Pictures of chiggers rash: Chigger Bites – What Chigger Bites Look Like & How To Treat Them
Chigger Bites – What Chigger Bites Look Like & How To Treat Them
You might be out for a stroll in the park with your kids. Or maybe enjoying an afternoon on the golf course. That outdoor fun, though, sometimes comes with a price — an itchy rash from pests you can’t even see.
They’re called chiggers — bugs so small you need a magnifying glass to spot them. They aren’t dangerous, but their bites can leave you with a powerful urge to scratch.
Don’t let them get the best of you! Learn how to soothe your irritated skin and find out how to prevent bites the next time you go outside.
What Are Chiggers and Where Do They Lurk?
Scientists call these creatures “trombiculid mites.” But they have a bunch of nicknames. You might hear people call them harvest mites, harvest bugs, harvest lice, mower’s mites, or red bugs.
Technically, these critters aren’t insects. They’re “arachnids,” in the same family as spiders and ticks.
You can travel across the globe, but you can’t escape these pests. Chiggers live in every country. Their favorite spots are moist, grassy areas like fields, forests, and even your lawn. You can also find them near lakes and streams.
Adult chiggers don’t bite. It’s the babies, called larvae, that you have to watch out for. They’re red, orange, yellow, or straw-colored, and no more than 0.3 millimeters long.
After they hatch from eggs, the babies don’t fly and don’t travel very far on their own. They tend to stay clumped together in large groups on leaves and grass, usually less than a foot off the ground, and attach to animals or people as they pass by.
In the U.S., chigger bites are most common in the late spring, summer, and early fall. The bugs are active when the ground temperature is between 77 and 86 degrees F, and they die when it gets colder than 42.
What to Expect From a Chigger Bite
Once chiggers latch onto your pants or shirt, they crawl around until they find a patch of skin. There, they use sharp, jaw-like claws to make tiny holes. Next, they inject saliva that turns some of your cells into mush.
Why do they do it? To a chigger, those liquefied cells are food. When they get on you, they can stay attached to your skin for several days while they eat.
Chigger bites can happen anywhere on your body, but they often show up in clusters around the waist or lower legs. You may not notice anything wrong at first, but in a few hours you’ll start to itch.
The itching usually lasts for several days and can sometimes keep you awake at night. You may also notice that your skin turns red and has bumps, blisters, or a hive-like rash that may take a week or two to heal.
If you’re a guy and you get a chigger bite in your groin area, you could get a condition known as “summer penile syndrome.” It causes swelling, itching, and trouble peeing. This can last for a few days to a few weeks.
Chiggers don’t spread diseases but scratching could break the skin and lead to irritation or an infection.
If you have travelled internationally to countries such as Indonesia or Australia, your chigger bites could lead to infection. See a doctor if this is the case.
What to Do if You Get Bites
If you think you’ve been around some chiggers, give yourself a full body check. You may be able to see tiny red dots, either moving very quickly or attached to your skin.
Your first step: Take a bath or shower and scrub your skin with soap and water. This washes off any chiggers that are still on you.
Using hot water, wash your clothes and any blankets or towels that touched the ground to kill any bugs that are still hanging on.
Then treat your bites with an over-the-counter anti-itch cream or ointment, like menthol, calamine lotion, or hydrocortisone. You can also get relief if you take antihistamine pills or use a cold compress.
Chigger bites usually get better on their own. But if yours are still bothering you after a few days, see your doctor. In rare cases, you may need steroid shots to calm itching and swelling. Your doctor may also ask you to take antibiotics if your bites become infected.
How to Prevent Bites
When you spend time outdoors in grassy areas, use an insect repellent that has DEET or wear clothing treated with an insecticide like permethrin. As you put on bug spray, pay special attention to areas where chiggers might travel from clothing to skin, like cuffs, necklines, and the top edges of socks.
Some studies show that natural sprays may help keep chiggers away. Try ones that have oils made from citronella, tea tree, jojoba, eucalyptus, geranium, or lemon grass.
And of course, don’t make yourself an easy target for a hungry chigger. Wear long sleeves and long pants, with your pant legs tucked into long socks.
These simple tips lower your odds of getting chigger bites. Then you can enjoy the great outdoors — itch-free!
Identifying chigger bites – including pictures, treatment, and remedy
Note: This post may contain affiliate links. Read full disclosure policy here.
If you’ve got some red bites and you’re wondering about identifying chigger bites, you’ve come to the right place.
While you may know right away where that mosquito bite came from, sometimes you get some red, itchy marks that are a total mystery.
Identifying what those bites are is critical to treating them properly and making sure you don’t get them again.
This article describes ways to distinguish chigger bites from other types of bites, amazing ways to treat chigger bites, and surefire ways to make sure you never get chigger bites again.
What are chiggers?
Believe it or not, but those little guys that cause so much suffering are just babies.
And that’s the reason you typically don’t see them – because they are babies. They are usually not visible to the naked eye, although you might see them under a magnifying glass. Typically, chiggers are usually around 1/150th of an inch or 0.3 mm.
Chiggers are juveniles of the mites Trombiculidae. They are actual arachnids, not insects. The adults are harmless but the babies are parasites…literally parasites – meaning they require a host to feed on in order to survive.
Because they are just babies, chiggers don’t travel far. They are found in clumps, not far from where they were hatched. That’s why you get many chigger bites at once.
Chiggers are sometimes called harvest mites, harvest bugs, harvest lice, mower’s mites, or red bugs. They are usually red but can also be orange, yellow or straw-colored.
Close-up image of a chigger. Chiggers are usually less than 1/150th of an inch or 0.3 mm
There are over 10,000 species of chiggers around the world and they can be found in every country in the world. References to chiggers go all the way back to the sixth century in China. Most was learned about chiggers, though, because of the problems they caused during World War II.
Chigger bites are so irritating because they inject enzymes into your skin through a feeding tube which decomposes your skin so they can feed on it (gross, I know).
This takes a couple days so they are usually trying to hang around until that process starts. However, contrary to popular belief, they DO NOT burrow under your skin. They are pretty much hanging on for dear life and can be knocked off fairly easily.
After one good meal (maybe from you), the juvenile chigger can drop off and move on to the next stage in its life cycle. It will soon molt into an adult with eight legs, whereas it only had six as a juvenile.
How do you get chigger bites?
Chiggers tend to hang out in groups on bushes or leaves, waiting for an animal (or human) to pass by so they can hop on and try to get a meal. So if you have chigger bites, you likely brushed up against some bushes that were infested or walked through some tall grass.
Chiggers can get on humans when you brush against bushes or tall grass. These areas make good chigger habitat.
Because chiggers are juveniles, you are likely to get chigger bites during hatching season from late spring to early fall, peaking during the summer. They need the right temperatures to thrive, between 60℉-99℉ (15. 5℃-37.2℃) and will die below 42℉ (5.5℃).
They tend be more common fairly close to water sources like lakes and streams (although they can be found elsewhere) and where rodents or small animals are likely to pass by. In fact, they tend to feed on rodents most often.
