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Menstrual cycle: What’s normal, what’s not

Menstrual cycle: What’s normal, what’s not

Your menstrual cycle can say a lot about your health. Understand how to start tracking your menstrual cycle and what to do about irregularities.

By Mayo Clinic Staff

Do you know when your last menstrual period began or how long it lasted? If not, it might be time to start paying attention.

Tracking your menstrual cycles can help you understand what’s normal for you, time ovulation and identify important changes — such as a missed period or unpredictable menstrual bleeding. While menstrual cycle irregularities usually aren’t serious, sometimes they can signal health problems.

What’s the menstrual cycle?

The menstrual cycle is the monthly series of changes a woman’s body goes through in preparation for the possibility of pregnancy. Each month, one of the ovaries releases an egg — a process called ovulation. At the same time, hormonal changes prepare the uterus for pregnancy. If ovulation takes place and the egg isn’t fertilized, the lining of the uterus sheds through the vagina. This is a menstrual period.

What’s normal?

The menstrual cycle, which is counted from the first day of one period to the first day of the next, isn’t the same for every woman. Menstrual flow might occur every 21 to 35 days and last two to seven days. For the first few years after menstruation begins, long cycles are common. However, menstrual cycles tend to shorten and become more regular as you age.

Your menstrual cycle might be regular — about the same length every month — or somewhat irregular, and your period might be light or heavy, painful or pain-free, long or short, and still be considered normal. Within a broad range, “normal” is what’s normal for you.

Keep in mind that use of certain types of contraception, such as extended-cycle birth control pills and intrauterine devices (IUDs), will alter your menstrual cycle. Talk to your health care provider about what to expect.

When you get close to menopause, your cycle might become irregular again. However, because the risk of uterine cancer increases as you age, discuss any irregular bleeding around menopause with your health care provider.

How can I track my menstrual cycle?

To find out what’s normal for you, start keeping a record of your menstrual cycle on a calendar. Begin by tracking your start date every month for several months in a row to identify the regularity of your periods.

If you’re concerned about your periods, then also make note of the following every month:

  • End date. How long does your period typically last? Is it longer or shorter than usual?
  • Flow. Record the heaviness of your flow. Does it seem lighter or heavier than usual? How often do you need to change your sanitary protection? Have you passed any blood clots?
  • Abnormal bleeding. Are you bleeding in between periods?
  • Pain. Describe any pain associated with your period. Does the pain feel worse than usual?
  • Other changes. Have you experienced any changes in mood or behavior? Did anything new happen around the time of change in your periods?

What causes menstrual cycle irregularities?

Menstrual cycle irregularities can have many different causes, including:

  • Pregnancy or breast-feeding. A missed period can be an early sign of pregnancy. Breast-feeding typically delays the return of menstruation after pregnancy.
  • Eating disorders, extreme weight loss or excessive exercising. Eating disorders — such as anorexia nervosa — extreme weight loss and increased physical activity can disrupt menstruation.
  • Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Women with this common endocrine system disorder may have irregular periods as well as enlarged ovaries that contain small collections of fluid — called follicles — located in each ovary as seen during an ultrasound exam.
  • Premature ovarian failure. Premature ovarian failure refers to the loss of normal ovarian function before age 40. Women who have premature ovarian failure — also known as primary ovarian insufficiency — might have irregular or occasional periods for years.
  • Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID). This infection of the reproductive organs can cause irregular menstrual bleeding.
  • Uterine fibroids. Uterine fibroids are noncancerous growths of the uterus. They can cause heavy menstrual periods and prolonged menstrual periods.

What can I do to prevent menstrual irregularities?

For some women, use of birth control pills can help regulate menstrual cycles. Treatment for any underlying problems, such as an eating disorder, also might help. However, some menstrual irregularities can’t be prevented.

In addition, consult your health care provider if:

  • Your periods suddenly stop for more than 90 days — and you’re not pregnant
  • Your periods become erratic after having been regular
  • You bleed for more than seven days
  • You bleed more heavily than usual or soak through more than one pad or tampon every hour or two
  • Your periods are less than 21 days or more than 35 days apart
  • You bleed between periods
  • You develop severe pain during your period
  • You suddenly get a fever and feel sick after using tampons

If you have questions or concerns about your menstrual cycle, talk to your health care provider.

April 29, 2021

Show references

  1. Kaunitz A, et al. Approach to abnormal uterine bleeding in nonpregnant reproductive-age women. https://www.uptodate.com/contents/search. Accessed March 22, 2019.
  2. Welt C, et al. Evaluation of the menstrual cycle and timing of ovulation. https://www.uptodate.com/contents/search. Accessed March 22, 2019.
  3. Barrett KE, et al. Reproductive development & function of the female reproductive system. In: Ganong’s Review of Medical Physiology. 26th ed. New York, N.Y.: McGraw-Hill Education; 2019. https://accessmedicine.mhmedical.com. Accessed March 22, 2019.
  4. Hammer GD, et al. Disorders of the female reproductive tract. In: Pathophysiology of Disease: An Introduction to Clinical Medicine. 8th ed. New York, N.Y.: McGraw-Hill Education; 2019. https://accessmedicine.mhmedical.com. Accessed March 22, 2019.
  5. Melmed S, et al. Physiology and pathology of the female reproductive axis. In: Williams Textbook of Endocrinology. 13th ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Elsevier; 2016. https://www.clinicalkey.com. Accessed March 22, 2019.

See more In-depth


What’s a Normal Menstrual Period?

What Is a Normal Period?

A normal period (or normal menstruation) is different for every woman. Each month, one of your ovaries releases an egg. Meanwhile, your uterus gets ready to help your baby grow if that egg gets fertilized. If it does, you’re pregnant. If it doesn’t, your body sheds the lining of your uterus through your vagina. That’s your period. It happens, on average, every 28 days.

Think about how old you were when you got your first period. Now think about how old you may be when you enter menopause. Your body and life will change a lot from one to the other, right? So does your menstrual cycle.

When it comes to periods, “normal” covers a lot of ground. Use the broad range of factors below as a guide. And remember: The only true normal is what’s normal for you.

Normal Period Timing

Every month, your entire body prepares to get pregnant. Your ovaries release an egg. Hormones rise and fall.

This is your menstrual cycle. It starts on the first day of your last period and ends on the first day of your next period. Though the average cycle is 28 days long, anything between 21 and 45 days is considered normal. That’s a 24-day difference.

For the first year or two after menstruation begins, women tend to have longer cycles that don’t start at the same time every month. Older women often have shorter, more consistent cycles.

If you’re on birth control pills or have an IUD, it can change the timing of your period. Ask your doctor what’s normal for your form of contraception.

How long your period lasts also varies. The time from the first sign of blood to the last is usually in the 3-to-5-day range. Any length from 2 days to a week is normal for a period.

Normal Period Flow

If the egg your ovary releases every month isn’t fertilized, the lining of your uterus sheds through your vagina. This is your period. The amount of blood that comes out of your body is called your menstrual flow.

Whether your flow is light, moderate, or heavy, it’s all considered normal.

