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Pictures of itchy skin rash: The request could not be satisfied


6 most common cases and their treatment


What Is A Rash?


A rash is usually a red mark on the surface of the skin. They can be caused by a host of reasons and we’ll dig into that a little later. In all, a rash is a reaction to something. It could become swollen, red and even blister. Regardless, this is your body reacting to something it doesn’t like. Your body does not produce a rash because its happy!

Genetics can also play a part in your the rashes you get. Depending on your genes you could be more sensitive to certain environmental factors, foods or otherwise. It’s also worth pointing out that ‘rash’ is not a specific diagnosis. It simply refers to any sort of inflammation or discoloration that distorts the skins normal appearance.


Rashes are Common


Skin disease is one of the leading causes of global disease burden, affecting millions of people world wide. Aging, environmental and genetic factors, and trauma can result in the development of a diverse set of skin diseases, with over 3000 entities identified in the literature.

Patients with skin diseases make up about 6% (in Children < 15 years of age 9%) of the patients seeking in primary care, where most skin diseases can also be dealt with. Skin symptoms can be part of systemic diseases and a holistic approach is important as well as a good collaboration between skin specialist, primary health care and other disciplines.


What Causes That Itchy Rash?


Atopic Dermatitis – Finger


The cause of your rash could be due to a plethora of conditions. Rashes are not easy to diagnose and in some cases even doctors struggle to diagnose correctly. We would always recommend speaking to a board-certified dermatologist if you have a persistent rash. Equally, we have created artificial intelligence that allows you to search for potential skin rash causes. Simply upload an image and we provide the results.

Check Rashes at Home


Outbreaks of rashes that are itchy, red, spots or bumps on the skin are very common and have many different causes. If you have an outbreak, you need to do some itchy rash “investigation” yourself.

There are a few things to consider before talking to a doctor. Firstly, did you come into contact with something unusual recently? This can include both natural materials (such as fruit or leaves) and artificial materials (like household chemicals) or work related (nickel). Anything unusual?

Maybe you ate fruit that you do not usually eat or used a new cosmetic or detergent product? Any of these, you likely have an allergy-related rash. An online dermatologist can confirm a case of an allergy-related rash in just a few hours.


What About The Itching


Itching is an unpleasant sensation where the skin signals a reflex response to tearing of the skin. Modern research has shown that an itch has many similarities to pain, where both feelings are unpleasant, but the behavioral patterns differ. Pain creates a pain-reflex and itching creates a tearing of the skin reflex.

Itching can also come out from pain; for example in case of excessive heat or electrical stimulation. Examples of causes may include insect stings, mosquito bites or allergies, that triggers the skin’s nerve system to send signals of irritation. Itching starts when there is a skin symptom, and applies to any kind of stimulation of the nerve terminals (nociceptors) in the epidermis (outer skin layer). Itching of the nose, eyes and ears can also occur and can be caused by allergic rhinitis.

An itch most common cause, is dehydration of the skin. Dry skin makes it susceptible for itching – stress, excessive bathing/showering and cold weather can worsen it.

Is this what you have? Try our FREE Skin Image Search today and get peace of mind 

To help us understand what causes rashes we’re going to split into 2: Non-infectious rashes and infectious rashes. From there you can read more about a range of rashes that could potentially affect, or be affecting you.


Non-Infectious Rashes


These rashes are some of the most common and are caused by a variety of reasons. In some cases it could simply be due to skin hydration, others it could be an allergy. Either way these rashes are non infectious rashes – they aren’t viral, fungal, bacterial or parasitic.

  • Dermatitis – This is one of the most common forms of dry skin and rashes. There are many types such as:
  • Psoriasis
  • Hives

Most non-infectious rashes are a form of dermatitis but there are other conditions such as hives (urticaria) which could be caused by an allergy. Remember we’re only really scratching the surface here so if you’re unable to see a rash that matches your condition, remember to speak to our dermatologists.

Try our FREE search engine on skin diseases


Pictures and Diagnosis of Non-Infectious Rashes


1. Atopic Dermatitis (severe itching)


Online dermatologist question

My son David age 10 in photos. Picture of right inside elbow crease, he has eczema. Allergic to pollen, dust mites, dander, milk protein. The rash is itchy and rough on the left elbow and right armpit as well. A few other patches on his body. It comes and goes in terms of severity. We don’t want to use steroids. What about new Eucrisa cream?


Itchy skin Atopic dermatitis eczema in Children


Online dermatologist answer

Thank you for sending your son’s case. Based on the information and images of your son’s arm, this is consistent with ATOPIC ECZEMA: Atopic dermatitis is very common in children but can persist into adulthood in some cases.

It often affects sites like the flexures of the big joints (skin folds cush as the knee, elbows, neck, etc), but it can be found anywhere on the body surface. This condition causes itchy inflammation of the skin with red, dry patches which sometimes lead to cracking of the skin. In some cases, multiple small blisters can appear.




Bacterial infections can also add to the problem. At-home treatment options include: avoiding substances that may be irritants (e.g. excessive showering/bathing), applying over-the-counter 1% hydrocortisone cream (twice daily for a week, then once daily for another week and then every other day for 2 weeks) plus frequent application of a moisturizing cream. If it doesn’t improve, see a dermatologist in person since more potent steroid creams requiring a prescription may be needed.

You have a specific question about Eucrisa cream. It may well be effective for your son, but in the clinical trials only around 1 in 3 people showed a significant improvement after a month (compared with 1 in 5 people on placebo). I would not recommend that you say ‘never’ to topical steroids. In my practice, topical steroid creams are more effective than 1 in 3 and can also be used very safely long term if used correctly.

Is this what you have? Try our FREE Skin Image Search today and get peace of mind 


Nummular Eczema


Online dermatologist question

39 years old male. Right side of neck, 3×3 inch rash with blisters. Had for approximately 6 days.

Online dermatologist answer

Thank you for sending your case. Based on the information and images of your neck, this is possibly a ECZEMA NUMMULARIS: Nummular dermatitis is a type of eczema with coin-shaped red and slightly scaly skin lesions with pruriitus (itching). Nummular dermatitis is often caused by dry skin. Moisturizing cream and a topical steroid applied twice daily would be recommended.




A potent steroid cream may be needed to clear the lesions, which will require a prescription from your dermatologist or family doctor. The treatment should be applied during at least 4-6 weeks lowering the dose every 1-2 weeks. It is of utmost importance that you avoid scratching as this only makes the inflammation worse. In your case it looks like you have a secondary infected and you would needs to do a culture before treatment with oral antibiotics. I would recommend that you see your primary care doctor or a dermatologist to do further tests.

Is this what you have? Try our FREE Skin Image Search today and get peace of mind 

3. Neurodermitis


Online dermatologist question

27 years old female. The spot has been on the inside of my left thigh for over a year now. It itches constantly and is now showing up a few inches above my knee on my left thigh as well. There is nothing on my right leg or anywhere else.


Neurodermatitis on the thigh and knee


Online dermatologist answer

Based on the information and images, possibly NEURODERMATITIS, a specific form of eczema. In this condition it´s quite frequent to only develop one single very dry and itchy spot like in your case. It´s not dangerous but the itching can get quite troublesome as you describe. The most important thing is to break the vicious circle of itching-scratching.


The treatment of choice in most cases is stronger cortisone creams several times daily in the begining and then try to withdraw slowly according to certain withdrawl schedules.  If the itching is extremely intense oral antihistamines can be added during the initial phases of treatment.

Is this what you have? Try our FREE Skin Image Search today and get peace of mind 

4. Lichen ruber planus


Online dermatologist question

40 years old female. Top of left foot and a couple underneath, top of right foot, left calf affected bad, right calf barely affected. No other affected areas on the body. I have had this for 8 months and it hurts, itches, and is UGLY. Previously, I used antifungal thinking it was ringworm and it seemed to work, until it didn’t anymore.


