Pictures of yeast rash on skin: Pictures of Fungal Skin Infections
What does a yeast infection look like? Examples and treatments
The appearance of a yeast infection, or candidiasis, depends on its location. It can cause white patches in the mouth, flaking or crusting of the skin, and a few different changes in genital discharge.
In this article, we describe how a yeast infection visibly affects the body. We also look at other symptoms, treatments, and more.
A yeast infection occurs when fungi grow excessively in the body. This is particularly common in moist areas with less exposure, such as the mouth, vagina, or feet.
Often, yeast infections are caused by fungi from the Candida species — and according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Candida albicans is the type most likely to overgrow and cause an infection.
A vaginal yeast infection, or thrush, typically causes white discharge that is the texture of cottage cheese.
Other symptoms of a vaginal yeast infection include:
- painful urination
- soreness around the vagina
- inflammation and itchiness of the vagina and vulva
- pain during sex
These infections are common, with up to 75% of females having at least one diagnosed in their lifetimes.
Yeast infections can affect the penis, but this is less common. The symptoms tend to develop on the underside of the penis and include:
- inflamed patches of skin
- a painful rash
A yeast infection can also cause inflammation near the head of the penis. This issue is called balanitis.
A person with balanitis may experience burning or itching and yellow or white discharge. In some people, the inflammation spreads to the shaft and the area under the foreskin.
Yeast infections are not considered sexually transmitted infections (STIs). However, it is possible for a person to develop a yeast infection after having oral, anal, or vaginal sex with someone who has the condition, especially if they are especially susceptible.
Around 15% of males who have unprotected sex with females experiencing yeast infections develop the infection themselves.
Oral thrush occurs when yeast grows excessively in the mouth or throat. Typically, a person develops white patches on the tongue, cheeks, back of the throat, or roof of the mouth.
Other symptoms of oral thrush include:
- pain while eating or drinking
- a cotton-like feeling in the mouth
- cracked skin at the corners of the mouth
- a loss of taste
Most healthy adults do not develop oral thrush, but yeast infections in the mouth or esophagus are common in people with weakened immune systems.
Wearing dentures, smoking, and having dry mouth also elevate the risk of developing oral thrush.
The appearance of a yeast infection on the skin depends on the location, but this type of infection often causes patches of inflammation. These can vary in shape and size.
Sometimes, these patches itch, flake, or develop crusts, and pustules may appear around the edges.
A yeast infection can occur anywhere on the skin, but is most likely to develop in folds, such as:
- under the breasts
- under the arms
- in the groin
- under or in the buttocks
- in the navel
- on the scalp
- between the fingers and toes
If a yeast infection occurs on the scalp, it can cause crusty lesions that can lead to hair loss. Yeast infections can also cause diaper rash in babies.
Yeast infections can develop beneath the nails. An infected nail may turn white or yellow and start to separate from the nail bed.
When a yeast infection occurs under the nails, a person may experience:
In small amounts, Candida fungi are not harmful. Many people have yeast on their skin and in their body. Other types of microbe, such as bacteria, help keep Candida from growing excessively.
However, certain factors can disrupt the body’s ability to keep Candida under control, such as:
- Antibiotics: Because antibiotics kill bacteria, the result may be that Candida fungi grow unchecked.
- Hormonal contraceptives: People who take hormonal birth control that contains estrogen are more likely to develop yeast infections.
- Pregnancy: Similarly, the hormonal changes during pregnancy increase the chances of developing yeast infections.
- A weak immune system: Young babies and people with immune disorders or conditions such as HIV may be more susceptible to yeast infections.
- Medications: Some medications and treatments, including steroids, immunosuppressants, and chemotherapy also weaken the immune system.
- Diabetes: Sugar helps yeast grow, so if a person frequently has high blood sugar levels, they are more likely to develop candidiasis.
Vaginal douches and sprays may also increase the risk of developing a vaginal yeast infection.
The treatment for a yeast infection varies, depending on the infection’s location and severity.
For mild, occasional infections, a person can try over-the-counter options, such as topical creams, nail treatments, or vaginal suppositories.
However, it is important to speak with a pharmacist or doctor first, because the symptoms of a vaginal yeast infection are similar to those of bacterial vaginosis and some STIs.
These issues do not respond to yeast infection treatments. They require different approaches and can cause serious health complications if a person does not receive the necessary care.
Also, frequently using antifungal medicine unnecessarily may reduce how effective it is in the future.
For more severe or reoccurring infections, a person may need prescription antifungal medication.
Pregnant women should not take the antifungal medicine fluconazole (Diflucan), as it may cause birth defects, the Office on Women’s Health report.
Some home care strategies may help reduce yeast infection symptoms or prevent the issue from coming back.
Probiotic yogurt may help reduce the amount of yeast in the body. A 2013 pilot study involving 24 women showed that eating 8 ounces of probiotic yogurt per day reduced the presence of Candida in some cases.
However, this was a small study with mixed results. Also, the women had HIV, so their health responses may not reflect those of the general population.
Addressing the cause of the infection is important, especially if the infection keeps coming back. A person may benefit from:
- using a condom during sex
- avoiding the overuse of antibiotics
- switching to a different method of birth control
- better managing underlying conditions, such as diabetes
A person should talk to a doctor if they notice symptoms of a yeast infection.
It is important to receive the right treatment for any infection, and correctly identifying the type of infection is the first step.
Yeast infections often cause changes to genital discharge and patches to form in the mouth or in skin folds.
A doctor can confirm the infection and recommend the best treatment, depending on the severity and the part of the body involved.
Fungal Infection, Fungal Rash, Skin Fungus Treatment
What is skin fungus?
A fungus is a tiny organism, such as mold or mildew. Fungi are everywhere — in the air and water and on the human body. About half of fungi are harmful. If one of the harmful fungi lands on your skin, it can cause a fungal infection. You may develop a rash or feel itchy.
Who is at risk for developing a fungal rash?
Anyone can develop a fungal rash. Superficial infections of the skin and nails are cited as the most common form of infection, affecting up to 20-25% of the world’s population at any given time. For example, athlete’s foot often affects otherwise healthy people. You may have a higher risk for developing a skin rash if you:
- Have a weakened immune system (for example, if you take immunosuppressant medications, have a disease that weakens the immune system or are undergoing chemotherapy).
- Take long-term or high-dose antibiotics.
- Have excess weight.
- Have diabetes.
- Try a new skin care product.
- Experience incontinence (for example, babies getting diaper rashes).
- Sweat heavily.
- Are pregnant.
What does a fungal rash look like?
A fungal skin infection often looks bright red and can spread across a large area. A fungal skin rash may also have characteristics including:
- Color more intense at the border.
- Scale more intense at the border
- Smaller, more defined lesions (pustules) at the edges of the rash area.
Where does a fungal rash appear?
The rash can appear anywhere on the body, including the nails. It’s more common in areas with skin folds, such as the groin, buttocks or thighs.
What are different types of skin rashes?
The medical name for a fungal skin infection is tinea. Types of fungal infections include:
- Athlete’s foot (tinea pedis): The most common type of fungal infection, this condition often spreads when people walk barefoot in public bathrooms or locker rooms. The skin between your toes turns white and starts to peel. Athlete’s foot can also affect the soles (bottoms) of the feet.
- Nail fungus (onychomycosis): This infection is a common foot problem. It usually affects the toenails, which become yellow and thick and break easily.
- Jock itch (tinea cruris): A rash of the groin area, jock itch affects more men than women.
- Scalp ringworm (tinea capitis): This rash occurs mostly in children. It causes hair loss, but with the right treatment, the hair usually grows back.
- Ringworm (tinea corporis): This “catch-all” term is what healthcare providers call a rash that doesn’t fit into any other category. The rash often forms a ring shape.
Symptoms and Causes
What causes a fungal rash?
When your skin comes into contact with a harmful fungus, the infection can cause the rash to appear. For example, if you borrowed a pair of shoes from someone who had athlete’s foot, the fungus could come in contact with your foot and infect you. Rashes often pass from person to person or from animal to person by direct contact.
What are symptoms of a fungal rash?
A fungal rash is often red and itches or burns. You may have red, swollen bumps like pimples or scaly, flaky patches.
Diagnosis and Tests
How is a fungal rash diagnosed?
A healthcare provider may be able to diagnose a fungal rash by looking at it and asking about your symptoms. Many times, the diagnosis can be confirmed by examining scrapings of the scale under the microscope (KOH preparation). In some cases, you may need a fungal culture test to identify a specific fungus and help determine the best treatment for you.
During a fungal culture test, your provider may take a small sample of skin (biopsy) or fluid (aspiration). For severe infections, you may need a blood test.
Management and Treatment
How is skin fungus treated?
Treatment for skin fungus includes:
- Antifungal creams, many of which are available over-the-counter.
- Stronger prescription medications, which may work faster.
- Oral medicines, if the fungal infection is severe.
Can I treat a fungal rash at home?
It’s important for your healthcare provider to see the rash, especially if this is the first time the rash has appeared. Your provider can diagnose it and discuss the best course of action to treat it. Treating a fungal rash with an anti-itch cream that contains a steroid may make the infection worse and more difficult to treat.
How can I prevent a fungal rash?
In some people, fungal rashes tend to come back (recur) even after treatment. Recurring infections may be due to genetics — you may be more prone to developing these infections. These steps can help prevent a rash from recurring or developing in the first place:
Good foot hygiene
- Change your socks and wash your feet regularly. Avoid shoes made of plastic, which doesn’t breathe.
- Don’t walk barefoot, especially in places that may be wet, such as gym showers and locker rooms.
- When cutting your toenails, cut straight across the nail. If you have an ingrown toenail, you may need to see a podiatrist to care for it. And if you have a fungal nail infection, don’t use the same nail clippers on healthy nails and infected nails.
Proper medicine use
- If your healthcare provider prescribed a cream (or advised you to use an over-the-counter cream), use the medicine as long as directed. Even after you can no longer see the rash, the fungal infection may still be there, so keep applying the cream as long as your provider recommends.
- Your healthcare provider may recommend the same course of treatment for all the members of your family. Often, people living together can pass an infection back and forth. Treating everyone will help make sure the infection is truly gone.
- Talk to your healthcare provider about whether you should use an antifungal cream regularly on your feet and nails to help prevent infections.
- Using antifungal powder in your shoes every day may help prevent athlete’s foot.
Outlook / Prognosis
How long will I have the skin rash?
How long the treatment takes to work can differ from person to person. It usually takes a few days to a few weeks to clear up. The fungal infection may come back, however. Talk to your healthcare provider about steps you can take to prevent the infection from returning.
When should I see my doctor about a rash?
Most rashes are not serious. But it’s always a good idea to see your healthcare provider if you have skin changes. Your provider can recommend a course of treatment to help you feel better and diagnose any underlying conditions.
Call your healthcare provider or go to the emergency room if the rash:
- Is all over your body.
- Starts suddenly and spreads quickly.
- Is painful, blistered or infected.
- Happens along with a fever.
A note from Cleveland Clinic
Fungal skin rashes can be uncomfortable and itchy, but they are treatable. See your healthcare provider if you notice any rashes or changes in your skin. Typically, a course of antifungal creams (either prescription or over-the-counter) will clear up the rash and relieve the itchiness. Your healthcare provider can also discuss preventive steps to keep the rash from coming back.
Yeast Skin Infection | Michigan Medicine
What is a yeast skin infection?
A yeast infection is usually caused by a fungus called Candida albicans. This kind of yeast naturally lives on your skin. When too much yeast grows, it is called a yeast skin infection.
Yeast skin infections tend to happen in skin-to-skin areas. These include the underarms, as well as skin folds under the breasts, neck, belly, or groin.
What causes a yeast skin infection?
Things that make it easier for too much yeast to grow include:
- Warm and moist areas on the body.
- Tight-fitting, “nonbreathable” clothing that keeps moisture on the skin.
- Antibiotic use.
- Certain health problems, such as diabetes, that weaken the body’s immune system.
What are the symptoms?
The most common symptoms of a yeast skin infection are:
- Red, scaly, moist patches on the skin.
- Itching or burning.
- Irritation or tenderness.
How is a yeast skin infection diagnosed?
A yeast skin infection can often be diagnosed based on how it looks and feels. Sometimes a KOH test or culture is done to be sure that yeast is the cause.
How is it treated?
A yeast skin infection is treated with an antifungal medicine. Your doctor may give you a prescription for the cream or ointment. Or you may be able to buy it over the counter at a drugstore. Examples of these medicines are miconazole and clotrimazole.
If the infection is severe, your doctor may prescribe antifungal pills.
A yeast infection usually goes away after about a week of treatment. But it’s important to use the medicine for as long as your doctor tells you to.