Normal Period Symptoms

Some months, your breasts may feel tender when you have your period. Other months, you may notice bloating around your abdomen or mood swings. Other normal menstruation symptoms include:

  • Acne
  • Cramping in the lower abdomen and back
  • More hunger
  • Sleep issues
  • Mood swings
  • Breast tenderness
  • Bloating

Not every period is the same, though. Most of the time, an irregular or abnormal period isn’t serious. But you should call the doctor if:

  • You have a heavier than usual flow
  • You need to change your pad or tampon hourly
  • Your period lasts more than 7 days
  • Your period suddenly stops for more than 90 days
  • You have severe pain
  • You think you might be pregnant

How to Track Your Period

In just 3 months, you can get a picture of what’s normal for you by tracking your periods. Keep a record of:

  • When your period starts and when it stops
  • How light or heavy your flow is
  • Whether or not you passed any blood clots
  • How frequently you change pads or tampons
  • How severe your cramps are
  • Changes in mood
  • Spotting between periods

Menstruation – abnormal bleeding – Better Health Channel

Abnormally heavy or prolonged menstrual bleeding is also called ‘abnormal uterine bleeding’. We sometimes use this general term to describe bleeding that does not follow a normal pattern, such as spotting between periods. It used to be referred to as menorrhagia, but this term is no longer used medically.

On average, a typical woman passes around 40 ml of blood during her menstrual period, which lasts around four to seven days. For some women, however, bleeding may be excessively heavy or go on for longer than normal. 

A woman may have ‘chronic’ heavy or prolonged bleeding (for more than six months) or it may be ‘acute’ (sudden and severe). In most cases, the causes of abnormal menstrual bleeding are unknown. See your doctor about any abnormal menstrual bleeding.

Symptoms of abnormal uterine bleeding

Symptoms include:

  • bleeding for more than eight days
  • heavy blood loss during the menstrual period – for example, soaking through one or more sanitary pads or tampons every hour for several hours in a row 
  • needing to change your pad or tampon during the night
  • have to change or restrict your daily activities due to your heavy bleeding
  • bleeding or spotting between periods (intermenstrual bleeding)
  • cramping and pain in the lower abdomen
  • fatigue
  • any vaginal bleeding after menopause.

If you think you may be experiencing heavy menstrual bleeding, you may find it useful to keep a pictorial blood loss assessment chart – this can help you give your doctor an idea of how heavy your period is.

Causes of abnormal uterine bleeding

While in many cases it is not possible to determine the exact cause, there are a number of reasons a woman may experience abnormal uterine bleeding. Some of the known causes of abnormal uterine bleeding include:

  • spontaneous miscarriage in pregnancy
  • ectopic pregnancy – lodgement of the fertilised egg in the slender fallopian tube instead of the uterine lining
  • hormonal disorders – conditions such as hypothyroidism (low levels of thyroxine), polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) and hyperprolactinemia can disrupt the menstrual cycle
  • ovulatory dysfunction – this is when the ovary does not release an egg each month. Most commonly, this occurs at either end of a woman’s reproductive years, either during puberty or at menopause
  • endometriosis – the cells lining the uterus (endometrial cells) can travel to, attach and grow elsewhere in the body, most commonly within the peritoneal cavity (including on the outside of the uterus or on the ovarian surface)
  • infection – including chlamydia or pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)
  • medication – may include anticoagulants, which hinder the clotting ability of the blood; phenothiazides, which are antipsychotic tranquilisers; and tricyclic antidepressants, which affect serotonin uptake
  • intrauterine device (IUD) – is a contraceptive device that acts as a foreign body inside the uterus and prompts heavier periods
  • hormonal contraceptives – may include the combined oral contraceptive pill, injections of a long-acting synthetic progesterone, a rod containing slow-release progesterone (implanted in the upper arm), or intrauterine system devices (progesterone-releasing contraceptive devices inserted into the uterus). The progesterone-only treatments commonly cause spotting
  • hormone replacement therapy – used as a treatment for menopausal symptoms
  • fibroids – benign tumours that develop inside the uterus
  • polyps – small, stalk-like projections that grow out of the uterus lining (endometrium). Polyps may be associated with fibroids
  • bleeding disorders – may include leukaemia and Von Willebrand disease
  • cancer – most uterine cancers develop in the lining of the uterus, though some cancers grow in the muscle layers of the uterus. They are most common after menopause.

Diagnosis of abnormal uterine bleeding

The diagnosis and identification of potential causes of abnormal uterine bleeding involves a number of tests including:

  • general examination
  • medical history
  • menstrual history
  • physical examination
  • cervical screening test
  • blood tests
  • vaginal ultrasound
  • endometrial biopsy.

Treatment for abnormal uterine bleeding

Treatment will depend on the cause, but may include:

  • medication – such as prostaglandin inhibitors, hormone replacement therapy or antibiotics
  • dilatation and curettage (D&C) – involving dilation and gentle scraping of the cervix and the lining of the uterus
  • change of contraception – it may be necessary to explore methods of contraception other than the IUD or hormones
  • surgery – to remove tumours, polyps or fibroids or to treat ectopic pregnancy
  • treatment of underlying disorders – such as hypothyroidism or a bleeding disorder
  • hysterectomy – the removal of the entire uterus is a drastic last resort, generally only considered for treatment of abnormal uterine bleeding when a serious disease, such as cancer, is also present.

Where to get help

Vaginal Bleeding

Is this your child’s symptom?

  • Vaginal bleeding before puberty OR abnormal bleeding after puberty
  • Heavy menstrual bleeding after puberty
  • Light breakthrough bleeding or spotting in between menstrual cycles after puberty


  • Newborn Vaginal Bleeding. Baby girls can have some minor vaginal bleeding. It can start any time from 2-10 days of life. This is normal and called false menses. The cause is the sudden drop-off in the mother’s estrogen (a hormone) after birth. The blood-tinged or pink discharge should not last more than 3 or 4 days.
  • Before Puberty. Vaginal bleeding (other than newborn) is not normal. Bleeding in this age group needs an exam.
  • First Menstrual Period. If over 8 and has signs of puberty, this most likely is her first period. Signs of puberty are breast changes or pubic hair. Most girls do not have their first period until 2 years after puberty begins. Some girls do start during the first stage of puberty.
  • After Puberty. Vaginal bleeding is abnormal if it occurs between regular periods. Heavy bleeding is also not normal. Bleeding that is severe or lasts over 7 days should be seen. Bleeding along with signs of severe anemia (such as pale skin, weakness) should also be seen. Teens may have abnormal bleeding during the year after their periods start. This can be normal. It usually doesn’t need an urgent exam unless it’s heavy or severe.
  • Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs). May cause spotting or blood-tinged discharge.
  • Birth Control. Some birth control medicines can cause breakthrough or abnormal bleeding. This most often occurs for the first few months on the medicines.
  • Pregnancy. Vaginal bleeding can be a sign of pregnancy. Teens that are having sex should keep this in mind. In early pregnancy, vaginal bleeding can be a sign of serious problems. Causes include miscarriage or an ectopic pregnancy. If in doubt, always do a pregnancy test.

Excessive Menstrual Bleeding

Menstrual bleeding can be defined as too much with any of the below:

  • More than 7 days (1 week) of bleeding (8 days is prolonged)
  • More than 6 well-soaked pads or tampons per day
  • Periods happen more often than every 21 days
  • Any bleeding or spotting between regular periods
  • If bleeding is felt to be more than normal, the teen should be seen.

