About all

Pregnancy signs after missed period: The request could not be satisfied


Pregnancy – signs and symptoms

Significant hormonal changes take place during pregnancy. These trigger a variety of symptoms. Some women experience many of the symptoms of pregnancy, while others may have only a few. 

Symptoms of early pregnancy include missed periods, breast changes, tiredness, frequent urination, and nausea and vomiting (morning sickness). However, these symptoms may be caused by other factors and do not necessarily mean that you are pregnant, so if you suspect you are pregnant take a home pregnancy test and see your GP. 

A wide range of changes can occur in your body in the later stages of pregnancy, including backache, headache, leg cramps or varicose veins, itch or tingling, constipation, haemorrhoids or indigestion, vaginitis or vaginal discharge, or mood changes or depression.

If you have any concerns don’t hesitate to talk to your GP. See your GP right away if you experience symptoms like vaginal bleeding or breaking waters, chronic pain, high temperature, severe headaches or vision loss. 

Signs of pregnancy

The signs of early pregnancy can include: 

  • missed period
  • nausea and vomiting (often called ‘morning’ sickness, but it can occur at any time)
  • breast tenderness and enlargement
  • fatigue
  • passing urine more frequently than usual, particularly at night
  • cravings for some foods, distaste for foods you usually like, and a sour or metallic taste that persists even when you’re not eating (dysgeusia).

Many of the signs of pregnancy, such as a missed period (amenorrhoea), nausea (morning sickness) or tiredness can also be caused by stress or illness, so if you think you are pregnant take a home pregnancy test (urine test) or see your GP, who will administer a urine test, blood test or ultrasound scan. 

Missed period

Missing a period is often the first sign of possible pregnancy. However, some women experience light bleeding around the time of their expected period. 

Nausea and vomiting

‘Morning’ sickness is a condition that affects more than half of all pregnant women. The symptoms include nausea and vomiting, and loss of appetite. Most women with morning sickness don’t just get symptoms in the morning, but experience them throughout the whole day. 

Morning sickness usually begins around the fourth to sixth week of pregnancy and may settle by week 12, although it can continue for longer or return at around 32 weeks. 

Breast changes

During pregnancy, the breasts become fuller, swollen and tender. These changes are similar to those you may have noticed in the few days before your period. During pregnancy, the skin around the nipple becomes darker and the veins in the breast become more obvious. 


Overwhelming tiredness is common in early pregnancy. This is most likely caused by the massive increase in the sex hormone progesterone. Progesterone is needed to maintain the pregnancy and help the baby to grow, but it also slows your metabolism. 

Try to get some more sleep or rest when you can during this early stage. Your energy levels will probably rise again by around the fourth month of pregnancy when the placenta is well established. 

Tiredness during pregnancy can also be caused by anaemia, which is most commonly caused by iron deficiency. Eating iron-rich foods is important in the prevention of iron deficiency anaemia during pregnancy. Medical treatment of anaemia in pregnancy involves taking iron supplements.

Frequent urination

Pregnancy causes an increase in levels of body fluids and greater kidney efficiency. The swelling uterus also presses against the bladder. As a result, most women start experiencing more frequent urination within the first few weeks of becoming pregnant. 

Food cravings

Cravings for certain foods are very common in pregnancy, especially for foods that provide energy and calcium, such as milk and other dairy products. You may also notice a sudden distaste for foods you previously liked.

Some women even develop an unusual taste for non-food items such as soil or paper. This is called ‘pica’ and may indicate a nutrient deficiency. Please speak to your GP or midwife if this develops.

Other symptoms of pregnancy

Many of these symptoms may also be indicative of other conditions. If in doubt, see your GP. 

  • back ache
  • breathlessness
  • constipation
  • haemorrhoids (piles)
  • headaches
  • heartburn and indigestion
  • itchy skin
  • leg cramps
  • mood changes (such as unexplained crying)
  • tingling and numbness in your hands
  • vaginal discharge
  • vaginitis
  • varicose veins and leg oedema (swelling).


Back pain during pregnancy can affect more than one in three women. This is usually due to loosening of ligaments and change in posture due to the growing pregnancy. 

You can help reduce back pain during pregnancy by wearing flat heeled shoes, using chairs with good back support, avoiding lifting heavy objects, and doing gentle exercise. Exercising in water can reduce back pain in pregnancy, and physiotherapy and acupuncture may also help. 


At the onset of pregnancy the hormone progesterone increases your lung capacity. This enables you to carry more oxygen to your baby and get rid of waste products such as the carbon dioxide that you both produce. At each breath you breathe more deeply and the amount of air you inhale (and exhale) increases significantly. This can make you feel short of breath.

In addition, as pregnancy approaches term, the pressure of the enlarging uterus and baby on your diaphragm can make your breathing feel more laboured. 

Contact your doctor or midwife if you experience sudden onset of breathlessness associated with any of the following: 

  • pain 
  • palpitations (heart pounding) 
  • extreme tiredness
  • exercise. 


Constipation refers to infrequent, hard bowel movements that are difficult to pass. Constipation is a common problem in pregnancy that may be caused by pregnancy hormones slowing your gastrointestinal movement, or by the pressure of your growing uterus on your rectum.

