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Yeast Infection (Candidiasis) in Adults: Condition, Treatments, and Pictures – Overview

51245
34

Information for
Adults

caption goes here…

Images of Candidiasis

Overview

Candidiasis, commonly known as a yeast infection, is an infection with the common yeast (or fungus) organism, Candida albicans, which is commonly found in the environment. Sometimes this yeast lives in the mouth, digestive (gastrointestinal) tract, and the vagina, along with many kinds of harmless bacteria, without causing any issues. However, under certain conditions (particularly weakening of the immune system, the use of antibiotics, exposure to cancer drugs or corticosteroids, or in diabetics), the fungus will multiply and cause disease.

There are different forms of yeast infection, depending upon the area affected. Most commonly, the mouth, vagina, and damper skin areas are affected, as the yeast likes to grow in moist areas.

Most yeast infections are on the surface (superficial) and easily treated; however, serious life-threatening yeast infection can develop throughout the body (systemic) in people with very weak immune systems.

Who’s at risk?

Various species of Candida yeast grow in over half of healthy adults.

  • Men and women are affected equally.
  • People with weakened (suppressed) immune systems, who use antibiotics, take cancer drugs or corticosteroids, or are diabetic are more likely to develop a yeast infection.
  • Older people are more likely to get thrush (oral candidiasis).
  • In women, yeast infection is the second most common cause of inflammation of the vagina (vaginitis).
  • Long-lasting (persistent) symptoms and yeast infection that does not heal may be the first sign of infection with HIV.

Signs and Symptoms

The appearance and symptoms of yeast infection depend upon the area affected.

The most common types of infection are:

  • Thrush (oral yeast infection) – The mouth lining, tongue, and/or angles of the mouth are red, cracked, or have white patches. There may be soreness or no symptoms. This is discussed separately.
  • Skin (cutaneous) – Small-to-large patches of red, moist, raw skin usually develop in body creases, such as under the breasts, belly, or groin area. The skin may itch or be painful. Tiny pus-containing lesions (pustules) may appear around the edges of the red areas.
  • Vaginitis – Vaginal itch, pain, or burning are frequent and may be accompanied by a cottage-cheese-like discharge. There is usually pain with sexual intercourse.
  • Esophagitis – Swallowing may be painful, and there may be pain behind the breastbone.

Self-Care Guidelines

  • Most yeast infections can be prevented by keeping body-fold areas clean and dry.
  • Diabetics should keep their blood sugar under good control.
  • Treat skin infection with a combination of an over-the-counter antifungal cream (such as clotrimazole or miconazole twice daily for 10–14 days) with hydrocortisone cream (0.5–1% applied twice daily after the antifungal cream).
  • Lose weight if you are overweight.
  • A NON-pregnant women can treat vaginitis with an over-the-counter vaginal suppository or cream antifungals (miconazole or clotrimazole). The woman’s partner does not normally need treatment. Avoid sexual intercourse until the yeast infection heals.

When to Seek Medical Care

See your doctor if your symptoms do not go away with self-care.

Remember that vaginitis can be caused by something other than yeast infection, and you might have a sexually transmitted disease if you are sexually active. See your doctor to confirm the diagnosis.

Treatments Your Physician May Prescribe

Your doctor may prescribe oral antifungal medications for any form of yeast infection that does not improve with self-care measures.

Trusted Links

MedlinePlus: Yeast InfectionsClinical Information and Differential Diagnosis of Candidiasis

References

Bolognia, Jean L., ed. Dermatology, pp.1110-1111, 1185, 1837. New York: Mosby, 2003.

Freedberg, Irwin M., ed. Fitzpatrick’s Dermatology in General Medicine. 6th ed, pp. 2006. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2003.

Yeast Infection (Candidiasis) in Adults: Condition, Treatments, and Pictures – Overview

51245
34

Information for
Adults

caption goes here…

Images of Candidiasis

Overview

Candidiasis, commonly known as a yeast infection, is an infection with the common yeast (or fungus) organism, Candida albicans, which is commonly found in the environment. Sometimes this yeast lives in the mouth, digestive (gastrointestinal) tract, and the vagina, along with many kinds of harmless bacteria, without causing any issues. However, under certain conditions (particularly weakening of the immune system, the use of antibiotics, exposure to cancer drugs or corticosteroids, or in diabetics), the fungus will multiply and cause disease.

There are different forms of yeast infection, depending upon the area affected. Most commonly, the mouth, vagina, and damper skin areas are affected, as the yeast likes to grow in moist areas.

Most yeast infections are on the surface (superficial) and easily treated; however, serious life-threatening yeast infection can develop throughout the body (systemic) in people with very weak immune systems.

Who’s at risk?

Various species of Candida yeast grow in over half of healthy adults.

  • Men and women are affected equally.
  • People with weakened (suppressed) immune systems, who use antibiotics, take cancer drugs or corticosteroids, or are diabetic are more likely to develop a yeast infection.
  • Older people are more likely to get thrush (oral candidiasis).
  • In women, yeast infection is the second most common cause of inflammation of the vagina (vaginitis).
  • Long-lasting (persistent) symptoms and yeast infection that does not heal may be the first sign of infection with HIV.

Signs and Symptoms

The appearance and symptoms of yeast infection depend upon the area affected.

The most common types of infection are:

  • Thrush (oral yeast infection) – The mouth lining, tongue, and/or angles of the mouth are red, cracked, or have white patches. There may be soreness or no symptoms. This is discussed separately.
  • Skin (cutaneous) – Small-to-large patches of red, moist, raw skin usually develop in body creases, such as under the breasts, belly, or groin area. The skin may itch or be painful. Tiny pus-containing lesions (pustules) may appear around the edges of the red areas.
  • Vaginitis – Vaginal itch, pain, or burning are frequent and may be accompanied by a cottage-cheese-like discharge. There is usually pain with sexual intercourse.
  • Esophagitis – Swallowing may be painful, and there may be pain behind the breastbone.

Self-Care Guidelines

  • Most yeast infections can be prevented by keeping body-fold areas clean and dry.
  • Diabetics should keep their blood sugar under good control.
  • Treat skin infection with a combination of an over-the-counter antifungal cream (such as clotrimazole or miconazole twice daily for 10–14 days) with hydrocortisone cream (0.5–1% applied twice daily after the antifungal cream).
  • Lose weight if you are overweight.
  • A NON-pregnant women can treat vaginitis with an over-the-counter vaginal suppository or cream antifungals (miconazole or clotrimazole). The woman’s partner does not normally need treatment. Avoid sexual intercourse until the yeast infection heals.

When to Seek Medical Care

See your doctor if your symptoms do not go away with self-care.

Remember that vaginitis can be caused by something other than yeast infection, and you might have a sexually transmitted disease if you are sexually active. See your doctor to confirm the diagnosis.

Treatments Your Physician May Prescribe

Your doctor may prescribe oral antifungal medications for any form of yeast infection that does not improve with self-care measures.

Trusted Links

MedlinePlus: Yeast InfectionsClinical Information and Differential Diagnosis of Candidiasis

References

Bolognia, Jean L., ed. Dermatology, pp.1110-1111, 1185, 1837. New York: Mosby, 2003.

Freedberg, Irwin M., ed. Fitzpatrick’s Dermatology in General Medicine. 6th ed, pp. 2006. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2003.

Yeast Infection (Candidiasis) in Adults: Condition, Treatments, and Pictures – Overview

51245
34

Information for
Adults

caption goes here…

Images of Candidiasis

Overview

Candidiasis, commonly known as a yeast infection, is an infection with the common yeast (or fungus) organism, Candida albicans, which is commonly found in the environment. Sometimes this yeast lives in the mouth, digestive (gastrointestinal) tract, and the vagina, along with many kinds of harmless bacteria, without causing any issues. However, under certain conditions (particularly weakening of the immune system, the use of antibiotics, exposure to cancer drugs or corticosteroids, or in diabetics), the fungus will multiply and cause disease.

There are different forms of yeast infection, depending upon the area affected. Most commonly, the mouth, vagina, and damper skin areas are affected, as the yeast likes to grow in moist areas.

Most yeast infections are on the surface (superficial) and easily treated; however, serious life-threatening yeast infection can develop throughout the body (systemic) in people with very weak immune systems.

Who’s at risk?

Various species of Candida yeast grow in over half of healthy adults.

  • Men and women are affected equally.
  • People with weakened (suppressed) immune systems, who use antibiotics, take cancer drugs or corticosteroids, or are diabetic are more likely to develop a yeast infection.
  • Older people are more likely to get thrush (oral candidiasis).
  • In women, yeast infection is the second most common cause of inflammation of the vagina (vaginitis).
  • Long-lasting (persistent) symptoms and yeast infection that does not heal may be the first sign of infection with HIV.

Signs and Symptoms

The appearance and symptoms of yeast infection depend upon the area affected.

The most common types of infection are:

  • Thrush (oral yeast infection) – The mouth lining, tongue, and/or angles of the mouth are red, cracked, or have white patches. There may be soreness or no symptoms. This is discussed separately.
  • Skin (cutaneous) – Small-to-large patches of red, moist, raw skin usually develop in body creases, such as under the breasts, belly, or groin area. The skin may itch or be painful. Tiny pus-containing lesions (pustules) may appear around the edges of the red areas.
  • Vaginitis – Vaginal itch, pain, or burning are frequent and may be accompanied by a cottage-cheese-like discharge. There is usually pain with sexual intercourse.
  • Esophagitis – Swallowing may be painful, and there may be pain behind the breastbone.

Self-Care Guidelines

  • Most yeast infections can be prevented by keeping body-fold areas clean and dry.
  • Diabetics should keep their blood sugar under good control.
  • Treat skin infection with a combination of an over-the-counter antifungal cream (such as clotrimazole or miconazole twice daily for 10–14 days) with hydrocortisone cream (0. 5–1% applied twice daily after the antifungal cream).
  • Lose weight if you are overweight.
  • A NON-pregnant women can treat vaginitis with an over-the-counter vaginal suppository or cream antifungals (miconazole or clotrimazole). The woman’s partner does not normally need treatment. Avoid sexual intercourse until the yeast infection heals.

When to Seek Medical Care

See your doctor if your symptoms do not go away with self-care.

Remember that vaginitis can be caused by something other than yeast infection, and you might have a sexually transmitted disease if you are sexually active. See your doctor to confirm the diagnosis.

Treatments Your Physician May Prescribe

Your doctor may prescribe oral antifungal medications for any form of yeast infection that does not improve with self-care measures.

Trusted Links

MedlinePlus: Yeast InfectionsClinical Information and Differential Diagnosis of Candidiasis

References

Bolognia, Jean L., ed. Dermatology, pp.1110-1111, 1185, 1837. New York: Mosby, 2003.

Freedberg, Irwin M., ed. Fitzpatrick’s Dermatology in General Medicine. 6th ed, pp. 2006. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2003.

Skin infection pictures and treatments

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A skin infection occurs when parasites, fungi, or germs such as bacteria penetrate the skin and spread. When this happens, it can cause pain, swelling, other types of discomfort, and skin color changes. A skin infection may be mild or serious.