Once they hop on a passer-by, they spread out, looking for a plot of skin to claim as their own. It’s possible for chiggers to find your skin as they spread out even if they only got on your clothes first. This is why you may get chigger bites even in areas where your skin is covered up, like under your sock or in your groin area (yes, this is common).
How to Prevent Chigger Bites
Although chiggers can find their way around untucked pants and long sleeves, tucking your clothes in can prevent them from ever finding your skin.
The best practice is to tuck long pants into boots if you know you will be in brush or tall grass in areas likely to have chiggers. Similarly, tuck your shirt into your pants and you may want to tuck your shirt sleeves into gloves if you will be handling brush or grass.
However, going out in the middle of summer with long sleeves and pants tucked into boots might not sound very appealing to you. In that case, mosquito repellents containing DEET have been shown to be effective, although not always 100% effective. Still, it provides some protection.
Wearing clothes treated with the insecticide permethrin can repel chiggers. But personally, I don’t care to wear clothes impregnated with insecticides. This may be a good option, though, if you are pretty sure you will be going into a chigger infested bush or grass.
There is evidence that some natural sprays may help deter chiggers. You can try oils and sprays that contain citronella, tea tree, jojoba, geranium, or lemon grass.
How to Remove Chiggers from Your Yard
Take a sample first
If you suspect you have chiggers in your yard, the first step is to sample them. There’s a very simple way of accomplishing this.
Start by finding a small piece of black cardboard, maybe packaging from something you recently bought. About 6”x6” is a good size but the exact dimensions aren’t important.
Remember that chiggers prefer shady areas with vegetation so don’t bother with your well-mowed, sunny lawn.
Place the cardboard where you think chiggers may be and leave it for a few minutes (make sure you are protected so you don’t get bitten! See section above for protection tips). The chiggers will jump onto the cardboard and gather near the top. You may need a magnifying glass to see them.
Alternatively, you can use a shallow bowl or glass of water. They will likely gather around the edges.
Remove their habitat
Keep your yard clean and tidy to make it inhospitable to chiggers
Once you have found the chiggers, the best way to get rid of them is to remove their habitat. This means keeping your yard tidy, especially shaded areas.
You should keep grass mowed, plants pruned, and remove leaf litter. Pay special attention to where grass meets wooded areas and moist areas that may be closer to a water source.
Pesticide application is NOT recommended for chigger control. This is partly because habitat removal is far more effective. Several applications of pesticides may be necessary to get rid of chiggers and you don’t want to overuse these chemicals so it’s best to stick with cleaning up your yard as a first defense.
Identifying Chigger Bites
Common tells with chigger bites are red welts that may appear like blisters. The bites can be flat or raised. Because chiggers hang out in groups and spread out once they get on your skin, you will likely have several bites randomly distributed in the infected area (in contrast to bed bugs which bite in a pattern).
Chigger bites are common on ankles and legs
Chigger bites itch…pretty badly. Try not to scratch them (see sections below on what to do if you get bit and treatments). Instead try to control the itch with one of the methods listed below.
Chiggers like areas that are hot and sweaty or have weak skin. So if you find a swath of bites where your sock was or places like the back of your knees, it’s likely chigger bites. This is in contrast to mosquito bites which are likely to be on exposed skin. Also, chigger bites can have red, pimple-like bumps in the center whereas mosquito bites don’t. It will likely take 1-3 hours to feel a chigger bite (or longer) but a mosquito bite you will likely feel immediately.
Identifying Chigger Bites vs Other Bug Bites Infographic – Here you can compare images of chigger bites with bed bug bites, mosquito bites, tick bites, and no-see-um bites.
What should you do if you get chigger bites?
If you suspect you’ve gotten bitten by chiggers, there are definitely some steps you should take next and a few things you should not do.
The first thing to do is wash (if you haven’t already).
Wash yourself and wash your clothes.
If there are any remaining chiggers left on your skin, they will come off with some soap and warm water. Chiggers don’t burrow into your skin like some other small pests do (for example, ticks) so they come off pretty easily.
Despite what your grandmother might say, nail polish won’t help. The myth that nail polish suffocates chiggers is based on the false belief that chiggers burrow into your skin. The same is true for alcohol and bleach.
Wash your clothes in warm water and detergent. You don’t want any chiggers that may be hiding out in the legs of your jeans to come back and get you for a second round of chigger attacks.
The next step is to prepare for the itching…that is, if you aren’t itching already. There are lots of ways to control the itching and this is important because the last thing you want to do is scratch chigger bites.
If you get chigger bites: wash yourself, wash your clothes, get something to control the itching, but do not use nail polish on the bites
Let me say that again – DO NOT scratch your chigger bites.
The only real danger of chigger bites is getting an infection from scratching the infected area. To control the itching, here are several options for you to choose from:
Treatments and Home Remedies for Chigger Bites
Treating your chigger bites is extremely important to reduce the risk of infection. You can find 17 amazing treatments for chigger bites here or just look below for a quick summary of the most common treatments and home remedies:
- Calamine lotion – good ol’ calamine lotion. Cooling, soothing, and dependable.
- Cortisone-10 or generic itch cream containing hydrocortisone – this is a steroidal cream that is good for controlling itching. A common strength is 1% hydrocortisone.
- Benadryl Cream– although you might not be having an “allergic” reaction, Benadryl cream helps stop the itching.
- Cold – use a cold compress or bag of ice. The cooling sensation helps the itch and leaving it on for an extended period of time effectively numbs the area, giving you an extended period of relief.
- Lemon juice – squirt tons of undiluted lemon juice on your bites. Alternatively mix lemon or lime juice with coconut oil and rub on your skin.
- Basil – make basil tea or grind leaves into a paste with a few drops of water. Apply either one to your skin.
Chigger bites may be a nuisance but they are really nothing to worry about with proper treatment. The first step to identifying chigger bites is to make sure they are not coming from another pest. With a correct identification, treatment can begin and those bites will be gone in no time.
Now that you know you have chigger bites and not something else, you probably want to explore your treatment option more thoroughly. If you want plenty of home remedies, plus some over-the-counter treatment, check out my post on 17 Amazing Treatments for Chigger Bites (Including Home Remedies).
If you want to prevent your next chigger attack with a natural insect repellent, check out The 5 Absolute Best Beautyberry Insect Repellent Recipes.
Chigger Bites (for Parents) – Advocate Aurora Health
What Are Chiggers?
Chiggers (also called harvest mites or red bugs) are tiny red, biting mites. Their bites aren’t painful, but do cause intense itching.
Chiggers are members of the arachnid family (the same family that includes spiders and ticks). They are smaller than a period at the end of a sentence. Most can only be seen with a magnifying glass.
Chiggers are found all over the outdoors, including in grassy fields, along lakes and streams, and in forests. It’s the baby chiggers that bite people and animals.
How Do Chigger Bites Happen?
After hatching, baby chiggers wait on plants for people or animals to pass by. When they do, the chigger attaches to them using tiny claws. Once attached, it pierces their skin and injects its saliva (spit). The spit contains digestive juices that dissolve skin cells. The chigger then eats the dissolved cells, which provide the protein it needs to grow into an adult. After a couple of days the chigger falls off, leaving a red bump on the skin.
What Are the Signs of Chigger Bites?