Vaginal Bleeding Severity is defined as:

  • Spotting: pinkish/brownish mucus discharge, less than 1 pad total per day
  • Mild: less than 1 pad per hour; like menstrual bleeding
  • Moderate: 1-2 pads/hour; small blood clots (pea, grape, small coin)
  • Severe: soaking more than 2 pads/hour. Bleeding not contained by pads with large amount of red blood from vagina. Can also have large blood clots (golf ball, large coin).

When to Call for Vaginal Bleeding

Call 911 Now

  • Passed out (fainted)
  • Very weak (can’t stand)
  • You think your child has a life-threatening emergency

Call Doctor or Seek Care Now

  • Could have been caused by sexual abuse
  • Moderate vaginal bleeding (soaking 1 pad or tampon per hour for 6 or more hours)
  • Pale skin and new onset
  • Skin bruises, nosebleed, or other bleeding not caused by an injury
  • Vaginal bleeding of unknown cause before puberty. (Not a newborn less than 2 weeks OR first menstrual period)
  • Your child looks or acts very sick
  • You think your child needs to be seen, and the problem is urgent

Contact Doctor Within 24 Hours

  • Yellow, green, or gray vaginal discharge
  • Bleeding is heavy (6 or more soaked pads or tampons per day)
  • You think your child needs to be seen, but the problem is not urgent

Contact Doctor During Office Hours

  • Bleeding lasts for more than 7 days
  • Bleeding or spotting happens between normal periods
  • Irregular bleeding happens more than 2 cycles (2 months) and using birth control medicines. Birth control includes pills, patches, shots, implant, or vaginal ring.
  • Taking birth control pills and has missed 2 or more active pills in a pack. Note: use a back-up method of birth control.
  • You are worried about a sexually transmitted infection (STI)
  • You have other questions or concerns

Self Care at Home

  • Signs of puberty and bleeding for the first time
  • Mild vaginal bleeding after puberty
  • Irregular bleeding on birth control medicine
  • Taking birth control pills and missed dose
  • Newborn vaginal bleeding

Seattle Children’s Urgent Care Locations

If your child’s illness or injury is life-threatening, call 911.

Care Advice

First Menstrual Period

  1. What You Should Know About First Menstrual Periods:
    • If over 8 and has signs of puberty, this most likely is her first period. This is normal.
    • Don’t be surprised if she skips a period or 2 after the first one.
    • During the first year after periods begin, there are often no menstrual cramps.
  2. Use Pads or Tampons:
    • It’s safe to use either pads or tampons, but change them often.
  3. Call Your Doctor If:
    • Bleeding becomes worse
    • Bleeding with first period lasts over 6 days

Mild Vaginal Bleeding After Puberty

  1. What You Should Know About Vaginal Bleeding:
    • A teen should talk to her doctor if she is bleeding more than normal. This means using 2 or more tampons or pads than she normally uses per day. Periods that last 3 or more days longer than normal should also be discussed.
    • Birth control can also cause spotting or abnormal bleeding. (See the next section on Irregular Bleeding on Birth Control)
  2. Iron and Anemia:
    • Heavy periods can cause anemia (low red blood count). This is caused from not enough iron. It is one of the most common causes of anemia in women.
    • Women with heavy periods should eat foods rich in iron. They can also take a daily vitamin pill with iron.
  3. Mild Spotting Causes – Normal:
    • There are some common causes of mild vaginal bleeding (spotting) outside of normal periods.
    • Spotting can happen after a doctor’s exam.
    • It can also happen the first time you have sex.
    • Some women spot when they ovulate (mid-cycle on about day 14.) This spotting can be normal.
    • Bleeding from these causes should not last longer than 2 days.
  4. Pregnancy Test, When in Doubt:
    • If there is a chance that you are pregnant, use a urine pregnancy test.
    • You can buy a pregnancy test at any drugstore.
    • It works best if you test your first urine in the morning.
    • Follow all package directions.
  5. Call Your Doctor If:
    • Pregnancy test is positive
    • Your teen has trouble with the at-home pregnancy test
    • Bleeding becomes worse
    • Spotting (mild irregular bleeding) lasts more than 2 days or happens again
    • You think your teen needs to be seen
    • Your teen gets worse

Irregular Bleeding on Birth Control Medicine

  1. What You Should Know About Irregular Bleeding on Birth Control:
    • Mild breakthrough bleeding or spotting is common with types of hormonal birth control.
    • This is especially true the first few months after you start birth control.
    • It usually will get better as your body adjusts to the hormones.
    • Here is some care advice that should help.
  2. Spotting Between Periods and Taking Birth Control Pills:
    • This is common.
    • You may have breakthrough bleeding or spotting with most of these pills.
    • It is likely to happen during the first three pill pack cycles.
    • Missing a pill may also cause breakthrough bleeding or spotting. (See the next section on Taking Birth Control and Missing Doses.)
  3. Irregular Bleeding and Using Birth Control Implant or Shot:
    • This is common for the first several months.
    • Irregular bleeding may be heavier or lighter than normal.
    • It may also be more or less frequent bleeding than your normal period.
    • Bleeding and spotting usually decrease over time.
  4. Irregular Bleeding and Using the Birth Control Patch:
    • This is common.
    • You may have breakthrough bleeding or spotting with these patches.
    • This is likely to happen during the first 3 cycles (months).
  5. Irregular Bleeding and Using the Vaginal Ring (NuvaRing):
    • This is not common.
    • Most women don’t have breakthrough bleeding or spotting with NuvaRing.
    • But, it can happen during the first 1-2 months of use (first 2 cycles).
  6. Keep a Record of Bleeding:
    • Keep a record of the days you have any bleeding or spotting.
  7. Call Your Doctor If:
    • Irregular bleeding happens more than 2 cycles (2 months)
    • Bleeding becomes worse
    • You think your teen needs to be seen
    • Your teen gets worse