Skin infections are different from rashes. A rash is an area of swollen or irritated skin. While rashes can be symptoms of some skin infections, a person with a rash does not necessarily have an infection.

There are four types of skin infection:

  • bacterial
  • viral
  • fungal
  • parasitic

Some skin infections require medical treatment. People can manage others with over-the-counter solutions or home remedies. Read on to learn more about common skin infections.

This common bacterial skin infection occurs when bacteria infect the deep layers of skin and nearby tissues.

According to the American Academy of Dermatology, doctors diagnose 14.5 million cases of cellulitis in the United States each year.

Cellulitis can lead to serious complications, and receiving treatment early is important.

Symptoms

Before causing complications, cellulitis appears as swollen skin that is a different color from a person’s usual skin tone. The area is sometimes warm and tender to the touch.

Cellulitis can develop anywhere on the body. In children, it commonly affects the face, and in adults, it often appears on the lower legs.

Treatment

Early treatment is key to a successful outcome without complications. If a person does not receive treatment, cellulitis can lead to blood infections and damage the immune system.

The most typical treatment is oral antibiotics. Some people require this medication intravenously.

A person should also rest, elevate the affected area, and cover it to aid healing.

What it looks like

Cellulitis causes the affected area to swell and change color. Redness and other skin changes may not be well-defined, and it may be difficult to tell where they end.

The area will likely be hard and warm to the touch.

According to the American Academy of Dermatology, warts are noncancerous skin growths that occur when a virus infects the top layer of skin.

Cuts and other types of skin damage put a person at risk of developing warts.

Warts are contagious. A person can contract them by touching a wart directly or by coming into contact with something the wart has touched.

Symptoms

Warts are usually visible as raised areas of skin. They are much more likely to form in places where skin damage occurs, especially on the fingers, nails, and backs of the hands.

Treatment

A dermatologist can usually remove common warts. Typical techniques include:

  • cantharidin, a substance that causes a blister to form under the wart so the dermatologist can clip it off
  • electrosurgery, or burning off the wart
  • excision, or cutting the wart off
  • cryotherapy, or freezing the wart off

More difficult cases can require additional therapies, such as laser removal.

What it looks like

Warts can appear as rough areas that are the same color as the surrounding skin. They can also be darker and flat.

The herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) is responsible for causing a herpes gladiatorum infection on the skin.

According to the New York State Department of Health, 30–90 percent of all people are exposed to HSV-1 by adulthood, but many never develop symptoms.

After infection, a person will always have the virus in them, similar to herpes that occurs on the genitals and around the mouth. No symptoms may occur for several months or years between flares.

Though a person can treat an outbreak of herpes, the virus always remains, which means that symptoms could return at any time. The virus is also highly contagious and a person can transmit it any time it is active, even if no symptoms are present.

Symptoms

When herpes gladiatorum flares, it can cause:

  • swollen glands
  • fever
  • a tingling sensation in the affected area
  • lesions or blisters that last between 7 and 10 days
  • clear, fluid-filled blisters that may be painful and surrounded by a discolored patch

Treatment

Some cases of herpes require no treatment. However, a person with an active infection should avoid activities, such as sports and sex, that put them in direct contact with others.

For people with moderate to severe infections, a doctor may prescribe an antiviral medication.

What it looks like

Herpes gladiatorum manifests as a group of lesions or blisters that last between 7 and 10 days. A patch of discoloration often surrounds these clear, fluid-filled blisters.

A yeast infection develops when fungus grows out of control.

Yeast infections can occur in various parts of the body, but they are more common in areas that trap moisture.

The vagina is particularly susceptible to yeast infections such as thrush, which can also occur in the mouth and is often a symptom of a weakened immune system.

Yeast infections can develop on the skin, and two commonly known examples are diaper rash and athlete’s foot.

Symptoms

The most common symptoms of a yeast infection include a rash and itchiness. Some yeast infections can cause blisters or pustules.

Treatment

Yeast infections on the skin may respond to treatment at home with creams and ointments. Many options are available over the counter.

However, some yeast infections on the skin may require prescription medication and creams.

Anyone with a yeast infection on the skin should keep the area clean and dry. When dealing with diaper rash, change the diapers frequently.

What it looks like

Yeast infections appear differently in different areas of the body.

For example, a diaper rash that results from a yeast infection looks like areas of chafed, differently colored skin.

Yeast infections elsewhere on the skin may appear as areas of small, raised blisters or pustules.

Lice, or head lice, are tiny insects that live in hair and cause a parasitic infection of the scalp. They exist worldwide and can affect anyone. Contrary to popular belief, lice can live in clean or dirty hair.

Lice spread easily, especially in crowded conditions such as schools and nursing homes. Though a nuisance, lice do not cause serious health issues.

Symptoms

As with many other types of skin infection, itchiness is the most common symptom. Typically, it develops around the ears and near the neck.

According to the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP), it can take 4–6 weeks for a person to become sensitive to lice saliva and for the itchiness to start.

Even after treatment, several weeks may pass before this feeling goes away.

Treatment

A person can treat head lice at home, but speak to a doctor before doing so.

Treatment typically involves combing the lice and their eggs out of the hair and applying medication that kills the lice and their eggs.

A range of lice combs is available to purchase online.

It is important to follow the doctor’s instructions before treating lice.

What it looks like

Lice look different, depending on their stage of life.

Nits, or eggs, are very tiny. A person may initially confuse nits with dandruff because of the close resemblance.

When the eggs hatch, the lice are called nymphs. In this stage, a person may notice small, fast-moving mites in their scalp.

Adult lice are about the size of sesame seeds and light gray or tan. Each bug has six clawed legs.

Scabies is another parasitic skin infection.

When a person has scabies, tiny mites burrow into the upper layer of skin to lay their eggs. An infestation affects the outer layers of the skin.

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), scabies is present worldwide, and the skin infection can affect all types of people.

Scabies spreads through prolonged skin-to-skin contact. People living in crowded conditions, such as nursing homes, are most likely to experience outbreaks.

Symptoms

When infected with scabies, the most common symptoms are:

  • intense itchiness
  • a pimple-like rash

In addition, a person may experience:

  • tiny blisters and scales
  • burrows in the skin
  • skin sores, from scratching the rash

The rash can appear nearly anywhere on the body. Some of the most common sites include the:

  • elbows
  • armpits
  • wrist
  • penis
  • webbing between the fingers
  • nipples
  • waist or beltline
  • buttocks

Treatment

Scabies treatment involves medications called scabicides. These kill adult mites, and some also kill the eggs. Tested and approved scabicides are only available by prescription.

Since scabies is very easy to contract, people typically administer treatment to sexual partners and household members as well. To prevent spreading, it is best for everyone to receive treatment at the same time.

Also, it is important to keep the living environment clean and to wash and bag clothing and bedding for 2–3 weeks.

What it looks like

Scabies causes a pink, pimple-like rash that may contain small blisters and areas of scaling. Additionally, a person with scabies may notice burrows in the skin.

The infection is most likely to appear on the hands or feet.

Seek medical advice anytime an unexplained, persistent rash appears on the body.

It is especially important to contact a doctor if the rash occurs alongside a fever or symptoms other than itchiness or pain.

Many skin infections require medication or other forms of treatment.

Since many skin infections are easy to contract, people should use caution in public areas.

For example, wearing shoes in public bathrooms and showers can help prevent athlete’s foot. Avoiding physical contact with people who have scabies or an active herpes infection can prevent exposure. It is also important to care for wounds carefully.

People with skin infections should take precautions and avoid physical contact until symptoms clear up or they receive the go-ahead from their doctor.

Skin infections are a very common occurrence throughout the world. Anyone is at risk, and these infections can spread easily. It is important to take precautions.

If an unexplained rash appears, seek medical attention as soon as possible.

Yeast Infection | Johns Hopkins Medicine

What is a yeast infection?

Yeast is a fungus normally found on your skin. It’s also found in your digestive system. If you’re a woman, you also have yeast in your vaginal area. When too much yeast grows on your skin or other areas, it can cause an infection. This infection is also called candidiasis.

What causes a yeast infection?

A yeast infection can happen if your skin gets damaged. Yeast can also “overgrow” in warm or humid conditions. An infection can also happen if you have a weak immune system. Taking antibiotics can also cause an overgrowth of yeast. That’s because antibiotics kill the healthy bacteria in your body that normally keep the yeast in balance.

What are the risk factors for yeast infection?

Anyone can get a yeast infection. Those at higher risk for it include:

  • Infants
  • People who wear dentures
  • People taking antibiotics
  • People getting cancer treatment
  • People with other health conditions, such as HIV or diabetes

What are the symptoms of a yeast infection?

The symptoms of a yeast infection depend on where it is located in the body. The chart below shows the most common symptoms of a yeast infection. But yours may be slightly different.

Location

Symptoms

Skin folds or navel

  • Rash with redness and skin breakdown
  • Patches that ooze clear fluid
  • Pimples
  • Itching or burning

Vagina

  • White or yellow discharge from the vagina
  • Itching
  • Redness in the external area of the vagina
  • Burning

Penis

  • Redness on the underside of the penis
  • Scaling on the underside of the penis
  • Painful rash on the underside of the penis

Mouth (thrush)

  • White patches on the tongue and inside of the cheeks
  • Redness or soreness 
  • Difficulty swallowing may mean you have yeast in your esophagus 

Corners of the mouth (angular cheilitis)

  • Cracks and/or tiny cuts at the corners of the mouth

Nail beds

  • Swelling
  • Pain
  • Pus
  • White or yellow nail that separates from the nail bed

The symptoms of a yeast infection may look like other skin conditions. Always see your healthcare provider for a diagnosis.

How is yeast infection diagnosed?

Your healthcare provider will ask about your symptoms and medical history. He or she will also give you a physical exam. He or she may scrape off a bit of skin or remove part of a nail and examine it to confirm the diagnosis.

How is yeast infection treated?

Your healthcare provider will consider your age, overall health, how widespread the infection is and other factors to determine your treatment.

Yeast infections can be easily treated with ointments or other anti-yeast (antifungal) creams.

  • Yeast infections of the vagina or penis can be treated with creams or medicated suppositories. Sometimes an oral anti-yeast medicine is used.
  • Yeast infection in the mouth (thrush) may be treated with a medicated mouthwash. Or it may be treated with lozenges that dissolve in the mouth.
  • If you have a severe infection and have a weak immune system, you may need to take an oral anti-yeast medicine.
  • Esophageal yeast infections are usually treated with oral or intravenous anti-yeast medicines.
  • Yeast infections of the nails are treated with an oral anti-yeast medicine.
  • Yeast infections in the skin folds can be treated with anti-yeast powders.

Can a yeast infection be prevented?