Chigger bites are itchy red bumps that can look like pimples, blisters, or small hives. They are usually found around the waist, ankles, or in warm skin folds. They get bigger and itchier over several days, and often appear in groups.
Chigger bites start to itch within hours of the chigger attaching to the skin. The itch stops after a few days, and the red bumps heal over 1–2 weeks.
If chigger bites happen on the penis, they can cause swelling, itching, and painful peeing. This is known as “summer penile syndrome.”
How Are Chigger Bites Diagnosed?
Doctors can diagnose chigger bites by looking at them and asking about a person’s recent outdoor activities.
How Are Chigger Bites Treated?
Unlike mosquitoes and ticks, chiggers don’t carry disease. So they are not harmful, only annoying. You can usually treat chigger bites at home:
- Scrub chigger bites well with soap and water to help remove any chiggers that are still attached to the skin.
- Holding a cool washcloth over the bites can be soothing.
- Calamine lotion or anti-itch creams can help with the itching.
- Antihistamines (allergy medicine) taken by mouth can sometimes help with itching, especially if your child has trouble sleeping at night.
Discourage kids from scratching at the bites because this can lead to:
- impetigo, a bacterial infection of the skin, with pus and crusts around the bites
- a larger area of increasing redness, swelling, pain, and warmth, called cellulitis
Keeping fingernails short can help prevent skin damage from scratching. Antibiotics may be needed if a skin infection does happen.
When Should I Call the Doctor?
Call your doctor’s office if:
- Over-the-counter creams or lotions don’t help the itching.
- A bite looks infected (watch for warmth, redness, swelling, tenderness, or pus).
- Your son has symptoms of “summer penile syndrome.”
Can Chigger Bites Be Prevented?
To help prevent chigger bites when enjoying the great outdoors:
- Apply an insect repellent with 10%–30% DEET.
- Wear long-sleeved shirts and long pants tucked into shoes, especially during hiking. This also can help protect kids from other biting critters like ticks and mosquitoes.
- Take a hot shower after you get back inside, and wash your clothes in hot water. Clothes also can be treated with a specific insecticide to help prevent bites.
Chigger bites aren’t contagious, so kids can’t catch them from someone or give them to somebody else. They can still play sports and do all normal activities unless the itching makes them too uncomfortable.
Reviewed by: Elana Pearl Ben-Joseph, MD
Date reviewed: October 2019
Chiggers and Trombiculosis | Nebraska Forest Service
By Allen Smith, Texas A&M Forest Service
Trombiculosis is a rash or infestation caused by trombiculid mites, more commonly known as chiggers. We all have suffered from this
malady at some time. Be informed and aware of how you can avoid future bouts of trombiculosis.
Chiggers are not insects but mites, and thus arachnids. They are distributed worldwide
and found most often in temperate woodlands, fields and low lying moist places, though they can also occur in drier places like lawns or
golf courses. Early summer is prime time for chiggers as vegetation is heaviest. They are also present and active during summer and early
fall. Ground temperatures need to range from 77 to 86 degrees for the insects to be active while temperatures colder than 42 degrees
result in chigger mortality.
They undergo a 4-stage life cycle: egg, larva, nymph and adult. The adults have eight legs and feed on plants, presenting no problems to
humans. It is the larvae that foresters are so familiar with. The tiny red larvae are nearly microscopic. The largest ones go nearly 1/60
of an inch! Larvae are six-legged and feed on skin cells. Mammals, toads, ground-dwelling birds, box turtles and even some insects suffer
from the scourge of chiggers.
The larvae attach themselves to the clothes of people as they come into contact with infested vegetation then crawl onto a patch of
exposed skin. Chiggers don’t actually bite their victims; they use their sharp claws to make a tiny hole in the skin, then they inject
their saliva into the opening. The digestive enzymes in the saliva dissolve skin cells which the chigger consumes.
Skin surrounding the feeding hole hardens and forms a feeding tube called a stylosome that is actually beneath the skin surface. This is
the part that itches so much and makes one want to
“dig” the chiggers out of their skin. This contributes to the misunderstanding that chiggers reside beneath the skin. They do not. Left
untreated, chiggers will feed on liquefied skin cells for days or weeks.
The initial “bite” is not noticed but symptoms, characterized by intense itching start 1-3 hours after feeding begins. The area of the
“bite” may form a reddened pustule or blister. Intense itching usually occurs for 1-2 days following the “bite” and may last for up to 2
Scratching of the wound can lead to infection which will extend the pain and sadness associated with chiggers “bites”. Chiggers in North
America are NOT vectors of disease but a species that occurs in East Asia and the South Pacific carries the bacterium that causes scrub
typhus. Men who get “bitten” in the groin area are at risk of contracting a condition known as “summer penile syndrome”. This may
last for few days or up to a few weeks and is characterized by swelling, itching and trouble urinating. A physician should be consulted
if this happens to you.
Chigger problems can be reduced by the liberal application of DEET insecticide or the impregnation of permethrin into the clothing.
Treating the lower legs and ankle areas is crucial. Long pants and long-sleeved shirts are recommended to minimize the possibility of
being “bitten”. Tucking pant legs into tall socks or boots will eliminate the exposed skin that the larvae seek. A common myth is that
chiggers seek out areas of the skin where clothing is tightest (ankles, waists, under bras, etc.), this is not true. Rather, the chiggers
will seek thin exposed skin, crawling until the hit a restriction such as a belt or bras. Most “bites” occur around the ankles, crotch,
groin, armpits and behind the knees.
Treatment for exposure to chiggers includes taking a warm, soapy shower as soon as possible after being in chigger country. The skin
should be scrubbed vigorously. Clothing should be washed in hot soapy water and boots, including the insides should be wiped as clean as
possible. Over the counter treatments like calamine lotion or corticosteroid creams will alleviate itching. Antihistamines like Benadryl
can be taken orally to relive symptoms. Other itch-relief treatments that might work include cool showers, cool compresses or using bath
products that have colloidal oatmeal as an ingredient.
Treatment of chigger problems using many home remedies like soaking in a bleach bath or applying fingernail polish to suffocate the
chigger DO NOT WORK as the chigger is not attached to the victim. The itching comes from the stylosome.
Regional Forest Health Coordinator
1203 W. Loop 281 Ste. B102
Longview, TX 75604
What Are Chiggers? – Learn How to Get Rid of Chigger Mites
Facts, Identification & Control
What Do They Look Like?
- Size: Chigger mite adults are larger than the nymphs and larvae, being about 1 mm (@ 1/25th inch long). Chigger larvae are very small, about 0.15 to 0.25 mm long.
- Color: Nymphs are reddish orange while adults are bright red.
- Legs: Larvae have six legs while nymphs and adults both have eight.
How Did I Get Chigger Mites?
Chigger mites have fairly simple needs when it comes to their habitat. They require moisture, shade, a source of food and little else. Chigger mites attach to people, pets, and other hosts as they pass through the following areas:
- Overgrown lawns
- Flowerbeds and gardens
How Serious Are Chigger Mites?