Taking Birth Control Pills and Missed Doses

  1. What You Should Know About Missed or Late Doses of Birth Control Pills:
    • Almost everyone misses a dose of their birth control pill at times.
    • Try to remember to take them the same time every day. Many take them with a meal. Some women use an alarm to remind themselves.
    • Missing a pill is also a common cause of breakthrough bleeding or spotting. This is normal.
    • Here is some care advice that should help.
  2. Missed Placebo Pills:
    • Follow these directions if you missed 1 or more placebo pills (reminder pills).
    • Throw away the missed pill or pills.
    • Keep taking the rest of the pills on the usual day.
    • You are not at higher risk for pregnancy.
    • You do not need to use a back-up form of birth control.
    • Example: Missed pill(s) during days 22-28 of a 28-day of combination pill pack.
  3. Late Taking 1 Active Pill (Less than 24 Hours Since a Pill Should Have been Taken):
    • Follow these directions if you are late taking an active hormone pill (not placebo pills).
    • Take the late pill as soon as possible.
    • Take the next pill at the normal time. This means you may need to take 2 pills at one time. This may also mean taking 2 pills on the same day.
    • Taking 2 pills may make you feel a little nauseated, but this is normal. It should pass in a day.
    • There is little or no risk of getting pregnant with 1 late pill. (Exception: progestin-only pills. See Care Advice #6)
    • You do not need to use a back-up method of birth control.
  4. Missed 1 Active Pill (24-48 Hours Since a Pill Should Have been Taken):
    • Follow these directions if you missed 1 active hormone pill (not placebo pills).
    • Take the missed pill as soon as possible. Take the next pill at the normal time. This means you may need to take 2 pills at one time. This may also mean taking 2 pills on the same day.
    • Taking 2 pills may make you feel a little nauseated, but this is normal. It should pass in a day.
    • There is little or no risk of getting pregnant with 1 missed pill. (Exception: progestin-only pills. See care advice #6.)
    • You do not need to use a back-up method of birth control.
  5. Missed 2 Active Pills (2 or more):
    • Follow these directions if you missed 2 or more active hormone pills (not placebo pills).
    • Take one of the missed pills (most recently missed) as soon as possible.
    • Throw away other missed pills. Take the next pill at the normal time. This means you may need to take 2 pills at one time. This may also mean taking 2 pills on the same day.
    • Taking 2 pills may make you feel a little nauseated, but this is normal. It should pass in a day.
    • Call your doctor for further instructions during office hours.
    • Use a back-up birth control method until you speak with your doctor. You can also avoid having sex until you talk with your doctor. Ask your doctor how long you need to use back-up birth control.
    • Consider emergency contraception if you’ve had unprotected sex in the past 5 days.
  6. Progestin-Only Pills – Missing Doses or Taking Dosages Late:
    • These pills need to be taken at the same time daily to work the best. This is very important. Reason: Pregnancy is possible if you take your dosage more than 3 hours past the normal time.
    • Follow these directions if you miss a pill or take a pill more than 3 hours late.
    • Take the missed or late pill as soon as possible. Keep taking the rest of your pills at your normal time every day. This means you may need to take 2 at one time. This may also mean taking 2 pills on the same day.
    • Use a backup method (such as condom and foam) after taking the late pill. You will need to do this for 48 hours.
    • If you had sex before you realized you missed pills, consider emergency contraception.
  7. Lost 1 Pill:
    • Take the next pill in the pack today.
    • As a result, you will finish the birth control pill pack one day sooner.
    • Start your next pill pack one day earlier. Reason: Most pregnancies on the pill (with regular use) happen with late starts of the pill pack. (Even just 1 or 2 days late as you may ovulate early).
  8. Emergency Contraceptive Pills (ECP) – When to Consider:
    • Emergency contraception pills (ECPs) can be used by any teen who is worried she might become pregnant. No prescription is needed.
    • ECPs should be taken as soon as possible within 5 days after unprotected sex.
    • The sooner ECPs are taken, the better they work.
  9. Pregnancy Test, When in Doubt:
    • If there is a chance that you are pregnant, use a urine pregnancy test.
    • You can buy a pregnancy test at any drugstore.
    • It works best if you test your first urine in the morning.
    • Follow all package directions.
  10. Call Your Doctor If:
    • Pregnancy test is positive
    • Your teen has more than mild bleeding or spotting
    • You think your teen needs to be seen
    • Your teen becomes worse

And remember, contact your doctor if your child develops any of the ‘Call Your Doctor’ symptoms.

Disclaimer: this health information is for educational purposes only. You, the reader, assume full responsibility for how you choose to use it.

Last Reviewed: 05/30/2021

Last Revised: 03/11/2021

Copyright 2000-2021. Schmitt Pediatric Guidelines LLC.

Normal and Abnormal Periods | Steps for Living

What’s a Normal Period?

Menstrual periods are not the same for every woman. And a woman’s period can change throughout her lifetime. The timing, duration, and flow of periods can vary greatly, and it can be difficult to determine what’s normal and abnormal.

Here are some facts about periods:
  • A young girl’s first menstrual period, called menarche, is a milestone in puberty and usually occurs between the ages of 11 and 14 years
  • Girls who are just beginning to menstruate often have irregular periods and periods that fluctuate with light, moderate, or heavy flows
  • A young girl’s period tends to occur 21 to 45 days apart and last 4 to 7 days
  • As girls get older, on average, menstrual periods occur every 28 days, range from 21 to 35 days, and last 3 to 5 days
  • Typically, women lose about 30 mL to 45 mL (about 2 to 3 tablespoons) of blood during a period.
  • Typically, as women age, their periods occur less and less frequently until they stop altogether, called menopause

Back to top

What’s an

Abnormal Period?

Keeping in mind the usual or occasional fluctuations in periods, here are some signs that a period may not be normal:
  • Bleeding for more than 7 days is not normal
  • A menstrual cycle lasting 90 days or longer in a woman not receiving a hormonal treatment is not normal
  • Menorrhagia is defined as blood loss greater than 80 mL per menstrual period, approximately 5.5 tablespoons or about one-third of a cup. This is not normal

In general, menorrhagia is characterized by heavy and prolonged periods—more than just one or two days of heavier-than-average bleeding. However, with the availability of super-absorbent pads and tampons, measuring blood loss can be imprecise. In practical terms, the menstrual bleeding of menorrhagia is so heavy that it requires more than one pad or tampon every one to two hours, frequently stains through underclothes and bed clothes, and may include passing blood clots one-inch thick in diameter.

For more information about heavy menstrual periods, go to Changing Roles in Treatment.

Tips and Tricks for Managing Your Heavy Period

Coping with heavy periods is no light matter for many women with a bleeding disorder.

Click on the tabs below for tips from young women on how they deal with the inconvenience and frustrations of heavy periods.

Daytime Strategies

  • When I’m out and about and active, I keep an emergency bag of:
    • At least 2 extra pairs of panties
    • An extra pair of jeans in my car at all times (younger girls may wish to keep this in a locker)
    • A long-sleeved sweater or jacket (in case of any accidents, this comes in handy to tie around your waist!)
    • Pads, tampons, and panty liners
  • I also carry a cute little cosmetics bag in my purse during the day. It’s chock full of pads, panty liners, and tampons at all times during the week. It’s discreet. So when you take it to the bathroom, it just looks like a little make up bag
  • I actually restock it every night before work the next day to make sure I am covered. Just be stocked at all times, wherever you’re going, so you can avoid a potentially embarrassing situation!
  • Things to avoid when your periods are heavy:
    • Thongs and going commando
    • Your favorite pairs of underwear, skirts, or lightly colored shorts or pants
    • Swimming
  • Most other daily activities I find are just fine. If you don’t feel up to doing something, just don’t
  • One of the problems I encountered with pads are limited mobility. I was in dance classes and if I moved around too much the pad would move out of place. I felt I had to constantly check to see if I needed to change; otherwise a sponge-like effect would happen when I sat
  • On my heaviest days, I would set alarm clocks during the night to make sure I would get up to change. Once I moved on to tampons I felt safer. I did run into some trouble at the beginning. So, I would suggest using light pads as well as tampons until you know more or less when you need to change
  • I’ve noticed that toward the beginning of my period, when I have more clots, I may sometimes need to change my tampon sooner. Clots cling to the outside, and I think it doesn’t allow the tampon to absorb as well
  • To this day I always use panty liners, just in case. I still have to get up at night to change; a tampon is not sufficient for overnight. I have even tried the tampons that hold more than the super size, but those just left me with soreness
  • I wear dark-colored pants during my period

The best way to deal with this huge change in your life is to be informed and educated.