You can prevent some yeast infections by doing these things:

  • Use good oral hygiene to help prevent yeast infection in your mouth (thrush). This includes brushing and flossing your teeth every day and using mouthwash as needed.
  • Wear cotton underwear to help to prevent a vaginal or genital yeast infection. If you are a woman and get vaginal yeast infections often, you may want to take probiotics.
  • Keep areas where skin rubs up against skin dry and try to reduce friction.

When should I call my healthcare provider?

If you get symptoms of infection, such as warm, reddened skin or drainage, tell your healthcare provider. A secondary bacterial infection can happen, so monitor for spreading redness, or swelling, or pain.

Key points about yeast infection

  • Yeast infection is caused by yeast on the skin or mucous membranes.
  • The symptoms of a yeast infection depend on where it happens on your body. Common symptoms are a rash, white discharge, or itching.
  • Yeast infections are treated with medicated ointments or other anti-yeast (antifungal) preparations.

Next steps

Tips to help you get the most from a visit to your healthcare provider:

  • Know the reason for your visit and what you want to happen.
  • Before your visit, write down questions you want answered.
  • Bring someone with you to help you ask questions and remember what your provider tells you.
  • At the visit, write down the name of a new diagnosis, and any new medicines, treatments, or tests. Also write down any new instructions your provider gives you.
  • Know why a new medicine or treatment is prescribed, and how it will help you. Also know what the side effects are.
  • Ask if your condition can be treated in other ways.
  • Know why a test or procedure is recommended and what the results could mean.
  • Know what to expect if you do not take the medicine or have the test or procedure.
  • If you have a follow-up appointment, write down the date, time, and purpose for that visit.
  • Know how you can contact your provider if you have questions.

NORD (National Organization for Rare Disorders)

Since Candida Albicans is supposed to be present in healthy people, treatment is very rarely needed. The American Academy of Allergy and Immunology has stated that the concept of yeast allergy or Candidiasis hypersensitivity is speculative and unproven. Health foods and vitamins are not effective treatments.

If the patient is taking a broad spectrum antibiotic, it is helpful to stop treatment so that the usual bacterial flora of the mucous membranes is restored. If possible, treatment with corticosteroids and immunosuppressive drugs should also be stopped. Patients who are particularly prone to Candidiasis infections (e.g., diabetics) should particularly try to avoid taking the types of drugs that encourage growth of fungus.

Treatment of Skin or Vaginal Candidiasis with local applications of nystatin, clotrimazole, or miconazole may be effective in many cases. To treat inflammation and itching simultaneously, antifungal and corticosteroid creams may be used together.

To prevent and treat Candidiasis of the mouth, good oral hygiene is imperative, especially by denture wearers. To treat acute pulpar alveolar cellulitis (an infection of the connective tissue lining the root canal), removal of decayed and foreign matter from the mucous surfaces, rinsing with warm salt water or baking soda solution can be helpful. Medications applied through the root canal have also proven to be effective in some cases.

Vaginal Candidiasis – Treatment of the vaginal discharge and itching in this type of infection consists of administering specific antifungal drugs. Proper hygiene habits and control of diabetes when applicable can help to avoid repeated infections in women who are particularly prone to this infection.

To prevent Candida infection of the Vagina or Penis from spreading when one sexual partner is infected, nystatin may be prescribed to both partners.

For candidal diaper rash, the skin should be kept dry by changing diapers frequently. Use of petroleum jelly and talcum powder should be avoided. In severe cases, plastic pants and plastic disposable diaper coverings should not be used. Certain creams and ointments may be prescribed by a physician.

For treatment of Chronic Mucocutaneous Candidiasis, amphotericin B, nystatin, clotrimazole, miconizole or 5-fluorocytosine are useful drugs. Antifungal and immune system-stimulating substances (such as the molecule that can transfer immunity from a sensitized to a non-sensitized individual) called transfer factor, thymosin, thymus epithelial cell transplantation, and levamisol, are also used in treatment. (For more information on these disorders, choose “immunodeficiency” as your search term in the Rare Disease Database.)

A new drug for the treatment of Candidiasis, Cryptococcal Meningitis, and other persons with weakened immune systems such as AIDS patients has recently been approved by the FDA. The drug diflucan (fluconazole) has been found effective against these types of infections in persons with weakened immune systems.

The drug amphotericin B lipid complex (Abelcet) has received an orphan drug designation for the treatment of Candidiasis. More studies are needed to determine the long-term safety and effectiveness of this drug for the treatment of Candidiasis. For more information, contact:

The Liposome Company, Inc.

One Research Way

Princeton. N. 08540

Skin Candidiasis – an overview

Cutaneous candidiasis

Cutaneous candidiasis is an infection of the skin that is generally caused by the yeast-like fungus C. albicans and that can be either acute or chronic in nature. C. albicans is part of the normal flora of the gastrointestinal tract, rather than that of the skin, although it can be found on the skin on occasion. This organism can grow as either yeast cells or filamentous forms, with mixtures of the two phases generally seen in tissue infections. Cutaneous candidiasis on occasion may be caused by other species of this genus, including Candida parapsilosis, Candida tropicalis, or Candida glabrata, but these are unusual.

Acute cutaneous candidiasis may present as intertrigo, producing intense erythema, edema, creamy exudates, and satellite pustules within folds of the skin. Other infections may be more chronic, as in the feet where there can be a thick white layer of infected stratum corneum overlaying the epidermis of the interdigital spaces. Candida paronychia is marked by infection of the periungual skin and the nail itself, resulting in the typical swelling and redness of this type of candidal infection.

Superficial candidiasis is common in otherwise healthy neonates and young infants, and mainly manifests as either oropharyngeal candidiasis (oral thrush) or candidal diaper dermatitis. In the latter case, moist macerated skin in the diaper area appears to be particularly susceptible to candida invasion. The infection usually starts in the perianal region and may spread to involve the perineum and perhaps the lower abdomen and upper thighs. The lesions are typically scaly papules that progress to weeping eroded lesions that often have satellite pustules. Congenital cutaneous candidiasis is a more severe infection of neonates wherein the disease presents within 6 days of birth; there is generally widespread desquamating and/or erosive dermatitis and a significant risk of systemic and sometimes fatal candida infection. The affected neonates require systemic antifungal therapy.

In some cases, superficial C. albicans infections may be particularly severe, persistent, and recalcitrant to treatment, producing the uncommon disorder known as chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis. This condition consists of persistent and recurrent infections of the mucous membranes, skin, and nails, along with a variety of other manifestations. The superficial infections last for years in affected patients unless they are properly treated, although deep candida infections are very rare in this situation. Oral thrush and candida vaginitis are fairly common in patients with chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis. There is often infection of the esophagus, although further extension into the viscera is unusual. Epidermal neutrophilic microabscesses, which are common in acute cutaneous candidiasis, are rare in the lesions of chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis. The oral lesions are generally tender and painful.

A number of other disorders are associated with the syndrome of chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis, including endocrine dysfunction, vitiligo, dysplasia of the dental enamel, congenital thymic dysplasia, thymomas, and certain other infections. The term autoimmune polyendocrinopathy–candidiasis–ectodermal dystrophy (APECED) has been used to describe this type of syndrome, and a particular gene, called the autoimmune regulator (AIRE), has been found to be responsible. Otherwise, chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis no doubt represents a group of related syndromes with a variety of predisposing or secondary abnormalities in host defense function, most commonly deficient cell-mediated immune responses against candida antigens.

The diagnosis of superficial candidiasis is usually suspected on clinical grounds and can be confirmed in skin scrapings by demonstrating the organism using potassium hydroxide preparations and/or culture on appropriate antifungal media. Long-term (3–9 months) treatment with azole antifungal drugs can produce good results in chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis, although occasional failures have occurred due to the development of resistant strains of C. albicans. Patients who present with chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis should be evaluated for the presence of infection with the human immunodeficiency virus and, if presenting as adults, for the possibility of thymoma.

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Contents

Fungal diseases of the skin (mycoses) – pathologies that people face regularly. Such lesions rank first among all infectious diseases. Such a prevalence of pathology is due to the fact that not everyone knows how to properly prevent mycoses, and what to do if they arise.

In fact, you should simply consult a doctor in a timely manner and prevent the development of advanced forms of fungal diseases.In the early stages, all mycoses are successfully and quickly treated. Today, there are proven techniques that allow you to eliminate both the external symptoms of pathology and the reasons that provoked its development. Feel free to your problem!

Causes of the disease

Fungal diseases are contagious. The main reason for their occurrence is the transmission of the pathogen when wearing one shoe, using someone else’s towels, walking barefoot in public places (especially with high humidity): in saunas, baths, swimming pools.Mycoses can be transmitted through direct contact with an infected person, plant or animal.

Risk factors include:

  • Traumatic skin injuries
  • Weakened immunity
  • Long-term antibiotic treatment
  • Avitaminosis
  • Chemotherapy
  • Excessive sweating
  • Overwork
  • Chronic diseases of the nervous and other systems
  • Non-compliance with hygiene rules
  • Skin contact with aggressive chemicals
  • Professional activities associated with exposure to toxic environments, conditions with high humidity, etc.

Typically, infection occurs in:

  • Gyms
  • Pools, saunas and baths
  • Massage rooms
  • Nail Salons
  • Hairdressers
  • Beauty salons, etc.

You can catch a fungal disease in a hotel or on the beach, even at home, if you do not ensure the maintenance of cleanliness and order.

Important! Do not be ashamed of the problem. Anyone can become infected with a “fungus”, even a person who tries to maintain hygiene. Pathogenic flora lives everywhere and can instantly enter the body (especially if your immunity is weakened – by a recent illness, for example).

Symptoms

Symptoms of pathology appear the same in adults and children. Signs are determined not by age, but by the affected area.

Pathogenic microorganisms can multiply on the skin (any part of it) and mucous membranes.

The classic symptoms for all fungal diseases are:

  • Burning sensation
  • Itching (both mild and intense)
  • Discoloration of the affected area
  • Skin peeling

With mycoses of the feet on the surface of the skin:

  • Spots of various shapes with discoloration appear
  • There are foci of desquamation
  • An inflammatory process is provoked, accompanied by a local increase in temperature

Some patients complain of an unpleasant odor, blisters in the folds of the fingers, which itch and cause discomfort.

With mycoses on the face , the main symptoms are:

  • discolored stains
  • Skin peeling
  • Coarsening of the skin

Usually, at the initial stage, fungal diseases do not manifest themselves in any way, since only dead cells of the epidermis are affected. But if you do not start treatment on time, mycosis will cause a lot of problems.

With time:

  • Spots on the face will increase and spoil the appearance
  • There will be ulcers, cracks and foci of inflammation with pus
  • The face will itch more and more

The fungus on the face often becomes the cause of many complexes in the patient.Some people with advanced stages of the disease even refuse to go out, as they are embarrassed by their appearance.

With mycoses on the scalp , patients complain of:

  • Appearance of pink plaques
  • Deterioration of hair condition, hair loss and even the appearance of bald patches
  • Peeling
  • Hair fragility at the base

Symptoms of fungal diseases also depend on the type of lesion.