In comparison to other parasites, chigger mites are a low-level concern unless you are a hiker or are outdoors for other activities such as hunting and camping. These pests only target and feed on humans during their larval stage. Chiggers do not remain attached to their host for more than a few days, do not spread diseases, do not infest homes, and do not burrow or bite to consume a blood meal as do ticks and mosquitoes.
When chigger mites latch onto the skin, it results in an intense rash, which if scratched excessively, can result in infection. Larval mites cause these rashes when injecting a skin cell destroying substance that causes irritation, rash, and intense itching. Itching caused by chigger bites does not occur until about three or more hours after the bite.
Signs of Infestation
The symptoms that occur from the feeding activity of chigger mite larvae are generally the most obvious sign of an infestation. In addition, the appearance of nymphs and adults in or on the soil and vegetation also can signal the presence of chigger mites. However, chigger mites are so small that actually seeing any stage of this mite is difficult.
Often, a person with chigger mites will have a lot of them on their body at one time. The most common bodily locations are around the tops of socks and shoes, waistline, the groin area, armpits, and most any bodily part where clothing fits snugly against the skin.
How Do I Get Rid of Chigger Mites?
What You Can Do
When venturing into the woods or other areas where chiggers are located, wear clothing treated with permethrin clothing repellent. Also consider applying insect repellent to parts of your body where chigger larvae may infest.
What Orkin Does
Chigger management is generally a task best suited for your pest management professional (PMP) since it is so difficult to determine the source of the problem. Your PMP will be familiar with techniques that work to inspect for and locate chigger mites. They will target the areas where chiggers are abundant rather than using chemical products throughout the entire property. Also, their knowledge about chigger habitat and habitat modification will be valuable to reduce the places where chiggers can successfully live and develop.
Behavior, Diet & Habitat
There are many species of chiggers located within the U.S., but the most common species encountered by people are trombicula alfreddugesi and trombicula splendens.
Chigger mites develop by going through 4 distinct life stages – eggs, larvae, nymphs, and adults. The life cycle begins when the female adult lays eggs in or on the soil. After the eggs hatch, larvae crawl upon the soil surface and low growing vegetation where they wait until they find a suitable host to attach to and begin to feed. The larval stage is the only parasitic stage of the mite’s life cycle.
Depending upon the temperature and other environmental factors, chigger mites complete one life cycle in about 2 – 3 months. In favorable climates, they may complete 3 generations per year.
What Do They Eat?
Preferred hosts of the larvae are people, snakes, birds, and many species of small mammals. Chigger mite larvae penetrate the host’s skin and inject a secretion that breaks down and digests the skin cell. The larvae then suck up the digested liquid. The host’s skin becomes hard and a tube forms in which the chigger’s mouthparts remain until feeding stops or the chigger is dislodged. Generally, they feed several days (if not dislodged), drop to the ground, and develop into mite nymphs.
Nymphs and adults do not infest the same hosts as larvae. Instead, they feed on the eggs and young of insects and other small arthropods in and on the soil surface.
Trombicula alfreddugesi and splendens are common in the southeastern and Midwestern states, plus some areas in the Great Lakes and the Mississippi River valley regions. However, even in areas of preferred habitat, chigger populations may be sparse in one area and very heavily concentrated in a nearby area.
Where Do They Live?
Preferred chigger mite habitat are areas of thick, scrub-type vegetation, grassy areas where the soil is undisturbed and they can “latch” onto hosts that may be passing by. Generally, these pests are found in rural, less disturbed areas, but can persist for several years in their habitat associated with new housing subdivisions.
Adult males move around their preferred habitat and deposit very tiny capsules of sperm known as spermatophores that the females will find and insert into a structure on their body known as the genital pore. About two weeks after fertilization of the eggs, females drop fertilized eggs onto the soil surface.
Chiggers on Pets
For cats, chiggers may be found on the inside of the animal’s ears. The reaction of dogs and cats to chiggers range from scratching at the site of infestation to the animal being unaware of the chigger’s presence. People do not get chiggers from contact their pets. Rather, chiggers on both pets and people almost always mean that both were outside in areas where chiggers were numerous.
Chiggers – NYC Health
Chiggers, also known as “red bugs”, are the tiny orange, yellow, or red parasitic larvae of mites in the family Trombiculidae. The feeding behavior of these larvae can cause intense itching and small, reddish welts on the skin of humans. Chiggers feed on a range of hosts, including small mammals and preferentially birds, reptiles and amphibians. Humans are an accidental host. Chiggers that attach to humans are usually brushed off and die within hours.
What do chiggers look like?
Chiggers (Trombicula alfreddugesi ) are about 1/150″ in length. In order to see chigger larvae, you must use a magnifying glass. They are born red or orange, but once they have fed on the skin cells of their host, they change to a yellowish color. They have six legs and a hairy body.
What is the life cycle of a chigger?
Adult chiggers can over-winter below the soil or in other protected places. In the spring, females lay up to 15 eggs per day in vegetation or soil. Eggs hatch into six-legged larvae. After they hatch, chigger larvae climb up vegetation to seek a host. Once they find a suitable host, they attach to delicate areas of the skin and feed from one to several days. When they are completely engorged, they drop off the host and transform into eight-legged nymphs, which then mature into adults. The life cycle is generally complete within 50-70 days. In northern states, only about two to three generations develop each year.
Where can I find chiggers?
Chiggers are usually encountered in the late spring and summertime. They can be found in overgrown areas, lawns, leaf litter, shrubbery, and anywhere that is damp and shaded. Once the chigger larvae have found their way onto a suitable host, they proceed to areas of the body where clothing fits tightly over the skin (e.g., the beltline, waistline, undergarments, and socks) or where the skin is delicate and/or wrinkled (e.g., ankles, armpits, back of the knees, front of the elbow, or in the pubic region).
What happens when a chigger bites me?
Contrary to popular belief, chiggers do not burrow under the skin, nor do they suck blood. Larvae pierce the skin with their mouthparts and inject a salivary secretion containing powerful digestive enzymes that attack the surrounding skin cells and cause the cell walls to break down. Essentially, the skin becomes digested and is subsequently sucked up by the chigger. The other function of the digestive fluid is to cause hardening of the surrounding tissues, forming a straw-like feeding tube called the “stylosome”. The bite sites generally erupt into a red welt with a hard, white central area. People who are bitten by chiggers usually experience intense itching at the bite site within several hours. These welts itch persistently for up to a week or more.
What should I do to treat their bites?
People who do not remove the chiggers promptly may still suffer from bites and are advised not to scratch the welts excessively as this may lead to secondary infection. Temporary relief of itching can be achieved by applying benzocaine, hydrocortisone, calamine lotion, or other topical anti-itch creams that your pharmacist or physician can recommend.
What can I do to avoid chiggers?
People who know they have been in chigger-infested areas should immediately launder their clothes in hot water (125oF) for at least 30 minutes. As soon as possible, they should take a hot bath or shower and lather themselves with soap several times. Chiggers and their itchy bites can also be avoided by wearing loose clothing, using insect repellant and avoiding their preferred habitat. Clearing your yard of potential chigger habitat can help eliminate chiggers.
To assess whether you have chiggers in your yard, place a piece of black cardboard upright in a section of the lawn. If chiggers are present in the area they will move very rapidly toward the new object in their area. They will appear as pinkish dots moving across the cardboard. You may then want to consider possible extermination methods.