To help keep yeast growth under control, keep your skin clean and dry. Wear loose clothing. Your doctor may suggest a powder that contains an antifungal medicine. You only need to apply it in problem areas, such as skin folds.
Current as of: July 2, 2020
Author: Healthwise Staff
Medical Review: Kathleen Romito MD – Family Medicine
Martin J. Gabica MD – Family Medicine
Adam Husney MD – Family Medicine
Adam Husney MD – Family Medicine
Current as of: July 2, 2020
Medical Review:Kathleen Romito MD – Family Medicine & Martin J. Gabica MD – Family Medicine & Adam Husney MD – Family Medicine & Adam Husney MD – Family Medicine
Thrush and Other Candida Infections
By: Scott Pangonis, MD, MS, FAAP & S. Elizabeth Williams, MD, MPH, FAAP
Candida is a type of yeast, part of the fungus family that normally lives in and on our bodies. It can be found on the skin and in the mouth, for example, and in the intestinal tract and genital area. Most of the time,
Candida does not cause any problems. However, when it overgrows, it can cause infections such as candidiasis. These fungal infections can become chronic.
What is thrush?
Candidiasis infection of the mouth, also called oral
thrush, is common in infants and toddlers. Thrush can also affect fingernails, eyes, and skin folds of the neck and armpits, as well as the diaper area, including the vagina and folds of the groin.
How do infants and children get thrush and other
Pregnancy & birth. Newborns can get a
Candida infection from their mothers. This can happen while they’re still in the uterus, but also during passage through the vagina during birth. Most of these infections are caused by Candida albicans, although other species of
Candida are becoming more common.
Medicine. Sometimes, children develop candidiasis after taking
antibiotics. While antibiotics fight germs that make a child sick, they sometimes also affect the “good” bacteria that help keep the body’s balance of microbes in check. This gives fungi like
Candida a chance to overgrow. Using inhaled
steroids for asthma without rinsing the mouth with water afterward inhaler use can also lead to candidiasis.
Health conditions. In some children with serious health challenges, the fungus may enter the bloodstream. Those most risk of bloodstream infections with
premature or very low birthweight infants, children with long-term intravenous (IV) catheters, and children with weakened immune systems caused by
cancers or medicines. For these children, oral nystatin and fluconazole are often used to prevent candidiasis.
Candida infections become chronic or occur in the mouth of older children, it may be a sign of an immune system challenge, such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection.
Candida infections of the skin, mouth (thrush), or vagina in children over 2-3 years of age, can also be a sign of
Signs & symptoms of
Infants. In infants, symptoms include painful white or yellow patches on the tongue, lips, gums, palate (roof of mouth), and inner cheeks (thrush). It can also spread into the esophagus, making it painful to swallow. Candidiasis can make a
diaper rash worse, producing redness and sensitivity in the affected area, along with a raised red border in some cases.
Teens. Teenage girls who develop a vaginal
yeast infection may have symptoms such as itching, pain, redness, and/or a thick, “cheesy” vaginal discharge. A yeast infection often follows antibiotic therapy.
Children taking IV medications. Symptoms are different for children who get
Candida infections while receiving
chemotherapy treatment, or other long-term home medications delivered through an IV catheter. In these cases, the fungus gets into the blood system. Once in the blood, the yeast can travel throughout the body, causing infection of the heart, lungs, liver, kidneys, eyes, brain, and skin. The early signs of a
Candida bloodstream infection are fever and blockage of the IV catheter.
How is a
Candida infection diagnosed?
Your pediatrician will often make the diagnosis by examining your child and reviewing symptoms. Scrapings of
Candida lesions (sores) inside the mouth or other spots can be further examined for signs of the infection.
An ultrasound or CT scan can detect candidal lesions that have developed in the brain, kidney, heart, liver, or spleen after a bloodstream infection. Cultures of the blood or mouth lesions are sometimes taken to grow the fungus in the laboratory and identify the type and sensitivity of the yeast.
Antifungal drugs are used to treat candidiasis. The antibiotic nystatin is often prescribed for children with infections such as oral thrush or a
Candida-related diaper rash, for example. The specific medicines given for candidiasis vary, depending on the part of the body where the infection is concentrated.
If candidiasis has spread through the bloodstream, your pediatrician will usually recommend treatment with an IV medicine. Some of these IV medicines cause uncomfortable side effects, but are still reliable medicine for serious, invasive fungal infections. However, most medications used to treat candidiasis are well tolerated by most children.
How long does it take for
Candida infections go away?
Once treatment starts, most candidiasis infections get better within about 2 weeks. It is not uncommon for infections to return, however. Long-lasting thrush is sometimes related to pacifiers or
bottles that have not been properly boiled to remove the fungus.
The infection is much more difficult to treat in children with catheters or weakened immune systems. Typically, the catheter must be removed or replaced to effectively treat infections that are from with these devices. Tests are also usually done to see if the infection has spread to other parts of the body. Antifungal therapy can take weeks to months for the more challenging infections.
Talk with your pediatrician if you think your child may have symptoms of
Candida infection, or whenever you have any questions about your child’s health.
About Dr. Pangonis
Scott Pangonis, MD, MS, FAAP is a board-certified pediatrician. He is an Assistant Professor in Pediatric Infectious Diseases at Akron Children’s Medical Center. Within the American Academy of Pediatrics, he is a member of the Section on Infectious Diseases.
About Dr. Williams
S. Elizabeth Williams MD, MPH, FAAP, is a board-certified pediatrician who is currently an Assistant Professor of General Pediatrics at Tennessee at Monroe Carrell Jr. Children’s Hospital in Nashville. Within the American Academy of Pediatrics, Dr. Williams serves on the Education Subcommittee of the Section on Infectious Diseases.
The information contained on this Web site should not be used as a substitute for the medical care and advice of your pediatrician. There may be variations in treatment that your pediatrician may recommend based on individual facts and circumstances.
Fungal Groin Infection (Tinea Cruris) | Symptoms and Treatment
Fungal groin infection (tinea cruris) is an infection of the groin caused by a fungus. It is a common problem, particularly in athletes and in the elderly. Treatment with an antifungal cream usually works well. The tips given below may help to prevent recurrences.
What is fungal groin infection and how do you get it?
Fungal groin infection (tinea cruris)
By Robertgascoin, via Wikimedia Commons
By Robertgascoin (Own work), via Wikimedia Commons
Fungal groin infection (tinea cruris) is a fungal skin infection of the groin. Some types of fungal germs (fungi) are commonly found on human skin. They usually do no harm. However, if conditions are right they can ‘invade’ the skin, multiply and cause infection. The conditions fungi like best are warm, moist and airless areas of skin, such as the groin, under the arms and under the breasts.
What are the symptoms of fungal groin infection?
Typically the groin becomes itchy and a bit sore, mainly in the crease between the top of the leg and the genitals. It is more common in men and the scrotum may also be itchy. Red, slightly scaly skin then develops in the groin, usually with a definite edge or border. Both sides are commonly affected. The rash often spreads a short way down the inside of both thighs.
Sometimes the infection spreads to the skin on other parts of the body (or may have first started in another area, such as athlete’s foot (tinea pedis)). Fungal infections do not usually go deeper than the skin into the body and are not usually serious.
What is the treatment for fungal groin infection?
You can buy an antifungal cream from pharmacies, or obtain one on prescription. There are various types and brands – for example, terbinafine, clotrimazole, econazole, ketoconazole and miconazole. These modern creams are good at clearing fungal skin infections.
- Apply the cream to the surrounding 4-6 cm of normal skin in addition to the rash.
- Apply for as long as advised. This varies between the different creams, so read the instructions carefully.
- For skin that is particularly inflamed, your doctor may prescribe an antifungal cream combined with a mild steroid cream. This would normally be used for no more than seven days. You may need to continue with an antifungal cream alone for a time afterwards. The steroid reduces inflammation and may ease itch and redness quickly. However, the steroid does not kill the fungus and so a steroid cream alone should not be used.
An antifungal medicine taken by mouth is sometimes prescribed if the infection is widespread or severe – for example, terbinafine, griseofulvin, or itraconazole tablets.
You can read more about treatments for fungal infections in the separate leaflet called Antifungal Medicines.
Photographs showing the typical appearance of fungal groin infection (tinea cruris) and showing how it is treated with an antifungal cream until it is almost gone are available in our Further Reading and References section, below.
Preventing recurring fungal groin infection
- Wash your groin daily; then dry thoroughly. Drying is perhaps the most important point. It is easy to put on underwear when your groin is not quite dry. The damp groin is then an ideal site for fungal germs (fungi) to multiply. (A hairdryer is useful if you have hairy groins.)
- Change underwear daily. Fungi may multiply in flakes of skin in unwashed underwear.
- Check for athlete’s foot (tinea pedis) and treat it if you have it. Athlete’s foot is a common fungal infection of the toes. In a typical case of athlete’s foot, the skin between the toes is itchy and flaky – especially between the outer two toes. The fungi from athlete’s foot may spread to the groin. The same creams are used to treat athlete’s foot and fungal groin infection (tinea cruris).
- Do not share towels with people in communal changing rooms. Wash towels frequently.
- Keep your own towel when you have a fungal skin infection to reduce the chance of passing on the fungus to others.
Tinea and Candida Infections of the Skin
The Fungi Story
Fungi were originally classified as plants—think, grocery-store mushrooms— and many people are unaware that these chlorophyll- and cell wall—deficient organisms are not plant species. Most fungi thrive at temperatures between 53.6°F and 86°F (12°C-30°C). Mammals’ high body temperatures compared with ambient temperatures endow them with protective endothermy (inhospitable temperature for fungal growth) against fungi that enter the body.2
The approximately 300 fungi that cause disease in humans are primarily dermatophytes—they infect our outer skin—and they are classified by the area they infect. Fungi need warmth and moisture, making sweaty feet, skin folds, and mucous membranes attractive. Some fungi are yeast-like, causing infections such as candidiasis, while others are mold-like, causing tinea infections. This article examines the most common fungal skin infections3 (Online Table4-6).
Candida yeasts grow on the skin’s surface. Antibiotic use or immune system dysfunction creates opportunities for oral, digestive, or vaginal overgrowth. Candida fungi prefer moist areas, making Candida a common cause of diaper rash, rash in obese patients’ skin folds, and vaginal infections. Candida infection often responds to nystatin.5,6
Athlete’s Foot, Jock Itch, and Ringworm
Three types of fungal infection are closely related:
- Tinea pedis (athlete’s foot): on any given day, 20% of Americans are infected (most of them are men). Risk factors include wearing athletic shoes that retain warmth and perspiration and using public athletic facilities. Most patients can treat athlete’s foot successfully with an OTC topical antifungal, although severe cases require a prescription product. Recurrence is common, even after prolonged treatment.6,7
- Tinea cruris (jock itch): this infection frequently follows athlete’s foot and is characterized by burning, scaly, and itchy skin. It typically affects young males, although women can contract it, as well. Some clinicians counsel patients infected with athlete’s foot to put socks on before underwear to prevent the infection’s spread.6,7
- Tinea corporis (ringworm—a misnomer, it’s not a worm): highly contagious, ringworm forms on the trunk or extremities, and affects more women than men. Ringworm’s vectors are shared clothing and towels, direct contact with others who are infected, and companion animals.6,7 These 3 infections usually respond to topical treatment with terbinafine, butenafine, or luliconazole. Extensive or severe infection, however, may require oral antifungals.6-8
Tinea capitis (scalp infection) attacks scalp, eyebrow, and eyelash hair follicles and is typically diagnosed in African American children aged 3 to 9 years. Topical agents cannot penetrate the hair shaft, necessitating oral treatment. Terbinafine and fluconazole have largely displaced griseofulvin, the older drug of choice, because they are safe and effective and produce results faster. Patients who use selenium or ketoconazole shampoo for the first 2 weeks are less likely to spread the infection to others.9-11
Pityriasis versicolor (skin infection [formerly tinea versicolor]) usually thrives in warm and humid environments. People who have seborrheic dermatitis, dandruff, and hyperhidrosis seem to acquire the infection more than others, yet the factors promoting its growth are poorly understood. Patients often complain of itching or flaking. Treatments include topical selenium sulfate, ketoconazole, terbinafine, or ciclopirox.5,12 Oral antifungals can also be used. Although longer therapy treatments are more effective, some clinicians prescribe a single dose and then direct the patient to exercise heavily 1 to 2 hours later to induce sweating. Patients then allow the sweat to evaporate, and delay showering for a day, which leaves a film of the medication on the skin.13
Onychomycosis (nail infection) can be painful, disfiguring, and psychologically disconcerting as the fungus invades the nail bed and inflammation occurs. Onychomycosis is usually treated with 3 to 6 months of oral therapy. Prescribers often choose oral terbinafine because of its superior effectiveness, tolerability, and low cost, but oral fluconazole is also effective.4,14 Medication frequently fails, however. The FDA recently approved efinaconazole, a topical product that is used once daily for 48 weeks.15 Patients need to be reminded that it takes 9 to 12 months for the disfigured nail to grow out. Up to 50% of infections recur.4,14 Laser treatment can also cure onychomycosis.4,16
Fungal infections are common. Once treated, however, they tend to resolve completely. The Sidebar lists points to remember regarding dermal fungi.