Nighttime Suggestions

  • For sleeping, I actually put a doubled-up dark colored towel underneath my bottom – just in case I have some leakage. (It’s best to avoid these leaks because blood can be hard to get out of clothes and sheets)
  • I use tampons with panty liners during the day and use menstrual cups at night. They are not comfortable, but I feel fine sleeping through the whole night without having to worry about leakage
  • So that I don’t continuously ruin new ones, I have underwear dedicated to wearing at night during my period
  • To prevent ruining sheets, I used to sleep with an old blanket underneath me to absorb the blood if I bled though my overnight pads

Coping With Cramps

  • Disposable heating pads work really well against cramps. They stick under your clothes
  • Exercise. I know, easier said than done; but, exercise can have several benefits. When you exercise, your body releases endorphins that help counteract the cramp-producing chemicals that are part of the menstrual cycle. Also, engaging in your normal activities can get your mind off the pain

Some Laundry Advice

A laundering hint: very cold water helps to take out blood stains, and so does hydrogen peroxide. Try to rub out the stain using one or both before washing. Keep in mind that the dryer will set the stain in permanently.

Fels-Naptha® is a heavy duty laundry bar soap that removes blood. So does dish soap.

Talk to Others

My advice to you is this: I know that this is scary and that it’s weird and uncomfortable, but talk to someone—your mom, grandma, aunt, older sister, someone. You probably know someone who has gone through this as well. Talking to others will help you to better understand your body.

To print out a copy of these and other suggestions, go to Tips and Tricks for Managing Your Heavy Period

3 Reasons You’re Missing It

Get your period back: 3 reasons why your period may be missing and how make your period come back

Has your period taken a mystery vacation and you’re not sure when she’s coming back?

I know it can be frustrating and anxiety-producing – especially when you’re thinking about the potential of having babies someday. You start to wonder, how am I going to do that without a period?

You have no idea why this is happening to you, especially when your other lady friends seem to have a monthly, consistent flo.

You are worried about your health, concerned for your fertility and are probably thinking, how can I get my period back?

Unfortunately, many women these days suffer from missing periods. It may be comforting to know that this inconsistency within your menstrual cycle is actually a common issue for a lot of ladies. But it doesn’t mean it has to stay that way!

If you have tried every form of medication and still have no insight, this video is for you!

Click here to watch and learn how to use natural solutions to bring back your cycle:

In this video I’ll cover:

  • The 3 reasons why you may be missing your period
  • The key dietary and lifestyle shifts for balancing your hormones
  • Super important practices you may have never guessed would work – but they do!

A missing period is an indicator that you are not ovulating. This is obviously a worry if you want to get pregnant, but it should also be a concern even if you have no baby plans in the near future. Ovulation is the key to female health and vitality. Not ovulating does not only lead to missing periods, but also all PMS symptoms, acne, moodiness, weight gain and more.

I want you to know that there are a few textbook reasons for not ovulating including: pregnancy, breastfeeding, menopause, over-exercising, being underweight, or having cysts on your ovaries (PCOS). There are several kinds of PCOS that women can experience on a PCOS spectrum, with specific root causes and specific natural treatments. Your period might be missing because of one of these reasons, so it’s important to rule those out as contributing factors.

The next step is, as I say in this video, to take a look at your hormonal balance – specifically progesterone and estrogen. Progesterone deficiency and estrogen dominance/overload are the two main root causes of missing periods when the above factors are not on the table.

Your body needs nutritional support via the right foods to create enough hormones, use those hormones, and then process and detoxify excess hormones. This will maintain hormonal balance and ensure your body is able to trigger ovulation. Once you are ovulating your period will naturally follow and flo. Your body wants to ovulate, that’s what it’s designed to do, but it just needs to right fuel and foundation.

My FLO Living protocol has helped thousands of women bring back their period, including Ashley who didn’t have a period for 3 years and Stephanie who was missing her period for 2.5 years. They thought Aunt Flo had packed up and gone, never to return. But she came back, once she had what she needed!

Get started by Cycle Syncing one part of your diet – like the greens you eat and then layering in the rest of your weekly meal plan. Once you have that down, you can start detoxing your home and your cosmetics bag of endocrine disrupting synthetic hormones.

Aunt Flo shouldn’t be gone only to then turn up when you least expect her and it’s most inconvenient! That’s why I recommend tracking your ovulation signs – for most women your period will follow some 10-14 days after you ovulate – and tracking your period – which you can do using my new app, myFLO.

With the MyFLO app you can track your cycles, even when they are irregular, and get personalized advice on how to regulate them and bring your period back. Following the Cycle Syncing-focused instructions in the app could see your period return sooner than you think. A combination of changes to your diet, your exercise regime, and your self-care can make all the difference by rebalancing your hormones, bringing on ovulation, and bringing back your period.

Always remember, that once you have the right information about how your body really works, you can start making health choices that finally start to work for you! You can do this – the science of your body is on your side!

To your FLO,


What Period-Type are you?

How do you know if your hormones are healthy? The answer is in your period!

The color of your flow, frequency of your period, and symptoms you have each month can tell you a lot about your health.

There are 5 different PERIOD TYPES, and knowing which one you have will help you get healthy now and prevent disease in the future.

Learn What Your Period Means With the FLO Living Period Type™ Quiz

Discover if your period type is healthy, and what to do to fix it if it’s not, with the FLO Living Period Type™ Quiz.

Click here to try the FLO Living Period Type™ Quiz NOW

4 Types of Irregular Menstrual Periods & What They Mean

by Dr. Crystal M. Newby, MD

With each menstrual cycle, the uterine lining (endometrium) prepares itself for fetus development. If fertilization fails to happen, the body discharges the endometrium during the cycle, which typically lasts for about three to eight days. While the severity and duration of the menstrual periods are not the same for every woman, it is abnormal when the periods are too light, too heavy, occur too often, last longer, irregular or occur after menopause.

Some causes of irregular bleeding are not consequential. A number of things can cause the abnormality. These may include hormone-based birth control, infection of the uterus lining or cervix, STI, blood clotting disorders, and other health conditions.

About Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS)

PMS is an unpleasant, but typically normal, symptom that women experience during the menstruation cycle. The symptoms may last for a few hours to several days, and the intensity and variety of the symptoms differ from woman to woman. Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder (PMDD) is the most prevalent form of PMS. It affects approximately 5 percent of women at reproductive age.

Women may experience PMS because of fluctuation of progesterone and estrogen levels during the cycle. The genetic makeup of some women may also trigger PMS. Also, women who are susceptible to PMS tend to have lower serotonin levels.

The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists estimates that 85% of women experience at least one PMS symptom during their reproductive age. Even though symptoms may vary in individuals, the most common ones include the following:

  • Headaches
  • Depression, irritability and anxiety
  • Fluid retention (evidence from swelling of feet and fingers)
  • Acne and other skin conditions
  • Fainting
  • Vertigo
  • Muscle spasms
  • Allergies
  • Heart palpitations
  • Vision problems and eye infections
  • Reduced sex drive
  • Lack of appetite

Most forms of PMS do not require medical treatment. Simple changes to one’s lifestyle can also reduce or eliminate the intensity of the symptom. These could include:

  • Getting adequate rest
  • Exercising at least three times per week
  • Maintaining a balanced diet which includes vegetables, fruits, and whole grains but with less caffeine, sugar or alcohol

When do periods change from normal to abnormal? Below are four of the most common types of abnormal menstrual periods.