To determine the best course of action for removal of chiggers on your property, contact a licensed pest control operator. He or she will be able to advise you as to the best and most effective method for removal of the chigger populations.
UF Health, University of Florida Health
Chiggers are tiny, 6-legged wingless organisms (larvae) that mature to become a type of mite. Chiggers are found in tall grass and weeds. Their bite causes severe itching.
Harvest mite; Red mite
Chiggers are found in certain outdoor areas, such as:
- Berry patches
- Tall grass and weeds
- Edges of woodlands
Chiggers bite humans around the waist, ankles, or in warm skin folds. Bites commonly occur in the summer and fall months.
The main symptoms of chigger bites are:
- Severe itching
- Red pimple-like bumps or hives
Itching usually occurs several hours after the chiggers attach to the skin. The bite is painless.
A skin rash may appear on the parts of the body that were exposed to the sun. It may stop where the underwear meets the legs. This is often a clue that the rash is due to chigger bites.
Exams and Tests
Your health care provider can usually diagnose chiggers by examining the rash. You’ll likely be asked about your outdoor activity. A special magnifying scope may be used to find the chiggers on the skin. This helps confirm the diagnosis.
The goal of treatment is to stop the itching. Antihistamines and corticosteroid creams or lotions may be helpful. Antibiotics are not necessary unless you develop a skin infection.
A secondary infection may occur from scratching.
When to Contact a Medical Professional
Call your provider if the rash itches very badly, or if your symptoms get worse or do not improve with treatment.
Avoid outdoor areas that you know are contaminated with chiggers. Applying bug spray containing DEET to skin and clothing can help prevent chigger bites.
Diaz JH. Mites, including chiggers. In: Bennett JE, Dolin R, Blaser MJ, eds. Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett’s Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases. 9th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2020:chap 295.
James WD, Elston DM, Treat JR, Rosenbach MA, Neuhaus IM. Parasitic infestations, stings, and bites. In: James WD, Elston DM, Treat JR, Rosenbach MA, Neuhaus IM, eds. Andrews’ Diseases of the Skin. 13th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2020:chap 20.
90,000 Skin rashes with COVID-19 / ConsultantPlus
Currently, there are a number of clinical observations describing skin rashes with COVID-19, and therefore the main task of clinicians is the differential diagnosis of skin lesions in COVID-19 from other infectious exanthema, as well as a number of dermatoses.
Analysis of the descriptions of clinical observations of skin rashes in patients with COVID-19 accumulating in the literature, as well as our own experience of ongoing dynamic observation of our compatriots suffering from this viral disease, allows us to conclude that skin lesions may be the first signs of the onset of coronavirus infection.In addition, the variety of observed dermatoses and skin rashes can be divided into seven groups depending on their etiology and mechanisms of development:
1 group – Skin angiitis. As a rule, angiitis of the skin has an infectious-allergic genesis and occurs against the background of infectious processes of various, including viral, etiologies. A classic example is acute erythema nodosum against the background of a common acute respiratory viral infection. With coronavirus infection, the walls of small vessels of the dermis are damaged by circulating immune complexes in the form of deposits with viral antigens.Special forms associated with COVID-19 include acrovasculitis. The acral confinement of the rash is possibly due to the concomitant disease of hypoxia.
Group 2 – Papulo-squamous rash and pink lichen. They are characteristic infectious and allergic skin lesions, also often associated with COVID-19. The clinical feature of lichen pink in coronavirus infection is the absence of a “maternal plaque” (the largest element that appears first in the classical course of dermatosis).
Group 3 – Measles-like rashes and infectious erythema. In COVID-19, these rashes resemble in their clinical characteristics those characteristic of measles or other viral infections and, thus, indicate a pathogenetic affinity to the classic viral exanthema.
Group 4 – Papulo-vesicular rash (like miliary or eccrine prickly heat). They arise against the background of subfebrile condition with multi-day increased sweating in patients. Unlike classic miliary rash, rashes with COVID-19 are characterized by extensive skin lesions.
5 group – Toxidermia. They are not directly related to coronavirus infection and are the result of individual intolerance to certain drugs by patients.
Group 6 – Urticaria. Depending on its origin, the disease can be twofold. On the one hand, urticaria rashes can be a harbinger of the onset of COVID-19 or occur along with its first symptoms. On the other hand, urticaria often develops due to drug intolerance and in this case is a clinical form of toxidermia.The acral location of blisters against the background of COVID-19 can also be attributed to the specific features of urticarial skin lesions in this viral disease.
Group 7 – Artifical lesions (trophic changes in facial tissues). They are a consequence of the forced long stay of patients in the prone position in order to improve the respiratory function.
Open the full text of the document
Allergic rash – urticaria | Symptoms
Drugs, contrast agents (used in imaging studies such as computed tomography)
Signs: An allergic rash that starts within 48 hours of using the drug.
Emotional and physical stimuli (stress and anxiety, cold, exercise, pressure on the skin, heat, sunlight, sweating)
Signs: An allergic rash that usually starts within seconds or minutes after contact with an irritant; an allergic rash that starts within 4-6 hours and affects only the area of skin where pressure has been applied; or an allergic rash that affects only the area of skin that has been exposed to sunlight.
Food (food allergens)
Signs: Allergic rash that starts within minutes or hours after consumption.
Infections (bacterial, parasitic, viral)
Signs: Fever, chills and fatigue. Symptoms of a specific infection, particularly for parasitic infections, recent travel to a developing country.
Insect bites or burns
Signs: An allergic rash that starts within seconds or minutes after an insect bite or burn.
Signs: An allergic rash that starts within 7 to 10 days after an injection of a blood product (like a transfusion), a drug derived from animal blood (used to treat venomous snake and spider bites). May be accompanied by fever, joint pain, swollen lymph nodes, and abdominal pain.
Contact allergens (latex, animal saliva or dander, dust, pollen or mold)
Signs: An allergic rash that starts within minutes or hours of exposure.
Signs: An allergic rash that usually begins within minutes of a blood product transfusion.
Systemic lupus erythematosus
Signs: Various symptoms depending on the autoimmune disease. In systemic lupus erythematosus, symptoms may include fever, fatigue, headache, joint pain and swelling of the joints, pain while breathing, and mouth ulcers.
Signs: Dry eyes and dry mouth.
Signs: An allergic rash that may be painful but not itchy. Usually lasts more than 24 hours. Does not turn white (brightens) when pressure is applied. May be accompanied by the formation of small blisters and reddish-purple spots (purpura).
Cancer (digestive or lung organs or lymphoma)
Signs: Weight loss, night sweats, abdominal pain, cough (sometimes bloody), jaundice, swollen lymph nodes, or a combination of these symptoms.
Chronic idiopathic allergic rash
Signs: Allergic rash that occurs almost daily and itching that lasts for 6 weeks for no apparent reason.
Endocrine disorders (thyroid disease or elevated progesterone levels)
Signs: For thyroid disorders: Difficulty handling heat or cold, slow or fast heart rate, and tremors (tremors) or sluggishness.It occurs in women who take birth control pills, are undergoing hormonal therapy, or in whom an allergic rash appears before the onset of the menstrual period and disappears after it ends.