Ms. Wick is a visiting professor at the University of Connecticut School of Pharmacy.
Table: Common Fungal Skin Infections
Signs and Symptoms
Yeasts of the genus Candida
· Cutaneous candidiasis is usually red, flaky, and itchy
· Oral thrush is usually caused by Candida albicans, and ordinarily presents with white patches or plaques on the tongue and other oral mucous membranes; redness or soreness; dysphagia; and angular cheilitis (cracking at the corners of the mouth)
· Uncommon among healthy adults
Pityriasis versicolor (formerly tinea versicolor)
Yeasts of the genus Malassezia
· Marked skin discoloration (lightening or darkening), usually on the oily skin of the chest and back, and occasionally the neck and upper arms
· Lesions appear white, brown, tan, or pink
· Occurs on the scalp, and usually starts with itching and scaling
· Often causes alopecia or dotted areas of inflammation
· May progress to kerion (boggy
tender plaques and pustules)
Tinea corporis (ringworm)
· Red, itchy; 1- to 5-cm circular rash
· Often mistaken for eczema; worsens after treatment with steroids
· Initial red pustular lesions; patches spread quickly
· Chronic infection is possible, and its milder rash spreads slowly
Tinea cruris (jock itch)
· Appears around the groin, anus, and inner thighs, usually sparing the penis and scrotum
· The rash’s center can become reddish-brown, while the edges develop scale, bumps, or oozing blisters
Tinea pedis (athlete’s foot)
Trichophyton mentagrophytes var interdigitale
· Burning and itching are hallmark symptoms; some people develop blisters; skin lesions on the heels, soles, or along the sides of the feet; or fissures between toes
Tinea unguium (onychomycosis)
Trichophyton mentagrophytes var mentagrophytes
· Causes dystrophic, thick, brittle, discolored nails
A slide presentation with clear pictures is available at http://reference.medscape.com/features/slideshow/cfi.
Adapted from references 4-6.
Sidebar: Treating Tinea Infections: Points to Remember
· Dermatophytes are resistant to nystatin, so it is an inappropriate treatment. Nystatin is often effective for treating cutaneous Candida infections.
· Avoid oral ketoconazole because it can cause hepatic toxicity; other drugs are safer.
· Terbinafine is usually a better option than griseofulvin for treating onychomycosis.
· Avoid using combination products containing corticosteroids; they can aggravate fungal infections.
· Topical butenafine and terbinafine are more effective than topical clotrimazole or miconazole.
· For treating tinea capitis, an oral agent is needed and should be combined with a sporicidal shampoo (selenium sulfide or ketoconazole).
Adapted from references 4-6 and 17.
- Garcia-Solache MA, Casadevall A. Global warming will bring new fungal diseases for mammals. MBio. 2010;1(1). pii: e00061-10. doi: 10.1128/mBio.00061-10.
- Hawksworth DL. The magnitude of fungal diversity: the 1.5 million species estimate revisited. Mycol Res. 2001;105(12):1422-1432.
- Segal E, Frenkel M. Dermatophyte infections in environmental contexts. Res Microbiol. 2015; S0923-2508(14)00256-3. doi: 10.1016/j.resmic.2014.12.007.
- de Berker D. Clinical practice. Fungal nail disease. N Engl J Med. 2009;360(20):2108-2116. doi: 10.1056/NEJMcp0804878.
- Nenoff P, Krüger C, Schaller J, Ginter-Hanselmayer G, Schulte-Beerbühl R, Tietz HJ. Mycology – an update part 2: dermatomycoses: clinical picture and diagnostics. J Dtsch Dermatol Ges. 2014;12(9):749-777. doi: 10.1111/ddg.12420.
- Ely JW, Rosenfeld S, Seabury Stone M. Diagnosis and management of tinea infections. Am Fam Physician. 2014;90(10):702-710.
- Rotta I, Otuki MF, Sanches AC, Correr CJ. Efficacy of topical antifungal drugs in different dermatomycoses: a systematic review with meta-analysis. Rev Assoc Med Bras. 2012;58(3):308-318.
- Khanna D, Bharti S. Luliconazole for the treatment of fungal infections: an evidence-based review. Core Evid. 2014 Sep 24;9:113-124. doi: 10.2147/CE.S49629.
- Ali S, Graham TA, Forgie SE. The assessment and management of tinea capitis in children. Pediatr Emerg Care. 2007;23(9):662-665; quiz 666-8.
- Chen C, Koch LH, Dice JE, et al. A randomized, double-blind study comparing the efficacy of selenium sulfide shampoo 1% and ciclopirox shampoo 1% as adjunctive treatments for tinea capitis in children. Pediatr Dermatol. 2010;27(5):459-462. doi: 10.1111/j.1525-1470.2010.01093.x.
- Elewski BE, Cáceres HW, DeLeon L, et al. Terbinafine hydrochloride oral granules versus oral griseofulvin suspension in children with tinea capitis: results of two randomized, investigator-blinded, multicenter, international, controlled trials. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2008;59(1):41-54. doi: 10.1016/j.jaad.2008.02.019.
- Rad F, Nik-Khoo B, Yaghmaee R, Gharibi F. Terbinafin 1% cream and ketoconazole 2% kream in the treatment of pityriasis versicolor: a randomized comparative clinical trial. Pak J Med Sci. 2014;30(6):1273-1276. doi: 10.12669/pjms.306.5509.
- Rivard SC. Pityriasis versicolor: avoiding pitfalls in disease diagnosis and therapy. Mil Med. 2013;178(8):904-906. doi: 10.7205/MILMED-D-13-00057.
- Gupta AK, Ryder JE, Johnson AM. Cumulative meta-analysis of systemic antifungal agents for the treatment of onychomycosis. Br J Dermatol. 2004;150(3):537-544.
- Rich P. Efinaconazole topical solution, 10%: the benefits of treating onychomycosis early. J Drugs Dermatol. 2015;14(1):58-62.
- Li Y, Yu S, Xu J, Zhang R, Zhao J. Comparison of the efficacy of long-pulsed Nd:YAG laser intervention for treatment of onychomycosis of toenails or fingernails. J Drugs Dermatol. 2014;13(10):1258-1263.
- Five things physicians and patients should question. Choosing Wisely website. www.choosingwisely.org/doctor-patient-lists/american-academy-of-dermatology/. Published October 29, 2013. Accessed February 28, 2015.
Fungal skin infections | Health Information
Types of fungal skin infections
This is a really common infection. It’s thought that around seven in 10 people have athlete’s foot (tinea pedis) at some time in their lives. It’s caused by fungi that grow in the skin between your toes and on the soles of your feet. They grow easily here because of the moisture formed when your feet sweat.
The infection can make the skin between your toes itchy, flaky and red. You may get painful cracks, or fissures, in the skin there. The sole of your foot can also become itchy, thickened and scaly. You might get blisters too.
You’re more likely to get athlete’s foot if your footwear makes your feet sweaty, and you’re in a warm, humid environment. You can pick up athlete’s foot if you walk barefoot on damp, contaminated floors such as in communal bathing or swimming areas. After scratching the affected area, you can spread the infection, causing athlete’s foot in other parts of your body.
The medical name for a fungal nail infection is onychomycosis. It can affect any part of your nail, and your toenails are much more likely to be affected than your fingernails. Fungal infections of your nail tend to take a long time to develop. They cause your nail to discolour and become rough and crumbly. The surrounding tissue may also get thicker.
Having a fungal nail infection can make you feel uncomfortable about showing your feet, for instance, when swimming, or sharing changing rooms. It can also sometimes become painful and cause problems with standing or exercising.
You’re more likely to get a fungal nail infection if you have other fungal skin infections, such as athlete’s foot.
Despite its name, ringworm is an infection with a fungus, not a worm. Its name comes from the way it often causes a ring-shaped rash. Ringworm infections are very common and can affect different parts of your body.
Ringworm on your body
This usually affects parts of your body that are exposed, such as your arms, legs or trunk, and it causes a red, scaly, ring-shaped rash. Ringworm can spread with close contact. You can catch it by touching somebody who already has ringworm, or by touching contaminated items, such as clothing or bedding. Farm animals such as cattle carry the fungi that cause ringworm, as well as pets like cats and dogs.
Ringworm in your groin
This is also called ‘jock itch’ and it’s more common in young men. This is because the scrotum and thigh are in close contact, which can create conditions in which fungi can thrive. It can also happen if you’re very overweight or often wear tight clothing. Ringworm can cause an itchy, red rash in your groin and around the top of your legs.
You’re most likely to get ringworm in your groin if you have other fungal skin infections of your hands, feet or nails. Like ringworm on your body, ringworm in your groin can spread with close contact and you can pass it on in the same way.
Ringworm on your scalp
You can get this at any age, but it mostly affects children. Ringworm usually appears in patches on your scalp, which are scaly and may itch. In some people the patches become inflamed and red, with pustules forming. You may also develop a pus-filled area on your scalp, called a ‘kerion’. During the infection, it’s possible that your hair may fall out and leave bald areas, but it usually grows back once you treat the infection.
You can get ringworm on your scalp by sharing a contaminated hairbrush or clothing used by somebody with the infection.
Candida (yeast) infections
Candida is a yeast, which means it’s a kind of fungus. It may live harmlessly inside the gastrointestinal tract (gut) and vagina. However, if the conditions are right, candida can multiply and start to cause symptoms of infection. These infections are often around the genitals (vagina and penis), in the mouth or where there are folds of skin. A common name for candida infections is ‘thrush’.
Thrush makes the affected area sore and itchy. The skin is usually red and moist, and small pustules appear. In women, vaginal thrush can cause itchiness and a white discharge. Oral thrush (in the mouth) most often affects babies and older people (particularly if you wear false teeth). It can look like white patches, which leave a red mark if you rub them off.
This is caused by a type of yeast called Malassezia, which usually lives harmlessly on the skin. It typically affects teenagers and young adults. If you have pityriasis versicolor, you may get patches of scaly, mildly itchy and discoloured skin on your back, chest and upper arms. This is usually a pink, brown or red colour. In some cases, the skin becomes paler than the surrounding skin. You may notice this especially after being out in the sun, as the affected area will not tan as much as the rest of your skin.
Atopic dermatitis – causes, stages, photos, treatment
What is atopic dermatitis?
“Dermatitis” means inflammation of the skin. And the term “atopic” is understood as a hereditary predisposition to allergies.
Most often, this disease first manifests itself in childhood. In most patients, by the age of five, atopic dermatitis goes into permanent remission, but often the disease can continue in adults. The exact causes of the disease have not been established, however, modern medicine believes that atopic dermatitis is a multifactorial disease, which is based on a genetic predisposition to atopic diseases.
A tendency to atopic dermatitis can be realized when there are provoking factors in your life:
- psychoemotional stress;
- violation in the work of internal organs;
- adverse environment.
It has been noticed that atopic dermatitis is more often exacerbated in the cold season, therefore, if skin problems arise with the onset of cold weather, there is a reason to think about visiting a dermatologist.
The main symptom of atopic dermatitis is itching of varying intensity.Sometimes so strong that it can disturb the patient’s sleep. Inflammation and dryness of the skin, various rashes, often accompanying the disease, deliver very unpleasant sensations.
There are several stages of the disease:
- Infant (up to two years of age).
During this period, rashes are usually edematous redness, peeling on the skin of the face, on the extensor surfaces of the arms and legs. With a more severe course, bubbles, oozing and crusts may appear.At this stage, as a rule, there is a clear connection with food irritants.
- Children’s (from two to 12 years old).
At the age of two years, atopic dermatitis manifests itself in the form of rashes on the skin of the elbows, popliteal fossae, and the back of the neck. The tendency to wetness decreases, nodular inflammatory elements are more often present, increased dryness of the skin, its peeling and irritation persist.
- Adult (over 12 years old).
In most patients, by this age, the disease goes into permanent remission (no manifestations of the disease). With the continuation of the disease in adulthood, intense skin itching comes first. Severe dryness of the skin, flaking persists. Skin rashes can be varied (vesicles, nodules, redness foci). In most patients, there is a clear connection between exacerbations and psychoemotional factors.