With dermatomycosis , there is a deep lesion of the skin with mold or yeast. This pathology stimulates the development of the inflammatory process and is usually accompanied by the appearance of spots of various sizes with pink and red color.

In keratomycosis , the top layer of the skin is affected by the fungus. The inflammatory process may be absent. Small nodules with purulent contents usually form on the skin.

In candidiasis , the mucous membranes are affected.Typically, spots form in the armpits, under the mammary glands (in women), and in the groin area.

With deep mycosis , the subcutaneous tissue is affected. Also, the pathological process affects the mucous membranes and even the internal organs and the nervous system. The skin becomes covered with ugly warts and fistulas with purulent contents.

For any signs of mycoses, you should consult a doctor as soon as possible. Treatment of fungal diseases of the skin of the face, body, nails will be prescribed immediately after the detection of all symptoms and diagnosis.

Treatment of fungal skin diseases

Treatment of fungal diseases of nails, scalp, mucous membranes and skin is a complex and lengthy process. This is primarily due to the fact that pathology often occurs against the background of a weakened immunity. However, therapy is successful with an integrated professional approach.

Treatment of fungal diseases of the skin of the hands, feet, face, head, nails is always carried out using a whole range of drugs and techniques.Both already proven agents and new antimicrobial drugs are involved. Compositions are also used that completely kill the infection and prevent its spread.

The treatment program largely depends on:

  • Identified disease
  • The state of health of the patient (including the presence of concomitant diseases)
  • Stages of the infectious process

Complex treatment of fungal diseases of nails, skin and mucous membranes includes:

  • Appointment of local and systemic agents
  • Therapy of the underlying pathology, against the background of which the infection occurred
  • Vitamin therapy, etc.

The patient’s belongings must be processed. Some personal items (towels, for example) will have to be replaced with new ones, since it is almost impossible to clean them properly at home. It is very important not only to take all prescribed medications, but also to carefully follow all the rules of personal hygiene.

Local treatment of fungal diseases

Topical medications come in the form of lotions, ointments, drops, sprays, and even nail polishes. It is quite simple to use them, but it is important to always observe the exact dosage and be guided by the recommendations issued by the doctor. As a rule, the funds are applied to the affected areas. Local treatment allows you to eliminate the symptoms of the disease quickly enough.

The following drugs are actively used today:

  • Antimycotic remedies with antibiotics and corticosteroids. Such drugs are prescribed for damage to the skin and mucous membranes, puffiness.They are effective for both primary and secondary infection
  • Preparations that kill the fungal infection and prevent its further spread. These funds are prescribed only when the inflammatory process subsides (if it has developed)
  • Means for itching
  • Moisturizing and nourishing preparations for the skin. Such funds are used during the rehabilitation period and allow you to restore the skin, saturating it with moisture and all the necessary nutrients

Systemic treatment of fungal diseases

Systemic medicines are available in the form of tablets, capsules, and injection solutions.Typically, these drugs are prescribed in the moderate to severe stages of the disease. This is due to the fact that in such situations, just removing the symptoms is not enough. The infection has already affected the internal organs and systems of the body.

Usually appointed:

  • Azoles . Such drugs stop the growth and reproduction of fungi, causing their death
  • Allylamines . Such drugs prevent the development of fungi.

Important! You should not engage in self-treatment of fungal diseases of the face, hands, feet and other parts of the body. The dosage of all drugs and the time of their use should be determined only by a specialist.

It should also be understood that there are high risks that the therapy will be ineffective.

The main reasons for the decrease in the effectiveness of treatment include:

  • Patient’s violation of hygiene rules .Some people do not take the detected pathology seriously enough. It seems to them that fungal infections are not dangerous and do not require systemic and complex therapy. If, during even the most intense treatment, you constantly contact the source of infection, then the effect will not be
  • Self-medication . Some patients, on the other hand, are very afraid of the spread of the fungus. They want all the symptoms to disappear in just a few days, and it seems that the doctor has prescribed an insufficient amount of drugs.Additional drugs are independently included in the complex of therapy. Often they not only do not give the desired effect, but also exacerbate the situation
  • Refusal of treatment after its start . Patients who do not see an effect in the first few days believe that the therapy is ineffective and refuse it. Of course, this leads to the fungus actively multiplying further, and the symptoms are aggravated

If you want your treatment to be effective, take all prescribed medications, practice good hygiene, and visit your doctor regularly to diagnose the condition.This will quickly get rid of the symptoms and causes of the pathological process.

Benefits of treatment in MEDSI

  • Rapid diagnosis of diseases . We have our own laboratory, in which analyzes are performed in CITO mode (urgent), and all the capabilities for instrumental research
  • Advice from experienced specialists . Our doctors-mycologists and dermatologists are constantly undergoing training and internships in the world’s best clinics, studying the latest methods of therapy for fungal diseases
  • Individual selection of complex therapy .The specialist will draw up a complete map of diseases and prescribe the optimal treatment regimen aimed at eliminating the fungal infection and all its symptoms: redness, swelling, itching, etc.
  • Effective Techniques . In some cases (not started), a tangible effect of therapy can be obtained the very next day after the start of treatment
  • Complex treatment . It includes the treatment of the skin and mucous membranes, injections, dressings, physiotherapy, baths and compresses
  • Use of modern developments and preparations .They allow you to completely get rid of even advanced forms of fungal diseases, restore healthy skin color, beauty of nails and hair

If you want to get rid of mycoses, call us to make an appointment with an experienced doctor. Our phone number: +7 ((495) 152-47-53.

5 important questions about yeast.

Almost every woman has encountered an unpleasant guest – a vaginal infection caused by a yeast fungus, which may be indicated by pain, itching in the external genitals and unpleasant discharge.This infection is most commonly seen in women of reproductive age and can be promoted by excessive stress, reduced immunity, antibiotic use, and certain chronic illnesses. What is a yeast fungus, what causes it and how to fight it, says gynecologist Elizaveta Murzina, Veselības Centrs 4.

What is a yeast fungus?

Yeast fungus or Candida albicans is one of the most common inhabitants of the normal vaginal microflora. This bacterium also lives in humans on the skin, mouth and intestines.A vaginal yeast infection, or vaginal candidiasis, develops when this bacterium grows overly and causes unpleasant symptoms.

How to recognize it?

The fact that the bacteria of the yeast fungus in the vagina has multiplied excessively and caused an infection may be evidenced by:
– a burning sensation and discomfort in the external genital area;
– painful urination;
– painful intercourse;
– Significant whitish or grainy discharge.

Usually these complaints are worse before menses. In some cases, when a yeast infection is advanced, there may be swelling in the genital area or spotting caused by damage to the vaginal mucosa.

What are the most common causes of yeast infections?

  • Taking antibiotics. Yeast infections often appear after taking antibiotics, since they destroy not only the causative agents of various infections, but also the good bacteria in the vagina – lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus).When the microflora of the vagina changes, instead of the good lactic acid bacteria of the vagina, a fungus multiplies.
  • Weakened immunity. An exacerbation of Candida albicans can occur during a period of weakened immunity. It can be weakened by other common infectious diseases, such as the flu, etc., or diseases that affect the immune system (such as HIV infection).
  • Pregnancy. The likelihood of contracting a yeast infection also increases during pregnancy, when the body’s natural defenses are weakened.
  • Regular medication intake. You should be wary of yeast if you regularly take medications such as corticosteroids, which can weaken your immune system. If corticosteroids are used on the skin (for example, to treat psoriasis), special precautions are needed only when they are used in the genital area, where they can negatively affect the natural microflora of the genital organs.
  • Chronic diseases. Yeast fungus may be a frequent visitor if a woman has a chronic condition, such as diabetes, when the fungus grows in the vagina due to high blood sugar.

How to get rid of yeast?

Yeast infection is treated only in cases where its excessive proliferation causes specific complaints – itching, pain and increased discharge. However, if there are complaints, one should not delay a visit to the doctor – if the yeast has caused inflammation of the vagina, which is not treated, the inflammation can develop, which means a longer period of treatment and recovery.

Currently there are two types of drugs available for the treatment of fungus:
1. Oral prescription drugs containing the active ingredient fluconazole. If the infection has not started, one capsule is sufficient. In the most severe cases, two capsules can be taken three days apart.
2. Local preparations (active substance clotrimazole, econosole or miconazole) in the form of vaginal suppositories or cream. Depending on the concentration of the active substance, the treatment usually lasts from 1 to 7 days.Popular among women is Canesten, available over-the-counter, a vaginal cream that only needs to be applied once.

Attention! Over-the-counter antifungal medications are only useful when it is impossible to see a doctor quickly enough, and for women who have had a yeast infection and are familiar with the symptoms. Dr. E. Murzina warns: when faced with the characteristic symptoms of a yeast fungus for the first time, it is necessary to consult a doctor, since there are many infections with symptoms and discharge characteristic of a yeast fungus, but their treatment is different.

What to do to protect yourself from yeast fungus?

  • Avoid unnecessary stress and strengthen the immune system, which can be achieved through a healthy lifestyle.
  • Observe precautions when taking antibiotics. Be sure to tell your doctor if taking antibiotics has ever caused a yeast infection. In this case, the doctor will choose another medication or recommend probiotic drugs for the prevention of vaginal microflora, or prophylactic antifungal medications.
  • Remember yeast in case of chronic diseases. For example, in diabetes mellitus, control is important – regular visits to the family doctor or endocrinologist, and taking medications.
  • Yeast infection is not a sexually transmitted disease and cannot be sexually transmitted to a partner.

Photo: Shutterstock

Typical symptoms and routes of infection

Full description

Hand fungus, or scientifically mycosis, spreads at an incredible rate, which indicates a high degree of resistance of pathogenic fungi to the effects of various stress factors that can be quite harmful to other living organisms. One of the evolutionary adaptations of fungi to survival is unpretentiousness in the choice of location and main habitat. Fungi inhabit most accessible places and areas, including the human body, which increases the chances of infection with these pathogenic microorganisms.

Since the mere presence of fungi in the environment and the internal environment does not yet indicate the occurrence of an infectious disease, it is worth paying attention to the fact that the fungus begins to pose a particular danger when it begins to multiply.A sharp change in the usual physiological functions of these microorganisms to pathological for a person is explained by a change in the conditions of its existence for those suitable for reproduction, as well as a decrease in the strength of the protective barrier of the human body.

Although fungal microorganisms can exist in critical conditions for up to 2 years, they need a sufficient level of moisture, heat and food material. That is why the fungus most often lives in places inaccessible to direct sunlight, with an increased level of air humidity and a consistently high temperature.

The human fungus is nourished by keratin, which is found in large quantities in the nails, scalp and the upper layer of the skin called the epidermis. Pathogenic fungi most often settle on the outer layers of the skin for more efficient extraction of keratin. They have specific structures that produce proteins and enzymes capable of cleaving and dissolving the superficial stratum corneum of the skin for deeper penetration into the epithelial tissue.

Fungal microorganisms are also able to remove sebum from the outer layer of the skin, which serves as a protective film on the path of penetration of pathogenic microflora, thereby opening up access to the human body.