1. Menorrhagia & Polymenorrhea (Prolonged, Heavy Bleeding)

Menorrhagia is one of the most prevalent types of menstrual bleeding. The condition is characterized by prolonged, heavy bleeding. In some instances, the bleeding may disrupt normal daily activities. There are different forms of this condition. The most common ones are polymenorrhea (too frequent), postmenopausal (menstrual periods after menopause), and metrorrhagia (bleeding between periods).

While there are many causes associated with menorrhagia, the most common causes include the following:

  • Hormonal imbalance
  • Uterine fibroids
  • Miscarriage and other forms of abnormal pregnancy
  • Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)
  • Tumors or infections in the pelvic cavity
  • Platelet or bleeding disorder
  • High concentration of endothelin

The main symptoms of this condition are the frequent need to change sanitary pads during the day, or when the menstrual period lasts more than seven days. Other prevalent symptoms include bleeding or spotting during pregnancy or between menstrual periods.

A medical professional will diagnose menorrhagia after ruling out other menstrual bleeding disorders, as well as the medication or medical conditions that may aggravate the condition. The doctor may also perform other diagnostic procedures such as blood test, Pap test, biopsy, magnetic resonance imaging, laparoscopic (a thin tube inserted into the abdominal wall), ultrasound and hysteroscopy.

After the diagnosis, the doctor will take into consideration other factors such as age, overall health, the severity of the condition and current symptoms to determine the treatment plan.

2. Dysmenorrhea (Excess Pain During Period)

Dysmenorrhea is a condition characterized by pain and menstrual cramps during menstruation. The conditions can be described as either primary or secondary, depending on the causes. For primary dysmenorrhea, an individual experiences abnormal uterine contractions as a result of a chemical imbalance. Secondary dysmenorrhea is usually associated with medical conditions.

Other known causes include uterine fibroids, pelvic inflammatory disease, tumors or infections in the pelvic cavity, and abnormal pregnancy.

The condition is more prevalent among women who smoke, are obese, consume excessive alcohol during periods, or started menstruating at an early age. The main symptoms of this condition are:

  • Pain or cramping in the lower abdomen
  • Nausea
  • Fatigue
  • Dizziness
  • Pain in the low back and legs
  • Vomiting
  • Headaches

3. Amenorrhea (Absent Periods)

Amenorrhea is a menstrual disorder characterized by absent or missed periods for more than three cycles. There are two types of this disorder: primary amenorrhea and secondary amenorrhea. With primary amenorrhea, the menstruation fails to start at puberty. Secondary amenorrhea is when a normal menstrual cycle becomes increasingly irregular or absent.

Women may experience this condition for various reasons, usually related to biological changes in the course of life such as breastfeeding, pregnancy or menopause. It may also occur as a result of medications or health condition such as:

  • Obesity
  • Ovulation abnormality
  • Eating disorder
  • Birth defect
  • Thyroid disorder
  • Excessive exercise

As with any menstrual disorder, early diagnosis and treatment will help to restore normal menstruation.

4. Hypomenorrhea (Extra Light Periods)

Hypomenorrhea is the opposite of menorrhagia. Hypomenorrhea is a disorder characterized by light periods. The menstruation often lasts less than two days, or it is less than 80ml. The condition can occur as a result of using hormonal contraceptives like oral contraceptives, IUDs or Depo-Provera®.

Other causes may include:

  • Low body fat
  • Pregnancy
  • Intrauterine adhesions or Asherman’s syndrome
  • Nervousness or stress
  • Hormonal imbalance
  • Premature ovarian failure

The condition can occur at any stage in a woman’s life, but it is more prevalent just before menopause or after puberty. Hypomenorrhea can be diagnosed through ultra-sonogram, blood tests, and other medical tests to check the thickness and the causes of scanty flow.

When to Call Your Ob/Gyn

If you have noted any of the symptoms associated with the above menstrual disorders, please contact your gynecologist for a consultation. Contact Kansas City ObGyn at This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. or (913) 948-9636 to book an appointment today.

Dr. Crystal M. Newby, MD is a physician at Kansas City ObGyn. She received her medical degree from the University of Missouri – Kansas City School of Medicine. Dr. Newby married her fellow Kansas native high school sweetheart and they have 3 daughters.

90,000 Holy Week: How to Prepare for Easter, Do’s and Don’ts

For Orthodox Christians, Holy Week begins, or week – the strictest 7 days during Great Lent. The editorial staff of the Saint Petersburg TV channel tells how to spend the last week before Easter.

Why the week is called “Passionate”

In the usual sense, the word “passion” means an irresistible attraction, a sinful craving for something, a dominant feeling.However, this word also has another meaning: according to Christian teaching, passion means suffering.

When on Palm Sunday Christ rode into Jerusalem on a donkey, he already knew that he was facing 7 passionate days – a week of suffering for human sins. It is to the last week in the earthly life of Jesus that Passion Week is dedicated – the time when the Orthodox remember the sufferings of the Lord: betrayal by Judas, loneliness, arrest, condemnation to death on the Cross, renunciation of the disciples, procession to Calvary, crucifixion, death and the descent of Christ into hell, which lasted three days.

Food during Holy Week

The last 7 days of Lent are considered the most severe. During this period, even those who have not abstained for 40 days fast.

So, from Monday to Thursday, believers can eat only vegetables, fruits, nuts and black bread. At the same time, it is forbidden to eat hot dishes. Drinks are allowed water, iced tea and infusions.

Good Friday is the saddest day for Orthodox Christians, because it is dedicated to the memory of Jesus’ suffering on the cross.Believers refuse food altogether and drink water.

On Saturday, the usual diet of Holy Week is on the table of believers: raw vegetables, fruits, nuts and water.

Easter is coming on Sunday – the great holiday of the Bright Resurrection of Christ. On this day, fasting is canceled, you can eat any food.

It is important to understand that fasting is not a diet or healing practice, but involves spiritual cleansing through abstinence.

How to spend Holy Week: daily recommendations

In addition to dietary restrictions, it is customary to give up entertainment, restrain your emotions, and not give in to desires. There are also separate recommendations for what believers should do on each day of the week.


On the first day of Holy Week, you should start cleaning the house, throw out unnecessary things, finish minor repairs and wash the windows so that through them the holiday can “enter” the home.


On Tuesday, you should finish washing and ironing, sew up torn clothes, throw out the remaining garbage.


The middle of the week is the best time to prepare for the feast and attend church.


On Maundy Thursday, it is customary to do general cleaning and take water procedures. It is believed that all the water on this day is holy, and ablution will help to cleanse oneself from sins and strengthen health.

On this day, one must attend the Last Supper in the church and receive communion. After the service, believers usually cook Easter cakes and cottage cheese, calcine quaternary salt in a pan to fill it with healing properties, and also paint eggs.


