Picture of yeast infection bumps: Pictures, Symptoms, What It Looks Like, Treatment
Candidiasis (Yeast Infection) – Skin Disorders
Denise M. Aaron
, MD, Dartmouth Geisel School of Medicine
Reviewed/Revised Sep 2021 | Modified Sep 2022
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Candidiasis is infection with the yeast Candida.
Candidiasis tends to occur in moist areas of the skin.
Candidiasis may cause rashes, scaling, itching, and swelling.
Doctors examine the affected areas and view skin samples under a microscope or in a culture.
Antifungal creams or antifungal drugs given by mouth usually cure candidiasis.
(See also Overview of Fungal Skin Infections Overview of Fungal Skin Infections Fungi usually make their homes in moist areas of the body where skin surfaces meet: between the toes, in the genital area, and under the breasts. Common fungal skin infections are caused by… read more .)
Candida is a yeast that normally resides on the skin and in the mouth, digestive tract, and vagina and usually causes no harm. Under certain conditions, however, Candida can overgrow on mucous membranes and moist areas of the skin. Typical areas affected are the lining of the mouth, the groin, the armpits, the spaces between fingers and toes, on an uncircumcised penis, the skinfold under the breasts, the nails, and the skinfolds of the stomach. Yeast is a type of fungus.
Conditions that enable Candida to infect the skin include the following:
Hot, humid weather
Tight, synthetic underclothing
Infrequent diaper or undergarment changes, particularly in children and older people
A weakened immune system resulting from diabetes, HIV infection/AIDS, or use of corticosteroids and other drugs that suppress the immune system
Pregnancy, obesity, or use of antibiotics
Other skin disorders such as intertrigo Intertrigo Intertrigo is irritation and breakdown of skin (maceration) in areas where two skin surfaces rub together. Sometimes bacterial or yeast infections develop. The diagnosis is based on the location… read more and psoriasis Psoriasis Psoriasis is a chronic, recurring disease that causes one or more raised, red patches that have silvery scales and a distinct border between the patch and normal skin. A problem with the immune… read more
People taking antibiotics may develop candidiasis because the antibiotics kill the bacteria that normally reside on the body, allowing Candida to grow unchecked. Corticosteroids or immunosuppressive therapy after organ transplantation can also lower the body’s defenses against candidiasis. Inhaled corticosteroids, often used by people with asthma, sometimes cause candidiasis of the mouth. Pregnant women, people receiving cancer therapy drugs, obese people, and people with diabetes also are more likely to be infected by Candida.
In some people (usually people with a weakened immune system), Candida may invade deeper tissues as well as the blood, causing life-threatening systemic candidiasis Candidiasis Candidiasis is a fungal infection caused by several species of the yeast Candida, especially Candida albicans. The most common type of candidiasis is a superficial infection of… read more .
Symptoms of candidiasis vary, depending on the location of the infection.
Infections in skinfolds (intertriginous infections) or in the navel usually cause a bright red rash, sometimes with breakdown of skin. Small pustules may appear, especially at the edges of the rash, and the rash may itch intensely or burn. A candidal rash around the anus may be raw, white or red, and itchy. Infants may develop a candidal diaper rash Diaper rash (diaper dermatitis) A rash is an abnormal change in the texture or color of the skin. Known causes of rashes include irritation, allergies, drugs, and bacterial, fungal, or viral infections. Rashes include redness… read more in the diaper area.
Vaginal candidiasis (vulvovaginitis, yeast infection— see Overview of Vaginitis (Vaginal Infection or Inflammation) Overview of Vaginitis (Vaginal Infection or Inflammation) Vaginal infections are one of the most common reasons women see their doctor, accounting for millions of visits each year. Vaginal infections are caused by infectious organisms (such as bacteria… read more ) is common, especially among women who are pregnant, have diabetes, or are taking antibiotics. Symptoms of these infections include a white or yellow cheeselike discharge from the vagina and burning, itching, and redness along the walls and external area of the vagina.
Penile candidiasis most often affects men with diabetes, uncircumcised men, or men whose female sex partners have vaginal candidiasis. Sometimes the rash may not cause any symptoms, but usually the infection causes a red, raw, itching, burning, or sometimes painful rash on the head of the penis.