The above symptoms refer to periods of exacerbation of atopic dermatitis.During the “lull” the disease can manifest itself only by increased dryness of the skin.
Advice for people suffering from atopic dermatitis
- Those suffering from atopic dermatitis have very sensitive skin to external influences. Such people do not want frequent water procedures, but they need to wash with the use of special emollients and moisturizers, do not use a washcloth. After washing, it is better to remove water from the surface of the skin with blotting movements, and not with the usual wiping.
- Atopic dermatitis emollient and moisturizer must be used daily. Cotton should be preferred in clothing and skin contact with wool, synthetic and rough fabrics should be avoided.
- For those suffering from atopic dermatitis, it is better not to have carpets in the house, as well as objects and furniture that contribute to the accumulation of dust. Books and clothes are best kept in lockers and vacuumed regularly. It is better to use synthetic materials instead of down pillows and blankets.
- This disease imposes some dietary restrictions. Especially in infancy. It is very important that parents keep a food diary for their baby. It will help to clearly trace the connection between the use of a particular product and an exacerbation of atopic dermatitis.
- Many children have hypersensitivity to milk and egg whites, which disappears with age. In the future, the significance of food allergies decreases. True food allergies are extremely rare in adults.
However, adults with atopic dermatitis should also avoid foods rich in or increasing histamine in the body:
- fermented cheeses
- smoked sausages
- alcohol, etc.
In addition, if the patient notices a deterioration in the condition of the skin after consuming a particular product, then this product should also be excluded from the diet.During an exacerbation of the disease, a more stringent diet is required, excluding all irritating foods: spicy, smoked, spicy, pickles, fatty, sweet, baked goods, fried, citrus fruits, honey, nuts, chocolate, alcohol. The sun is a powerful factor affecting the condition of the skin.
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9000 with atopic dermatitis sunbathing?
It is possible, but the skin should still be protected from excess ultraviolet radiation.For example, using creams with a high degree of protection (SPF30 + and higher). Apply the cream to the skin every two hours. In addition, it is best not to spend the hottest hours in the open sun. Even people without skin problems are advised to sunbathe either before 11 am or after 4 pm.
How is atopic dermatitis treated?
- The first step in the treatment of atopic dermatitis is to identify and eliminate provoking factors. At the same time, antihistamines are prescribed to eliminate itching that bothers the patient.When choosing a drug, it is strongly recommended to consult with a doctor so that he helps not only to choose a medicine, but also to calculate the dose corresponding to the patient’s age and the nature of the course of the disease.
- In addition, local anti-inflammatory agents (creams, ointments), including hormonal ones, are used in the treatment of atopic dermatitis. The choice of the drug should be approached very carefully, especially for infants. A doctor’s consultation is required. Self-medication can lead to unwanted results.The same recommendation applies to drugs for the treatment of dysbiosis, which is important in the treatment of atopic dermatitis.
- If infectious complications occur (often associated with scratching), then antifungal, antiviral and antibacterial drugs are used for treatment.
The doctor said that a rash and vascular pattern on the skin can be symptoms of coronavirus – Society
MOSCOW, April 18. / Corr. TASS Kristina Marchenko /. A skin rash, as well as reticular livedo – a manifestation of a reticular vascular pattern on the surface of the skin – may be symptoms of a new coronavirus infection, the head of the Department of Pulmonology at Sechenov University, professor, pulmonologist Sergei Avdeev told TASS.
Clinical Center of the First Moscow State Medical University. I.M.Sechenov is one of the redesigned institutions, on the basis of which a hospital was opened to receive people with coronavirus infection. To date, about 1 thousand beds have been deployed for patients, in total it is planned to re-profile about 2 thousand
“It is already known about a skin rash. It is not so common in adults – about 3-5% of all patients with COVID-19, but nevertheless there are skin changes.The rash is of the erythematous type (extensive red areas – approx. TASS), we also have such a term – exanthema. With some viral infections, a rash is a fairly characteristic symptom, for example, with rubella, with measles. With COVID-19, it is somewhat similar, although with rubella and measles, the rash is slightly different, “he said.
According to Avdeev, a pattern is also observed: the younger the patient’s age, the more skin manifestations from the infection. “Even from the point of view of skin changes, attention is drawn to – Livedo reticularis (reticular livedo).It looks like a mesh, often on the legs. We expect to see such changes in severe patients with sepsis and septic shock, and, as a rule, they signal a violation of coagulation, that is, coagulation of the blood system, “he added. At the same time, the doctor urged not to immediately run to the hospital in case of detection of these manifestations on the skin , since this is not a 100% guarantee of the presence of infection.However, if a person has been in contact with an infected person, then this may be an early sign of the disease and you should consult a specialist.
The pulmonologist also said that with COVID-19, the lungs and cardiovascular system are most affected. “Almost all hospitalized patients have changes in the lungs – pneumonia. Moreover, today we know that asymptomatic patients can also have pneumonia. Next comes in importance and in its sad prognosis – myocardial damage, this is 20-30%, that is not only the lungs, but also the cardiovascular system.Renal problems, renal failure – this is about 15%.Plus, blood clotting disorders are also a fairly common problem in patients with COVID-19, “the expert concluded.
In Russia, according to the federal operational headquarters for the fight against coronavirus, 32,008 cases of infection were registered, 2,590 people recovered, 273 died. The Russian government launched the stopkoronavirus.rf resource to inform about the situation in the country.
90,000 Sun allergies. Should I be afraid of ultraviolet radiation in the summer? | HEALTH
A little more, and the people occupy the beaches, eagerly catching the long-awaited sun.However, shock doses of ultraviolet radiation can backfire not only with burns, but also with solar urticaria, when the skin becomes covered with a rash, itches and itches mercilessly.
About who the so-called allergy to the sun threatens, what provokes it and whether it is possible to cope with it, tells the head of the department of allergology and immunology of the State Budgetary Healthcare Institution of the Clinical Hospital No. 13, Ph.D. Galina Molokova.
Take care of the liver from a young age!
Vera Shuvaeva, AiF-Prikamye: Galina Vladimirovna, in addition to people who are allergic to plant pollen, there are those who are pestered by sun allergies.Or are they the same people?
Galina Molokova: Not always. In general, it is not entirely correct to call an allergy a disease caused by an increased sensitivity of the skin to the sun’s rays. This is a purely popular name. Sometimes the people still use the term “solar urticaria”, because the rash on the body in this case is very similar to the rash that appears in a person who is badly burned by nettles.
The correct name for this disease is photodermatitis. There is no allergic reaction as such.After all, any allergen (the same birch pollen, for example) is a protein, in response to which it enters the body, another protein is formed there. And this complex of protein molecules triggers the allergy mechanism. And there is no protein in the sunbeam. Here we are dealing with the toxic effects of the sun.
– And who is affected by it in the first place?
– According to scientific data, in most cases these are people with liver problems. The liver is our main detoxifying organ. Accordingly, it also reacts to toxic damage, even on the skin.Among other endogenous (i.e. internal) factors that cause photodermatitis, various metabolic disorders, malfunctions of the immune system can be named.
– Can external factors also cause this ailment?
– Yes, exogenous too. For example, a face cream can become such a factor: there are many different components in creams, and some of them, under the influence of ultraviolet radiation, are able to give such a reaction. There may be perfumes containing bergamot or sandalwood oil.It may be the juice of some plants (clover, quinoa, buttercup) that accidentally got on the skin. In addition, medications taken by a person can increase the sensitivity of the skin to the sun’s rays, including sulfonamides (biseptol), tetracycline antibiotics, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (aspirin, ibuprofen, etc.).
Rash on the face and itchy hands
– Not only adults but also children suffer from solar urticaria. They say, even very small babies.This is true?
– Such crumbs are rare: after all, parents protect them, try not to walk with them under the scorching sun. Basically, photodermatitis is detected in older children. And, as a rule, these are children prone to allergies, that is, with problematic immunity.
Unfortunately, the number of children with allergies is increasing from year to year. Now there are almost 40% of all children. Heredity affects: if the mother is allergic, the probability that the child will also be allergic is 50%; if both parents have an allergy, the child’s risk of developing it increases to 80%.Of course, the peculiarities of modern life also make themselves felt: poor ecology, poor-quality food.
– What type of allergy occurs more often in children?
– Much depends on age: up to three years – more often food allergies (and it is especially sad that the number of such children is growing already in infancy, up to a year), after three – an allergy to household dust and animal hair joins, after five – develops hay fever.
– Is the clinic of photodermatitis the same in children and adults?
– Yes.Someone after a few hours, and someone after a few minutes (everything is very individual here) of intense sun exposure, the skin begins to itch, tingle, small red rashes appear on it, which peel off and itch terribly. It is clear that children with their delicate skin take it harder. Most often, the rash occurs on the face, as well as on the arms and legs – that is, on the exposed areas of the skin. In some cases, even blisters may appear.
– In case of sunburn, it is recommended to lubricate the burnt place with kefir or sour cream.How to help yourself or your child with photodermatitis?
– No sour cream! If a rash develops, use hormonal ointment and be sure to consult an allergist-dermatologist. It is necessary to undergo an examination to identify the cause of the disease and its elimination. You may have to do an ultrasound or FGS, take a biochemical blood test, check your metabolism. After all, the cause of photodermatitis, as I said, may not only be a tendency to allergies.
Which SPF to choose?
– How useful is the use of sunscreens, which have become quite popular today?
– Undoubtedly useful. It is imperative to use them while sunbathing. There are now on sale creams with different SPF protection factors that prevent skin damage. The higher the SPF, the stronger this protection. If you are vacationing in some hot country where the sun exposure is very intense, you should start sunbathing by smearing this sunscreen with SPF 50 in front of this sunscreen.Then, when the adaptation to the active sun has already taken place, you can use a cream with SPF 30, SPF 15. There are special children’s sunscreens for children. For example, the Russian cream “My Sun”.
But the main protection against excessive exposure to sunlight is limiting exposure to the sun. Frying on the beach all day is bad for you anyway.
– Finally, please, a few tips to minimize the occurrence of photodermatitis.
– Sunbathe only in the morning (before 11) and evening (after 17) hours.It is at this time that ultraviolet light is useful.
- During sun exposure, minimize the use of perfumes and cosmetics.
- Perfume in summer should not be applied to the skin, but to clothing.
- Do not do any serious cosmetic procedures – resurfacing, peeling before traveling to the south.
- Avoid taking medications that sensitize your skin to sunlight.
- Do not endlessly treat yourself and your child’s hands with a disinfectant: an antiseptic, being in the sun, can also lead to photodermatitis.
- Do not sunbathe near bodies of water surrounded by meadow grasses: these may include plants that release essential oils that attract the sun and increase the skin’s sensitivity to ultraviolet light.
By the way
How much sun do you need?
Lying in the sun, we feel how it warms us up, our blood vessels expand, our state of health improves, depression goes away. In addition, the sun produces vitamin D in the skin, which is essential for healthy bones and muscles, as well as for the functioning of the immune and nervous systems.
Only 10% of this vitamin, according to doctors, enters the body with food (fish and fish oil, oil, eggs, milk), and our body synthesizes the remaining 90% thanks to the sun. But to get your vitamin D requirement, in the summer, it is enough to be in direct sunlight with open hands and face. So you shouldn’t mindlessly give yourself up to be torn apart by the sun.
Sunburn and solar urticaria are far from all the consequences of poisoning with its superdoses.Here and the accelerated aging of the skin, and the appearance of age spots, and the danger of getting melanoma, or skin cancer. When women, having reached the age of 30-35, suddenly realize: “Stop sunbathing to the fullest, it’s time to take care of yourself,” it is often too late. They have already received everything they can from the sun.
- More often than others, people with light skin, blue-eyed, fair-haired suffer from photodermatitis.
- For the first time, this disease can appear in a person already in adulthood.Indeed, over the years, sores in the body accumulate, including liver problems.
- Not manifesting itself in any way in a temperate climate, photodermatitis is able to “shoot” in a region with a particularly active sun.
- Until the cause of photodermatitis is eliminated, you will have to forget about the beach. And in general, do not go out in the sun without a wide-brimmed hat and long-sleeved blouse.
About fungal infections of the skin | # 03/98
Is there an alternative to terbinafine in the treatment of fungal nail infections?
What is the differential diagnosis for annular rash?
What is the differential diagnosis for fungal nail infections?