Rash – Lichen Ruber Planus on Foot

Online dermatologist answer

Thank you for sending your case. Based on the information and images, this is possibly a LICHEN RUBER PLANUS. Lichen planus (a.k.a. lichen ruber) is a chronic inflammatory condition of the skin, which can affect a number of body parts.

Common locations are the underside of the forearms, wrists, legs and the inside of the cheeks, but it can also affect both men and women in the genital area. The lesions are commonly slightly raised and reddish-violaceous in color. Itching is not uncommon and can be quite stubborn. Trauma in the area can sometimes cause more lesions to appear (a so-called Koebner phenomenon) so it is important to avoid scratching.




Lichen planus can be treated with topical steroid creams but over-the-counter Hydrocortisone 1% is is most cases not sufficient. Stronger steroid creams that requires a prescription are usually needed. For this reason I recommend that you see your family doctor or a dermatologist in person. Sometimes a small skin biopsy is needed to confirm the diagnosis and to rule out other options before the treatment is begun.

Is this what you have? Try our FREE Skin Image Search today and get peace of mind 

5. Pityriasis rosea


Online dermatologist question

24 years old male. The red spots are on my arm, armpit, back, chest, neck and groin area. Always itchy and intense itching at night. Had this for 6 weeks now . Seen the doctor three times. Had steroid cream, a tablet to stop the itching and an anti fungal tablet. None seem to work.


Pityriasis Rosea on Stomach


Online dermatologist answer

Thank you for sending your case. Based on the information and images, this is possibly a PITYRIASIS ROSEA: Pityriasis Rosea is a non-contagious, benign rash that is most common in young children. This condition usually starts off with a single red, scaly patch of skin called a ‘herald patch’. Within short, multiple red scaly patches appear on the trunk, upper arms and legs.




The lesions disappear without treatment after 6-8 weeks. However, moisturizing cream and a topical steroid can be recommended to relieve the itch. Usually mild steroid creams such as Hydrocortisone 1% are sold over-the-counter. Apply twice daily for a week to start with, then once daily for a week, then every other day for 2-4 weeks. If not better within 2 weeks, see a dermatologist in person to exclude other assessments.

Is this what you have? Try our FREE Skin Image Search today and get peace of mind 

6. Dermographism


Online dermatologist question

34 years old male. Itching, rash now turning into welts. Cause unknown.


Dermographism on Back


Online dermatologist answer

Based on the information and images submitted, this is possibly a URTICARIA: Urticaria or “Hives”. They are frequently caused by allergic reactions; however, there are many nonallergic causes like medication, infection, heat, cold, pressure on the skin or an external irritant for example.

This results in the release of the substance histamine in the skin, which causes local inflammation with swelling and gives rise to itching or burning, raised, red skin lesions known as wheals. These lesions have a tendency to move around and disappear within 24 hours only to appear again in other places. Dermographism (the skin becomes raised and inflamed when scratched), as shown in the photographs, is a common symptom.




Over-the-counter antihistamine pills (e.g. Desloratadine 5 mg, once daily) are recommended to alleviate itching. Most often this will pass within a matter of days or weeks. If no improvement or if it spreads, see your family doctor or a dermatologist in person for a new evaluation and testing.

Is this what you have? Try our FREE Skin Image Search today and get peace of mind 

7. Itchy rash spreading all over my body – Psoriasis


Online Dermatologist question

Hi I am a 28 years man. At first it was only one rash which is the first picture I sent you, it started about a month and a half ago. Then 2 weeks ago, it just started spreading all over my body. They are small, but itch and leave like a scab if I scratch them. I have been to two doctors which one said it was eczema and the other one could not determine. So far, I have been taking triamcinolone acetonide and ketoconazole as a cream for 4 days now, but the symptoms seem to be getting worse. Please what should I do? I’m starting to get really worried about this.


Psoriasis on Leg

Online dermatologist Doctor Geronimo Jones answer

Thank you for sending your case of itchy red rash spreading over the body. Based on the information and images, this is possibly PSORIASIS: Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory disease of the skin which can present at any age. Red patches usually with white scales are seen on different skin areas such as elbows, knees, lower legs and/or scalp. Nevertheless, it can appear anywhere on the skin. A variable amount of itching can be experienced or none at all. Sometimes there are more family members with the condition.




I recommend that you see a dermatologist or your family doctor in order to obtain prescriptions. Prescription treatment options include vitamin D-derived creams (e g Daivonex) with or without topical steroids (e g Daivobet), sun light or medical UV-therapy. In cases that don’t respond to this treatment, other systemic alternatives are available.



Infectious Rashes


We’re going to split these rashes into 4. Bacterial, Fungal, Parasitic and Viral.


Bacterial Rashes


Eruptions caused by bacteria tend to be postular (small bumps filled with pus) or could be plaque-like and painful. Here’s some of the most common for you to read up on:

Pictures and Diagnosis of Bacterial Rashes

Fungal Rashes


Fungal infections can be quite common and usually appear as fiery red marks with pustules (blisters) around the edges. Normally they affect folds in the skin such as the groin or breast area. Here’s some of the most common fungal rashes to look out for:

Pictures and Diagnosis of Fungal Rashes
Itchy rash red in groin –  Intertrigo


Online Dermatologist question

45 Male I have had an itchy red rash on my inner thighs and on my scrotum where they touch the inner thighs for 2 months … Wondering if this is heat rash, jock itch, or chaffing and what would be the best treatment… I have tried some Jock itch medicine for a week but it didn’t really help… Diaper rash ointment seems to help with symptoms but I know it would be contraindicated if it is heat rash / prickly heat…. I have not had this problem before in the summer but I may be be 3-5 pounds heavier … not sure if that is what set it off?


Intertrigo in Groin


Online dermatologist Doctor Geronimo Jones answer

Possibly INTERTRIGO or CANDIDIASIS, an irritation that sometimes occurs simultaneously with a colonization by fungi. Frequent in sites like armpits, under the breasts or like in your case in the groin, it is not dangerous.




You should respond promptly to a combined cream containing a mild cortisone cream eg hydrocortisone and an anti-fungal agent such as myconazole, which can be bought over-the-counter. The cream should be used twice daily for the first week, once daily for the second week, every other day on the third week and then twice weekly for a while.

It is also important to keep these sites dry, especially after taking showers and avoid to get too sweaty. If it does not improve see a physician for a more accurate examination. In a minor number of cases oral treatment becomes necessary. Too lose a few pounds is always a good piece of advice.

Parasitic Rashes


These rashes are usually caused by some kind of mite. Typically contracted by prolonged contact with an infected individual. It does not produce symptoms until the host becomes allergic to the mites after around 3 weeks. The most common:


Pictures and Diagnosis of Parasitic Rashes
Itchy rash for 5 weeks – Scabies


Online Dermatologist question

Female 34. I’ve had this rash for 5 weeks now. It started after I was sitting outside and I was bit by mosquitos. Those bites were on my upper arms and my legs and they resolved in a couple of days. Around that time is when I started getting this rash on my arms and briefly on my right thigh. On my arms, it started out on my wrists and quickly progressed to my forearms as well as to the palms of my hands and the backs of my hands. At that point it looked red circular and raised.

I had numerous bumps underneath my skin on the palms of my hands. It became increasingly more itchy, and then noticed I had a couple of spots of peeling skin between my fingers. Furthermore, I work in a jail and I was concerned that I may have contracted scabies. I went to an urgent care and the physician did not think it was scabies because there were no Burrows. Despite this, I still asked for the treatment and I did a treatment with malathion. That is when I noticed that I had small red raised bumps to the back of my knees and the top of my feet.