Thrush is candidiasis inside the mouth Candidiasis Candidiasis is a fungal infection caused by several species of the yeast Candida, especially Candida albicans. The most common type of candidiasis is a superficial infection of… read more . The creamy white patches typical of thrush cling to the tongue and sides of the mouth and may be painful. The patches can be scraped off with a finger or blunt object and may bleed when scraped. Thrush in otherwise healthy children is not unusual, but in adults it may signal a weakened immune system, possibly caused by cancer, diabetes, or human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. The use of antibiotics that kill off competing bacteria increases the risk of developing thrush.
Perlèche is candidiasis at the corners of the mouth, which causes cracks and tiny fissures. It may stem from chronic lip licking, thumb sucking, ill-fitting dentures, or other conditions that make the corners of the mouth moist enough that yeast can grow.
Candidal paronychia Chronic Paronychia Chronic paronychia is recurring or persistent inflammation of the nail fold, typically of the fingernails. (See also Acute Paronychia.) Chronic paronychia occurs almost always in people whose… read more is candidiasis in the nail folds or cuticles, which causes painful redness and swelling ( see Onychomycosis Onychomycosis Onychomycosis is a fungal infection of the nails. (See also Overview of Nail Disorders.) About 10% of people have onychomycosis, which most often affects the toenails rather than the fingernails… read more ) around the nail. In longstanding infection, the area underneath the nail may turn white or yellow, and the nail plate may separate from the nail bed (onycholysis Onycholysis The terms deformities and dystrophies are often used interchangeably, sometimes even by doctors. However, their meanings are slightly different. Deformities: Changes in nail shape… read more ). This disorder typically occurs in people with diabetes or a weakened immune system or in otherwise healthy people whose hands are subjected to frequent wetting or washing.
Chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis Chronic Mucocutaneous Candidiasis Chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis, a hereditary immunodeficiency disorder, is persistent or recurring infection with Candida (a fungus) due to malfunction of T cells (a type of white. .. read more causes red, pus-filled, crusted, and thickened areas that resemble psoriasis Psoriasis Psoriasis is a chronic, recurring disease that causes one or more raised, red patches that have silvery scales and a distinct border between the patch and normal skin. A problem with the immune… read more , especially on the nose and forehead. People who have this condition are also prone to thrush.
Usually, doctors can identify candidiasis by observing its distinctive rash or the thick, white, pasty residue it generates.
To confirm the diagnosis of candidiasis, doctors may scrape off some of the skin or residue with a scalpel or tongue depressor. The scraping Scrapings Doctors can identify many skin disorders simply by looking at the skin. A full skin examination includes examination of the scalp, nails, and mucous membranes. Sometimes the doctor uses a hand-held… read more sample is then examined under a microscope or placed in a culture medium Culture Doctors can identify many skin disorders simply by looking at the skin. A full skin examination includes examination of the scalp, nails, and mucous membranes. Sometimes the doctor uses a hand-held… read more (a substance that allows microorganisms to grow) to identify the specific fungus.
Treatment of candidiasis typically depends on the location of the infection. (See also table Some Antifungal Drugs Applied to the Skin (Topical Drugs) Some Antifungal Drugs Applied to the Skin (Topical Drugs) .)
Infections in skinfolds are treated with antifungal creams, powders, solutions, or other products that are applied directly to the skin (topical). Examples include miconazole, clotrimazole, oxiconazole, ketoconazole, econazole, ciclopirox, and nystatin. In healthy people, skinfold infections are usually easily cured. Keeping the skin dry helps clear up the infection and prevents it from returning. Solutions that dry out the skin (such as Burow solution) or topical antiperspirants help keep the surface area dry. Keeping the area dry may also help prevent a recurrence. People who have many infected skinfolds may be given drugs by mouth (such as fluconazole).
Vaginal candidiasis is treated with antifungal drugs that may be applied as a cream to the affected area, inserted into the vagina as a suppository, or taken by mouth (such as fluconazole).