Are topical antifungal drugs indicated in the treatment of fungal diseases of the head?
| Fungal infection of the head with natural light and wood lamp
Timely treatment can prevent flaking and hair loss
Patients with fungal infections of the skin, nails and, less commonly, the scalp are regularly seen at the GP’s appointment; if the patient has an immunodeficiency, they can be quite difficult.Prompt diagnosis and treatment of these infections is essential – early treatment of fungal scalp lesions can reduce and sometimes prevent hair loss. In recent years, both the number and the effectiveness of therapeutic agents have increased.
Fungi that infect the skin include yeast, dermatophytes, and saprophytic molds.
- Dermatophytic infections
Dermatophytes penetrate and grow in the skin, hair and nails.They can be zoophilic, anthropophilic, or geophilic. The names of certain types of dermatophytes come from the appearance of their colonies. Thus, Trichophyton rubrum usually forms red colonies. Many types of dermatophytes have their favorite localization. Fungal lesions of the body affect any area of the skin of the trunk and extremities. They are characterized by well-delimited annular erythomatous lesions with raised scaly edges. Vesicles and pustules are occasionally observed. With erythematous annular lesions of the skin, a broad differential diagnosis is made, including granuloma annular, urticaria annular, discoid or subacute systemic lupus erythematosus, and chronic erythema migrans in Lyme disease.To confirm the diagnosis, a scraping is taken from the edges of the lesions and a mycological culture is sown. False negative results can sometimes be obtained, especially when topical treatments have been used. With serious clinical evidence in favor of mycosis, it is necessary to repeat the study.
For limited infections, topical treatment is usually sufficient [1,2], such as clotrimazole, miconazole, or econazole, given twice daily for a month.However, with protracted and severe infections or with weakened immunity, they resort to systemic therapy. In this case, you can use terbinafine 250 mg daily for four weeks, intraconazole 100 mg daily for 15 days, or 50 mg fluconazole daily for two to four weeks.
Fungal lesions of the groin area. Dermatophytic infection is localized in the groin. Men suffer from this type of disease much more often than women due to the anatomical features of this area, which becomes fertile ground for the growth of fungi.The source of infection is usually the present fungal infection of the feet. Often from the groin area, the infection spreads to the lower abdomen, buttocks, and scrotum. Well-defined itchy erythomatous eruptions, sometimes accompanied by desquamation, are typical.
Annular erythematous rash
With an established diagnosis, the therapeutic approach is the same as for a fungal infection of the trunk.Systemic therapy is indicated if the infection extends beyond the groin. Concomitant lesions of the feet also require treatment. Patients must have an individual towel and clothing.
Fungal diseases of the scalp  develop as a result of fungal growth within the hair shaft (endotrix) or on the surface of the hair (exotrix). Many types of dermatophytes can affect the scalp, of which the most common in the UK is Microsporum canis, a zoophilic endotrix dermatophyte.Most of the pathogen is transmitted to humans from dogs and cats, and rarely from person to person. Fungal diseases of the head are more common in children who experience flaking and hair loss. Examination with a Wood’s lamp (a source of ultraviolet waves with a wavelength of more than 365 nm) reveals a green glow.
Endotrix infections are less common in the UK and are caused by Trichophyton violaceum and Trichophyton tonsurans, in which black dots form on the scalp due to the destruction of swollen hair shafts.Tschoenlenii infection, prevalent mainly in the Middle East, South Africa and Pakistan, often results in a favus with extensive hair loss, sometimes with scarring and yellowish thyroid scales at the proximal end of the hair.
It happens that as a result of a dermatophyte infection, severe inflammation develops, sometimes accompanied by a secondary bacterial infection with the formation of a soft-touch inflammatory edema called kerion.To establish a diagnosis, hairs are taken from the affected area and sent for mycological analysis in addition to skin scraping. At the slightest clinical signs of an attached bacterial infection, it is necessary to send samples for bacteriological examination. It is also necessary to trace contacts at school and at home to identify possible carriers of a fungal head infection.
In identifying the source of infection, including animals, it is necessary to be extremely persistent.Any infected animal should be treated with oral griseofulvin. With ringworm, only local treatment is ineffective, therefore, prior to the development of adequate systemic therapy, epilation was resorted to using X-rays or taking thallium. In children, griseofulvin at a dose of 500 mg per day is effective for six weeks. Ketoconazole shampoo and topical imidazole derivatives are ineffective on their own, but may be useful in combination with oral agents to reduce the spread of infection.
Children with Microsporum canis or other zoophilic pathogens should not be isolated as human-to-human transmission is not typical. However, with an anthropophilic pathogen, the student must stop attending school until he is fully recovered. There are a great many causative agents of fungal diseases of the hands, but the most common is Trichophytum rubrum. The lesion is usually unilateral, manifested by hyperkeratosis and desquamation of the palmar folds. Signs of inflammation are minimal, rarely erythema, papules and vesicles are found.The differential diagnosis is with atopic eczema, psoriasis and post-streptococcal desquamation. A one-sided lesion indicates a dermatophyte infection.
For chronic fungal infections of the hands, systemic treatment is indispensable. Intraconazole (100 mg daily for 30 days) and terbinafine (250 mg daily for four weeks) are used. Fungal diseases of the feet are the most common dermatophyte infection in Northern Europe and North America, where they affect about 10% of the adult population.The most common causes of this condition are Trichophyton rubrum, Epidermophyton floccosum, and Trichophyton interdigitale.
Although clinical manifestations can be very diverse, dermatophytes most often choose the lateral surface of the pads of the toes, where scaling, weeping and itching develop. In more rare and severe cases, the so-called moccasin foot is formed, with erythema and scaling affecting the sole area, heel, medial and lateral edge of the foot. Vesicles can also be found.Inflammatory changes in an infection caused by Trychophyton rubrum can be minor and amount to slight peeling in the area of the plantar folds. Topical treatment is effective early in the disease when the lesion is limited to the pads of the toes. In this case, terbinafine ointment or imidazole derivatives such as miconazole or clotrimazole are suitable. For more severe infections, systemic therapy is given, such as an oral triazole drug such as fluconazole 50 mg daily for 6 weeks or 100 mg intraconazole daily for 30 days.
- Fungal nail diseases
This is commonly referred to as a dermatophyte infection of the nail plate, often associated with Tinea manuum or Tinea pedis. Fungal infections of the nail plate are generally referred to as onychomycosis and include dermatophyte, yeast, and mold infections. The most common pathogens in this case are also Trichophyton rubrum, Epidermophyton floccosum and Trichophyton interdigitale. Usually, invasion begins at the distal or lateral end (distal and lateral subungual onychomycosis – DLPO) and is accompanied by distal or lateral degenerative changes.Changes in nail color (whitening, yellowing, or, rarely, acquiring a brownish tint) are associated with thickening due to subungual hyperkeratosis and nail crumbling. Sometimes there is a clinical picture of the so-called white superficial onychomycosis (BPO), especially when infected with Trichophyton interdigitale, when the invasion of the nail plate is replaced by the formation of well-distinguishable powdery white particles, and the distal end is little affected.
|Figure 3.According to research, 10% of the population has fungal diseases of the feet|
Another picture of the disease, proximal subungual onychomycosis (PPO), is the result of rapid invasion from the proximal nail fold through the outer nail plate. It is usually seen in AIDS patients. The distinction between these clinical pictures is very important, since the fungus may not be detected in scrapings from the free distal edge.With a fungal infection of the nails, an extensive differential diagnosis is carried out, including nail dystrophies in psoriasis, eczema, alopecia areata, lichen planus, trauma and secondary onychomycosis. Nail dystrophies in combination with candidiasis or bacterial paronychia are usually proximal or lateral and are accompanied by swelling and weeping of the edge of the nail. To establish a diagnosis, it is necessary to send a cut piece of the nail or scraping from it for examination . In typical cases of DLPO, the required sample can be taken from the free distal end of the nail, including the powdery mass from under the nail.In less common PPO and BPO, scraping is taken from accessible areas of the nail. With a joint fungal infection of the nails and feet, it is advisable to take scrapings from the pads of the toes and the affected areas of the hands.
Topical treatment is carried out with thioconazole applied to the nail and nail fold for 6 to 12 months, or amorolfine two to three times a week for 6 (for fingernails) or 9-12 months (toenails). It is necessary to cut off the nail plate as thinly as possible in order to ensure better penetration of the local preparation.The effectiveness of local therapy is much lower than that of systemic drugs. Nevertheless, local remedies can be used in case of contraindications to systemic therapy.
Currently, terbinafine  and pulse therapy with intraconazole are used from systemic agents. Terbinafine is used at a dose of 250 mg per day for one and a half to three months. Intraconazole is taken 200 mg twice a day for a week; the course is repeated once every 21 days with the defeat of the nails on the hands and twice with the defeat of the toenails.
The most common skin-infecting yeasts are Candida and Pityrosporum: Pityrosporum ovale (mainly affecting the face and scalp) and Pityrosporum orbiculare (localized on the front of the trunk). Candida prefers warm, moist areas of the body, among which we note the area of the submammary glands, in the groin and under the armpits. Obese people get sick more often, they form candidal diaper rash. In case of violation of the integrity of the skin fold at the nail bed due to prolonged stay of the hands in water or during a manicure, chronic paronychia may develop.Angular cheilitis occurs when the corners of the mouth become infected, which is facilitated by the flow of saliva into this fold, especially if there is concomitant candidiasis of the oral cavity.
Vulvovaginitis caused by Candida is redness and soreness, sometimes itching and white leucorrhoea. With balanitis, erythema of the glans penis may be accompanied by the formation of pustules and crusts. Most candidal infections respond to topical medications such as nystatin or imidazole.For vulvovaginal candidiasis, vaginal suppositories are used in combination with a cream for external use. Systemic drugs such as fluconazole or intraconazole are only prescribed for severe, difficult-to-treat candidiasis or in patients with weakened immune systems.
Malezessia furfur is a variety of Pitorosporum orbiculare, it is the causative agent of pityriasis lichen, in which bright, separate or confluent erythematous or brownish plaques covered with scales are found on the upper torso, arms, shoulders.This disease is cured by selenium sulfide, which is shampooed on the trunk every other day and left there overnight for two weeks, or ketoconazole shampoo, applied three to six times to the skin at night.
Alternative topical treatments include clotrimazole (available as a spray or cream), miconazole, or econazole. For very severe infections, systemic treatment (intraconazole 200 mg daily for a week or fluconazole 50 mg daily for two or three weeks) can be given.
Mold is usually transmitted through soil and affects nails more often than skin or hair. The most common are the saprophytic Scopulariopsis brevicaulis and Aspergillus. In both cases, already damaged nails are affected. Treatment usually does not give an effect, but sometimes the use of amorolfine is beneficial. Other molds include Hendersonula toruloidea and Scytalidium hyalinum. Both affect the hands, feet, and nails. Treatment results are generally not encouraging; occasionally, topical imidazole or terbinafine are helpful.
1. Gupta AK, Sauder DN, Shear NH. Antifungal agents: an overview. Part 1. J. Am. Acad. Dermatol 1994; 30: 309 – 11.
2. Gupta AK, Sauder DN, Shear NH. Antifungal agents: an overview. Part 2. J. Am. Acad. Dermatol 1994; 30: 911 – 33.
3. Fieden IJ, Howard R. Tinea capitis: epidemiology, treatment and control. J. Am. Acad. Dermatol 1994; 31 (suppl): s 42 – 46
4. Denning DW, Evans EGV, Kibbler GC et al.Fungal nail disease; a guide to good practice. (Report of a working group of the Brithish Society for Medical Mycology). Br. Med. J 1995; 311: 1277 – 81
5. Goodfield MJD, Rowell NR, Forster RA et al. Treatment of dermatophyte infections of the fingernails with terbinafine – an orally active fungicidal agent. Br. J. Dermatol, 1989; 121: 753 – 8.
6. Ryder NS. Terbinafine: mode of action and properties of Squalene inhibition. Br. J. Dermatol; 126: 2 – 7.
- Look for fungal infection for any scaly rash
- Griseofulvin is ineffective against yeast
- Systemic therapy is mandatory for fungal head infections
- Pulse therapy with intraconazole is effective for dermatophytic and candidal nail lesions
- Treatment of unrecognized dermatophyte infections with topical steroids sometimes results in so-called Tinea incognito
- Signs of inflammation may be negligible or absent in anthropophilic dermatophyte infections such as those caused by Trichophyton rubrum
- Nystatin affects Candida but not effective against dermatophytes
The antifungal drug griseofulvin is used exclusively for the treatment of dermatophyte infections.It selectively accumulates in keratin, does not affect yeast and is more fungistatic than fungicide against dermatophytes. The number of cures is less than with triazole or allylamines, and relapses are more common.