Typical Signs of Scabies

My husband was treated with malathion as well and we washed all our linens. Of note my husband does not have any rash. The next day when I woke up to wash off the medication I noticed that I had a different red raised diffuse itchy rash on the same thigh. Shortly after I started using triamcinolone. I noticed that within a day or two the rash on my forearms and my Legs/feet were almost gone. I’m not sure if it was from the malathion or from the triamcinolone. However the rash on my hands have persisted and have become increasingly itchy.

Over time the bumps on my hands have gotten darker, and now I have a peeling rash on my hands. It continues to be very itchy and I take Zyrtec/benadryl, I keep my hands moisturized throughout the day, and occasionally I still use triamcinolone (I had stopped using it after one week as I saw no improvement to my hands). None of them truly help but I do them anyway, as I’m desperate. So far, I haven’t started any new detergents/soaps/lotions/medications prior to the rash. I was in Hawaii 2 weeks before the rash, no other travel.

Furthermore, I don’t have pets but I’ve been around a couple of dogs during this time (their owners don’t have any similar issues). However, I have a history of hypothyroidism on levothyroxine, Vitamin D deficiency on ergocalciferol, and an eczema patch on the back of my neck that hasn’t bothered me in years.

Scabies on Hand

Online dermatologist Doctor Geronimo Jones answer

Thank you for sending your case. Based on the information and images of your hand, SCABIES must be ruled out with full certainty: Scabies are inflammatory lesions caused by a mite that digs burrows in the skin, that sometimes can be difficult to see. This parasite is transmitted through direct physical contact with another person with scabies. The lesions cause itching which can be severe. The itch is usually more common during the evening or night.




In order to confirm Scabies it is of utmost importance that a dermatologist in person takes a sample to be able to see the causing mite in the microscope. If the diagnosis is confirmed I usually prescribe Permethrin cream


Viral Rashes – Exanthem


Viral rashes are known as exanthems. Usually they are symmetrical and affect the skin surface all over the body. There are even arguments to suggest Covid-19 can cause reactions on the skin. Occasionally they are caused by STDs and may come with other symptoms such as coughing and sneezing. Here are the most common:


Online Dermatologist question

26 male. Rash has been itching for a month on and off now. The bumps showed up the day after i applyed anit-itch cream and sexual intercourse. Itchy red rash. Small raised shiny bumps sometimes red, pinkish or fleshed colored. Bumps dont hurt, pop or itch although the rash itches ever now and then. I cant really see a crater in the bumps either.

Molluscum Contagiosum – Penis


Online dermatologist Doctor Geronimo Jones answer

Possibly DERMATITIS and MOLLUSCUM CONTAGIOSUM, a viral infection (poxvirus) which gives rise to small shiny bumps in the genital region in adults. However, SCABIES cannot be fully excluded. Scabies gives rise to inflammatory lesions caused by a mite that digs burrows in the skin. This parasite is transmitted through direct physical contact with another person with scabies. The lesions cause itching of varying degree and is more common during the evening/night.




Before treating the lesions, it is of utmost importance to confirm the diagnosis with a dermatologist in person. To relieve the itching until you have your appointment, you can apply hydrocortisone cream (sold over-the-counter) twice daily and mositurizing cream. Try to avoid scratching the lesions.


Should I Seek Medical Advice? 


Skin Care Specialists – Dermatologists


1. What does the rash look like?


In the recent past the best way to understand what your rash looks like is to start googling and look for similar images. For example, if the rash looks like it could be ringworm then its time to get yourself to the doctor. Frankly, despite us creating our skin guide it can still be challenging when looking at so many different rashes, this is why we have built our AI, so that you can upload your image and be provided with the matching diseases  – we’re here to narrow your search and give you answers!


2. Are you in pain?


This seems like an obvious one but its not always! If the rash is bothering you either mentally or physically, if the itch is incontrollable and hasn’t gone away within a few days then speak to a dermatologist. This is usually a good warning sign that our body is fighting something and it is time to act, don’t just leave it.


3. Are there other symptoms?


Another good way to understand your rash is to check for other symptoms, if you notice any signs such as shortness of breath, bleeding, blisters in mouth, eyes or on the skin or even swelling then we recommend you visit your doctor or get checked up by your dermatologist as quickly as possible.

Try our FREE Skin Image Search today and get peace of mind


Itchy rash Treatment


While you try and find out what you have over-the-counter symptomatic treatment is available. Treatment can include hydrocortisone steroid cream – for hives, antihistamine is frequently a chosen option. Light clothes/cool bedroom is recommended. Avoid dry skin – use moisturizing frequently – sparingly use water with soap. Not showering every day.  Sun and salt water is therapeutic.

Is this what you have? Try our FREE Skin Image Search today and get peace of mind 


Over-The-Counter (OTC) products


70% of First Derm™ users get well with an OTC that can bought at your nearest pharmacy or an online pharmacy. OTCs range from cortizone, topical antibiotics, sunscreen, moisturizing creams and disinfectants. It is important to know what your skin concern is, before embarking on self-treatment, for example perioral or periorbital dermatitis; cortizone creams are counter productive. While impetigo and acne can have a good effect with good hygiene and disinfectants bought at your local pharmacy.


Getting Tested – Allergies


There are ways to verify which allergen you are allergic to, with simple allergy tests, either with a “prick test” or a “blood test”. The blood tests are more accurate and can see a lot more parameters with only drawing blood. This blood test can test your sensitivity to hundreds of different allergens and give you a complete picture of your allergy.

This information is useful to avoid outbreaks in the future. If your findings do not seem related to an external source, the second most likely cause is an underlying disease or an infection. Infection-related rashes are easy to detect, because they usually come along with other symptoms. They can also appear after contact with an infected person or animal.


Ask Our Dermatologists


We hope this article has provided you with sufficient information on your rash! If you’re concerned and would like the advice of a professional, do not hesitate to send in a case to us today!


Itch: From mechanism to (novel) therapeutic approaches. Yosipovitch G, Rosen JD, Hashimoto T. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2018 Nov;142(5):1375-1390

Epidemiologic Characteristics of Patients Admitted to Emergency Department with Dermatological Complaints; a Retrospective Cross sectional Study. Kilic D et al from Department of Emergency Medicine, Kepez State Hospital, Antalya, Turkey. Arch Acad Emerg Med. 2019 Aug 19;7(1):e47. eCollection 2019.

Eczema, Itchy Skin, Causes, Treatments, Relief, Types


What is dry skin?

Dry skin is skin that doesn’t have enough moisture in it to keep it feeling soft and supple. People with dry skin may have rough-feeling patches that flake off or look scaly. It may or may not be itchy (pruritis). Severe dry skin may crack and bleed.

How common is dry skin?

Dry skin is a common condition that affects people of all ages.

Who’s most likely to get dry skin?

People who live in dry climates, work outside or wash their hands frequently get dry skin. Dry skin can be related to some health issues, like allergies, hormones, and diabetes.

Older people are more prone to dry skin for many reasons:

  • Moisture-producing oil and sweat glands dry up.
  • Skin becomes thinner.
  • Fat and collagen, substances that gives skin its elasticity, decrease.

What are the types of dry skin?