The main causative agents of fungal infections are dermatophytes, yeasts and molds. The external symptoms of the diseases that they cause are often quite similar, however, each type of mushroom has different methods and ways of treatment, therefore, at the first signs of fungus on the skin of the hands, the best solution would be to consult a dermatologist who can conduct a qualitative diagnosis of pathogenic microflora to establish an accurate diagnosis and drawing up the necessary medical complex.

The characteristic features that determine the specific parasitism of the fungus on the skin are pathological dryness of the epidermis, regular flaking, the appearance of a typical clinical picture of “white flour” in the folds between the fingers, calluses, white and red spots, microcracks on the fingers and palms, permanent itching, thickening of the outer stratum corneum, which is called hyperkeratosis, loose structure of the affected area of ​​the skin, the appearance of characteristic grooves of the transverse and longitudinal direction.

If the focus of infection spreads to the nail plates and ridges, which happens in the case of prolonged parasitization of microorganisms and the transition of the disease to a more severe stage, a person suffering from a fungus of the hands may experience a change in the pale pink shade of the nail to yellow, green, purple or brown , which is explained by the increased concentration of horny masses on the skin under the nail plate, the nail itself can bend inward under the pressure of the inflamed nail fold, there are often cases of delamination of the nail plate, which continues to grow, but looks already like a nail that constantly disintegrates into layers and does not have an integral structures.

In particularly severe stages of the development of the infection, the nail is separated from the skin, but usually the treatment of the fungus begins much earlier, which helps to avoid such a terminal condition.

Immediately it is necessary to find out that the fungus of the skin of the hands is much less common than the fungus of the feet, since the feet are covered with shoes most of the time, which is optimal conditions for the development of a fungal infection. Specialists often diagnose both foot fungus and hand fungus at the same time, since one of the most common causes of an infectious disease on the epidermis of the hands is self-infection.The fungus can be transmitted to the nail plates and the outer layer of the skin by washing the feet, as well as by brushing them regularly.
The fungus is often spread from an infected person by shaking hands, using common wardrobe or personal hygiene items, towels, bedding, washcloths, and gloves.

Fungal infection of the hands most often affects the weaker sex, since women usually do most of the housework, which includes washing dishes, prolonged use of harsh chemical detergents without gloves and damp cleaning.

An increased risk of infection with fungal microorganisms is observed in professionals who often deal with detergents, detergents, solutions and raw dough.

Dermatologists often, when examining patients suffering from a fungal infectious disease, advise to be examined by other doctors, for example, an endocrinologist, gastroenterologist, nephrologist or neurologist. Although the fungus is an independent disease, in people infected with the infection, the immune defense can be significantly weakened, hormonal disturbances, disorders of the gastrointestinal tract or urinary tract can be observed, which reduced the protective functions of the human body, making it an easy and accessible target for pathogenic microflora.

Constant stress and regular conflicts create a stable psycho-emotional background, which also affects the general health of a person, making him vulnerable to pathogens of various diseases and pathologies.

When treating a fungal infection, attention should be paid to general improvement, and not only to local treatment of the focus of the disease, since dermatologists classify fungus on the skin of the hands as a recurrent disease that can come back again and again until the body becomes strong enough to resist the onslaught of pathogens.

Prevention of fungal infection is possible with the systematic observance of basic rules of hygiene and basic principles of prevention.

Since the action of aggressive chemicals thinns the skin, removes the protective layer of sebum and can provoke cracks in the epidermis, experts strongly recommend working with surfactants and detergents with gloves, and then thoroughly rinse your hands with soap and apply a nourishing cream.

Try, if possible, to avoid violations of the integrity of the skin and injuries, as damage to the outer skin opens up pathogenic microflora access to internal tissues and organs.If damage to the integrity of the epidermis is still present, the wound should be disinfected and treated.

For preventive purposes, you should visit a doctor at least once every six months, since most diseases are characterized by an asymptomatic initial stage of development, which complicates the diagnosis of pathology. All emerging diseases should be treated in a timely manner, without ignoring the symptoms, since the appearance of one anomaly can lead to the development of another.

You need to carefully monitor your daily diet, which should include dairy products, fish and poultry meat, fresh vegetables and fruits, garlic, peppers, citrus fruits, legumes, nuts, herbs and dried apricots.
By carefully monitoring your health, adjusting the daily routine and nutrition, as well as systematically observing the basic rules of hygiene, you can avoid infection with a fungus, since it is always easier to prevent a disease than to cure it.

Fungal infections of the skin | # 05/09

Fungal lesions of the skin and its appendages have been known since ancient times. Doctors gave skin diseases with different symptoms from others, separate designations (for example, favus), not yet knowing that the cause of their occurrence was fungi.The history of the science of dermatophytes began with the discovery in 1839 by Schonlein J. L. of the favus pathogen Achorion schoenleinii . Schonlein found fungal mycelium in a rash on the skin of a patient whom he mistakenly diagnosed as impetigo. In 1841, Grubi D. established the relationship between skin diseases and fungi. He described the clinical picture of microsporia and the morphological features of the fungus that causes this disease. As a result of using the special nutrient medium proposed by Sabouraud R. for the cultivation of fungi, favorable conditions have been created for mycologists-researchers.Corresponding clinical and laboratory studies began to be carried out, the era of the discovery of new types of pathogens began. In the field of medical mycology, significant shifts have occurred in different directions: dermatophytes, molds, yeast-like fungi, the pathogenesis of mycotic infection, the nature of actinomycosis has been determined, the treatment of fungal diseases has been improved, etc. Russian scientists have also made a significant contribution to the development of medical mycology. , among which the most famous are P.N. Kashkin, A. M. Arievich, N. D. Sheklakov, O. K. Khmelnitsky, A. N. Arabiyskiy, Z. G. Stepanishcheva, N. A. Krasilnikov, G. O. Suteev, V. M. Leshchenko and many others.

Fungal diseases have long gone beyond the specialty of a dermatologist, but dermatologists-mycologists still carry out a lot of work to combat dermatomycosis, which ranks first in prevalence in all countries.

Superficial mycoses (dermatomycosis) include infections that affect the skin, nails and hair.The main pathogens are dermatophytes, fungi capable of assimilating keratin. These include fungi of the genera Microsporum, Trichophyton and Epidermophyton , which, depending on the source of infection, are divided into anthropophilic, zoophilic and geophilic. The habitat of zoophilic dermatophytes ( Trichophyton mentagrophytes v. Gypseum, T. verrucosum, Microsporum canis and others .) Are anthropophilic animals ( Trichophyton rubrum, T. mentagrophytes v. Interdigitale, Microsporum ferrugine27, Ep5) – man, geophilic species ( Microsporum gypseum ) live in the soil. Dermatophytes are highly contagious, can be transmitted to humans from humans, animals or from the soil, causing disease. Anthropophilic species are the main “spreaders” of infection.

Superficial mycoses also include keratomycosis: versicolor versicolor and piedra, in which the most superficial areas of the stratum corneum and cuticle of the hair are affected. The causative agent of multicolored (pityriasis) lichen and seborrheic dermatitis – yeast-like fungus Malassezia furfur – lives on the skin of humans and animals and, under favorable conditions, can affect the stratum corneum of the epidermis and the mouth of the follicles.The disease in most cases is not contagious. White and black piedras are commonly found in countries with hot and humid climates. Diseases are low-contagious. The causative agent of black piedra, Piedraia hortae , occurs only on the hair. Trichosporon beigelii is widespread in the environment and, in addition to the white piedra, can also cause skin and nail damage.

In addition to true dermatophytes, which infect only the skin and its appendages, superficial mycoses can also cause other fungi secreted from a wide variety of localizations in systemic mycoses. Candida spp . – the second most frequent discharge in dermatomycosis and onychomycosis after dermatophytes. Up to 40% of cases of onychomycosis of the hands are caused by Candida . Lesions with yeast-like fungi of the scalp with a clinical picture of seborrheic eczema were noted. The superficial forms of candidiasis also include lesions of the mucous membranes of the oral cavity and genitals.

In cases with onychomycosis caused by molds, there is still doubt about the ability of these opportunistic pathogens to independently affect nails due to their weak proteinase and keratinase activity.It is known that mold fungi can manifest themselves as a secondary infection, penetrating into tissues already affected by dermatophytes. However, as a result of many years of research, it has been proven that some mold fungi can be introduced into the intercellular nail space using perforated organs. The most common causative agents of mold lesions of the skin and nails are Scopulariopsis brevicaulis, Pyrenochaeta unguis-hominis, Aspergillus spp., Fusarium spp., Alternaria spp., Cladosporium spp .and etc.

There are numerous options for the classification of fungal infections, which, to a greater or lesser extent, take into account the etiology, pathogenesis, clinical picture and features of the epidemiology of diseases. In domestic dermatology, the classification of N.D.Sheklakov is most often used:

  1. Keratomycosis (versicolor versicolor, piedra, tartar mycosis).
  2. Dermatophytosis (epidermophytosis, trichophytosis, microsporia, rubromycosis, favus, etc.).
  3. Candidiasis (superficial candidiasis of the skin and mucous membranes, visceral, etc.).
  4. Deep mycoses (chromomycosis, sporotrichosis, etc.).
  5. Pseudomycosis (erythrasma, actinomycosis, nocardiosis, etc.).

However, in many countries of the world, the classification of fungal diseases is adopted according to the localization of the pathological process:

  • Tinea pedis – mycosis of the feet.
  • Tinea corporis – mycosis of the smooth skin of the trunk.
  • Tinea cruris – inguinal mycosis.
  • Tinea capitis – mycosis of the scalp.
  • Tinea unguim – onychomycosis.
  • Tinea manum – mycosis of the hands.
  • Tinea barbae – mycosis of the face.

This classification is convenient from a practical point of view, but does not take into account the etiological features of dermatophytosis, which can determine the nature of epidemiological measures and the characteristics of treatment.

Main clinical features of fungal infections

Mycoses of the feet (Fig. 1). Interdigital folds and soles are mainly affected. In the interdigital folds, slight peeling with minor inflammation, moderate maceration, cracks, vesicles are observed. On the sole there is a thickening of the stratum corneum, mucous peeling in the skin furrows, small cracks on a slightly hyperemic background. With a dyshidrotic form, numerous bubbles form on the skin of the arch and the lower lateral surface of the foot, which then merge to form large bubbles.In place of the opened bubbles, erosion with an uneven edge remains.

Mycosis of the smooth skin of the trunk (Fig. 2). With multi-colored lichen, brownish and white spots are usually localized on the skin of the chest, back, neck and shoulders. Scaly lesions have clear boundaries and are not accompanied by inflammation.

When the skin is affected by other pathogenic fungi, clearly delimited, rounded, edematous foci with a raised roller are formed.The center of the lesion is flattened, with slight peeling. The lesions are enlarged due to peripheral growth.

Inguinal mycosis. Typical localization – inner thigh, lower abdomen, buttocks. The lesions are clearly defined, scaly, erythematous, with an inflammatory roller. Over time, the general moderately erythematous background is replaced by a brownish one.