Friday is traditionally dedicated to the remembrance of the sufferings of Christ, therefore this day must be spent in prayer, putting aside all worldly concerns.Believers read the four Gospels, as well as a prayer to the Lord Jesus crucified.


On Holy Saturday, the preparation of the festive dishes should be completed, and then taken to the church and consecrated. On this day, which is also called “quiet”, Orthodox Christians try to maintain silence. It is necessary to read the four Gospels, as well as a prayer to the Lord Jesus crucified.


On Sunday night, believers should go to services or pray at home instead of sleeping.They say that being awake this night is a guarantee of good health. After the service, you can go to the Easter table. Food left over from the celebration must not be thrown away. The eggshells must be buried in the ground.

What not to do during Holy Week

You cannot do household chores, clean up and dig in the garden on Good Friday. Also on this day you can not wash and change your hairstyle.

On Holy Saturday, it is forbidden to speak loudly, laugh, dance and sing.According to the teachings, loud sounds on this day promise sadness throughout the year.

On Saturday, it is also not necessary to commemorate the dead, but it is not forbidden to visit the cemetery.

Throughout Passion Week, one must not swear, swear and argue with people.

Fasting should not be broken without medical reasons.

Photo: St. Petersburg TV channel

90,000 The Perseverance robot arrived on Mars to look for traces of alien life

Photo author, NASA

On Thursday evening, the American space agency NASA landed a new rover Perseverance on Mars.- steadfastness, perseverance). The landing took place at about 20:55 GMT – almost midnight Moscow time.

The data on a safe landing transmitted from the rover were greeted at the flight control center with a sigh of relief and thunderous applause.

The main task of the rover will be to search for traces of bacterial life on the Red Planet. Scientists are sure that if Mars once had life, then it falls on a period from 3 to 4 billion years ago, when there was still water on the planet.

Perseverance is the third spacecraft to arrive on Mars in the last month: earlier robots from the UAE and China entered its orbit. All three missions left earth in July 2020.

“This is awesome,” said the acting director. NASA chief Steve Yurchik. The dispatch of the device took place in particularly difficult conditions due to the pandemic and related precautions, he said, and this only increases the joy of success.

Perseverance will serve as a scout for future rovers, Yurchik said: the experience of a successful landing simplifies the task for the next missions.

“Hello world. My first look at my home for a lifetime,” Perseverance tweeted, accompanying the words with a frame of the surface of Mars.

Landing on Mars was a very difficult task. Unlike the Moon, it has an atmosphere, which makes landing very difficult: only about 40% of such missions end in success.

The Atlas-5 launch vehicle with the American Perseverance (Perseverance or Perseverance) rover launched from the Cape Canaveral launch site in the United States on July 30, 2020.In six months, the spacecraft covered the distance from Earth to Mars of almost 500 million kilometers.

Before landing, Perseverance experienced “seven minutes of horror” – the time of transition from the upper atmosphere to the surface of the Red Planet. To do this, he dropped the speed from the second space speed (for Mars it is about 20 thousand km / h) to the speed of a pedestrian.

Viewers from all over the world experienced “seven minutes of horror” along with NASA engineers via a live broadcast on the aerospace agency’s website.

The rover is located at a distance of hundreds of millions of kilometers from us – which means that the signals transmitted by it reach the Earth with an almost 10-minute delay. If at some point something went wrong, it would be physically impossible to quickly adjust the landing trajectory.

Perseverance landed near Jezero crater. NASA believes that in the rocks of this crater, which is 50 km wide, there could be signs of bacterial life – of course, if it ever existed on the Red Planet.

“If you look at the landing site, the crater Jezero, through the eyes of a scientist, then the exploratory potential of this place is obvious,” says NASA engineer Allen Chen to the BBC. “For example, there are traces of an ancient river flowing into and out of the crater. Scientists think that this is the place to look for traces of life. But when I myself look at Jezero, I see only danger there “,

Fortunately,” Perseverance ” a safe area of ​​the surface of Mars.

Photo author, Getty Images

Photo caption,

The Atlas-5 launch vehicle with the American Perseverance rover launched from the spaceport at Cape Canaveral in the USA July 30, 2020

The first helicopter on Mars?

The design of the rover, as well as the algorithm for descent to the surface of the Red Planet, successfully passed the “battle test” in 2012 when landing another NASA Curiosity spacecraft, which landed in Gale Crater. The new robot used the same Skycrane parachute technology, but with a slight addition.

To view this content, you need to enable JavaScript or use another browser

Video caption,

Mission to Mars: what are the difficulties of flying to this planet?

Engineers have developed a new Terrain-Relative navigation system that provides even higher landing accuracy.

The rover has cameras, an automatic arm, a drill and a laser. But sensors and analysis instruments were also installed on the new model.

In addition, “in the womb” of the rover is a tiny NASA helicopter called Ingenuity, weighing less than two kilograms.In the early days of the mission, he will try to make several test flights over the surface of Mars.

If tested successfully, Ingenuity will be the first helicopter to fly off Earth. The extremely low temperature in the Jezero crater can complicate this task – at night the thermometer there can drop to -90 degrees Celsius.

What will the rover do?

Satellite images of the Jezero crater, where the device landed, indicate that the now dried up river once flowed into a huge lake there.

This is one of the best-preserved Martian deltas, where rivers have formed layers of sediment from the deposited rock debris, sand and possibly organic hydrocarbons.

Photo author, NASA

Photo caption,

The Mars 2020 rover design is based on the Curiosity robot

Different types of rocks in the depths of the crater, including carbonates and clay, could also store organic molecules that could point to the existence of life there in the distant past.

Perseverance will survey the bottom of the dry lake, drill rocky rocks and extract samples the size of a school’s chalk. After that, the rover will carefully pack them into containers that will remain on the surface of the planet.

They will be taken away by another device, which is planned to be launched later. It will lift the collected samples into orbit on Mars (this will be the first space takeoff from the Red Planet) and deliver them to Earth.

All of this is provided under the “Shipment of Mars Samples” program, which is carried out by NASA in cooperation with the European Space Agency.

Not the first attempt

Due to the serious difference in orbits, it makes sense to launch a mission to Mars only if it is close to our planet, which happens about once every two years.

Until recently, only the USA, the USSR (later – Russia), India and the European Union carried out successful launches to Mars. However, two more countries were added to the list last week.

February 9 – The United Arab Emirates, which successfully launched the Al-Amal (Hope) space station into Martian orbit.And literally in a couple of days – China with its Tianwen-1 interplanetary station. In April, she will also try to land a lander on the planet’s surface.

In July 2020, the second joint Russian-European mission “ExoMars” was supposed to go to Mars, the launch of which was planned back in 2018, but was postponed twice already. Now the departure will take place no earlier than 2022.

It looks like Mars will not be left unattended in the near future.

Folk festivities “Wide Maslenitsa – 2020”

Maslenitsa is a pagan holiday that marked the border between winter and early spring.The celebration began on the day of the vernal equinox (March 22) and lasted for about a week. On Shrovetide, nature was glorified,
the land and the continuation of the family, they called for a rich harvest, they remembered the dead ancestors. After the spread of Christianity, the clergy
gave the holiday a new meaning. Shrovetide began to be called Cheese Week and began to serve as a preparation for Lent before
Happy Easter. Its time varies depending on the date of Easter.