Your healthcare provider may use the medical term for dry skin: xerosis. Dry skin is often made worse during the winter because of low humidity. However, it can occur year-round. If it’s severe, dry skin can cause itching and rashes called dermatitis (inflammation of skin). There are several different types of dermatitis, including:

  • Contact dermatitis: This occurs when something comes into contact with your skin, which causes an irritant or allergic reaction. Your skin may be dry, itchy and red, and you may also have a skin rash. Some examples include jewelry metals (nickel), cosmetics, detergents or medications.
  • Eczema (atopic dermatitis): This group of skin conditions causes red, dry, bumpy and itchy patches of skin. Severe forms can cause cracking of the skin, which makes you more prone to infection. This common skin disorder often affects children and can be inherited. Irritants, allergens and stress can make eczema worse.
  • Seborrheic dermatitis: Dry skin on the scalp causes a condition known as dandruff in adults or cradle cap in infants. Seborrheic dermatitis can also cause dry, flaky skin patches on the face, navel (belly button) and inside creases of the arms, legs or groin. This type of dermatitis is actually caused when your body reacts to a normal yeast that grows on your skin.
  • Athlete’s foot: This can mimic dry skin on the feet, but it is actually caused by a fungus. When this fungus grows on the body, it’s called “ringworm”. People who have athlete’s foot may have dry, flaky skin on the soles of their feet.

Symptoms and Causes

What causes dry skin?

You can develop dry skin for many reasons, including:

  • Age: Older adults are more prone to dry skin due to natural skin changes. As you age, oil and sweat glands dry up, and skin loses fat and elasticity, causing it to become thinner.
  • Climate: People who live in dry, desert-like environments are more prone to dry skin because there’s less moisture, or humidity, in the air.
  • Genetics: Some people inherit certain skin conditions, such as eczema, that cause dry skin.
  • Health conditions: Some illnesses, including diabetes and kidney disease, can cause dry, itchy skin.
  • Occupations: Healthcare providers, hairstylists and other professionals are more likely to develop dry, red skin because they wash hands frequently.

What are the symptoms of dry skin?

Signs of dry skin include:

  • Cracked, rough-looking skin.
  • Flakes or scales.
  • Itchiness.
  • Redness.

Diagnosis and Tests

How is dry skin diagnosed?

Dry skin is fairly easy to diagnose by its appearance. Depending on your symptoms, your healthcare provider may order tests to check for health conditions that cause dry skin, such as:

  • Allergy test to identify substances that cause allergic reactions.
  • Blood test to check for problems like diabetes or kidney disease.
  • Skin biopsy (tissue sample) to test for eczema or other skin conditions.

Management and Treatment

How is itchy dry skin managed or treated?

Your healthcare provider may recommend moisturizing your skin with:

  • Moisturizers: Moisturizers are the mainstay of treatment for most types of dry skin. They smooth and soften dry skin to help prevent cracking and work to recreate your natural skin barrier. Moisturizing products come in ointments, creams, lotions and oils.
  • Medications: For extremely dry skin that’s itchy or prone to cracking, your healthcare provider may prescribe a topical steroid or other steroid-sparing agent, both of which act to decrease the inflammation in the skin that causes the rash and itching. In severe cases, oral or injectable medication may be appropriate.

What are the complications of dry skin?

Skin that’s too dry may crack open and bleed. These cracks expose the body to germs that can cause infections. Rarely, dry, itchy skin can indicate a more serious health problem, such as diabetes or kidney disease.


How can I prevent dry skin?

Applying moisturizers every day can help soften dry skin. You can also try these at-home methods:

  • Cleanse with a mild, fragrance-free, moisturizing soap.
  • Limit showers or baths to no longer than 10 minutes, and use warm (not hot) water.
  • Manage stress (it can aggravate eczema and other skin conditions).
  • Minimize sun exposure, which evaporates oils and moisture from the skin.
  • Moisturize as soon as you finish bathing, while your skin is damp and soft.
  • Pat skin dry with a soft towel.
  • Prevent dehydration and keep skin hydrated by drinking plenty of fluids.
  • Stop smoking (nicotine reduces blood flow, which dries out skin).
  • Use a humidifier to add moisture to your home’s air.

Outlook / Prognosis

What is the prognosis (outlook) for people with dry skin?

Most people can successfully treat dry skin by using a daily moisturizer and taking proactive steps like minimizing exposure to hot water and other irritants. It’s a good idea to take care of dry skin for your overall health. Rough, dry skin can feel uncomfortable and look unsightly. And if your skin gets so dry skin that it cracks open, you’ll be more prone to infections.

Living With

When should I call the doctor?

You should call your healthcare provider if your skin:

  • Itches constantly and interferes with sleep or daily activities.
  • Looks infected (red, warm or swollen).
  • Is painful to touch.
  • Develops a rash.

What questions should I ask my doctor?

If you’re concerned about skin dryness, talk to your healthcare provider. You may want to ask:

  • What is making my skin to so dry?
  • Should I get tested for allergies or eczema?
  • What are the best treatments for dry skin?
  • How can I prevent dry skin?
  • What are the best treatments for itchy skin?
  • What over-the-counter cleansers and moisturizers do you recommend for dry skin?
  • Should I look out for any signs of complications?


Dry skin may look unattractive, and dry, itchy, flaky skin feels uncomfortable. Fortunately, dry skin causes few long-term problems. Although it is typically a chronic condition, it is very manageable. Talk to your healthcare provider about how to prevent and soothe dry skin. If other conditions, like eczema, cause dry skin, your healthcare provider can prescribe medications and offer tips to treat the problem.

7 signs from a skin rash that could indicate something serious

The itchy red bumps came out of nowhere and it’s unclear whether the mystery rash is something that needs a doctor or if it can be soothed away with over-the-counter salves.

While it might be hard to pinpoint what is causing skin redness or itching, but contact dermatitis can be a common allergic reaction to skin care products. As it turns out, plenty of rashes respond well to over-the-counter remedies.

But some are a sign of something more serious, experts say.

One important rule of thumb is to seek help if the rash came with other symptoms.

“The majority of rashes are not life threatening,” said Dr. Daniela Kroshinsky, an associate professor of dermatology at Harvard Medical School and director of inpatient dermatology and pediatric dermatology at Massachusetts General Hospital.


“But, if you’re feeling generally unwell and having a rash, that would be a reason to seek medical attention. Your primary care physician or dermatologist should be able to help you triage whether it’s something that should be seen and whether it needs to be seen urgently.”

A rash can be a warning sign of a serious medical problem, such as an autoimmune disease or a Lyme infection, explained Dr. Laura Ferris, an associate professor of dermatology at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center. Or it could simply be the result of a harmless, though vexing, insect bite or a brush past some poison ivy.

How can you tell if a rash is serious?

Here are some signs that your rash needs to be looked at by a medical professional:

1. If you have a fever or pain accompanying the rash.

You should get it checked out, Kroshinsky said. It could be a sign that you have an infection or are experiencing an allergic reaction.

2. If you have a sudden spreading of bruise-like lesions.

It might be a symptom of vasculitis and you need to get that looked at because your clotting cells might not be working right, Kroshinsky explained.

3. If your rash continues unabated.

You might have an infection, Kroshinsky said. “Some rashes start out completely benign, but then a secondary infection develops because the integrity of the skin, which is a barrier against potential pathogens, has been disrupted,” she explained. “Signs of an infection include warmth and pain, yellow or green cloudy discharge and a bad odor.”


4. Any rash that is widespread.

It can be a sign a major allergic reaction. “For example, if this happens within two weeks of starting a new medication, the concern would be a reaction to the medication,” Ferris said.

5. Rashes that start to blister should send you straight to the doctor’s office, unless you have good reason to suspect you’ve come in contact with poison ivy, both experts noted.

Poison Ivy rash and blistersAlamy

6. Purple spots that appear on your hands and feet could be a sign of a bacterial infection of the heart, Kroshinsky said. “You can look at the skin as a window to the inside of the body,” she explained.


7. If you develop a circular-shaped rash and you’re in an area where Lyme disease is endemic, you should get it checked out, Ferris said.