Mycosis of the scalp. Most commonly seen in children. The disease manifests itself in large, rounded, clearly delimited, flaky foci of alopecia.Inflammatory phenomena are poorly expressed. The discolored hair within the focus is broken off a few millimeters above the skin level (with microsporia) or, breaking off at the skin level, leaves a stump in the form of a black point (with trichophytosis). Zoophilic pathogens can cause the development of an infiltrative-suppurative form of dermatophytosis: the lesion protrudes above the surrounding skin, is covered with purulent-bloody crusts, hair falls out.

Onychomycosis. Various types of fungal infections of the nail plate are characterized by loss of transparency, discoloration (whitish, yellowish), thickening, subungual hyperkeratosis, crumbling or destruction up to the nail fold.

Mycosis of the hands. In squamous lesions of the palm, the disease manifests itself in small-lamellar mucous peeling in the skin sulci. Cracks may form, accompanied by painful sensations and itching. With a dyshidrotic form, vesicles are formed, which are often grouped and can merge to form blisters.

Mycosis of the face. Most often, lesions are localized in the neck, chin and lower lip.The infiltrative-suppurative form of the lesion is manifested in the formation of large cyanotic-red nodes with a bumpy surface. Numerous pustules form abscesses when they fuse. The altered dull hair in the lesion can be removed easily and without pain. The superficial variant resembles mycosis of smooth skin.

Laboratory diagnostics

Microscopy of clinical material is a quick and simple method for preliminary diagnosis of the disease.In cases of the absence of growth of the pathogen in culture, a positive result of direct microscopy can be an undoubted confirmation of a mycotic infection. In scrapings from the skin and nails, dermatophytes, as a rule, are represented by thin, 2–4 µm in diameter, straight and rarely branching mycelium. Often in the preparation can be found atypical forms of the mycelium of dermatophytes – chains of rounded arthrospores (Fig. 3).

M. furfur by microscopy of skin scales is revealed in the form of round cells 3–8 µm in diameter, collected in bunches, and short curved mycelium hyphae of a characteristic “banana” shape.In most cases, the diagnosis of multi-colored lichen can be established precisely by microscopy of the native preparation, since sowing of the material usually does not give results.

Scopulariopsis brevicaulis in nail scales is represented by characteristic cup-shaped spores with a rough membrane.

Fungi of the genus Candida form typical budding yeast cells and pseudomycelium (branching chains of long cells).

Identification of other pathogens in native preparations is difficult.

When hair is damaged by dermatophytes, several tissue forms of the fungus are observed: 1) endoectotrix – spores with a diameter of 2-3 microns are “mosaic” located inside and mostly outside the hair, forming a clutch at the root (“Adamson’s sheath”). Inside the hair, you can also see the mycelium, which, with light pressure on the preparation, comes out of the hair in the form of a fringe – “Adamson’s brush”. The causative agent – Microsporum spr .; 2) endotrix – spores with a diameter of 4-6 microns are located inside the hair in longitudinal chains, completely filling it.The causative agent is Trichophyton spr . The final identification of fungi is carried out during culture studies.

For cultural studies of pathological material, Sabouraud’s medium with chloramphenicol and gentamicin is used, as well as for the selective isolation of dermatophytes – with cycloheximide (actidione), to restrain the growth of fast-growing saprophytic fungi.

The genera of dermatophytes are distinguished by the presence and morphology of multicellular macroconidia and unicellular microconidia.

Characteristics of the most important pathogenic fungi

Epidermophyton floccosum. Anthropophilus. It affects the skin of the groin folds, legs. Colonies grow slowly, grayish-brown, lemon-olive, later white, folded-tuberous in the center. The surface of the colony is leathery or velvety-mealy. Microscopic examination: in mature cultures, chains of intercalary chlamydospores are found. Macroconidia are 4–5-celled, club-shaped, smooth, with rounded ends.They are arranged in bundles of 3-5 pieces. Microconidia are absent.

Microsporum canis (Fig. 4). Zooanthropophilus. The most common pathogen of microsporia in Russia. Colonies are fast-growing flat, radiant-fleecy. The mycelium is grayish-white; against the background of a brownish-red or orange backside, the common colony is salmon. Microscopic examination: forms a characteristic bamboo mycelium, there are scallops, short spirals, intercalary chlamydospores.Macroconidia are fusiform, pointed, prickly, multi-chambered (4–12-celled) with a clear double-contoured membrane. Microconidia are pear-shaped, they are found inconsistently.

M. gypseum . Geophilic pathogen. Affects skin and hair primarily in people who work the soil. Colonies are fast-growing flat, mealy (powdery), later with a slight velvety elevation in the center. The color is yellowish pink. The reverse side is yellow.Microscopic examination: numerous macroconidia (4-6-cell), fusiform, wide, blunt-pointed, smooth. Microconidia, if present, are numerous, pear-shaped or oval in shape.

Trichophyton rubrum (Fig. 5). Anthropophilus. The most common causative agent of dermatomycosis. It affects the nails of the feet, hands and skin anywhere on the body.

Colonies are velvety, white, sometimes waxy at the beginning of growth, later they can acquire a pinkish or purple-red color.The reverse side is yellow, red or cherry red. Microscopic examination: abundant elongated, drop-shaped or pear-shaped microconidia are located on the sides of the mycelium. Macroconidia are 5–6-celled, blunt-pointed.

T. mentagrophytes var. interdigitale . Anthropophilus. It affects the nail plates and skin of the feet.

Colonies are fast-growing velvety, white, sometimes pinkish. With age, the colonies of different strains become fluffy or densely mealy.The reverse side is colorless or brownish. Microscopic examination: microconidia are round, located on the sides of the mycelium singly and in clusters. Cigar-shaped 3-5-cell macroconidia with a rounded end are rare. In mature cultures, there are many curls and spirals, knotty organs and intercalary chlamydospores are formed.

T. mentagrophytes var. gypseum . Zooanthropophilus. Affects skin and hair. T. rubrum ranks second after in terms of isolation frequency.

Colonies are fast-growing flat, granular-powdery, white, cream, yellowish. The reverse side is brownish-red. Microscopic examination: microconidia are abundant, round, located on the sides of the mycelium singly and in the form of clusters. Macroconidia are cigar-shaped, 3–8-celled, with rounded ends.

Treatment

Therapy of various mycotic lesions of the skin and nails is carried out with antifungal drugs, which can be of systemic action, as well as used as external agents.In practice, both monotherapy and various combinations of antifungal drugs are used. In most cases, treatment should be complex with the use of external antifungal agents, systemic drugs, symptomatic treatment. Methods and means of topical therapy are indispensable components of the treatment of various mycotic skin lesions. If the fungal process is in its initial stage and there are small skin lesions, then it can be cured by prescribing only external antifungal drugs.With a widespread or deep mycotic process, as well as in patients with damage to hair and nails, treatment can be difficult.

Antifungal drugs or antimycotics are specific agents used to treat fungal infections of the skin, nails, hair, etc. They can have fungicidal and fungistatic properties. The fungicidal action of the antifungal agent leads to the death of fungal cells, the fungistatic action stops the formation of new fungal cells.Antimycotics are conventionally divided into 5 groups: polyene antibiotics, azole compounds, allylamine drugs, morpholine derivatives and medicines without a clear relation to any particular group.

When prescribing topical therapy, it is important to take into account the nature of the specific effect of the antifungal agent. It is known that griseofulvin preparations are active only against dermatophytes. External agents containing polyene antibiotics – against yeasts and molds, preparations of selenium, zinc, benzyl benzoate – fungi of the genus Malassezia and erythrasma pathogens Corynebacterium minnutissium . Modern antifungal agents of the azole, allylamine, morpholine series, thiocarbamycines and pyridine compounds have a significantly wider spectrum of antifungal activity, as well as anti-inflammatory and antipruritic properties and good tolerance.

Onychomycosis is the most treatment-resistant disease. Success is based on an individually tailored treatment regimen. When treating, it is necessary to take into account the patient’s age, concomitant diseases, the number of affected nails, the degree of involvement of the nail plates in the pathological process.

Currently, mycologists have a large arsenal of agents with a wide spectrum of fungicidal action, accumulation in therapeutic concentration in the nail plate and nail bed. The greatest preference is given to drugs that meet the requirements for therapeutic efficacy, as well as aesthetics and ease of use.

Treatment of onychomycosis is divided into local, systemic, combined.

Local treatment allows high concentrations of the drug to be created on the surface of the nail plate.However, in the nail bed, where the most viable fungi are located, the active substances of the antimycotic do not always penetrate in effective concentrations.

Local antimycotics: varnishes – Lotseril, Batrafen; creams – Lamisil, Nizoral, Mikospor, Mifungar, Travogen, Ecosax, Exoderil, Pimafucin, sprays – Dactarin, Lamisil, etc. intervals, often combined with onychomycosis.

For the treatment of nails, local antiseptics are also used – alcohol solutions of iodine, dyes.

Multicomponent preparations contain an antimycotic or antiseptic in combination with an anti-inflammatory agent. In the treatment of skin infections accompanying onychomycosis, the following are used: Triderm, Travocort, Mikozolon, Pimafukort, Lorinden S, etc.

Azole, allylamine, morpholine compounds, as well as drugs of a mixed group, are active against a large number of pathogens.Considering that often enough mycoses of the feet are caused by a mixed fungal flora, it is preferable to prescribe these drugs, which are broad-spectrum antimycotics. Most of them damage the cytoplasmic membranes of the cell walls of fungi, suppressing the synthesis of their main components, in particular ergosterol.

Currently, the mycologist has highly effective systemic antimycotics: itraconazole (Sporonox, Orungal), fluconazole (Diflucan, Forcan), terbinafine (Lamisil), the antifungal effect of which is shown in the table.

One of the important principles of topical therapy of mycotic skin lesions is the alternation of external antifungal drugs, which avoids the resistance of dermatomycetes to them.

In squamous-keratotic forms of skin lesions, keratolytic agents are used as part of collodionic detachments or ointments: Arabian, Arievich, Andriasyan ointment or 5-10% Salicylic ointment. For candidal lesions use Nystatin, Levorin, Amphotericin ointments, Pimafucin 1-2 times a day for 10-15 days.As a result of treatment, foci of candidal intertrigo, interdigital candidiasis erosions, paronychia are resolved.

With acute mycoses of the skin with a pronounced inflammatory component, treatment begins with the elimination of edema, hyperemia, exudation, eczematization, and allergic rashes. Prescribe lotions and wet-drying dressings with disinfecting and astringent compounds: tannin, ethacridine, boric acid, etc. Then 2-5% boron-naphthalan paste, 5% ASD paste, as well as a combination of antifungal and corticosteroid agents in creams: Mikozolon, Travokort, Triderm.At the same time, acute inflammation is quickly eliminated, which allows in the future to switch to treatment with fungicidal agents. It is recommended to use external agents with corticosteroids for 7-8 days in order to avoid activation of the mycotic process.