However, griseofulvin is the drug of choice for fungal head diseases in children, with a dosage of 10 mg / kg per day for six weeks. Fluconazole and intraconazole are new antifungal agents of the triazole series. They are active against both yeast and dermatophytes, as a result of which they are used for mixed infections that can affect both nails and any other part of the body.They should not be combined with terfenadine, astemizole, or cisapride due to the risk of arrhythmias. Ketoconazole is hepatotoxic and should only be used for life-threatening systemic infections. The new oral drug terbinafine (an allylamine compound) has a fungicidal effect against dermatophytes. At a dose of 250 mg per day for three months, it acts on fungal nail diseases. There is evidence of the effectiveness of terbinafine in fungal infections of the head and its harmlessness to children, but the product is not yet licensed for such use.
90,000 Rash in children under 2 years old
Table of contents
When to see a doctor
What to expect at your doctor’s appointment?
A rash is a change in skin color or texture. The rash can be:
Red, same color as normal skin, slightly lighter or darker than normal skin coloration
Most swelling or blemishes on a newborn’s body are harmless and go away on their own.
The most common problem in babies is diaper rash. Diaper rash is an area of skin irritation caused by moisture, contact with urine or feces. Most diaper-wearing babies develop diaper rash.
Other skin conditions may manifest as a rash. In most cases, they are not serious unless accompanied by other symptoms.
The causes of the rash include:
· Diaper rash (rash in the area of contact with diapers) – an area of skin irritation caused by prolonged contact with a moist environment, urine or feces.
Fungal diaper rash – rash. Caused by a type of yeast called candida, which also causes fungal inflammation in the mouth. The rash is different from the usual diaper rash. It is bright red, and there are usually small red bumps along the outer edge of the rash. Treatment of this type of rash requires medication.
Heat rash, or prickly heat, is caused by a blockage of the pores of the sweat glands. Most common in very young children, but can occur at any age.More common in hot and humid weather. When this occurs, sweat is retained in the skin and forms small red bumps or small blisters.
· Toxic erythema and acne (acne) usually results in flat red spots (usually with a white pimple-like spot in the center) in more than half of all babies. This rash rarely appears at 5 days of age and often disappears by 7-14 days of age. Don’t worry about that.
· The appearance of acne in a child is caused by the influence of the mother’s hormones.On the face of newborns, red bumps can be seen, sometimes with a white spot in the center. Acne usually occurs between 2-4 weeks of age, but may occur up to 4 months of age, and may persist for 12-18 months.
· Seborrheic dermatitis of the newborn is a sebaceous, scaly, chapped patch on the scalp, usually at 3 months of age. In most cases, it goes away on its own. But sometimes it may be necessary to prescribe medications.
· Eczema appears as dry, red (dark), scaly, itchy patches on the skin. If eczema persists for a long time, these areas of the skin will thicken. This condition is often associated with allergies and asthma, but it can also occur on its own. Eczema is a hereditary disease.
· Urticaria is manifested by the appearance of red stripes on the body, they can migrate through the body.For example, if you draw a circle around an area of the body with a red stripe, after a few hours the circle will be in place, and the red stripe will be outside it and migrate to another area of the body. They can vary in size and shape. Hives can persist for several weeks. The reason for its appearance is not known.
Take care to maintain dry skin. Change wet diapers as often as possible. Let your baby’s skin air dry. Wash cloth diapers thoroughly with mild soap.Avoid using wipes that irritate the skin (especially those containing alcohol).
Ointments or creams can help prevent chafing and protect your baby’s skin from irritation. Powders such as cornstarch or talcum powder should be used with caution, as the child could inhale them and damage the lungs.
If your child has fungal diaper rash, your doctor will prescribe an ointment to treat it.
Heat rash, or pruritus, is best treated by creating a cooler, less humid environment for the baby.
Powders will not help treat this rash and should be kept out of the reach of children to prevent accidental inhalation. Avoid using ointments and creams, as they create a warm environment for the skin and block pores.
Toxic erythema is normal for newborns, it goes away on its own within a few days. You don’t need to treat her.
White or clear eels are like on their own. You don’t need to treat them.
If hives occur, see your doctor to try to determine the cause.In some cases, your doctor may prescribe medications for you. Antihistamines can help stop itching.
A regular wash is, in most cases, all it takes to heal baby acne. Use plain water or mild baby soap and just bathe your baby every 2-3 days. Acne medications are used only in adolescents or adults.
For seborrheic dermatitis, it is recommended to wash your hair with water or a mild baby shampoo.Use a brush to remove flakes of dry skin. If they do not remove, grease them with oil to soften them. Seborrheic dermatitis usually resolves by 18 months. If the disease persists, it is treatable, if these areas become infected, consult your doctor.
For skin problems caused by eczema, it is necessary to avoid scratching the skin and keep it hydrated.
· Keep your child’s fingernails cut short and wear gloves at night to minimize scratching.
· Avoid drying soaps and anything that has caused skin irritation in the past.
Immediately apply moisturizer or oil to skin after bath
· Hot baths, prolonged baths, bubble baths can also cause dry skin. Therefore, it is necessary to abandon them.
Loose cotton garments absorb perspiration well
· Talk to your doctor if these activities do not help your eczema (your child may need medication) or if you notice signs of a skin infection.
While most children with eczema will outgrow this problem, many may have sensitive skin as adults.
See a doctor if your child has:
Fever or other unexplained symptoms associated with rash
Any areas that look damp, reddened, indicating infection
Rash outside the diaper
· The rash is most intense in the folds of the skin.
Rash, blemish, blistering or discoloration of the skin and age less than 3 months
No improvement after 3 days of home treatment
Large areas of scratching
The doctor will conduct a general medical examination. The baby’s skin will be carefully examined to determine the extent and type of the rash. List all products used to treat baby’s skin.
The doctor may ask you the following questions:
When did the rash start?
· Have symptoms since birth? Did they appear after the disappearance of the fever?
· Whether the appearance of the rash is related to skin trauma.Taking a bath, exposure to sunlight?
What does the rash look like?
· Where is the rash on the body? Has it spread to other areas?
What other symptoms are present?
· What type of soap and detergent do you use?
· Do you put anything on your baby’s skin (creams, lotions, oils, perfumes)?
· Is the child taking any medications? How long has he been taking them?
· Has your child recently eaten a new meal?
· Has the child recently had contact with grass / trees?
· Has your child recently been ill?
· Do you have a hereditary predisposition to any skin diseases? Does your child or family member have allergies?
Tests are rarely scheduled but may include:
Allergic skin tests
Blood tests (such as a complete complete blood count (CBC))
Microscopic examination of a sample of the affected skin area
Depending on the cause of the rash, antihistamines may be prescribed to relieve itching.When a bacterial infection is attached, antibiotics are prescribed.
For diaper rash. Caused by a fungus, the doctor may prescribe a special cream. For a profuse rash that is not caused by a fungus, a corticosteroid ointment may be recommended.
For eczema, the doctor may prescribe ointments or medications containing cortisone to reduce inflammation.
Source : https://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003259.htm
Children’s rash; Prickly heat; Red prickly heat
90,000 HIV rash – what an infection looks like (photo)
HIV is a viral disease that has a devastating effect on the immune system.One of the first signs of infection of the body is the appearance on the body of rashes of a different nature. They differ in specific symptoms.
What an HIV rash looks like depends on the action of the provoking factors.
Rashes in HIV are parasitic and viral in nature.
The most common are such skin diseases as: pyoderma, vascular changes, seborrheic dermatitis , mycotic lesions, papular, viral eruptions.
What is HIV and what is the danger of this disease
HIV is a viral disease that affects the immune system. As a result, the development of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, opportunistic infections, and malignant neoplasms occurs.
After infection, the virus enters the living cells of the body, they are rearranged at the genetic level. As a result, the body begins to independently produce and multiply viral cells, and the affected cells die.HIV multiplies by immune cells, helpers.
There is a complete restructuring of the immune system. She begins to actively produce the virus, while not creating a protective barrier for pathogenic microorganisms.
Damage to the immune system occurs gradually. After infection, a person does not notice changes in the body. When there are more viral cells than immune cells, a person becomes very susceptible to other diseases. Immunity cannot cope with the pathogen, it is difficult to tolerate the simplest infection.
The progression of the disease is accompanied by the appearance of such signs as: high body temperature, increased sweating, diarrhea, sudden weight loss, thrush of the gastrointestinal tract and oral cavity, frequent colds, skin rashes.
Does an HIV rash appear immediately after infection
One of the first signs of HIV infection is the appearance of skin rashes of various kinds. In some cases , rash does not have a pronounced character, remains unnoticed, which leads to the progression of the disease.When the first symptoms of the disease appear, you should immediately consult a specialist.
HIV infection is accompanied by the appearance of rashes such as:
- Mycotic lesions. They arise as a result of fungal infection. Leads to the development of dermatoses.
- Pyodermites. It occurs as a result of exposure to streptococcus, staphylococcus. The elements of the rash are filled with purulent fluid.
- Spotted rash. It occurs due to damage to the vascular system.Erythematous, hemorrhagic spots, telangiectasias appear on the body.
- Seborrheic Dermatitis . Indicates a viral lesion in the initial stages of the development of the disease. Skin lesions are accompanied by severe peeling.
- Viral damage. The nature of the rash depends on the source of the injury.
- Malignant neoplasms. It manifests itself with the active development of the disease. Diseases such as hairy leukoplakia, Cauchy sarcoma develop.
- Papular rash is characterized by rashes, they can occur as separate elements or form lesions.
Why does a rash appear with HIV
The first signs of HIV disease are rashes on the surface of the skin and mucous membranes. As a result of the destruction of HIV immunity, the body becomes vulnerable to various infections, which manifest themselves in the form of skin diseases. The condition of the skin acts as a kind of indicator, the state of which indicates certain dysfunctions of organs and systems.
With HIV, skin diseases of various kinds occur.Their manifestations depend on the stage of the disease, the age of the patient, the causative agent: hemorrhagic vasculitis , Kosh sarcoma, candidiasis, lichen , seborrheic dermatitis , molluscum contagiosum , warts.
8 days after infection, red spots may appear on the face, trunk, genitals, mucous membranes.
Skin diseases in HIV are accompanied by the development of specific symptoms:
- body aches;
- pain in muscles, joints;
- high body temperature;
- increased sweating.
Skin rashes are chronic after infection. They are virtually untreatable and can progress over several years.
With the further development of the disease, a viral, microbial, fungal infection progresses: herpes , lichen , stomatitis in adults and children, syphilitic, purulent rashes, mycotic lesions.
What an HIV rash looks like in the initial stage photo
Rashes with HIV are divided depending on the location of the body: exanthema, enanthema.
Exanthema is a skin rash that occurs as a result of a viral lesion. The rash appears only on the surface of the skin. Exanthema occurs in the early stages of the disease.
Elements of a rash can appear not only on the skin, but also affect the mucous membranes of the larynx and genitals.
The first signs of infection appear after 14-56 days, depending on the individual characteristics of the organism.
Rash with HIV photo, makes it possible to visually assess the stage of immunodeficiency.Rashes are difficult to respond to therapy methods, spread throughout the body, can be on the neck, face. With the development of the disease, the rash is accompanied by the appearance of specific symptoms:
- profuse sweating;
- gastrointestinal dysfunction;
- enlarged lymph nodes.
The first signs of HIV are similar to the flu. With further damage to the immune system, the spread of a characteristic rash is observed, which does not respond to treatment, the patient’s condition worsens.
Rash with HIV photos in women
The symptoms of HIV in women are slightly different from those in men. At the initial stage of the disease observed:
- high body temperature;
- sore throat;
- muscle and joint pain;
- enlarged lymph nodes;
- painful sensations during menstruation, in the pelvic region;
- Specific discharge from the genitals.
After 8-12 days, rashes appear on the skin, which occurs as a result of exposure to streptococcus, staphylococcus.
- Impetigo. Appear in the form of conflict. They are located in the neck and chin area. In case of mechanical damage, a yellow crust appears.
- Folliculitis. Outwardly, they resemble adolescent acne , acne , which is accompanied by severe burning and itching. Formations appear in the chest, back, face, then spread throughout the body.
- Pyoderma. Similar to genital warts. Appears in the folds of the skin. Poorly amenable to drug therapy. There is a high risk of relapse after treatment.
What a rash with HIV looks like, photos in women can be viewed in this article. All the details in the specialized literature, clinic, HIV centers or from a highly qualified specialist. We are giving a general idea.
HIV-infected can be identified by rash
One of the main signs of HIV infection in the body is the appearance of skin rashes, which are accompanied by severe itching.They appear 2-3 weeks after infection. With HIV infection , photo of skin rashes will help determine their origin.