If you’re not ready to see your doctor, Kroshinsky suggested taking a photo of your rash.

Lyme disease patient with a characteristic bulls-eye rash.Alamy

“It can be helpful when you come in to see us since the rash could have changed by then,” she explained. “This will tell us what it looked like before you started treating it with bacitracin or hydrocortisone. It will help us get a sense of the evolution of the rash.”


Also, Kroshinsky counseled, keep in mind that the preparations you use to treat your skin condition might make things worse.

“One thing to keep in mind is that if you’re using a preparation with topical antibiotics, a significant number of people are allergic to bacitracin and neomycin,” she explained. “If the area you are treating becomes itchy or blistery you might want to stop using them and see a doctor.”

And if you feel unsure about the rash, don’t hesitate to seek medical advice from a dermatologist, Ferris said.

“We’re trained to distinguish between concerning and non-concerning rashes and getting you on the appropriate treatment,” she added.

Rashes affecting the lower legs

Author: Dr Amanda Oakley MBChB FRACP, Dept of Dermatology Waikato Hospital, Hamilton, New Zealand, 2004. Reviewed and revised, May 2014.


Skin cancer

App to facilitate skin self-examination and early detectionRead more.

Text: Miiskin


Most often, a rash affecting the lower legs is a type of dermatitis. The terms ‘dermatitis’ and ‘eczema’ are often used interchangeably. Acute dermatitis presents as red, swollen and blistered plaques. Chronic dermatitis accompanied by rubbing and scratching results in darkened (hyperpigmented), and thickened (lichenified) plaques.

There are several different types of lower leg dermatitis, which is common at all ages:

Scaly rashes of the lower legs

Scaly conditions affecting the lower legs include:

Infections favouring the lower legs

Redness of the lower legs

Other red or purplish conditions favouring the lower legs include:

Lower leg ulcers

Management of lower leg rashes

Management depends on making a correct diagnosis. General advice should include:

  • Avoid and treat dry skin, using non-soap cleansers and thick simple emollients. Avoid exposing the legs to direct heat or the hot air of the heater in a car.
  • Minimise swelling – avoid standing for prolonged periods, take regular walks, elevate the feet when sitting or overnight and wear special graduated compression stockings long term.
  • Prescription treatments may include oral antibiotics for secondary infection and topical steroids of varying potency – weak products can be used long term if necessary but potent topical steroids should be used once or twice daily for short courses of one to four weeks.

Avoid topical antibiotics, topical antihistamines and multi-ingredient fragranced or herb-containing emollients because of the risk of provoking contact allergy.


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Text: Miiskin

Pityriasis Rosea (for Teens) – Nemours Kidshealth

What Is Pityriasis Rosea?

Pityriasis rosea (pronounced: pit-ih-RYE-uh-sis ROE-zee-uh) is a harmless temporary skin condition that’s common in teens. This pink or gray scaly skin rash can last for 4 to 8 weeks — or, sometimes, months. The rash usually starts with one big patch on the chest, abdomen, thighs, or back that’s often mistaken for ringworm.

As the rash spreads, the original patch is joined by a number of smaller spots that spread out across the torso. In some cases, the spots spread to the arms and legs (but it usually doesn’t appear on the palms or soles). The spots can be slightly itchy.

Pityriasis rosea is not contagious. Although sometimes the spots take a while to fade completely, most people have no lasting traces of the rash after it’s healed.

What Causes Pityriasis Rosea?

Doctors aren’t really sure what causes pityriasis rosea. Some think a

virus causes it, but this hasn’t been proved.

Pityriasis rosea is more likely to show up in the spring and fall.

What Are the Signs & Symptoms of Pityriasis Rosea?

Most teens who get pityriasis rosea have no warning signs. Others can have flu-like symptoms (a sore throat, swollen glands, a headache, feeling tired) a few days before the rash appears.

The rash itself usually starts with one large spot, called the herald patch or “mother” patch, which can appear anywhere on the skin but usually is on the chest, belly, back, or thighs. This patch can be raised and may feel scaly. In people with light skin, the patch is pink or red. People with darker skin can see a variety of colors, from violet to brown to gray.

The herald patch might be the only sign of this condition for up to 2 to 3 weeks. As the rash grows, however, smaller spots (called “daughter” spots) can appear across the torso and on the arms and legs. The spots look almost identical on both sides of the body. These small patches are usually oval shaped and often form a pattern on the back that looks like a Christmas tree.

How Is Pityriasis Rosea Diagnosed?

To diagnose pityriasis rosea, doctors check the skin for the telltale signs of the rash. Sometimes doctors gently scrape off a few scales from the rash to examine under the microscope to rule out other possible causes, like ringworm or psoriasis.

How Is Pityriasis Rosea Treated?

Most cases of pityriasis rosea go away in 1 to 2 months without any treatment. Some cases can be as short as 2 weeks, while others can last for 3 months or longer.

When pityriasis rosea does need treatment, it’s usually just to control the itching. Over-the-counter itch creams or allergy syrups can help, and so can oatmeal baths.

In some cases, just getting a moderate amount of sunlight can help improve the rash and the itching. If you use this form of therapy, protect yourself from sunburn, which can sometimes make a rash worse.

Light therapy might be prescribed for cases where the itching is really bothersome. Usually, this involves ultraviolet B (UVB) therapy and is done by a


Common skin rashes and what to do about them – Faculty of Medicine

What’s that rash? Here’s what to look for to diagnose a common skin complaint. from www.shutterstock.com

H. Peter Soyer, The University of Queensland and Katie Lee, The University of Queensland

This article is part of our series about skin: why we have it, what it does, and what can go wrong. Read other articles in the series here.

Everyone has had the unpleasant experience of a rash on the skin – pink, red or purple, flat or bumpy, itchy, scaly, pus-filled, or just plain unsightly. This variety isn’t surprising, because the skin is a complicated organ.

Infections, allergic reactions, immune system problems and even bad reactions to medication can all manifest as a rash.

Here are a few of the most common types.

Drug allergy

Almost every prescription medication available can cause a rash as a side effect, and more than 80% of those are “exanthematous drug eruptions”, meaning a widespread rash accompanied by other symptoms such as headache, fever and feeling generally unwell.

This rash usually appears within two weeks of starting a new medication, as a widespread, symmetrical rash with pink-to-red spots that are flat or elevated and firm, and that might join together in patches.

Read more: Common lumps and bumps on and under the skin: what are they?

This type of rash is a hypersensitivity reaction, in which the attacking soldiers of the immune system (called “T-cells”) detect the drug and try to clear it from the body by releasing inflammatory proteins.

Exanthematous drug eruption. DermNet New Zealand.

Very rarely, a drug can cause a severe and life-threatening rash called “toxic epidermal necrolysis” where the skin begins to peel off in sheets. It’s more common in Han Chinese people with a specific genetic variant, and requires intensive care or burn unit treatment.

Most drug eruptions go away within a week once the patient stops taking the problem medication, or within several weeks in protracted cases. In the meantime, or if the drug is essential, steroid creams (which reduce inflammation) and emollient (softening) moisturisers can bring some relief.

Allergic contact dermatitis

Allergic contact dermatitis is caused by direct skin contact with a substance to which the person is allergic. The immune system’s T-cells overreact to the allergen and release proteins that call more immune cells to the area, making it red and swollen.

Read more: Why does Australia have so much skin cancer? (Hint: it’s not because of an ozone hole)

It’s often itchy and can be blistered or dry but bumpy. The reaction is often delayed by 48-72 hours, so it can be difficult to determine exactly what caused the reaction. It should also die down by itself over a few days, as long as the allergen is no longer on the skin.