After acute inflammation subsides or after detachment of the stratum corneum with hyperkeratosis, azole antimycotic drugs can be used: Kanesten, Clotrimazole, which are used 1 to 3 times a day, applying a thin layer to the lesions.

External dosage forms of terbinafine have high therapeutic activity: Lamisil (1% spray, cream), Lamisil Dermgel (gel). All forms have pronounced antimycotic and antibacterial properties. The presence of three dosage forms allows the mycologist to use the drug with the greatest benefit. So, Lamisil spray is indicated for acute mycoses with hyperemia, edema, rashes. Sprayed foci are covered with a thin film and are isolated from the environment.Spray Lamisil does not cause irritation and leads to a rapid resolution of mycosis areas: pain, itching, burning disappears, the lesions turn pale and dry out. With the help of Lamisil spray, foci of erythrasma are cured within 5 days. Within 7-10 days, patients with various forms of varicoloured lichen recover. Lamisil Dermgel, as well as spray, is more indicated for acute mycoses, since it has a pronounced cooling effect and is easily applied to the affected areas. With erythema-squamous and infiltrative manifestations of mycoses of the skin, the use of Lamisil in the form of a cream is indicated.The gel and cream of this drug are also effective for microsporia, pityriasis versicolor, candidiasis of large skin folds and periungual ridges. When using Lamisil cream for one week, such a concentration of the drug is created in the skin, which retains its fungicidal properties for another week after its withdrawal. This circumstance justifies short courses of treatment with Lamisil in comparison with other local antifungal agents.

Therapy of mycoses of the scalp, as well as in the treatment of smooth skin, is carried out with systemic and external antimycotics.On the foci of mycosis, 2–5% tincture of iodine is applied, in the evening it is smeared with antifungal ointment. With the phenomena of significant inflammation, combined preparations are used, containing, in addition to antimycotics, corticosteroid hormones. With an infiltrative-suppurative process, remove the crusts with 2-3% Salicylic ointment, use disinfectant solutions (Furacilin, potassium permanganate). To improve the effectiveness of the treatment, it is recommended to shave the hair on the scalp every 10 days.

For literature questions, please contact the editorial board.


I. V. Kurbatova , Candidate of Biological Sciences
G.A. Plakhotnaya , Candidate of Medical Sciences

IMPiTM them. E. I. Martsinovsky, MMA them. I. M. Sechenov, Moscow


Table. Activity spectrum of systemic antimycotics

90,000 Candidiasis – causes, symptoms, diagnosis and treatment

Candidiasis is an infectious disease affecting the skin, mucous membranes and / or internal organs caused by yeast-like fungi of the genus Candida.The term “candidiasis” means a pathological process, the basis of which is the overgrowth of Candida, primarily in the gastrointestinal tract and secondarily in other areas (on the mucous membrane of the genitals, bronchi, parenchymal organs).

Causes

Candidiasis (thrush) affects not only external but also internal organs. The cause of the disease is yeast-like fungi that inhabit the body of every person.

  1. Many factors can provoke an intensive reproduction of the fungus.For example, hypothermia, illness, stress, changes in hormonal levels (during pregnancy or taking hormonal drugs).
  2. When antibiotics are taken, along with pathogenic bacteria, useful intestinal and vaginal microflora, which controls the growth and development of Candida fungi, also perishes. The presence of a chronic disease that reduces the activity of the immune system (HIV, sexually transmitted diseases, infections) very often causes candidiasis.
  3. Endocrine diseases (diabetes, obesity, thyroid dysfunction) can be accompanied by candidiasis.
  4. Finally, hot climates or uncomfortable tight or synthetic underwear can be the cause of candidiasis.

The source of infection with candidiasis, as a rule, is the body’s own flora (autoinfection), but infection from the outside can occur. Causing a disease, the fungus does not change its properties – the body changes its properties (local defense decreases). Attaching to the cells of the epithelium, the pathogenic fungus begins to parasitize in them, penetrating deep into the tissues.

In the body’s fight against candidiasis, a dynamic balance often arises when the fungus seeks to penetrate deeper into the tissues, but cannot, and the body tries to reject it and also cannot. In this case, the process can last for years, a shift in balance in one direction or another will lead either to recovery or to an aggravation of the process.

Candidiasis occurs in several forms, depending on some characteristics.

  1. Carrier. A person is a carrier of the disease.There are no symptoms of candidiasis, there is no need to treat.
  2. Sharp. Accompanied by itching, rashes, discharge. It is necessary to treat in a comprehensive manner and efficiently. Young children are most often infected.
  3. Chronic. Characterized by remission and manifestation of symptoms, relapses are possible. It develops if it is incorrect to treat with antibiotics for a long time, use hormonal contraceptives.

This disease has several varieties, since it does not have an exact localization in the body:

  • Urogenital candidiasis
    • female.
    • male.
  • Oral candidiasis
    • Thrush of the lips
    • Thrush of the tongue
    • Stomatitis, as well as oropharyngeal candidiasis – thrush of the oral mucosa, tonsils, gums.
  • Skin and nail candidiasis
    • On the folds of the skin (armpits, the area between the buttocks, groin folds).
    • Candidiasis of open (or smooth) parts of the skin. Rare.
    • Candidiasis on the palms.
    • Candidiasis on the nail plates.
    • Candidiasis of the feet.
  • Candidiasis of internal organs
    • Gastrointestinal tract (stomach, esophagus, intestines, anus).
    • Lungs and bronchi.
    • Hearts.
    • The meninges.
    • Eyes and ears.
  • Neonatal candidiasis (e.g. pseudomembranous)

Candidiasis symptoms

The disease is widespread. The causative agents of candidiasis are found in the air, soil, vegetables, fruits, and confectionery products.Yeast-like fungi are found as saprophytes on healthy skin and mucous membranes.

Manifestations of candidiasis, and therefore symptoms and signs, depend on the localization of the focus of the disease.

Candidiasis of the oral mucosa (oral candidiasis, infant thrush) most often occurs in children, as a rule, they become infected from the mother through the birth canal. Symptoms:

  • mucous membranes of the cheeks, pharynx, tongue and gums become red,
  • puffiness appears,
  • then foci of white curdled plaque appear on the oral mucosa.

With candidiasis of the skin and its appendages, most often the foci are located in large folds:

  • inguinal femoral,
  • inter-berry,
  • armpits,
  • under the mammary glands.

Skin in the interdigital folds may be affected, more often in children and adults suffering from severe diseases – on the skin of the palms, feet, smooth skin of the trunk and extremities. The foci in large folds look like small 1-2 mm bubbles, which soon open up with the formation of erosion.Erosions increase in size, merge, forming large areas of damage.

Foci of candidiasis have an irregular shape, dark red color, around the focus – a strip of peeling epidermis. Outside the folds, the lesions look like red spots with peeling in the center, occasionally small bubbles may appear around the lesion.

Vaginal candidiasis (candidiasis, thrush) is an infectious disease of the vaginal mucosa, which often spreads to the neck of the uterus and vulva. Almost every woman has encountered such a disease, and some signs of candidiasis are constantly disturbing. Most common in women of reproductive age, but may occur in girls

Intestinal candidiasis (dysbiosis) often accompanies vaginal candidiasis or develops in isolation. Usually intestinal candidiasis appears after taking antibiotics or previous intestinal infections. Fungi of the genus Candida live in the small intestine. Symptoms characteristic of this type of candidiasis: white cheesy flakes are often found in the stool of a patient suffering from intestinal candidiasis.

Esophageal candidiasis is a disease that is very difficult to define among all those in the field of gastroenterology. The disease is characterized by a discrepancy between the severity of the disease, the level of damage and the condition of the patient himself.

Complication

With timely treatment, candidiasis does not cause any particular harm to health. But the symptoms of candidiasis can be unpleasant. Long-term, it can lead to damage to other organs, most often the urethra, bladder and kidneys.In severe cases, the progressive disease can affect the reproductive organs, which leads to infertility in both men and women. But the greatest danger of candidiasis is for pregnant women, because the risk of fetal damage is very high.

How the disease is diagnosed

Visual methods for the diagnosis of candidiasis. On examination, inflammation of the skin areas is revealed, limited by the border of the exfoliated, macerated epidermis, a whitish coating on the mucous membranes.

Laboratory diagnostics. Contrary to popular belief, the main method for diagnosing candidiasis is still smear microscopy from the affected areas of the mucosa. PCR (DNA – diagnostics), which has become popular recently, is generally poorly suited for the diagnosis of candidiasis.

Laboratory diagnostics of the disease includes:

  • smear microscopy of secretions
  • cultural diagnostics (sowing)
  • enzyme immunoassay (ELISA)
  • Polymerase chain reaction (PCR).

Treatment of candidiasis

Treatment of candidiasis is aimed at eliminating factors contributing to the occurrence of candidiasis. In case of skin lesions, local treatment is carried out in an open way using antifungal ointments.

The attending physician for this ailment prescribes systemic and local medications. Local funds are not absorbed into the bloodstream – they act only on the mucous membrane affected by the Candida fungus. They stop the reproduction and growth of fungi, relieve discomfort and restore the affected tissue.

Prevention

Since candidiasis is a recurrent infectious process that occurs very often, there are some methods of prevention that lead to a decrease in the frequency of recurrence of the disease, and also prevent the primary infection.

Of the generally accepted means of preventing candidiasis, the following should be noted:

  1. body hardening,
  2. intake of vitamins and minerals in spring and autumn,
  3. regular standard hygiene practices;
  4. Special attention should be paid to the type of clothing and underwear.Recommended to wear cotton underwear, breathable and loose casual clothing.

With timely treatment, the prognosis is favorable, cure usually occurs within a week. With complicated forms and lesions of internal organs, the treatment of candidiasis is difficult.

Shapilova N.V.

90,000 Malassezium Dermatitis in Dogs: Symptoms and Treatment

Malassezia is a type of small (5-7 microns) yeast that normally lives on the skin, including the ear canals, of humans and most animals and is one of the components of the skin’s natural defenses.These fungi are not contagious, unlike the fungi that cause lichen, and the dog does not need isolation when diagnosed with malasseous dermatitis. Usually, the host’s organism is calm about Malassezia. He knows how much of this fungus should be on the skin, how to regulate its amount. However, some predisposing factors and various skin diseases can disrupt the natural balance, subsequently leading to an increase in the amount of malassezia on the skin. That is, malassezium dermatitis is always a secondary symptom that occurs in response to a violation of the skin microenvironment due to some underlying skin disease.Perhaps that is why malassezium dermatitis is quite common in adult and elderly dogs, which are more prone to developing a variety of primary skin diseases compared to young animals. Also, dogs have a breed predisposition to this dermatitis. It often occurs in West Highland White Terriers, Basset Hounds, Cocker Spaniels, Dachshunds, Poodles and German Shepherds.