Diaper rash is treated with more frequent changes of diapers, use of super-absorbent or ultra-absorbent disposable diapers, and a cream that contains an antifungal drug (for example, butoconazole, clotrimazole, fluconazole, ketoconazole, or miconazole).
Candidal paronychia is treated by protecting the area from wetness. Doctors give antifungal drugs that are taken by mouth or applied to the skin. These infections are often difficult to treat.
Thrush in adults is treated with drugs that go directly in the mouth. An antifungal drug (such as clotrimazole) may be given as a tablet or lozenge that dissolves in the mouth. Doctors may also have people gargle with liquid nystatin for as long as possible and then spit it out or swallow it. Doctors may also give drugs in pill form that are swallowed (such as fluconazole).
Thrush in infants may be treated with liquid nystatin. The liquid can be applied with a finger or cotton swab to the cheek pouches inside the mouth.
Chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis is treated with fluconazole taken by mouth. This drug is taken for a long time.
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|Alevazol , Antifungal, Anti-Fungal, Cruex, Desenex, Fungoid, Gyne-Lotrimin, Lotrimin, Lotrimin AF, Lotrimin AF Ringworm, Micotrin AC, Mycelex, Mycelex Troche, Mycozyl AC|
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What does a yeast infection look like? Examples and treatments
The appearance of a yeast infection, or candidiasis, depends on its location. It can cause white patches in the mouth, flaking or crusting of the skin, and changes in genital discharge, which may look like cottage cheese.
In this article, we describe how a yeast infection visibly affects the body. We also look at other symptoms, treatments, and more.
A yeast infection occurs when fungi grow excessively in the body. This is particularly common in moist areas with less exposure, such as the mouth, vagina, or feet.
Often, yeast infections are caused by fungi from the Candida species — and according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Candida albicans is the type most likely to overgrow and cause an infection.
A vaginal yeast infection, or thrush, typically causes white discharge that is the texture of cottage cheese.
Other symptoms of a vaginal yeast infection include:
- painful urination
- soreness around the vagina
- inflammation and itchiness of the vagina and vulva
- pain during sex
These infections are common, with up to 75% of females having at least one diagnosed in their lifetimes.
Yeast infections can affect the penis, but this is less common. The symptoms tend to develop on the underside of the penis and include:
- inflamed patches of skin
- a painful rash
A yeast infection can also cause inflammation near the head of the penis. This issue is called balanitis.
A person with balanitis may experience burning or itching and yellow or white discharge. In some people, the inflammation spreads to the shaft and the area under the foreskin.
Yeast infections are not considered sexually transmitted infections (STIs). However, it is possible for a person to develop a yeast infection after having oral, anal, or vaginal sex with someone who has the condition, especially if they are especially susceptible.
Around 15% of males who have unprotected sex with females experiencing yeast infections develop the infection themselves.
Oral thrush occurs when yeast grows excessively in the mouth or throat. Typically, a person develops white patches on the tongue, cheeks, back of the throat, or roof of the mouth.
Other symptoms of oral thrush include:
- pain while eating or drinking
- a cotton-like feeling in the mouth
- cracked skin at the corners of the mouth
- a loss of taste
Most healthy adults do not develop oral thrush, but yeast infections in the mouth or esophagus are common in people with weakened immune systems.
Wearing dentures, smoking, and having dry mouth also elevate the risk of developing oral thrush.
The appearance of a yeast infection on the skin depends on the location, but this type of infection often causes patches of inflammation. These can vary in shape and size.
Sometimes, these patches itch, flake, or develop crusts, and pustules may appear around the edges.
A yeast infection can occur anywhere on the skin, but is most likely to develop in folds, such as:
- under the breasts
- under the arms
- in the groin
- under or in the buttocks
- in the navel
- on the scalp
- between the fingers and toes
If a yeast infection occurs on the scalp, it can cause crusty lesions that can lead to hair loss. Yeast infections can also cause diaper rash in babies.
Yeast infections can develop beneath the nails. An infected nail may turn white or yellow and start to separate from the nail bed.