Contact allergies can develop suddenly after years of exposure to an allergen. Jewellery containing nickel, fragrances in lotions, household cleaners, preservatives in hair products, and latex in gloves or condoms are common sources. A dermatologist can carry out a patch test to determine whether a substance is the allergen, by applying it to a small patch of skin.

Severe contact dermatitis from a drug patch. Dr. Khatmando

Active dermatitis is treated with emollient moisturisers and steroid creams, or with oral steroids or drugs to suppress the immune system if very severe. Further episodes can be prevented by becoming aware of the sources of the allergen, reading labels carefully, and using gloves to handle allergen-containing products.


Atopic dermatitis or atopic eczema (often just called eczema) is very common in children from three months old onwards, but appears in adults too, often with hay fever and asthma.

Atopic dermatitis features patches of intensely itchy red skin, sometimes with blisters and weeping patches. Children often have open sores and scabs, because it’s so itchy that it’s hard to refrain from scratching.

Over time the skin becomes thickened and rough from frequent scratching and rubbing. Childhood atopic dermatitis tends to improve as the child grows up, but may continue. Far less commonly, atopic dermatitis can also appear first in adulthood.

Atopic dermatitis is very common in children, but often improves as they get older. DermNet New Zealand

Atopic dermatitis is a disease of the immune system, in which structural defects in the skin barrier make it easier for irritants to penetrate into the skin. This throws the delicate balance of the microbial community on our skin out of whack, causing the immune system to go into overdrive. Triggers include stress, sweating, coarse fibres in clothing, inhalation of allergens such as pollen, irritants such as soap or perfumes, and eating food we’re allergic to.

Steroid creams can help treat a bad flare of atopic dermatitis, but shouldn’t be used constantly. In very severe cases, immunosuppressant drugs are prescribed. Ongoing control of atopic dermatitis often includes using emollient moisturisers to combat dry skin, keeping cool, avoiding hot water or irritants, and reducing allergens such as dust mites in the home.

For severe cases that don’t respond to these methods, the drug dupilumab has just been approved for use in Australia. This drug blocks a specific cell receptor to prevent immune cells from detecting two overactive inflammatory proteins.

Atopic dermatitis can have a big impact on quality of life, due to insomnia from the constant itchiness, and restrictions on clothing, body products, pets or activities. Its presence on prominent parts of the body like the face and hands can also reduce self-esteem. Evening sedatives to improve sleep and psychotherapy can help reduce the impact on everyday life.


Psoriasis is another chronic immune disorder. It can start at any age and can be lifelong, and is usually present as red plaques (raised or thickened skin) with well-defined edges and silvery-white scales, ranging from a few millimetres to several centimetres across. The overactive inflammation can also damage the joints and lead to psoriatic arthritis.

Read more: The skin is a very important (and our largest) organ: what does it do?

Often the plaques feel itchy or sore, and because psoriasis is long-lasting and can appear prominently on highly visible parts of the body, it often comes with severe psychological effects.

Psoriasis lesions are raised, red and often have white scales. DermNet New Zealand

Psoriasis is caused by too many new skin cells being produced and moving up to the surface of the skin too quickly. It’s not known exactly why, but there’s usually an overabundance of inflammatory messenger proteins in the skin.

It can be triggered or aggravated by a streptococcal infection such as tonsillitis, smoking, hormonal changes such as menopause, and some medications. Genetics play an important role in susceptibility to psoriasis and also in what treatments are effective.

Chronic plaque psoriasis, the most common form, can be very resistant to treatment. Small areas can be treated with creams containing steroids, coal tar, or vitamin D. If a lot of the body is covered by plaques, oral immunosuppressant drugs are used, or phototherapy, which uses targeted UV light to destroy over-active immune cells. Moderate sun exposure sometimes improves psoriasis, but sunburn can worsen it – a tricky balance in Australia’s high-UV environment.

These treatments can usually improve the plaques, but it can be very difficult to clear it completely. There are several new drugs coming onto the market for severe psoriasis that hasn’t responded to other treatment.


Tinea, or ringworm, is not caused by worms at all but a fungal infection. Tinea is usually named according to the body site it’s on, but the same few kinds of fungus can cause tinea in many parts of the body and it can be spread from one part of the body to another, such as by scratching or using a contaminated towel.

Tinea pedis, on the foot, is an important type because spores can live for weeks in communal showers and changing rooms, making it a common source of infection that can then spread to the trunk, arms and legs (tinea corporis) or groin (tinea cruris, or jock itch). Cats, dogs and other animals are a common source of ringworm fungus, but many types can be spread between people too.

The fungus continues to spread further out while the inner area heals, forming a distinctive ring shape. Grook Da Oger

Typically, tinea spreads in a circular or oval patch, often healing in the middle so that it appears to be a red scaly ring of infection. Sometimes it can also become a fungal abscess that looks like a boil, feels boggy, and has pustules.

On the feet it can look like ringworm circles, patchy fine dry scales on the sole, blisters on the instep or a moist, red peeling area between the toes (athlete’s foot).

In the groin, it can have a scaly, red raised border and be extremely itchy.

Tinea is diagnosed by microscopic examination and laboratory culture of skin scrapings. It’s usually treated with antifungal creams, or oral antifungal drugs if it persists. It can become chronic in the warm, moist folds of the body.


Shingles is a famously painful, blistering rash caused by the reactivation of chicken pox virus, varicella-zoster virus, usually years or decades after the original infection.

The virus lies dormant in nerves near the spine and migrates down the sensory nerve to the skin when it is reactivated, but it’s not known why the virus is reactivated. Some possible triggers are radiotherapy, spinal surgery, other infections, or cancers.

Shingles forms a painful, blistered red rash along the line of a sensory nerve. Fisle

Shingles starts with pain in the skin that is often described as burning or stabbing, followed in one to three days by a rash of raised red bumps that become blisters and then crust over. The rash is usually confined to a narrow arc of skin, along the sensory nerve that was harbouring the virus.

Patients often have a fever, headache and swollen lymph nodes. Recovery takes two to four weeks but the pain can persist after the rash has healed, called post-herpetic neuralgia.

If it’s caught within three days of onset, antiviral medication can reduce the severity of symptoms and length of the infection. Otherwise, treatment consists of powders or solutions to dry out the rash, as well as pain relief and rest.

Australians aged over 70 are eligible for a free zoster vaccine, which reduces the risk of shingles by half.

H. Peter Soyer, Professor of Dermatology, The University of Queensland and Katie Lee, Research assistant, The University of Queensland

This article was originally published on The Conversation. Read the original article.

Itchy skin – treatments, causes and prevention

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What is itchy skin?

Itching is a common irritation of the skin that makes you want to scratch the itchy area. It can occur anywhere on the body and can be very frustrating and uncomfortable.

Itching may occur on a small part of the body, for example around the area of an insect bite, or it can affect the whole body such as an allergic reaction.

What causes itchy skin?

Here are some common causes of itchy skin, with their related symptoms.

Dry skin: Skin can become dry and itchy in hot or cold, dry weather, or from using soap. Dry skin looks flaky and rough but it isn’t usually itchy or red. Sometimes the skin can crack, which can be painful.

Insect bite: There will usually be a bump or blister around the bite. The area may be inflamed and swollen.

Hives: Hives or urticaria are raised, white pink or red spots that are very itchy. The rash is often on the chest, abdomen or back, but it can appear anywhere. The rash will last from a few hours to 24 hours and then disappear with no scarring.

Heat rash: Heat rash looks like little pink or red spots or blisters. They can appear anywhere on the skin. Heat rash, also called miliaria or prickly heat, is very common in babies.