Possible causes of malasseous dermatitis:

Malassezia dermatitis can develop against the background of such diseases as atopic (according to some studies, this is one of the most common symptoms atopic dermatitis ) and flea allergic dermatitis , endocrine disorders, in particular hypothyroidism, Cushing’s syndrome (primary or caused by the use of hormones) , parasitic diseases, primarily demodicosis, as well as with primary or secondary seborrhea (a disease associated with increased secretion of the sebaceous glands and skin peeling).All of these diseases lead to disruption of the normal functioning of the skin barrier. Yeast fungi begin to multiply more actively on the skin, releasing substances that further destroy the protective layer and accelerate the process of normal desquamation of skin cells. In addition, the normal cohabitants of the skin – bacteria – also increase their numbers during fungal overgrowth (the proliferation of fungi beyond normal). These changes cause itching and irritation over time. A so-called vicious circle can often develop, where a large number of fungi cause inflammation, and the inflammation in turn stimulates the growth of fungi.

Also, in the absence of signs of an active underlying disease, increased moisture in various areas of the skin (often interdigital spaces and ear canals), increased production of sebum and / or sulfur, pronounced folding of the skin of the dog’s face or body can predispose to an increase in the amount of yeast on the skin . .. At the same time, exacerbations of malassezia dermatitis often occur in spring and autumn, since damp weather also contributes to the active growth of yeast fungi.

The clinical picture of malasseous dermatitis:

Malassezia dermatitis in dogs is manifested by local (one area of ​​the body may suffer) or generalized (large foci, localized in several areas of the body) skin lesions, accompanied by severe itching. Typical areas for malassezium dermatitis in dogs are the skin of the groin, armpits, interdigital spaces, ear canals, muzzle and tail folds. It can also affect the skin on the lower surface of the neck, around the lips, perianal (around the anus) and perivulvar (around the genitals in females) areas.

At the beginning of the disease, erythema (redness), papular rash (small pimples without purulent contents) appear on the skin, the hair in these places can acquire a rusty hue. In this case, the dog, experiencing intense itching, tries to scratch with its paw, lick or rub the altered part of the body on objects, thereby injuring it. Crusts, scratches appear on the sore spot, the hair falls out and an unpleasant greasy coating with a characteristic rancid odor appears on the skin. With a prolonged course of malassezium dermatitis without treatment, the skin in the affected areas lichenified (thickens, loses elasticity and acquires a mosaic pattern) and hyperpigmented (acquires an intense gray-black coloration).

The defeat of the ear canals also causes itching, due to which the dog shakes his head, scratches his ears. The skin of the auricles becomes intense red and may swell. A large amount of brown ointment discharge appears on the folds of the shell. The skin of the auricles can also become lichenified and hyperpigmented over time.

Malassezia dermatitis of dogs photo

Diagnosis:

The diagnosis of malassezium dermatitis is made on the basis of history data (age of onset of symptoms, breed), clinical examination (taking into account the number and appearance of the affected areas), diagnostic tests and response to trial treatment.

As a diagnostic test to detect an increased number of malassezia fungi, fingerprints are used from the affected skin and the external auditory canal, which the doctor can examine during the appointment. By assessing the amount of yeast in the preparations and comparing this with the appearance of the lesions, the veterinary dermatologist can draw conclusions about whether the yeast is the cause of the inflammation.

It is important to remember that lesions in atopic allergic dermatitis, parasitic dermatoses (sarcoptic mange and demodectic mange ) and various keratinization disorders (keratinization of epidermal cells) may have a similar appearance, but the number of yeast fungi may not be increased.Therefore, self-administration of antifungal drugs to a dog without a visit to the doctor may be unreasonable.

Treatment:

When diagnosed with malassezium dermatitis in dogs, treatment includes external (shampoos, ointments, solutions) and systemic agents (tablets). In most cases, when the main cause is identified and the course of malassezia dermatitis is not started, external agents are sufficient for treatment.

Small affected areas of the skin are lubricated with antifungal ointments with 1-2% ketoconazole, 2% miconazole, 2% climbazole or terbinafine 1-2 times a day.It is also possible to use a 2-4% solution of chlorhexidine or a mixture of table vinegar with water in a ratio of 1: 3 or 1: 4 as a local antifungal agent (vinegar acidifies the medium and prevents fungi from developing). The affected skin can also be treated with 2% lime sulfuric solution and 0.2% enilconazole solution.

For malassezium otitis media in dogs, various drops with antifungal components are used.

If the area of ​​the lesions is large, then the dog is bathed 2 times a week with an antifungal shampoo, keeping it on the skin for up to 10 minutes.

The need to prescribe systemic antifungal drugs (tablets) remains at the discretion of the attending physician.

Since malassezium dermatitis in dogs is accompanied by active itching, it can be treated with antipruritic drugs. For this, a drug such as Apoquel is suitable. Earlier in the arsenal of a veterinarian to relieve itching and inflammation of the skin were only hormonal drugs (antihistamines are very weak for itching in dogs and cats), but their use was associated with a high risk of side effects.Apoquel allows in a short time (after already an average of 4 hours after taking the drug) to reduce the symptoms of itching and skin inflammation in a dog. In addition, Apoquel is well tolerated with long-term use, easy to dose and non-addictive. This drug can be combined with external and systemic antifungal agents, which can accelerate the disappearance of the symptoms of malassezia dermatitis.

The duration of treatment for malassezia dermatitis depends on each specific case.Thus, lesions of a small area with a known underlying disease can improve within 1-2 weeks with treatment. With extensive lesions and / or unknown primary disease, treatment can last from three weeks or more. In addition, in more complex cases, the risk of recurrent (re) development of malassezia dermatitis is higher. The dynamics of malassezium dermatitis must be assessed by a veterinarian every three to four weeks against the background of treatment by examination and control smears-prints from the lesions.After the disappearance of all symptoms, local and systemic therapy is extended for another two weeks, and then canceled.

It is important to remember that when diagnosed with malassezium dermatitis in dogs, treatment can be simple and easy with early veterinary attention. It will be possible to prevent recurrence of malassezia dermatitis if it was possible to find out its cause (this may take time and additional research) and take it under control.

Take care of yourself and your pets.

90,000 Fungal diseases and infections of the vagina in women

As a result of a weakened immune system, the fungus begins to multiply uncontrollably, infecting the mucous membranes of the gastrointestinal tract and female genital organs. In gynecology, yeast causes a disease called urogenital candidiasis or thrush. In addition, the fungus can cause vaginitis and vulvovaginitis, when, in addition to the vagina, the colony affects the mucous membranes of the vulva, causing severe burning and itching.

How is genital fungus manifested?

If a woman has noticed the appearance of abundant white cheesy discharge on her underwear, you should immediately seek help from a gynecologist. Perhaps it is a fungus on the genitals.

By touching the external genital organs, fungal infections of the vagina can penetrate into the internal organs of the genitourinary system, thereby leading to serious complications – diseases of the genitourinary system and infertility.

Fungal diseases in women spread to:

  • uterus;
  • ovaries;
  • fallopian tubes.

Thus, they provoke all new foci of infection.

Fungal genital infections cause such diseases of internal organs in women as:

In addition, fungus in gynecology is one of the main causes of cervical erosion, and this in turn leads to infertility, i.e. the inability to have children. The main symptoms

As a rule, a fungal infection has the following symptoms:

  • Thick discharge of a curdled consistency;
  • Intolerable burning and itching in the genital area;
  • Pain during urination;
  • Pain during intercourse;

Having found such symptoms in herself, the first thing a woman should do is to see a qualified doctor, for example, to us, in ON Clinic.

Types of fungal diseases

Gynecological fungal diseases are most often caused by fungi of the genus Candida, which has about 170 species. For example, Candida Parapsilosis, Candida Glabrata, Candida Albicans, and Candida Tropicalis. More than 75% of women of childbearing age will experience a vaginal infection caused by fungi at least once in their life. These are mainly thrush (candidiasis) and candidal vaginitis, most commonly caused by the fungus Candida albicans.

Fungi of the genus Candida belong to the representatives of the normal microflora of the vagina. However, under the influence of various factors in the female body, favorable conditions are created for parasitizing fungi. World statistics show that candidiasis is diagnosed in 24-36% of cases of visits to a gynecologist.

What causes thrush?

Thrush or female fungus can occur for various reasons. One of the common reasons for the development of candidiasis, doctors call vaginal alkalinization – a change in the normal (acidic) environment of the vagina to alkaline due to hormonal disorders, infectious and gynecological diseases.The alkaline environment in the vagina becomes the impetus for the multiplication of fungi due to the death of microorganisms that make up the natural microflora of the vagina. Taking corticosteroids or antibacterial drugs can lead to illness. Also, thrush is capable of developing:

  • against the background of a decrease in immunity;
  • due to wearing synthetic underwear;
  • due to unprotected sexual intercourse, use of intrauterine contraceptives.

What is Candida fungus afraid of?

Candida fungi die in an acidic environment. Therefore, yeast in women is treated with drugs that help restore the natural microflora of the vagina. According to the indications, the doctor selects antifungal, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory drugs. Immunotherapy is also indicated to restore the full functioning of the immune system.

Vaginal swab – what infections does it show?

A vaginal swab allows you to identify pathogenic microflora in the vagina (bacteria, fungi).This is the simplest and most effective laboratory method for diagnosing the inflammatory process in the female genital organs. Based on the results of the analysis, the gynecologist makes a diagnosis (vaginal candidiasis, vaginitis or other gynecological disease).

A vaginal smear shows:

  • the number of leukocytes, lactobacilli, squamous epithelial cells;
  • Whether the ratio of “useful”, pathogenic and opportunistic microorganisms, the number of which should be balanced, has not been violated.

How to get rid of fungi in the body with folk remedies?

Fungal diseases of the female organs should be treated only as prescribed by the gynecologist. Self-medication can lead to the development of a chronic form of candidiasis, the appearance of concomitant diseases (erosion of the cervix, diseases of internal organs with a fungal infection of the kidneys, intestines or bladder).

In case of delayed or incorrect treatment, fungal infections can enter the bloodstream. This is called candidemia.Candidemia is one of the most common fungal infections in the United States, according to the American Centers for Disease Prevention and Control. In addition, fungal infections can lead to other health problems, such as dermatological diseases, as the area around the vagina becomes inflamed due to the parasitic fungus. Prolonged inflammation threatens skin infections and increases the chances of the infection spreading to other parts of the body.

How are fungal infections treated?

Treatment of fungal diseases of the genital organs is based on the use of antifungal drugs, which can be administered externally (vaginal ointments) or internally (tablets).The gynecologist selects treatment depending on the type of fungal infection, the patient’s medical history and the course of the disease.

During the period of treatment, we recommend that women refrain from sexual activity. In case of sexual intercourse during treatment, use contraception so as not to aggravate the inflammatory process in the vagina. However, in this case, it must be borne in mind that vaginal creams and suppositories for the treatment of fungal infections can weaken the properties of latex condoms.This could cause it to slip or break.

Prevention of fungal diseases in gynecology

The development of genital fungus in women can be prevented. Preventive measures include adherence to the rules of personal and intimate hygiene, wearing underwear made from natural materials, and using contraceptives.