taking place in the country. Russia was the first in the world to register a vaccine against coronavirus – it was named Sputnik V. It was developed by the N.F. Gamalei. Then the vaccine “EpiVacCorona” (developer – Center “Vector”) passed the registration. Later, the third vaccine against coronavirus, “CoviVac”, was registered, which was developed by the M.P. Chumakov.

A single-component vaccine “Sputnik Light” has also entered civilian circulation.Its first parties began to go into civilian circulation after June 25.

Situation in

Update from 09/27/2021

When entering Turkey

As part of the latest decision on measures to combat the COVID-19 epidemic, when entering the Republic of Turkey from the Russian Federation at all border points (land, air or sea) will not ask for a certificate with a negative PCR test result from those who provide documents issued by the official authorities of the Russian Federation on vaccination carried out at least 14 days before entry and / or a document stating that they have had a disease within the last 6 months …

Documents such as vaccination certificate, PCR / antigen tests will be checked by airlines before the flight, passengers without such documents will not be allowed to fly.

Passengers under 12 years old are exempted from submitting PCR / antigen tests or vaccination certificates (valid until 09/30/2021).

Movement of foreign tourists within the country

For tourists who have submitted documents on vaccination or previous illness upon entering Turkey, there are currently no obstacles to travel within the country by plane, train or bus with these documents.

Tourists who enter Turkey with negative results of the PCR test or the rapid antigen test can present them for travel by public transport if 72 hours have not passed (for the PCR test) and 48 hours (for the express antigen test).

Consequently, in case of expiration of of the specified documents for travel within the country by plane, train or public transport, it will be necessary to do the test again .

These requirements do not apply to tourists who have a vaccination certificate or a document on a past illness.

Vaccination certificate

To enter the territory of the Republic of Turkey on a vaccination certificate, a tourist must be vaccinated with one of the vaccines recognized by WHO or Turkey (from Russian – Sputnik V), and the last dose must be made at least 14 days before arrival.

Starting from September 14, 2021, the Republic of Turkey accepts only Sputnik V of Russian vaccines. Tourists with other Russian vaccines who fly on vacation on September 14, 2021 and later must have a negative PCR test result or an antigen test result.

The vaccination certificate must be in English, indicating the data of the foreign passport (affixed automatically if these data are entered in the State Services), as well as with a QR code.

The following conditions also apply for tourists traveling to Turkey

From March 15, new rules will come into force for visiting Turkey. Each passenger must register at register.health.gov.tr ​​72 hours before arrival in the country and fill out an online application form. An individual QR code is assigned to the form.In addition, after entering the data into the system, tourists will also be assigned a HES code, which is needed to travel by public transport, to enter markets and shopping centers. This form can be saved from the website to your phone or tablet in electronic form or printed out for presentation at the airport of departure.

Instructions for filling out the questionnaire for departure to Turkey

  1. The first page contains the data as they are indicated in the passenger’s foreign passport.
    Country of Arrival actually means Country of Departure.
  2. In the section “Company name” must be indicated the airline that the tourist arrives with (AZUR air, Aeroflot, etc.).
  3. “Date of Arrival” indicates the date of crossing the Turkish border.
  4. The second tab should contain information about the place of residence of tourists. Due to the fact that tourism rarely uses the administrative division of the regions of Turkey, many tourists have difficulties at this step.
    For the correct filling of this field, we advise you to find the hotel exactly on Google maps and transfer the information as follows (see):
  5. After entering the address data, click on “Add address” and after adding click on “Next”.
  6. In the next paragraph, if the tourist was in another country in the last 10 days, they must be indicated.
  7. As a result, all the data filled in by the tourist is displayed. After checking and confirming them, a personal form with a QR code is generated, which will need to be downloaded and printed.

Also in the form with a QR code there is a HES code, which is necessary for tourists to visit some public places such as shopping centers, markets, restaurants, etc. We advise tourists to always have this form with them.

In the absence of a completed application form, the passenger will be denied boarding. Also, this questionnaire does not replace the need for a PCR test.

The questionnaires previously issued to passengers on board are out of date from 03/15/2021.

For passengers traveling from Russia to third countries through Turkey and back, provided they travel through the transit sterile zones of the airport, that is, without going into the city and without moving from one airport to another for the purpose of transit, issuing a HES code like this require new rules of the Turkish authorities for arriving in Turkey is not necessary.

If the transit takes place with the replacement of airports, or if the transit lasts more than 24 hours, or if passengers arrive in Turkey with different airlines and, therefore, to receive and transfer baggage, it is necessary to go through passport control, then it is necessary to obtain a HES code.

Those who have been in Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Brazil, South Africa, India, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka for the last 14 days must provide a negative PCR test result, made no earlier than 72 hours before entering the country, and they will be quarantined for a period of 14 days in places designated by the provincial administrations (see).

At the points of arrival of passengers, the Ministry of Health will conduct PCR testing based on a random sample. Passengers will be able to travel to their final destinations following the test.

If the test is positive, they will be treated in accordance with the MOH circular on C0VID-19. Passengers who test positive and those who have been in close contact with them will be quarantined for 14 days at their addresses. The quarantine will be terminated if there is a negative PCR test result taken on the 10th day.If a carrier of the Delta mutation is identified, quarantine will be terminated if there is a negative PCR test result taken on the 14th day.

When entering Russia

Rules for entering Russia

Citizens of the Russian Federation

Citizens of the Russian Federation arriving in the territory of the Russian Federation by air must fill out an electronic form on the gosuslugi.ru portal “Registration of those arriving in the Russian Federation” before departure to the Russian Federation, but not later than check-in for the flight.The page with the QR code must be presented at the airport of arrival to the representatives of Rospotrebnadzor. Citizens can also fill out a questionnaire on the plane and give it at the airport to representatives of Rospotrebnadzor.

Citizens of the Russian Federation within 3 calendar days from the date of arrival in the territory of the Russian Federation need to undergo a single laboratory test for COVID-19 using the PCR method. Before receiving the results of laboratory tests for COVID-19 using the PCR method, it is necessary to observe the isolation regime at the place of residence (stay).

If you have been vaccinated against COVID-19 within the last 12 months or information about COVID-19 transferred in the last 6 months, a laboratory test for COVID-19 by PCR is not required.

For foreign citizens

All foreign citizens (not citizens of the Russian Federation) who have the legal right to enter the territory of the Russian Federation when crossing the State Border of the Russian Federation must have with them a certificate stating the presence of a negative laboratory test of the material selected no earlier than three calendar days before arriving on the territory of the Russian Federation, for COVID-19 using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method.