Eczema: Eczema causes itchy, red, scaly patches on the skin. The patches are usually on the cheeks, elbow creases and behind the knees. Eczema is common in children and often runs in families who have conditions like allergies, hay fever or asthma. Eczema is also called atopic dermatitis.

Scabies: Scabies is an extremely itchy skin rash caused by small mites. There will be red lumps and threadlike tracks on the skin. These usually appear between the fingers and toes, on the insides of the wrists, in the armpits, around the tummy and groin or on the buttocks.

Psoriasis: Psoriasis causes thick red, scaly patches on the skin. The scales can be silvery white. The patches are often on the scalp, knees, elbows, belly button and between the buttocks.

Obstetric cholestasis: This is an uncommon condition which usually occurs in the last four months of pregnancy. It can cause generalised (all over) itching of the skin, usually without a rash. The whole of the body may be affected, including the palms of the hands and the soles of the feet. You usually have itching but no rash.

CHECK YOUR SYMPTOMS — Use our rashes and skin problems Symptom Checker and find out if you need to seek medical help.

When should I see my doctor?

It’s always a good idea to see a doctor if your baby develops a rash. Other reasons to see a doctor are:

  • the lips or tongue are swollen
  • you or your child have trouble breathing
  • you are unwell or have a fever
  • the symptoms keep coming back
  • the itching is so bad you can’t sleep
  • the rash is bleeding, scabs or has pus
  • you develop severe itching while you are pregnant

Sometimes itching with no rash can be the sign of a more serious medical problem. See your doctor if you are very itchy and there is no rash.

How is itchy skin treated?

If you’re experiencing itching, here are some things that may help:

  • Try not to scratch the area. Keep your nails short to prevent breaking the skin if you do scratch. A cool bath or shower may help provide short-term relief, but excessive showering or bathing may make it worse.
  • After a bath or shower gently pat yourself dry with a clean towel. Do not rub or use the towel to scratch yourself.
  • Do not use any soaps, shower gels or foam bath products as they can dry the skin and make the itching worse.
  • Try to wear loose cotton clothing which can help prevent you overheating and making the itch worse. Avoid fabrics which irritate your skin like wool or scratchy fabrics.

Your pharmacist may be able to recommend some products which can help with itchy skin.

Can itchy skin be prevented?

To prevent itchy skin, use moisturiser after a shower or bath, while your skin is still damp. Make sure you have quick showers and don’t have the water too hot.

Drinking lots of water to keep well hydrated and using a humidifier in dry weather can help.

You can also use a mild soap or a non-soap cleanser to prevent itchy skin.

Complications of itchy skin

It’s quite common to find that after you’ve scratched an itch that it becomes more persistent (itchier) and you get into a cycle of itching and scratching. This can be painful and can sometimes lead to an infection if the skin is broken.

The scratching can also lead to brown or pale marks on the skin, lumps, bruising or scarring.

90,000 Irritated skin – symptoms to look out for

Allergic reactions on the skin

Skin allergy is an allergic reaction of your body to an irritant (allergen) in your environment. One type of skin allergy is a condition called allergic contact dermatitis. Allergic contact dermatitis occurs when your skin comes in direct contact with something that causes an allergic reaction.6 These can be fabrics or materials, such as nickel, which is present in jewelry, as well as perfumes or preservatives in cosmetics. 7

Signs of contact dermatitis are commonly found on the hands, hands, face, and legs and include:

  • Red, lumpy and scaly skin 6.7
  • Tiny bubbles filled with liquid7

Skin inflammation – dermatitis

Dermatitis is an inflammation of the skin.8 There are different types of dermatitis and eczema, but the most common is the atopic variant.

Symptoms of atopic dermatitis include: 8

  • Itching and dry skin
  • Red and inflamed skin, usually near folds of skin: on the elbows, wrists, under the knees, or around the neck
  • Blisters and weeping skin

Some of the symptoms of skin diseases (urticaria, eczema, atopic and seborrheic dermatitis) can overlap, therefore, for an accurate diagnosis and selection of drugs, consult a specialist.

What to do if the skin itches?

Itchy skin can be a symptom of many skin diseases. This causes discomfort and severe discomfort for patients, especially if it lasts for a long time.3 Antihistamines can help relieve itching of the skin and block the action of histamine, a chemical involved in the skin reaction during itching.3 These include Fenistil, a line of original anti-allergic drugs the first generation for the treatment of itching10, skin irritation11 and other allergy symptoms from 1 month of age in convenient formats for local and internal use.9

If itching continues to bother you, seek specialist medical attention.

90,000 The doctor said that a rash and vascular pattern on the skin can be symptoms of coronavirus – Society

MOSCOW, April 18. / Corr. TASS Kristina Marchenko /. A skin rash, as well as reticular livedo – a manifestation of a reticular vascular pattern on the surface of the skin – may be symptoms of a new coronavirus infection, the head of the Department of Pulmonology at Sechenov University, professor, pulmonologist Sergei Avdeev told TASS.

Clinical Center of the First Moscow State Medical University. I.M.Sechenov is one of the redesigned institutions, on the basis of which a hospital was opened to receive people with coronavirus infection. To date, about 1 thousand beds have been deployed for patients, in total it is planned to re-profile about 2 thousand

“It is already known about a skin rash. It is not so common in adults – about 3-5% of all patients with COVID-19, but nevertheless there are skin changes.The rash is of the type of erythematous (extensive red areas – approx. TASS), we also have such a term – exanthema. With some viral infections, a rash is a fairly characteristic symptom, for example, with rubella, with measles. With COVID-19, it is somewhat similar, although with rubella and measles, the rash is slightly different, “he said.

According to Avdeev, a pattern is also observed: the younger the patient’s age, the more skin manifestations from the infection. “Even from the point of view of skin changes, attention is drawn to – Livedo reticularis (reticular livedo).It looks like a mesh, more often on the legs. We expect to see such changes in severe patients with sepsis and septic shock, and, as a rule, they signal a violation of coagulation, that is, coagulation of the blood system, “he added. At the same time, the doctor urged not to immediately run to the hospital in case of detection of these manifestations on the skin , since this is not a 100% guarantee of the presence of infection.However, if a person has been in contact with an infected person, then this may be an early sign of the disease and you should consult a specialist.

The pulmonologist also said that with COVID-19, the lungs and cardiovascular system are most affected. “Almost all hospitalized patients have changes in the lungs – pneumonia. Moreover, today we know that asymptomatic patients can also have pneumonia. Next comes in terms of importance and sad prognosis – myocardial damage, it is 20-30%, that is not only the lungs, but also the cardiovascular system.Renal problems, renal failure – this is about 15%.Plus, blood clotting disorders are also a fairly common problem in patients with COVID-19, “the expert concluded.

In Russia, according to the federal operational headquarters for the fight against coronavirus, 32,008 cases of infection were registered, 2,590 people recovered, 273 died. The Russian government launched the stopcoronavirus.rf resource to inform about the situation in the country.

90,000 Diagnostics and treatment of hemorrhagic vasculitis in a modern hospital in Moscow

  • In the Yauza Clinical Hospital, laboratory (coagulogram, increased levels of the enzyme antistreptolysin-O, IgA) and instrumental (biopsy) research methods are used to diagnose hemorrhagic vasculitis (Schönlein-Henoch disease, purpura).
  • Based on the results of the examination, as well as taking into account the clinical picture of the disease, the rheumatologist will develop an individual treatment regimen for the patient, n , if necessary, using innovative methods of extracorporeal hemocorrection.