Signs: Small red bumps that turn into an allergic rash when touched. Sometimes abdominal pain, mild hot flashes, and recurrent headaches.
90,000 British scientists named three skin symptoms of COVID-19
The British Association of Dermatologists has reported that signs of COVID-19 can include a chickenpox-like rash, scaly lips and frostbite-like skin lesions on the toes.As a result of the rash, the top layer of the skin can peel off and usually does not itch. Medic Chris Steele, in turn, warns of the development of bright light intolerance in some people exposed to the new strain.
Symptoms of COVID-19 usually include high fever, severe cough, and loss of taste and smell. However, the British Dermatology Association found that a rash, dry lips and outwardly frostbite damage to the skin on the toes can also be signs of the new type of coronavirus.
“Our research shows that a rash may be a more sure sign of COVID-19 than even fever and cough, especially in children,” said consultant dermatologist Veronica Bataille.
According to her, experts have found that every sixth child develops a rash without any other classic symptoms of coronavirus, Express reports.
COVID-19 can cause skin rashes on any part of the body. It manifests itself as sudden hives or blisters on the skin that can appear and disappear within a few hours.Other patients may develop a rash similar to chickenpox.
In addition, some patients have reported unusually dry and scaly lips associated with COVID-19, this symptom usually developing towards the end of the disease.
The most specific type of skin rash in COVID-19 patients appears on the fingers and toes.
On the feet and fingers, the coronavirus sometimes causes purple bumps, which can be very painful. As a result of the rash, the top layer of the skin can peel off and usually does not itch.
“In most cases, rashes associated with COVID-19 last several weeks and eventually disappear. In some cases, prescribed medications may be required if the rash is very itchy, ”the expert explained.
British physician Chris Steele, in turn, warns of the development of photophobia, intolerance to bright light in some people exposed to the new strain. According to him, this symptom occurs because the coronavirus causes “an inflammatory reaction throughout the body.”
Researchers at Anglia Ruskin University asked people who tested positive for COVID-19 to complete a questionnaire about their symptoms. The study found that 18% of participants reported photophobia and 16% reported “eye pain.”
Of the 83 respondents, 81% of the participants reported “eye” problems within two weeks of the onset of other coronavirus symptoms. Nearly all of the participants had eye problems lasting less than two weeks.
In turn, epidemiologists at King’s College London, based on data from the British Office for National Statistics, named 15 symptoms of COVID-19, according to the Mirror.
The disease is signaled by: continuous cough (more than an hour or more than three attacks during the day), high fever, loss of smell and taste, headaches, severe fatigue, rash, loss of appetite, sore throat,
“unusual” muscle pain not caused by any physical activity, confusion, diarrhea, shortness of breath, chest pains, wheezing and abdominal pain.
Push Doctor Chief Medical Officer Dan Banston spoke about signs that may indicate that a person has already had a coronavirus, even in a mild form.
Often, COVID-19 may not manifest itself. However, the consequences of the presence of the virus in the body can persist for a long time, regardless of the severity of the disease.
The specialist noted that increased fatigue, as well as a feeling of exhaustion, which persists without objective reasons for three months, may indicate a past illness.
“The possible symptoms are extensive and are unlikely to be the same in every person, but usually include fatigue and fatigue, headaches, and muscle or joint pain,” the scientist pointed out.
If such symptoms are present, then the person needs to make sure that he has had a coronavirus. To do this, you should donate blood for the determination of antibodies. The doctor recalled that these symptoms of malaise may indicate other diseases that are not associated with a new type of infection.
The fact that most patients who have suffered mild coronavirus can suffer from long-term consequences, it is said in the material of the Annals of the American Thoracic Society.
Experts suggest that such consequences could have resulted from a violation of the conditioning of the cardiovascular system and muscles, and not the degree of damage to the lungs.
90,000 Childhood illnesses with rashes. Vaccinations and Immunity Assessment
Most childhood infections are accompanied by various rashes. A rash is a general reaction of the body to the toxic effects of the pathogen and its waste products, and the child has an accelerated metabolism, wide vessels and good blood circulation.
It is best to get sick with childhood diseases in childhood. Firstly, this is how the child’s immunity is formed and protection from the transferred infections in the future.Secondly, childhood illnesses are much more severe in adulthood, and many of them are especially dangerous during pregnancy.
All infections are highly infectious, with a course with an increase in temperature and signs of a cold. Often, the characteristic signs of a rash allow you to distinguish them from each other. Consider the main childhood diseases and their distinctive features:
Recently it was believed that measles had been defeated, but lately, its outbreaks have been increasingly frequent.This is due to the rejection of mandatory preventive vaccinations. In fact, measles is a serious illness, especially during adolescence and adulthood. It proceeds with complications: pneumonia, otitis media, frequent kidney, liver and brain damage. May lead to deafness and blindness. The rash with measles is maculopapular (papules are small elevations on the skin), appears on the 3rd day of illness, begins behind the ears and on the face and appears in stages from top to bottom, may have different sizes (polymorphic).Before the appearance of rashes, you can see white dots on the mucous membrane of the oropharynx, resembling semolina, with a red rim, they are called Filatov-Koplik spots.
Caused by the herpes simplex virus type III. Most children get sick between the ages of 2 and 7, and at an older age it is more difficult to tolerate. Everyone knows that the rash with chickenpox is in the form of bubbles (vesicular). It starts from the scalp and spreads throughout the body. First, spots appear, which successively turn into papules and itchy vesicles with transparent contents, leaving behind crusts.All these elements can be observed simultaneously on the body of a child. In adults, the infection can be of the shingles type.
Very contagious, often mild in both children and adults, so it can go unnoticed. It is especially dangerous during pregnancy, as it can lead to the formation of fetal anomalies for up to 12 weeks. Typical manifestations: enlargement of the occipital and posterior cervical lymph nodes, a small spotty rash, without pain or itching.
It is caused by group A beta-hemolytic streptococcus. It is manifested by angina and a typical small-point rash against a background of pronounced redness of the skin. Most of the elements of the rash are in the area of flexion surfaces and they are prone to fusion. The nasolabial triangle always remains free of the rash. Another sign is a bright red tongue.
Caused by parvovirus B19. In children, it is widespread, proceeds easily, with signs of a cold, headache is possible.A distinctive feature is a bright reddening of the cheeks, which is why parvovirus infection is better known as “slap disease”. Dangerous in the first trimester of pregnancy.
Caused by the herpes simplex virus type VI. Mostly children under 5 years old are sick. The disease is rarely recognized because in the first 3 days, the temperature rises sharply to 39-40 degrees, on the 4th day it drops to normal numbers without signs of a cold, and a rash resembling rubella appears. Few people realize that these are manifestations of one disease.In adults, it causes chronic fatigue syndrome.
We have analyzed the typical manifestations of the rash. But recently, the classic course of the disease has rarely been encountered. In addition, rashes can be with other infections: caused by the Epstein-Barr virus, cytomegalovirus, with yersiniosis, viral hepatitis, and so on. The most correct position of a parent in case of a rash in a child is to call a doctor at home or an ambulance to exclude severe, life-threatening infections, for example, meningococcal.