When a yeast infection occurs under the nails, a person may experience:
- painful swelling
- nail loss
In small amounts, Candida fungi are not harmful. Many people have yeast on their skin and in their body. Other types of microbe, such as bacteria, help keep Candida from growing excessively.
However, certain factors can disrupt the body’s ability to keep Candida under control, such as:
- Antibiotics: Because antibiotics kill bacteria, the result may be that Candida fungi grow unchecked.
- Hormonal contraceptives: People who take hormonal birth control that contains estrogen are more likely to develop yeast infections.
- Pregnancy: Similarly, the hormonal changes during pregnancy increase the chances of developing yeast infections.
- A weak immune system: Young babies and people with immune disorders or conditions such as HIV may be more susceptible to yeast infections.
- Medications: Some medications and treatments, including steroids, immunosuppressants, and chemotherapy also weaken the immune system.
- Diabetes: Sugar helps yeast grow, so if a person frequently has high blood sugar levels, they are more likely to develop candidiasis.
Vaginal douches and sprays may also increase the risk of developing a vaginal yeast infection.
The treatment for a yeast infection varies, depending on the infection’s location and severity.
For mild, occasional infections, a person can try over-the-counter options, such as topical creams, nail treatments, or vaginal suppositories.
However, it is important to speak with a pharmacist or doctor first, because the symptoms of a vaginal yeast infection are similar to those of bacterial vaginosis and some STIs.
These issues do not respond to yeast infection treatments. They require different approaches and can cause serious health complications if a person does not receive the necessary care.
Also, frequently using antifungal medicine unnecessarily may reduce how effective it is in the future.
For more severe or reoccurring infections, a person may need prescription antifungal medication.
Pregnant women should not take the antifungal medicine fluconazole (Diflucan), as it may cause birth defects, the Office on Women’s Health report.
Some home care strategies may help reduce yeast infection symptoms or prevent the issue from coming back.
Probiotic yogurt may help reduce the amount of yeast in the body. A 2013 pilot study involving 24 women showed that eating 8 ounces of probiotic yogurt per day reduced the presence of Candida in some cases.
However, this was a small study with mixed results. Also, the women had HIV, so their health responses may not reflect those of the general population.
Addressing the cause of the infection is important, especially if the infection keeps coming back. A person may benefit from:
- using a condom during sex
- avoiding the overuse of antibiotics
- switching to a different method of birth control
- better managing underlying conditions, such as diabetes
A person should talk to a doctor if they notice symptoms of a yeast infection.
It is important to receive the right treatment for any infection, and correctly identifying the type of infection is the first step.
Yeast infections often cause changes to genital discharge and patches to form in the mouth or in skin folds.
A doctor can confirm the infection and recommend the best treatment, depending on the severity and the part of the body involved.
symptoms of oral candidiasis, treatment of stomatitis in adults with drugs and a dentist
Candidiasis or thrush is a common infectious disease caused by yeast-like fungi. Often develops in the oral mucosa. It doesn’t matter how old you are. The problem occurs at any age. Pathology is caused by a fungus of the genus Candida. Plaques appear on the mucous membrane. The formations have a curdled mass. Patients experience burning and other discomfort. Chewing food causes discomfort. Feeling sore when talking. Unpleasant smell, dryness and pain require immediate medical attention.
Thrush is also common in children. They develop candidal glossitis. The disease manifests itself in children. Pathology affects people who wear dentures. The reason is not that important. The disease must be eliminated. Requires surgical treatment. Don’t put off visiting the clinic. An accurate diagnosis is required.
An unpleasant pathology is a dangerous infection. It occurs in people of all ages. It can overtake a child, a teenager, an adult. The disease often occurs with a weakened immune system. Love proper nutrition and do not deny yourself vitamins? What a score! Your body is able to prevent the occurrence of thrush.
The disease occurs as a result of the development of fungi. The occurrence of pathology is influenced by various factors. Yeast fungi are found in the body of every person. Under the influence of reasons, their uncontrolled reproduction begins. Don’t want to suffer from a complex illness? Eliminate the factors that cause pathology.
Thrush is caused by:
- Hormonal changes. With hormonal changes, it is difficult for the body to respond to the development of bacteria. For example, during pregnancy. Women often develop vaginal thrush.