90,010 90,011 90,078 140 cases per million population – incidence of hemorrhagic vasculitis

  • More than 60% of cases of hepatitis B in adults are accompanied by involvement of the joints, 50% of the kidneys, 65% of the digestive tract
  • In 95% of cases, timely treatment of Henoch-Schönelein disease contributes to the patient’s complete recovery
  • sign up for a consultation

    On the development of the disease

    Hemorrhagic vasculitis or Chenelein-Henoch disease is a disease in which an autoimmune lesion of small arteries occurs – they become fragile, their permeability increases, which causes microcirculation disorders, microthrombosis, multiple small hemorrhages (hemorrhages) as in the skin (hemorrhagic and mucous membranes), and in internal organs (gastrointestinal tract, kidneys, joints).

    Most often, the disease develops in childhood (6-7 years), but it can also affect adults. Boys get sick 1.5 times more often than girls.


    The exact cause of hemorrhagic vasculitis (HV) has not yet been clarified, however, most scientists are inclined to a multiethiological theory of the development of pathology. The leading factors provoking the development of the disease are:

    • viral and bacterial infections,
    • chronic infections,
    • food or drug allergy,
    • vaccines.

    The above reasons provoke a malfunction of the immune system, which begins to produce pathogenic immune complexes (IgA) that affect the inner lining of small vessels and contribute to the development of its inflammation, microthrombosis.

    Symptoms of hemorrhagic vasculitis

    There are several forms of HS:

    • Skin or simple : characterized by the appearance of a specific itchy rash on the lower limbs and buttocks (small punctate hemorrhages that rise above the skin and do not disappear with pressure).Over time, the red rash darkens and disappears, leaving patches of increased pigmentation.
    • Articular: patients complain of pain in the area of ​​large joints (knee, elbow, hip), their swelling and dysfunction.
    • Abdominal : nausea and vomiting, severe abdominal pain (often cramping), possible intestinal bleeding, development of intestinal gangrene (due to thrombosis).
    • Renal : urine becomes pink or red due to the admixture of erythrocytes, its number decreases, protein appears in the analyzes, which are signs of the development of glomerulonephritis and the emergence of a threat of chronic renal failure.
    • Lightning : characterized by the development of DIC and high blood loss.

    Often, the disease begins with an increase in body temperature to 38-39 0 C, and patients also note general weakness and increased fatigue. A characteristic undulating course of the disease.

    Diagnosis of hemorrhagic vasculitis

    In the Yauza Clinical Hospital, patients with suspected Schönlein-Henoch disease are prescribed the following set of examinations:

    • general blood test;
    • general urinalysis;
    • coagulogram;
    • determination of the level of antistreptolysin-O, IGA in peripheral blood;
    • biopsy of tissues of the affected organ or part of the body, followed by histological examination of the biopsy.

    To make a diagnosis of hemorrhagic vasculitis, the patient must have two or more diagnostic criteria:

    • specific rashes not associated with low platelet counts;
    • manifest disease under the age of 20;
    • widespread abdominal pain that worsens after eating, intestinal bleeding;
    • Granulocytic infiltration of the vascular walls of the microvasculature, which was confirmed histologically.


    In the Yauza Clinical Hospital, the treatment of hemorrhagic vasculitis is aimed at achieving the following goals:

    • elimination of clinical signs of pathology;
    • reducing the risk of complications;
    • prevention of damage to vital organs;
    • complete recovery of the patient or achievement of stable long-term remission.

    For this, our rheumatologist develops an individual therapy regimen for each patient, which includes:

    • bed rest for at least 3 weeks;
    • exclusion of contact with allergens;
    • diet therapy;
    • appointment of enterosorbents, antihistamines, antispasmodics, hemostatic agents and antiplatelet agents;
    • In some cases, the use of hormones and cytostatics is justified.

    In order to reduce the destructive effect of circulating immune complexes and enhance the effectiveness of drug therapy, patients with HB are undergoing extracorporeal hemocorrection.

    Advantages of EG methods

    EG is shown at the very beginning of clinical manifestations. Early treatment with hemocorrection methods effectively prevents the development of serious complications and makes it possible to achieve rapid and long-term remission of the disease, which favorably affects the patient’s ability to work and his quality of life.

    This method of treatment allows:

    • reduce activity or quickly stop the pathological process and, thereby, reduce the risk of complications in hemorrhagic vasculitis from the kidneys, joints,
    • Accelerate the disappearance of clinical manifestations from the skin, kidneys, gastrointestinal tract, joints, etc.
    • improve the blood supply to the affected organs,
    • Increase the body’s susceptibility to drugs, including hormonal drugs, allowing them to be reduced in dosage (up to and including cancellation).

    The following methods of extracorporeal hemocorrection are indicated for HB therapy:

    • cryoapheresis;
    • cascade plasma filtration;
    • immunosorption;
    • high-volume plasma exchange;
    • extracorporeal pharmacotherapy;
    • photopheresis.

    Indications for EG are: the presence of vascular lesions, confirmed by biopsy, abdominal syndrome, ineffectiveness of drug therapy, side effects or complications when using drugs.

    In case of suspected or confirmed diagnosis of hemorrhagic vasculitis, make an appointment with a rheumatologist at the Clinical Hospital on Yauza. Our rheumatologists carry out complex diagnostics and treatment of hepatitis B using the most effective innovative methods, achieving the best results.

    You can look at prices for services in the price list or check the phone number indicated on the website.

    The article was checked by a doctor-transfusiologist, a specialist in extracorporeal hemocorrection Olshansky A.G. , is of a general informational nature, does not replace the advice of a specialist.
    For recommendations on diagnosis and treatment, a doctor’s consultation is required.

    synlab: Idiopathic urticaria

    Idiopathic (or chronic recurrent) urticaria is an itchy, blistering rash on the skin that lasts for at least 6 weeks.
    The main factor causing idiopathic urticaria is considered to be autoimmune disorders, in which the immune system is hypersensitive to the cells of its own body.
    Idiopathic urticaria can be an independent disease or act as a symptom of another disease – cancer, thyroid disease, diabetes mellitus, diffuse connective tissue diseases (especially systemic lupus erythematosus), gastrointestinal tract pathology. The main difficulty of this disease is that, despite the symptoms typical for urticaria, the idiopathic form of pathology appears under the influence of an unknown factor.
    The main symptom of idiopathic urticaria is the appearance on the skin of intensely itchy blisters of various sizes (from a few mm to a centimeter or more), with clear contours that rise above the skin.In addition to the rash, there may be swelling of the skin and subcutaneous tissue, an increase in body temperature at the height of the rash, chills, headaches, general weakness, malaise, neurotic disorders.
    As a rule, the disease has a relapsing course. An exacerbation of the process can cause prolonged exposure to the sun or cold, a violation of the diet, a stressful situation, helminthic invasion, an exacerbation of the underlying disease.
    Diagnostics of idiopathic urticaria includes study of general and biochemical blood tests, urinalysis, coprograms, tests for detecting helminthic invasion, blood tests for syphilis and HIV infection, tumor markers, blood test for thyroid hormones, allergy panel (to exclude food allergies), EGD, ultrasound of the thyroid gland, abdominal organs, colonosopia.
    Treatment of idiopathic urticaria is aimed at reducing the overactivity of the immune system (glucocorticosteroids), detoxification, relief of urticaria symptoms (2nd generation antihistamines, stabilizers of mast cell membranes for long courses). It is mandatory to treat the underlying disease identified during the examination, as well as sedative therapy.
    Prevention of idiopathic urticaria is directed to reduce the number of exacerbations and increase the duration of periods of remission: avoiding alcohol and smoking, avoiding prolonged exposure to the sun or cold, adherence to a hypoallergenic diet even in the absence of symptoms of exacerbation.It is recommended to use hypoallergenic cosmetics, to limit the use of household chemicals if possible, to undergo regular medical examinations for the early detection of various diseases.

    SINLAB allergists will help you carry out the laboratory and instrumental examination and treatment you need.