The whole week is divided into two periods: Narrow Shrovetide and Wide
Pancake week. Narrow Shrovetide – the first three days: Monday, Tuesday and Wednesday, Wide Shrovetide – these are the last four
days: Thursday, Friday, Saturday and Sunday. In the first three days, it was possible to do chores, and from Thursday
all work was stopped, and the Wide Maslenitsa began.Among the people, every day of Maslenitsa had its own name.

Shrovetide is celebrated for seven days: every day has its own name and meaning. So, the days of the Maslenitsa week.

Monday is the first day of Shrovetide week, called “Meeting”.
On this day, preparations for the holiday were completed: slides, booths, swings, trays for trade, etc. were being completed.
Many have already started baking pancakes. The first pancake, by the way, according to Shrovetide tradition, must be given to the beggar in order to remember the dead.

Tuesday – the second day of Maslenitsa called “Flirting”. Youth
began festivities, in large companies they arranged skiing from ice slides. On this day, it was already possible to invite each other
for pancakes.

Wednesday – the third day of Maslenitsa called “Gourmands”.
Mother-in-law invited her son-in-law for pancakes.

Thursday – the fourth day of Shrovetide
weeks, which was called “Wide revelry”.From that day, real festivities in honor of Maslenitsa began: people rode
from slides and swings, arranged funny horseback riding, noisy feasts, organized carnivals and fistfights among

Friday – the fifth day of Maslenitsa called “mother-in-law
evenings “. On this day, the sons-in-law arranged “otvetki” – that is, they invited the mother-in-law to their pancakes.

Saturday – the penultimate day of Maslenitsa, popularly known as “Sister’s Meetings”.Daughters-in-law invited their sister-in-law to have pancakes, while very young daughters-in-law made a gift to their sister-in-law. The sister-in-law is
the husband’s sister, and the daughter-in-law is the brother’s wife.

Sunday is the last
Shrovetide day. It is called “Forgiveness Sunday”. People asked each other for forgiveness and hoped for the best.
After the adoption of Christianity, on this day, they definitely went to church: the abbot asked for forgiveness from the parishioners, and the parishioners –
each other.In response to a request for forgiveness, according to tradition, they say the phrase “God will forgive. ” Asking for forgiveness, people bow.

Vilfand compared the current heat with the summer of 2010


Vilfand compared the current heat with the summer of 2010

Vilfand compared the current heat with the summer of 2010 – RIA Novosti, 07/19/2021

Vilfand compared the current heat with the summer of 2010

An 11-day heat wave ended in the Central Federal District, in total 15 super-hot days were noted in the summer period in 2021, in 2010 there were three times more such days… RIA Novosti, 19.07.2021

2021-07-19T03: 48

2021-07-19T03: 48

2021-07-19T03: 48



roman vilfand

hydrometeorological center



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MOSCOW, July 19 – RIA Novosti. An 11-day heat wave ended in the Central Federal District, in total, 15 super-hot days were noted in the summer period in 2021, in 2010 there were three times more such days, Roman Vilfand, scientific director of the Hydrometeorological Center, told RIA Novosti. He recalled that in the summer of 2010 there were 44 days when the temperature rose above 30 degrees. “For all these 3 months there were 44 days, and now it means 4 days in June and 11 days in July – 15 days. That is, it is still very far from the 2010 record,” said Wilfand …He also added that 1972 was also hot, when the temperature was above 30 degrees for 24 days.




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Vilfand compared the current heat with the summer of 2010

When and how to do an ovulation test.Test types and evaluation of results

Reviewed by an Expert

Special tests will help you calculate when such an important event in your cycle as ovulation occurs. But what is the correct way to use them? Let’s figure it out.

90,000 Kremlin and CEC decided to test the format of three-day elections in September :: Politics :: RBC

Politics ,

24 Jul 2020, 00:00


Will the experiment be carried out in all regions

It was decided to hold a three-day voting – from Friday to Sunday – already in the next campaign. It is debated whether there will be three-day elections in all regions where the campaigns will take place, or only in a few

Photo: Sergey Vedyashkin / AGN “Moscow”

On Friday, July 24, during a meeting of the CEC, members of the commission supported the decision to introduce a three-day vote in local and regional elections in all regions in September. “Early voting will be held within two days. The main voting day is September 13. But within two days – September 11 and 12 – we propose to hold an early vote, ”said Pamfilova.

The fact that the Kremlin and the CEC decided to test the voting format in three days – on Friday, Saturday and Sunday (the main day), the sources of RBC told the day before.

Most likely, the three-day voting will be held in all regions where elections are scheduled for the current EDG, a source close to the presidential administration told RBC, and another source close to the Kremlin and a source close to the CEC confirmed.

But until recently, the possibility was not ruled out that in the end it would be decided to stop on holding a three-day vote in certain regions, there is no final decision yet, said another source close to the Kremlin. The possibility of holding a vote in the adjacent territories is supposed to be left at the discretion of each region, said one of the interlocutors of RBC.

On a single voting day on September 13, direct gubernatorial elections are planned in 18 regions, 11 campaigns for elections to legislative assemblies and city council elections in 22 capitals of the subjects.

University Headache Clinic

There is an International Classification of Headaches, which includes more than 300 types. They are divided into two groups: primary and secondary.

  • Secondary – consequences of other diseases (that is, headache is a symptom of another disease). For example, head or neck injuries, flu, otitis media, sinusitis, meningitis. Various substances and medications, ascending to a great height (= mountain sickness) can cause a headache.There are many variants of secondary pain, but statistically they are rare – in about 10% of cases.
  • Primary – arise from a malfunction of the brain, they are not caused by another disease. Such pains account for 90% – and these are independent diseases of the brain. There are about 20 diagnoses in the group of primary pains, but in 90% of cases one of two occurs: migraine or tension headache.

The first thing that a doctor does at an appointment is to exclude secondary headaches.For this we use a set of symptoms – “red flags”. We are talking about the diagnosis of headache in adults, in children there are several other criteria.

Here are the main ones:

  • headache accompanied by fever or rash;
  • there are neurological disorders (special symptoms that a neurologist sees with the same hammer) or a change in consciousness;
  • headache first onset after age 50;
  • pain is triggered by coughing, sneezing, or change in body position;
  • thundering headache, that is, the peak of pain increases in a few seconds or minutes, and it is very severe;
  • headache has changed dramatically in recent years;
  • headaches in patients with a history of cancer or HIV.

The presence of such symptoms is an alarming sign for us. In such cases, we examine the patient (prescribe an MRI or ultrasound of the vessels of the brain, etc.). But research shows that if the headache is chronic and even if there is a “red flag”, then the probability of finding something meaningful on an MRI is only about 0.3%

If we do not find such “red flags”, we conclude that, most likely, we are dealing with a primary headache.

The diagnosis of primary headache is made ONLY on the basis of a survey and related criteria.No additional examinations are needed, since they do not help us make a diagnosis, but only interfere. One examination causes another, the patient spends money, time, worries and may even get physical harm if there are contraindications to the research.

Therefore, it is very important that the doctor you see specializes in the treatment of headaches and does not force you to undergo unnecessary examinations.

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