- Medicinal preparations. The mouth contains different types of microorganisms. They hold back each other’s growth. Antibiotics kill some bacteria. The composition of the microflora is disturbed.
- Weak immunity. It is difficult for a weakened body to fight dangerous bacteria. The number of fungi is increasing. The thrush appears.
- Improper hygiene. The accumulation of germs often leads to problems. The thrush appears.
- High carbohydrate foods. Glucose, sucrose and galactose enhance the growth of Candida. Monitor the quality of food. Excessive sugar increases the likelihood of thrush.
- Diet. Malnutrition provokes the development of many diseases. With diets, there is a lack of iron and other vitamins. The possibility of the appearance of the disease increases.
- Mucosal injury. Injuries reduce barrier properties. It is easier for fungi to penetrate deep into.
- Smoking. The microflora is deteriorating. Diseases develop.
- Contraceptives. Such drugs contain progestin, estrogen. Elements increase the concentration of glucose in the blood. The growth of Candida fungi is accelerated.
- Removable dentures. Bacteria can accumulate on the denture. It is important to disinfect frequently.
Candidiasis is contagious. Bacteria are easily transmitted through kisses, shared towels, dishes.
Even regular home cleaning of teeth does not help to completely remove plaque from their surface.
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Symptoms of thrush:
- white, red spots and plaques;
- burning sensation.
Candidiasis can be confused with many diseases. Avoid self-medication. At the first sign, consult a doctor. The dentist-therapist will conduct an examination. Schedules tests. Eliminate pathology.
Symptoms and course depend on the form of the disease. There are several different types of candidiasis.
This form of pathology has no pronounced symptoms. Acute candidiasis can cause mild discomfort. White plaques and plaque rise above the mucosa. The person is uncomfortable. At the initial stage, single plaques are removed with scraping. After you can see the mucous membrane of a bright red color. Fungal disease is not always mild.
Severe course causes more discomfort in the oral cavity. The sizes of plaques increase. They begin to merge with each other. Gradually, the entire mucosal cavity is affected. The plaques thicken. Removing them is more difficult. This type of pathology is often found in infants. May appear in adults after taking antibiotics or other strong drugs. It often worries patients who have a violation of the immune status. For example, as a result of HIV or leukemia.
Acute and chronic atrophic
Acute atrophic candidiasis causes extreme discomfort. The mucous membranes seem to have been burned by the hot liquid. Plaques and white plaque are absent. The mucosa acquires a pronounced red color. On the tongue there are traces of dental units. The patient may experience an acidic, metallic, bitter, or salty taste in the mouth. Feeling dry more often. Pathology occurs after taking antibiotics and other drugs.
Chronic candidiasis causes no less discomfort. There are redness in the mucosal area. Also worried about the burning sensation. On the back of the mucous membrane of the tongue, papillae may atrophy. Taste sensations change. Pathology occurs in patients who wear removable dentures. Therefore, the disease is often called prosthetic stomatitis.
Mainly occurs in adult patients. This is the rarest type of candidiasis. Often develops on the buccal mucosa. May appear around the corners of the mouth. Skin lesions cause discomfort. Also appears on the soft palate and back of the tongue. White plaques gradually grow. In the absence of treatment, they merge. Gradually acquire a yellowish tint. In a pronounced degree, the plaques become more nodular and coarse.
This candidiasis is not easy to remove. Scraping plaques will not work. You can notice a change in the composition of saliva. It becomes more viscous, foamy. Often the pathology occurs in smoking men. Clinical studies have helped to discover that this type of candidiasis can transform into oncology. Therefore, pathology can be regarded as a precancerous disease.
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Candidiasis requires immediate treatment. An accurate diagnosis should be made. A biopsy may be performed. Histological examination is often prescribed. A swab may be taken from the affected area. This is required for microscopic examination. If a pathology is suspected, the doctor prescribes laboratory tests. It is recommended to take blood tests for glucose or HIV. Rent bacteriological culture. The study will help identify a fungal disease. Sowing will determine the type of fungus that caused the appearance of thrush. Accurate diagnosis will allow you to prescribe effective drugs.