Rashes with HIV are characterized by the appearance of protruding acne and red spots. It can occur as a separate element or damage the surface of the entire body. At the initial stage of the development of the disease , rashes appear on the face , chest, back, neck, arms.
With a viral infection of the body, rashes are accompanied by the appearance of symptoms such as:
- nausea, vomiting;
- formation of ulcers in the oral cavity;
- high body temperature;
- dysfunction of the digestive system;
- enlarged lymph nodes;
- clouded consciousness;
- deterioration in the quality of vision;
- lack of appetite.
When the first signs of the disease appear, you should consult a specialist. He will prescribe laboratory tests that will help establish the cause and nature of the rash, and prescribe a course of treatment.
We looked at what a rash looks like in HIV, a photo in women. I hope this will never help you to identify this disease. Do you think HIV is dangerous for others? Leave your opinion or feedback for everyone on the forum.
ᐉ Photo of HIV, AIDS on the skin of a man and a woman (signs, manifestations, symptoms) ⚤
How do you know if a man or woman is infected with HIV, has AIDS on their skin? What can be seen on the skin of an HIV-infected person with AIDS? A selection of photographs of skin manifestations of the consequences of HIV infection.Signs on the skin appear already in the later stages of HIV infection; in the early stages of the disease, a person looks like an ordinary, healthy, non-HIV-infected person.
Spontaneous depigmentation (white spots) of the abdomen
Spontaneous depigmentation of fingers
Irregular white spots on the legs
White spots of irregular shape on the lips, under the orbits of the eyes, under the nasolabial triangle
Herpes simplex in an HIV-infected girl
Herpes simplex in an HIV-infected man
Herpes simplex on the back
Herpes simplex on hands
Herpes simplex around lips
Herpes simplex in the mouth
Herpes simplex in the palm, mistaken for staphylococcal infection
Drug rash on the trunk from the use of drugs against AIDS Septra, Bactrima
Medicinal rash on the arm from the use of anti-HIV drugs
Medicinal rash from the use of anti-HIV drugs
Medicinal rash from the use of an anti-HIV drug from the group of a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor
Medicinal erythema (an allergic reaction to taking drugs for AIDS in the form of severe redness of the skin caused by the expansion of capillaries) on the whole body
Skin cryptococcosis (an infection caused by the yeast Cryptococcus neoformans) in a 9-year-old HIV-infected girl
Cutaneous candidiasis of the palm of the hand
Skin manifestations on the abdomen of an HIV-infected woman
Skin manifestations on the back of an HIV-infected man
Annular granuloma on the hand
Herpes zoster (shingles) in a man with AIDS
Herpes zoster (shingles) in a man with HIV
Herpes zoster (shingles) in a boy with congenital HIV infection
Erythema nodosum (an allergic or granulomatous inflammatory process of the vessels of the skin and subcutaneous fat; painful red nodes appear on the legs or arms) in an HIV-infected woman
Eosinophilic folliculitis in an HIV-infected man
Eosinophilic folliculitis (recurrent rash of itchy merging follicular papules and pustules on the face, trunk and limbs of AIDS patients)
Ecthyma (skin disease, during the formation of which a deep lesion of the skin of the human body occurs)
Dermatophytosis of feet
Dermatophytosis (skin infectious disease caused by dermatophytes) of the face of an HIV-infected man
Flea bites on legs
Bartenollosis, Bartonella gensale, bacillary angiomatosis, skin biopsy
Bartenollosis, bacillary angiomatosis, skin biopsy
Bartenollosis (Peruvian warts)
Bacillary angiamatosis in a man with AIDS
Bacillary angiamatosis in a woman with AIDS – signs, symptoms of HIV, AIDS on the skin
Bacillary angiamatosis in an HIV-infected woman
Bacillary angiamatosis in AIDS of a sick man
Bacillary angiamatosis similar to staphylococcal pyoderma (pustular skin disease)
Bacillary angiamatosis, tense reddened wrist
Bacillary angiamatosis multiple subcutaneous nodules in HIV plus women with Kaposi’s sarcoma
Bacillary angiamatosis skin biopsy
Bacillary angiamatosis biopsy late stage of HIV infection
Acantamyoba infection of the forehead in a child with AIDS
Acantamebic infection in an HIV-infected child
How to determine or at least suspect that a person is sick with AIDS, is infected with HIV due to the condition of his skin, in order to protect himself from the danger of contracting HIV, AIDS?
What skin diseases are indicators that a man or woman is infected with HIV and pose a danger to others during sexual, drug and medical contacts?
Blennoragic keratoderma (violation of keratinization of the skin)
Epidemic Kaposi’s sarcoma of the foot
Herpes zoster (shingles) on the head of an HIV-infected woman
Herpetic panaritium (acute purulent inflammation of the tissues of the fingers)
Nail changes due to antiretroviral therapy
Molluscum contagiosum on the eye of a child (and he is still happy!)
Molluscum contagiosum on the face
Molluscum contagiosum in a woman with HIV
Molluscum contagiosum in an HIV-infected man
Molluscum contagiosum behind the ear
Lichen planus in a patient with HIV and hepatitis C
Leishmanification of palms
Leishmanification of feet
Lipoatrophy on the face with deepening of the facial folds
Lipoatrophy (fat wasting) legs
Lipodystrophic (metabolic) syndrome (fat disappears in places on the body)
Mycobacterium Kansashi (originally isolated in Kansas)
Molluscum on the face, severe course
Buffalo hump fat gain
Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (cancer of the lymphatic system), cutaneous
Armpit non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma
Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma protruding from Kaposi’s sarcoma
Necrotizing fasciitis in a 35-year-old woman
Necrotizing fasciitis in a 35-year-old HIV-infected woman after 1 month.
Necrotizing fasciitis in 35-year-old HIV plus women after 2 months
Onychomycosis (fungal infection of the nail)
Osteomyelitis (infectious inflammation of all constituent parts of bone tissue: bone, periosteum and bone marrow)
Kaposi’s sarcoma, edema (swelling)
Kaposi’s sarcoma in the form of a single angiomatous (as a result of vascular proliferation) nodule
Kaposi’s sarcoma of the face and head
Kaposi’s sarcoma of the hip in an HIV-infected man
Kaposi’s sarcoma on the hip
Kaposi’s sarcoma on the gums
Kaposi’s sarcoma during treatment
Kaposi’s sarcoma on the chest in HIV plus men
Kaposi’s sarcoma on the leg in HIV plus women
Kaposi’s sarcoma on the leg with edema
Kaposi’s sarcoma on the leg from behind
Kaposi’s sarcoma on both legs
Kaposi’s sarcoma on the toes
Submandibular Kaposi’s sarcoma, cervical nodule
Kaposi’s sarcoma lesion of the foot
Kaposi’s sarcoma in the treatment of ARVT (antiretroviral therapy)
Kaposi’s sarcoma oblong papules and plaques on the arm
Kaposi’s sarcoma of the foot
Kaposi’s sarcoma on the trunk
Kaposi’s sarcoma in an HIV-positive child
Kaposi’s sarcoma of the inner side of the thighs, chest, arms
Sarcoma with staphylococcal abscesses
Human papillomavirus in an HIV-infected boy
Read more personal stories of people living with HIV:
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Features of HIV rash in men and women
Often, a rash with HIV occurs as the first symptom of damage to the body by a dangerous pathology. In most cases, such symptoms remain unnoticed, and the disease begins to actively progress.
If unusual rashes develop that have never appeared before, you should go to the doctor to diagnose the condition.
He takes into account what an HIV rash looks like, prescribes the necessary examinations and makes a diagnosis.
Why does a rash appear in HIV, pathogenesis
The doctor, in order to answer the question of patients when a rash with HIV appears, clarifies that this symptom is considered one of the first. This is the destruction of immunity, the body is affected by various skin infections. The health status of the skin is an indicator; it may indicate various malfunctions in the work of internal organs.
Skin pathologies are characteristic of HIV. Their severity corresponds to the stage of the disease, the age of the patient. So, can develop: Kaposi’s sarcoma, hemorrhagic vasculitis, candidiasis, molluscum contagiosum, lichen, warts, seborrheic dermatitis.
Does an HIV rash appear immediately after infection
HIV is a viral pathology that destroys human immunity. Thus, immunodeficiency syndrome develops. After infection, microbes enter the fat cells of the body, where they are regenerated at the genetic level.After that, the body itself begins to produce virus cells, and the affected die. It turns out that HIV spreads through its own immunity. The immunity of a person with HIV completely rebuilds its work, it actively produces a virus and does not form a protective barrier for pathogenic microbes.
Immunity is not damaged immediately, but gradually. After the defeat, at first, the changes are not noticeable, and the person does not pay attention to mild symptoms. But when the number of viral cells exceeds the number of immune cells, the susceptibility to various pathologies increases.Immunity cannot cope with the simplest pathogens, which become a dangerous disease for the body.
The progression of violations is accompanied by the following manifestations:
- temperature rise;
- profuse sweating;
- Unreasonable weight loss;
- thrush of the gastrointestinal tract and oral cavity;
- frequent acute respiratory infections;
90 011 skin rashes and itching in HIV.
A rash on the face with HIV develops after about 8 days from the moment of infection, it gradually spreads to the body, genitals and mucous membranes.Rashes with HIV are accompanied by specific symptoms:
- general weakness;
- muscle and joint pain.
After infection, the rash on the body with HIV becomes chronic. It is almost not amenable to therapy and can actively progress over several years.
What the rash looks like: initial stage of HIV
What kind of rash with HIV and how it looks depends entirely on the stage of the disease.At the initial stage of damage to the body, spots with HIV of an erythematous nature are noted – areas of redness of various sizes are formed, as well as a maculopapular rash – the formation of areas of seals.
HIV rash photos in women and men
In women, cutaneous manifestations of HIV infection are more often represented by erythema, papules and vesicles. They appear on the skin and mucous membranes. Also, in 10% of cases, fungal skin lesions progress.
An HIV rash in men becomes one of the first signs, it resembles an allergic reaction.The rash is similar to hives and is often found all over the body. With such symptoms, it is required to immediately consult a doctor and donate blood for research.
Is it possible to identify HIV-infected people by rash
Skin rashes are considered to be one of the first symptoms of a lesion. An HIV rash is often accompanied by intense itching. The appearance of the rash helps the doctor diagnose and establish the cause of the pathology.
In HIV, the rash is represented by protruding pimples and red spots.They are formed individually or fill any part of the body completely. In the early stages of the lesion, the rash is localized on the face, chest area, neck, back and arms. With HIV, it is always accompanied by the following signs:
- nausea with vomiting;
- formation of ulcers in the oral cavity;
- strong rise in temperature;
- disruption of the digestive system;
- swollen lymph nodes;
- clouding of consciousness;
- deterioration in the performance of visual analyzers;
- poor appetite.
At the first sign of infection, see a doctor. He conducts laboratory diagnostics, after which the causes and nature of the development of the disease are established, and the treatment is implemented.
Main groups of rash and forms of rash in HIV infection
Skin rash with HIV is an early symptom that can have different origins. Typically, the types of skin lesions are as follows:
- problems with blood vessels;
- seborrheic dermatitis;
- papular rash with HIV.
90,011 viral lesions;
Such cutaneous manifestations of HIV are expressed by rubrophytosis or candidiasis, versicolor versicolor and epidermophytosis groin.
These conditions are characterized by a high rate of spread, the formation of large lesions on the skin throughout the body, face and scalp.
Each of the listed conditions responds poorly to the therapeutic measures taken, is difficult with constant relapses.
Candidiasis in HIV infection is characterized by the following signs:
- affecting mainly the oral cavity, genitals and perianal zone;
- develops more often in young men;
- rapidly progresses and provokes the formation of extensive lesions with erosion and ulceration.
Rubrophytosis in HIV develops atypically. Numerous rashes are formed on the skin in the form of flattened papules. Versicolor versicolor in HIV manifests itself in separate elements up to 5 cm in diameter – at first these are spots that gradually transform into plaques and papules.
Basically, viruses affect mucous surfaces or provoke the occurrence of shingles. The treatment is complicated, the course is painful, the rash is almost always ulcerated.Viral infection is manifested by the following pathologies:
- molluscum contagiosum – affects the facial part, especially the cheeks and forehead, represented by red nodules with a characteristic depression of the apex;
- hairy leukoplakia – formed in the mouth and indicates a severe violation of the functions of the immune system;
- genital and common warts – appear on the genital mucosa and in the anal area.
This is a tumor of the vessels of a malignant nature, which affects not only the internal organs, but also the skin.These are red-purple spots, at first they are small. But over time, they merge and form a dense conglomerate that affects nearby tissues and lymph nodes. The disease progresses rapidly, especially at a young age, is considered a pathognomonic symptom of HIV infection.