What are vaccinations for?
Measles vaccination is mandatory and is included in the National Immunization Schedule. There are vaccines for chickenpox and rubella, and for the latter, its mandatory use for girls is being discussed.
How do you know if there is immunity to childhood infections?
For this purpose, antibodies are determined – immunoglobulins of class G (IgG). These are proteins of the immune system that appear in the body when the pathogen enters the body and remain for a very long time or for life.Their identification indicates good immunity and protection against re-infection.
But it should be remembered that IgG can be determined with the current disease. If there is a clinic, then IgM and IgA are simultaneously determined, as well as the identification of the pathogen by PCR.
The KDL laboratory proposes to determine the immunity to the following infections:
To whom is the definition of immunity to childhood infections indicated in the first place?
- Against measles – everyone.If IgG is not detected, therefore, there is no protection and revaccination is recommended in order to avoid contamination.
- When planning pregnancy – if there is no immunity, vaccination is indicated to form protection against infections that can cause intrauterine damage to the fetus (rubella, parvovirus B19)
- Early in pregnancy (first 12 weeks). Infection with infections during this period is most dangerous, since all organs and tissues of the baby are laid). If IgG is detected, there is no risk of infection.
Get an examination with the KDL laboratory in a timely manner and be healthy!
Still have questions?
## Why it happens The rash can be a manifestation of allergies – urticaria, dermatitis, eczema.May be caused by medication. In this case, the rash is both an allergic reaction of the body to the substances that make up the drug, and a non-allergic reaction. For example, corticosteroids (hormones) can cause acne and thinning of the skin, and anticoagulants can cause bruising from under the skin. Certain medications such as antibiotics, antipsychotics, and artificial sweeteners make the skin sensitive to sunlight.When taking the drug, the rash does not appear, but it can occur later when the sun hits the skin. The reaction to the drug may not come immediately, but after a few hours or days. Medicines can cause urticaria, toxic epidermal necrolysis, erythema multiforme, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, erythema nodosum, etc. Some rashes only occur during pregnancy. For example, these include herpes during pregnancy and urticaria during pregnancy. Moreover, herpes of pregnant women has nothing to do with the diseases caused by the herpes virus – only the external symptoms are similar to the viral infection of the same name.This is a rare condition that can appear after the 12th week of pregnancy or immediately after childbirth, and is the result of an autoimmune reaction in the body. The most famous rashes, which are mandatory symptoms of a number of viral infections – measles, rubella, chickenpox, infectious erythema, roseola of newborns. For each of these diseases, the rash, its type and nature of the rash are a diagnostic sign. The cause of the rash can also be bacterial infections – scarlet fever, typhoid and typhus, meningitis, syphilis, staphylococcus, etc.Finally, a rash is a symptom of a wide variety of skin conditions, from lichens to scabies. ## Diagnostics Only an experienced doctor with the necessary laboratory equipment can determine the cause of the rash. No description of the rash will give an accurate picture of what is happening so that the patient can diagnose himself. Therefore, in the event of a rash, it is necessary to consult a dermatologist for an examination. To determine what caused the rash, you should look for associated symptoms.If a person has all the signs of an infectious disease, then it can be assumed that the rash is caused by an infection, but there is a possibility that the cause of the rash was medication. Determining if a rash is the result of a drug is difficult. Laboratory methods are practically powerless here. Therefore, taking all medicines, except for vital ones, is usually stopped, or the drugs are replaced with drugs that are similar in action, but different in chemical structure, and the body’s reaction is monitored.If a skin disorder is suspected, a scraping is taken from the affected area and examined under a microscope. ## Treatment Treatment should only be prescribed by a doctor. In some cases, the rash will go away on its own if it was caused by viral infectious diseases such as measles, rubella, chickenpox. If a scabies mite is found, it is necessary to carry out a simple treatment. If the rash is of an allergic nature, then the allergen should be determined using skin tests and its effect on the body should be excluded. In the case of skin diseases, it is necessary to be treated, they themselves will not work, but treatment can only be prescribed by a dermatologist, taking into account the general condition of the body.If your skin rash is dry or itchy, use ointments that contain corticosteroids to relieve symptoms. In very severe cases, corticosteroids are given by injection.
- Caro-Domínguez P., Navallas M., Riaza-Martin L., Ghadimi Mahani M., Ugas Charcape CF., Valverde I., D’Arco F., Toso S., Shelmerdine SC., Van Schuppen J., Secinaro A., Gräfe D., Camacho M., Neth O., Goo HW., Kellenberger CJ. Imaging findings of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children associated with COVID-19.// Pediatr Radiol – 2021 – Vol – NNULL – p .; PMID: 33904952
- Lambea-Gil A., Fumanal-Idocin L., Sebastián-Torres B., Saldaña-Inda I., Huici-Polo P., Alarcia-José-Ramon-Ramon Ara-Callizo R. Acute Acalculous Cholecystitis in a Multiple Sclerosis Patient Treated with Natalizumab. // Neurol India – 2021 – Vol69 – N2 – p.495-496; PMID: 33904486
- Fukuda S., Kaneta M., Miyake M., Ohya T., Miyakawa K., Iwamoto M., Ito S. A case of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children in a japanese boy: with discussion of cytokine profile.// Mod Rheumatol Case Rep – 2021 – Vol – NNULL – p.1-11; PMID: 33904379
- Schalkwijk S., Zhou L., Cohen-Rabbie S., Jain L., Freshwater T., So K., He Z., Gioni I., Tomkinson H., Vishwanathan K., Zhou D. Population pharmacokinetics and exposure -response of selumetinib and its N-desmethyl metabolite in pediatric patients with neurofibromatosis type 1 and inoperable plexiform neurofibromas. // Cancer Chemother Pharmacol – 2021 – Vol – NNULL – p .; PMID: 33903938
- Takatsuki K., Yanagihara T., Egashira A., Ogo N., Yoshizawa S., Sunami S., Asoh T., Maeyama T. A Rare Case of Pembrolizumab-Induced Dermatomyositis in a Patient with Cancer of Unknown Primary Origin. // Am J Case Rep – 2021 – Vol22 – NNULL – p.e930286; PMID: 33903584
- Kathiravelu Z., Thambiah SC., Mat Salleh MJ., Samsudin IN. Markedly raised haemolysis index with upper limit of normal serum potassium levels. // Malays J Pathol – 2021 – Vol43 – N1 – p.101-107; PMID: 33
- Wolfshohl JA., Jenkins DA., Phillips TM. A case of toxic transdermal absorption of isopropyl alcohol with falsely elevated creatinine. // Am J Emerg Med – 2021 – Vol – NNULL – p .; PMID: 33
- Leung AKC., Lam JM., Alobaida S, Leong KF., Wong AHC. Juvenile Dermatomyositis: Advances in Pathogenesis, Assessment, and Management. // Curr Pediatr Rev – 2021 – Vol – NNULL – p .; PMID: 33
- McKenzie SA., Vandiver AR., Villa NM., Smart CN., Shi VY., Hsiao JL. Recalcitrant facial rash: Cutaneous coccidioidomycosis.// Int J Womens Dermatol – 2020 – Vol6 – N5 – p. 458-459; PMID: 33898722
- Patel AA., Akusoba CN., Yetmar ZA., Tabaja H., Schuetz AN., Camilleri MJ., Abu Saleh OM. Mycobacterium marinum following a knife injury. // IDCases – 2021 – Vol24 – NNULL – p.e01102; PMID: 33898256
Typhus – Symptoms, treatment
Typhus is a disease that develops as a result of pathogenic bacteria entering the body. It causes severe intoxication, an increase in body temperature, pathology of the heart and blood vessels, nervous and other disorders.