Consultation with more specialized specialists is recommended. An endocrinologist will help make sure that there are no endocrine diseases. The allergist will check the sensitivity to prosthetic devices. The therapist will determine the nature of the pathology.
Treatment includes the following steps:
- Sanitation. All dental pathologies are treated. The dentist eliminates carious lesions, installs fillings. Tooth deposits are removed. Teeth are cleaned of plaque.
- Elimination of pathologies. Exacerbations of diseases are stopped. The hormonal background is being adjusted. Increases immunity. Dentures that cause allergic reactions are replaced.
- Prescribing drugs. The doctor prescribes medicines. Antifungal medications are prescribed. Antihistamines, immunomodulators, restorative drugs may be prescribed.
The treatment is carried out in a complex manner. Includes measures to strengthen the immune system. The doctor teaches proper oral hygiene. A change in diet is recommended. Bad habits should be eliminated. Smoking will quickly lead to recurrence. The doctor gives recommendations that will help prevent relapses.
Candidiasis cannot be cured without effective medications. Manufacturers produce different products. They can eliminate the pathology quickly enough. Comprehensively affect the problem. Only a doctor can prescribe the most effective remedies. The doctor examines the signs. Performs diagnostics. Then he prescribes drugs.
- Suspensions (Amphotericin B, Diflucan). Effective in severe forms of thrush. High-quality suspensions gently affect the manifestations and cause of the disease.
- Tablets (Itriconazole, Nystatin or others). The dosage is determined according to age. Most drugs are sold by prescription only.
- Gels (Miconazole). They are used as applications on the mucous membrane.
- Antiseptics (Miramistin, Chlorhexidine). Complementary Therapy. Used for rinsing.
Medicines and aids prescribed by a doctor. It is not worth making a decision about taking medications on your own. You can make health problems worse. It is necessary to take drugs in accordance with the prescribed treatment plan. The infection will pass.
After treatment, prevention is important. With a mild form of thrush, relapses do not occur. The average degree of the course of the disease can be repeated. A severe form can turn into a chronic condition. Complications are possible. Relapses occur for a number of reasons. For example, do not follow the doctor’s prescriptions. Immunodeficiency and diabetes mellitus lead to repeated pathologies. Illiterate treatment leads to the development of the disease. Don’t want complications? Contact experienced doctors. Don’t forget about prevention.
Brush your teeth properly. You can not damage the mucous membrane. After eating, it is recommended to rinse the mouth. For this, special tools are used. A dentist can help in choosing the composition. Do not use one toothbrush for a long time. It needs to be changed every 2-3 months. The brush must be washed thoroughly after each use.
Wear removable dentures? Wash them after eating. Store your dentures in a case. Don’t throw them anywhere. Microbes can get on dentures.
Bad habits cause many diseases. Smoking, alcoholic beverages adversely affect the microflora. Harmful bacteria spread faster. Increase your vitamins. Strong immunity is less likely to be influenced by harmful factors. The body will fight dangerous bacteria.
When treating pathologies with antibiotics, probiotics should be taken. Antifungal drugs are also recommended. Antibiotics kill beneficial bacteria. They need to be replenished. Take vitamin complexes. Visit the dentist’s office at least once every 6 months. The doctor will conduct an examination. The doctor will clean up. Pathologies should be treated.
Treating candidiasis is a complex process. Often a local approach is not enough. After a thorough examination, effective methods are selected. The PROPRIKUS clinic employs doctors you can trust. New methods quickly reveal the disease. Doctors will help to cope with the problem. You will forget about pathology. Bring back your normal quality of life. Stop feeling uncomfortable.
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Thrush (candidiasis) in the mouth – treatment, types and causes of the disease
Table of contents
Oral candidiasis refers to inflammatory diseases. It can develop due to damage to the mucosa. Thrush in the mouth in adults and children is formed due to the defeat of the Candida fungus. Doctors often associate this disease with a decrease in immunity. According to recent studies, about 90% of the population are carriers of this fungus. Most often, the presence of this fungus does not manifest itself.