Suppuration of the skin develops like juvenile acne, but they are resistant to any therapy implemented and are often affected by streptococci.
Manifestations in case of vascular malfunction
HIV infection can also negatively affect the work of blood vessels.This effect is direct – directly on endothelial cells. In this case, due to violations of the immune system, the emergence and progression of autoimmune changes in vascular tissues can occur. Possible vascular disorders in HIV include:
- pulmonary hypertension;
What to do if a rash and signs of HIV appear?
The doctor starts HIV treatment only after a detailed diagnosis and confirmation of the diagnosis.But until now, adequate therapy and drugs have not been developed that would help to completely get rid of the immunodeficiency virus, leading to a complete recovery.
The most modern method is antiretroviral therapy – HAART. It allows you to slow down the active development of the disease and stop its transition to the AIDS stage. Thanks to this, the patient’s life increases by several decades, the main thing is compliance with the rules of life-long intake of medications prescribed by the doctor.
The main danger of the immunodeficiency virus is the possibility of its mutations. If the drugs against pathology are not changed at regular intervals, then the virus begins to adapt and stops responding to treatment, it becomes ineffective. The doctor changes the tactics of treatment and medicines at different intervals.
The therapy will be more effective in normalizing the patient’s lifestyle. The quality of life must definitely be improved – observe the work and rest regime, normalize nutrition, avoid stressful situations, and lead an active lifestyle.
The main points of treatment for HIV infection are:
- drug therapy;
- preparation of a special diet;
- prevention of exacerbations.
The basic principles of HIV prevention are as follows:
- Avoid promiscuous sexual intercourse, use barrier contraception during sexual intercourse.
- It is forbidden to use used syringes and needles.
- When undergoing medical examinations and commissions, it is necessary to monitor the use of sterile and disposable instruments. The same should be done in beauty salons, where all instruments must be properly sterilized to implement the procedures.
HIV infection is dangerous because it directly affects the immune system, therefore, under the influence of pathology, the body is not able to cope even with a mild cold, perceiving it as a complicated disease. HIV ultimately leads to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) – it is incurable, and over time provokes death.
What does an HIV rash look like
HIV is a serious disease that can manifest itself in many different ways. So, for example, with the disease we are discussing, a rash of a different nature may appear on the skin, accompanied by characteristic spots. What this can mean, and how dangerous these rashes are – read on.
Types of eruptions
Rashes with HIV infection can be completely different in nature, but, as a rule, there are three types of these lesions:
- Variations in dermatoses are ambiguous.
Photo of a rash in case of HIV infection
In most cases, a vivid manifestation of the above lesions appears at 2-8 weeks. The patient will see such an unpleasant phenomenon as a rash. It is necessary to understand that with a disease such as AIDS, any secondary diseases can be severe.
Infectious skin problems
Not many people know what exanthema is.This is any skin rash that has a viral infection as its source, especially characteristic of AIDS. It affects the mucous membrane and has an endogenous and exogenous character in its structure. Symptoms accompanying this type of rash are expressed as follows:
- Lymphadenopathy – a human condition in which the lymph nodes are enlarged;
- increased sweating.
Further, you can observe the deterioration of the general condition, namely the rash will progress.Additional herpetic formations will also appear and, in addition, papules and molluscs may form.
This formation manifests itself in a rather atypical form in HIV – disease, which complicates subsequent treatment.
Sources of stains can be completely different phenomena: it is a fungal or bacterial infection, or a parasitic invasion and they may look different.
To date, doctors identify the following problems with the skin regarding dermatological formations:
- athlete’s groin;
Taken together, this is a lesion of a mycotic nature, which spreads rather quickly throughout the body and is difficult to treat.
In the photo, a rash in a patient with AIDS
It is worth noting that for people with HIV infections, skin problems are difficult to treat, as are other diseases. Due to the existing lesion, other diseases take root quite well.
This is facilitated by a weakened immune system. But back to the above formations.
As for rubrophytosis, it has quite different symptoms in HIV infection, depending on the specific organism, but, in general, the symptoms can be expressed as follows:
- Exudative erythema.
- Disorders of palms and feet.
- Seborrheic dermatitis.
Flat papules with numerous reproduction patterns.
As a separate fact, I would like to endure versicolor versicolor, which appears at the initial stage in the form of spots, gradually transforming into a rash, which is similar in appearance to papules.As for the size, these are spots with a diameter of about 5 cm.
As we noted earlier, each organism reacts to the disease in different ways, due to the level of the strength of its immunity, but for the most part, you can observe: high fever, the onset of diarrhea, inflammation of the tonsils, the presence of pain in the muscles, inflammatory processes in the lymphatic nodes, pronounced rash and rash itself. This is what this disease will look like.Also, on the body, the patient can see the appearance of such an education as a rash. It is often confused with syphilitic roseola, or a rash with measles. We must pay tribute, there is a very large similarity.
As we noted earlier, the focus of the lesion is the body, mainly the neck, face, back.
The duration of this disease is from 3 days to 3 weeks.
Herpes and other skin lesions
As a separate species, I would like to endure herpes or, in other words, skin lesions.It is mistakenly believed that the disease is rare in HIV-infected people, but, unfortunately, this is not the case.
As a rule, herpes occurs near the mouth or on the genitals, and may even be accompanied by a kind of exacerbation, in which non-healing ulcers develop at the site of the rash.
It should be noted that herpes of this type is called simple, but its treatment is very difficult, since it is complicated by constant relapses, possible remissions, severe pain.
Herpes zoster is also isolated, which may be the only visible manifestation of HIV infection. Interestingly, herpes zoster is typical for people with a fairly strong immune system. The source of this disease is persistent lymphadenopathy. Frequent relapses are also characteristic.
Skin lesions can also include pyoderma, accompanied by the appearance of follicles resembling acne or adolescent acne.
Kaposi’s sarcoma has an infected disease in its structure and is divided into two categories: visceral disease and dermal disease.The symptoms of this disease are:
- The defeat of people belonging to the category of young.
- The treatment process is very difficult.
- Atypical distribution.
- Pronounced lesion in the form of spots or rash.
- Rapidly progresses and affects internal organs.
Features of acne with AIDS
Acne or acne is not a unique disease, but the patient may not even suspect that he has AIDS, while the formations on the face and body clearly signal this. As a rule, blackheads or acne are the first signal to see a doctor.
Especially if their hatchability and treatment are some kind of inexplicable difficulty. Moreover, it should be borne in mind that this type of formation spreads quite quickly and affects healthy parts of the body, of course, it will look far from pleasant.
And, finally, we must not forget that AIDS patients endure everything, much more difficult and painful.
In the photo, the manifestation of the rash with HIV in men
We have noted many existing diseases regarding skin lesions and diseases such as rashes, but it is also necessary to take into account the treatment itself.Undoubtedly, it is very difficult and takes a lot of time and effort, but treatment must be done, since there is a chance to get rid of the aforementioned diseases.
In addition to traditional and cosmetic products, there are a huge number of treatment methods. First of all, you need to go to the clinic and get tested.
Further, the doctors will do everything to strengthen and maintain your immunity in normal conditions, since the main problem is in it.
For example, antiretroviral drugs have the ability to maintain immunity as needed.Directly for treatment in this case is used:
- antiviral drugs that slow down the development of HIV infection;
- Medicines to stop opportunistic diseases.
It is worth noting that thanks to the above-described means, life expectancy increases many times and at the same time, which is very important, the state of health rises significantly due to the maintenance of immunity in perfect order.
Of course, the process of treatment is not the most pleasant activity, but it is it that will help you in your difficult condition with AIDS.The most important aspect, perhaps, is how quickly you find the problem and go to the specialist.
That is why it is important to see a doctor at the first suspicion. Speed matters in this case.
Skin rashes with HIV infection
Immunodeficiency virus is a disease that reduces the protective functions of a person and destroys healthy cells.A sign of the onset of the disease is small rashes that spread throughout the body.
Over time, other symptoms of the disease, similar to the common cold, join. An HIV rash is the hallmark of the diagnosis.
If left untreated, it will turn into AIDS with all the existing symptoms and provoke complications.
Do not think that skin rashes are harmless. Any change that manifests externally indicates pathological problems in the work of the body.The appearance of a few rashes requires a visit to the doctor and tests, as this may be a sign of a viral disease.
The rash that occurs with HIV infection in humans appears due to the fact that the number of leukocytes and CCBs in the body decreases. Another factor in rashes is a side effect of medications used in wellness therapy. In order not to provoke urticaria, you should not self-medicate. If the doctor cannot find an analogue, he should warn the patient about the side effects.
If you have multiple rashes, it is necessary to be tested for infection. Since it is impossible to suspect whether it is HIV or not on its own.
If the blood test is negative, the doctor identifies the causes that provoked eczema. But if the result is positive, a course of anti HIV drugs is prescribed.
To prevent itching of the skin, it is recommended to use antihistamines.
A rash spreads through the body of an infected person if he has a herpes virus that provokes skin diseases, which will be discussed below.Often a symptom of HIV disease is enanthema, manifested by rashes on the mucous membranes.
Causes and treatment of chin rash
What diseases can a rash provoke?
Urticaria has a different character, in some people it appears on the body, while in other patients it is possible to count the number of formations on the fingers. If the rash is not pronounced, they are difficult to notice and this means that the disease is asymptomatic and it is difficult to suspect about it.The rashes are of a different nature:
- Mycotic lesions provoked by the growth of fungi. The disease develops dermatosis.
- Pyodermatitis caused by damage to staphylococci and streptococci. With this shape, the bubbles are filled with pus.
- A spotted rash in HIV occurs when the vascular system is affected. Spots of different sizes spread throughout the body.
- Seborrheic dermatitis indicates early HIV infection. A distinctive feature is skin peeling and severe itching.
- Malignant formations appearing during the development of the disease.
- Papular rash manifests as lesions consisting of small eruptions. This is a common illness caused by HIV infection. The number of formations from a few pieces to the whole body.
To understand what kind of disease you have, you have to undergo an examination. Rashes with HIV appear not only on the surface of the skin, on the mucous membranes and the penis. The first formations appear in humans on the 12-56th day of infection, depending on the patient’s immunity, and last for a long time.
Ananthem is a sign of various diseases, one of which is HIV. When diagnosed, the rash turns red and protrudes on the surface of the skin. The symptoms themselves are unpleasant, as they are accompanied by itching.
How HIV manifests itself in women
When HIV appears in women, the rash has a different character. The first symptoms are manifested by such diseases:
- Folliculitis. They are similar to acne that appears during adolescence. The rash is unpleasant for a person and is accompanied by severe itching.Formations appear on the face, back, chest, and eventually spread throughout the body.
- Impetigo. Flektenes appear in the chin and neck area. If the rashes are exposed to mechanical damage, they are covered with a golden crust.
- Pyoderma. An HIV rash appears in the folds of the skin, and relapses occur if drug therapy is not followed.
Allergic skin rash after antibiotics
What HIV looks like is not easy to answer, as the disease progresses in patients in its own way.And it is difficult to say how long the rashes last, in most cases they persist forever.
How long formations persist
Diseases can appear at different stages of the disease. But often the symptom can be noticed after several weeks of infection. An HIV rash on different parts of the body can develop into a chronic disease and be present on a person’s skin all the time.
Formations are practically not amenable to treatment and increase in number over the years. If you do not adhere to drug therapy, the following complications of the disease occur:
- purulent eruptions.
There are cases when the rash goes away on its own without treatment. This is how an allergic reaction develops to medicines for infection. Through rashes on the skin, it will not be possible to transmit the disease, even when in contact with them.
How to recognize HIV by rashes
Exanthema is a symptom of HIV infection in men and women.But such a symptom speaks of the development of various diseases in which the body itches. You can suspect about the presence of a diagnosis like this:
- Inspect the skin. People with HIV have a red or purple rash. On dark skin, pimples look more noticeable, since they are dark.
- Determine the localization of the lesions. More often with HIV, small rashes appear on the torso, arms, chest, neck.
- Take a closer look at yourself. Other symptoms of HIV infection: fever, weakness, bone aches, decreased appetite, ulcers, diarrhea, vomiting, nausea, swollen lymph nodes.
Features and nature of measles rash
A distinctive symptom of HIV disease is the immediate spread of a rash throughout the body. You can completely cover with red spots in a week. Skin rashes spread over large areas, rarely few appear. Symptoms indicate the development of a cold. And in order to diagnose the disease at an early stage, you need to pass tests and consult a doctor.
People diagnosed with HIV are interested in the question: may or not, the rash will disappear over time.