An infection with Provacek’s rickettsia leads to the appearance of typhus. This microorganism enters the skin, enters the bloodstream, accumulates in the lymph nodes and spreads to all organs.
If Provacek’s rickettsia enters the brain, adrenal glands and heart, it can cause serious pathological conditions.
The spread of typhus comes from an infected person. Lice are carriers of the infection. In unsanitary conditions, they multiply rapidly and, when bitten, inject the pathogen into the skin.Combing an itchy place, a person rubs a dangerous microorganism even deeper into the skin.
Typhus has a short incubation period and can cause outbreaks. However, they have not been observed for a long time on the territory of Russia. This was achieved through effective prevention measures and improved living standards.
Symptoms of typhus
The disease begins with a sharp manifestation of symptoms of intoxication. There is a strong increase in body temperature, headache, vomiting and sleep disturbance.Sometimes in sick people, doctors state such neuropsychiatric disorders as euphoria or loss of consciousness.
The skin of the face of a person affected by typhoid becomes red, and the vessels of the sclera become inflamed.
Already in the first days of the disease, heart problems are observed. They can manifest themselves in a decrease in blood pressure, heart palpitations, arrhythmias. Doctors also diagnose enlarged liver and spleen.
Sometimes the rash type provokes a disorder of the reflexes of the urinary system.This causes severe discomfort and pain, which often causes neurological disorders.
The rash characteristic of typhoid does not appear until a week after the onset of symptoms. It spreads throughout the body and, in severe cases, even to the face and neck. But most of all rashes are observed on the sides of the body, on the legs and arms.
If therapy was started on time, the disease completely recedes after one to two weeks.
How is typhus diagnosed
Typhus is diagnosed with some laboratory tests.However, this pathology is very easy to confuse with pneumonia, measles, syphilis. Therefore, differential diagnosis is no less important.
The causative agent of typhoid can be detected by serological blood tests. However, there are nuances – it is advisable to carry out the test only a few weeks after infection.
Complications of epidemic typhus
The disease has a negative effect on the cardiovascular, genitourinary system and human lungs. Therefore, the possible complications associated with these organs.The most dangerous diseases that typhoid can provoke are:
- adrenal insufficiency;
How is typhus treated
If doctors suspect typhus, the patient is immediately admitted to the infectious diseases ward of the hospital. The patient is prescribed strict bed rest until the body temperature is completely normalized for at least a week.
Antibiotics are required. Usually drugs of the tetracycline series and chloramphenicol are used. Also shown are drugs that remove toxins from the body. Detoxification is carried out using droppers.
Methods for the prevention of typhus
The main way to prevent a rash type is to maintain hygiene and register all cases of head lice, without exception. In the event of the appearance in the focus of the spread of patients with a temperature of unclear etiology, it is imperative to place it in the infectious diseases department of the hospital.
Regular screening for lice should be done in schools and kindergartens. It is also obligatory to control the persons living in the hostel.
If a case of infection is detected, isolation and processing of personal belongings is necessary.
90,000 Chickenpox (chickenpox) – treatment in children and adults, the first symptoms, signs of the incubation period of chickenpox, photo of chickenpox
The maximum number of cases of chickenpox is recorded in children aged 3 to 7 years.Chickenpox in adolescents and adults is a rather rare phenomenon and is much more severe. In children under one year old, chickenpox is also rare, since they are protected by maternal antibodies throughout the entire period of breastfeeding, besides, at an early age, children have little contact with the outside world, and their risk of contracting chickenpox is minimal. Usually chickenpox in infants and infants is associated with either intrauterine infection or congenital immunodeficiency. If infected after the birth of a healthy baby who is breastfed, chickenpox may be asymptomatic.
Infection with chickenpox occurs when the virus enters the body Varicella Zoster (varicella-zoster), which belongs to the family Herpesviridae (herpes viruses type 3). The method of transmission of the chickenpox virus – airborne . The virus is unstable in the external environment and quickly dies under the influence of ultraviolet rays, high temperatures. The average life span of a virus outside the human body is 10 minutes. If during this time it enters the mucous membranes of the upper respiratory tract of an uninfected person, infection occurs in 100% of cases.The virus with the blood stream is transferred to the skin, where it causes characteristic changes in the epidermis – the appearance of a rash.
Given the high contagiousness of the chickenpox virus and the susceptibility of children to it, in order to avoid an epidemic in schools and, especially, in kindergartens, it is very important to know how many days you can get chickenpox and how many days the patient is contagious. A patient with chickenpox becomes infected a day before the appearance of the first elements of the rash and up to the fifth day after the appearance of the last rashes.The incubation period of chickenpox can last from 7 to 21 days, so chickenpox quarantine in child care facilities is usually 21 days. If during this period the elements of the rash characteristic of the disease do not appear, then we can confidently say that the child is not infected. In case of infection earlier than 11 days from the moment of contact, the elements also usually do not appear.
The answer to the question of how not to get chickenpox is relevant for all infections transmitted by airborne droplets.When an infected child appears in the family or team, it is necessary to isolate him as quickly as possible from other children and family members. To reduce the risk of chickenpox infection, it is necessary to ventilate the premises well and use cotton-gauze dressings, quartz lamps are effective.
How does chickenpox manifest?
The first signs of chickenpox are symptoms of intoxication that occur 1-2 days before the onset of the rash. The body temperature rises, there are complaints of weakness, headache and muscle pain.Usually these phenomena persist for 2-5 days. There is also chickenpox without a fever, which immediately manifests itself with the onset of a rash.
The main symptom of chickenpox is a rash , which appears on the face (including the eyes), scalp, trunk, limbs. The predominant localization of chickenpox is the upper part of the body, on the legs, genitals there are always fewer or no elements at all. First, an area of hyperemia appears, 2-4 mm in size, which quickly becomes denser due to inflammatory infiltration – a papule is formed.Further, a cavity with a liquid content is formed inside the elements – a vesicle. After opening it, a crust forms. Healing takes place within 1-2 days. New elements appear within a few days, all of them are at different stages of development, therefore, rashes with chickenpox are polymorphic.
On the mucous membranes, rash elements characteristic of chickenpox are also formed. Chickenpox in the mouth is called enanthema. The bubbles quickly open up, turn into sores and heal within 2-3 days.
How many days the rash persists with chickenpox is an individual question. New elements appear from 2 to 9 days, then heal rather quickly. The elements of the rash affect only the superficial layers of the epidermis (in contrast to shingles, in which inflammation spreads to the dermis).