Causes of candidiasis
Oral candidiasis can be a sign that there are big problems in the body. In order for the fungus to actively multiply, special conditions are required. As a rule, those who ignore oral hygiene face candidiasis in the mouth. Increase the risk of caries, gum disease. All this in combination has a detrimental effect on the protective barrier of our body.
Another list of causes is the presence of the following diseases:
- human immunodeficiency virus;
- diabetes mellitus;
- the presence of malignant tumors;
- vitamin deficiency;
- severe infectious diseases;
- recent surgery.
There are also specific reasons for the development of candidiasis. For example, thrush can form after long-term antibiotic treatment. The use of such strong medicines adversely affects not only the harmful microflora, but is also capable of killing the beneficial one. This causes an imbalance and promotes the reproduction of the fungus.
Also, the disease can develop after inhalation with corticosteroids. In this case, ulcers will appear in those places where there was contact with medicines. Affects the reproduction of the fungus and the diet. Consumption of large amounts of carbohydrates causes Candida activity.
Increase the risk of thrush and bad habits. In particular, smoking. Acute pseudomembranous candidiasis is common in people with tongue piercings.
Among the risks is the presence of bridges. However, there is a risk only if the patient does not comply with hygiene standards. Therefore, it is important to carefully disinfect as a preventive measure against candidiasis. In addition, do not forget to remove the prosthesis at night. Otherwise, the disease will progress very actively. Also, during sleep, the prosthesis can provoke microdamages, which affects not only the mucosa, but also the state of the enamel.
Quite often, candidiasis can be caused by drying out of the mucosa. Often this factor is accompanied by other diseases. Therefore, it is important to consider all the symptoms.
Oral candidiasis is much more common in children than in adults. Doctors explain this by the fact that the child has not yet fully formed immunity. Therefore, bacteria enter the baby’s body during childbirth.
Types of oral candidiasis and symptoms
Depending on the individual case, symptoms may vary. This is also affected by the level of damage to the mucous membranes. There are several forms of the disease:
- acute pseudomembranous;
- acute atrophic;
- atrophic in the chronic stage;
- hyperplastic in the chronic stage.
Despite the different symptoms, the treatment for all forms is almost identical.
Acute pseudomembranous candidiasis
This form often occurs without any special symptoms. The patient only feels a slight discomfort associated with the appearance of a light film on the mucosa. If the disease proceeds easily, the film lags behind the mucosa without effort. In this case, the part under the film is painted in a bright pink hue. If the disease is severe, the plaques will be larger. Most often, the severe course of the disease occurs in infants. Less common in adults after taking antibiotics or corticosteroids.
Acute and chronic atrophic candidiasis
A vivid symptom of the acute form is too active burning. In this case, a light coating may not even form. Most patients report a metallic taste in their mouth. There may also be a salty or bitter taste. Many patients with this form of candidiasis call dryness of the oral mucosa a separate symptom. Most often, this form provokes the intake of appropriate medications.
Chronic atrophic candidiasis is characterized by less pronounced redness and itching. The most common cause of the development of the disease is the installation of prostheses.
Chronic hyperplastic candidiasis
Chronic hyperplastic candidiasis mainly occurs in adult patients. The spread of the fungus can even go to the corners of the mouth, affects the lips, soft palate. The resulting ulcers and plaques begin to merge together. With the course of the disease, they become covered with a rough crust, acquire a yellow tint.
Methods of diagnosis
Oral thrush in adults can be treated by a dentist. Initially, it is necessary to conduct an examination, collect an anamnesis. The specialist will note what medications you took, whether there are diseases in a chronic form. Be sure to take an analysis of the plaque for research. Often, non-fungal elements can be confused with fungal ones.
It is important to properly prepare for sampling. Scraping is taken in the morning on an empty stomach. Do not brush your teeth or rinse your mouth with mouthwash before the procedure. The day before the test, it is worth reducing food with a large amount of carbohydrates. This will reduce the risk of developing pathogenic flora. Thanks to a qualitative study, you can not only establish whether the disease is really caused by the Candida fungus, but also find out how sensitive the flora is to certain medications. Depending on the results of this analysis, the specialist prescribes the appropriate therapy.
Features of treatment
The attending physicians prescribe local antifungal medicines as the basis for therapy. Today, there are many of them in the pharmaceutical segment, but the indicator of drug resistance of fungi also changes every year. Today, for example, Candida has almost complete resistance to Fluconazole, although earlier this drug was used most actively.
Depending on the clinical picture, it is important to select the treatment on an individual basis. The scheme can be influenced by the type of pathogen, personal characteristics, previously collected anamnesis.
It is mandatory to include topical medications in the treatment regimen as adjuvants. These include:
- mouth rinses;
- drug in the form of gels, suspensions;
- lozenges, special lozenges;
- irrigation solutions or sprays;
- ointments for topical application and tamponade.
The attending physician may prescribe specialized antiseptics, prescribe the use of saline solutions for irrigating the mouth. As a rule, among antiseptics, formulations with iodine, chlorhexidine, gentian violet are most often used. In some cases, the use of lozenges or lozenges works effectively.
Conditions for effective treatment
In order to effectively cure thrush, it is necessary to understand the cause of its occurrence. If the cause of the disease is poor oral hygiene, it is worth treating the gums, teeth, and eliminating caries. All these nuances can be considered as potential foci of inflammation. Therefore, having treated the entire dentition together with thrush, you can reduce the duration of treatment. It is also recommended to undergo a cleaning procedure from tartar – often it injures the mucous membrane with its sharp corners.
Given that removable dentures may be the cause, it is important to repeat the consultation with the patient, reminding him of hygiene procedures. If the period of use of the prosthesis comes to an end, it is worth replacing it. Otherwise, it will become a breeding ground for Candida.
Any crowns that have deteriorated must also be replaced. Repair any chips on the enamel surface. They can injure the gums and cause the spread of bacteria.
During treatment, smokers are advised to refrain from addiction. In the event that the disease was caused by taking corticosteroids, it is necessary to reconsider the treatment regimen. After using aerosols with the drug, it is important to rinse your mouth thoroughly with plenty of water.
When undergoing treatment, if the cause of the disease is taking antibiotics, it is necessary to add medicines to the therapy regimen to restore the balance of microflora. In this regard, the patient may need additional advice from a highly specialized specialist. The intake of probiotics and prebiotics is selected on an individual basis.
For all people undergoing therapy for thrush in the mouth, there is a list of recommendations:
- strictly follow all the rules of oral hygiene;
- limit intake of carbohydrate foods;
- give up sweets.
All food that is capable of irritating the mucous should be excluded from the patient’s diet. These are dishes that contain vinegar, a lot of spices and spices, smoked foods, fruits with high acidity. In addition, it is forbidden to consume yeast baked goods, sugar. The temperature of the food should be warm. Even after completing the course of therapy, it is necessary to follow such restrictions for about 2 months.
In some cases, your healthcare professional may recommend additional use of toothpastes with glucose oxidase or other ingredients. They form a protective mucosal barrier in the mouth. Also, such pastes are often included in preventive treatment. The paste is selected individually depending on the results of the analysis. In the same way, a toothbrush is selected.
There is a specific Candida prophylaxis that is given to HIV-positive patients. The same prophylaxis is required when the patient is undergoing radiation therapy or a course of antibiotics. In the event that there are no such risk factors, the treating specialist will provide separate recommendations.
When carrying out prophylaxis for diabetics, patients with chronic lung diseases, it is important to control the course of the underlying disease. It is necessary to visit the attending physician in a timely manner and take a course of prescribed medications.
If it is impossible to do without antibiotics during the treatment of another disease, it is worth considering the main recommendations:
- antibiotic therapy should be prescribed exclusively by a doctor;
- the duration of the course is calculated by the attending specialist, you can not violate the regimen;
- If it is necessary to prescribe a longer course or repeat antibiotics, the patient should additionally be given appropriate antifungal therapy as a preventive measure.
If the patient also needs to treat bronchial asthma in the chronic stage, it is necessary to discuss with the attending physician the possibility of using a nebulizer.