If you experience constipation during pregnancy, you are advised to: 

  • Drink plenty of water every day.
  • Increase your dietary fibre (such as bran, wheat and fresh fruit and vegetables).
  • Do gentle, low impact exercise such as swimming, walking or yoga.

Don’t take over-the-counter laxatives without first consulting your midwife or GP. If changes to your diet and lifestyle don’t make a difference then your GP or midwife can prescribe a laxative that is safe to use in pregnancy.

Haemorrhoids (piles)

You may develop haemorrhoids (also known as piles) as a result of straining from constipation or the pressure of your baby’s head. Be reassured, symptoms usually resolve on their own soon after birth. 

If you have bleeding from haemorrhoids, itching, discomfort or pain it is recommended that you: 

  • Alleviate or prevent constipation by increasing your daily water and fibre intake.
  • Sit in warm salty water for about 15 minutes, especially after a bowel motion.
  • Apply haemorrhoid cream. 

If the bleeding or pain continues, talk with your GP or midwife.


Contact your GP or midwife if you have a headache during pregnancy that is not relieved by paracetamol (such as Panadol), especially in the second half of pregnancy. 

A persistent headache can be associated with pre-eclampsia – a condition that can affect your kidneys and thus increase blood pressure and decrease blood flow to your baby. 

Heartburn and indigestion

Heartburn, reflux or indigestion is the pain and discomfort associated with acid from the stomach entering and ‘burning’ the oesophagus.

Indigestion is more common during pregnancy due to the pressure of the enlarging uterus on the organs of the abdomen and the action of the hormone progesterone that relaxes the muscle between the oesophagus and stomach.

If you are experiencing heartburn, reflux or indigestion, it is recommended that you: 

  • Eat small and more frequent meals.
  • Avoid eating just before going to bed. 
  • Sleep with extra pillows so your head is raised.
  • Wear loose-fitting clothing.
  • Avoid any food or fluid that aggravates symptoms – such as fatty foods (including fried foods, fatty meats and pastry), spicy foods (including curry and chilli), alcohol and caffeine (including tea, coffee, chocolate and cola).
  • Consult your doctor before taking antacids.

If these strategies do not relieve your symptoms, please consult your GP, who may prescribe a medication that will safely reduce the secretion of acid.

Itchy skin

Widespread itching over the body is not common in pregnancy. When present, it can be very distressing, interfering with sleep and enjoyment of pregnancy. There may be no apparent cause for the itching. In rare cases it may be due to serious liver disease – a blood test can be done to check for this.

Leg cramps

Leg cramps occur due to a build-up of acids that cause involuntary contractions of the affected muscles. They are experienced by up to half of pregnant women, usually at night. Leg cramps are more likely in the second and third trimesters. 

If you experience leg cramps, it is recommended that during an episode you: 

  • Walk around.
  • Stretch and massage the affected muscle(s) to disperse the build-up of acids.
  • Apply a warm pack to the affected muscle(s). 

If you find cramps troublesome, discuss with your GP or midwife the option of taking magnesium lactate or citrate morning and evening.

Mood changes

Some newly pregnant women experience mood changes such as irritability. Other pregnant women experience feelings of elation. It is thought that the pregnancy hormones influence chemicals in the brain, causing mood changes. 

During pregnancy, one in 10 women experience depression. Depression is treatable, so if you are feeling depressed or ‘down’ during pregnancy it is extremely important to get help early. Please contact your doctor, midwife or maternal and child health nurse as soon as possible. 

Tingling and numbness in your hands (carpal tunnel syndrome)

Carpal tunnel syndrome – tingling and numbness in your hands – affects up to 60 per cent of women during pregnancy. It is caused by compression of the median nerve due to an increase in the tissue fluids during pregnancy. 

Carpal tunnel syndrome may be mild, intermittently painful, or severe, which may cause partial paralysis of the thumb or loss of sensation. Symptoms usually resolve on their own soon after birth. 

If you are experiencing tingling and numbness in your hands, inform your doctor or midwife. In very severe cases, your doctor may recommend corticosteroid injections or surgical treatment. 

Vaginal discharge

An increase in vaginal discharge is a common change during pregnancy. If it is associated with itchiness, pain, a bad odour or pain on passing urine then it may be due to an infection. Seek treatment from your GP.


Vaginitis is inflammation of the vagina, and is a distressing complaint for many women. It is more frequent during pregnancy. Some causes of vaginitis include vaginal thrush, bacterial vaginosis, trichomoniasis and chlamydia. See your GP for diagnosis and treatment 

Varicose veins and leg oedema (swelling)

Varicose veins of the legs are very common in pregnancy due to a combination of factors, including increased volume of circulating blood during pregnancy, and pressure of the pregnant uterus on the larger veins. This increased pressure on the veins can also result in swelling of the legs (oedema) that can cause pain, feelings of heaviness, cramps (especially at night) and other unusual sensations.

If you have varicose veins, it is recommended that you: 

  • Wear support stockings.
  • Avoid standing for long periods.
  • Exercise gently and regularly (walking or swimming).
  • Lie down to rest with feet elevated, when you can.
  • Try massaging your legs.
  • Tell your doctor or midwife at your next pregnancy visit.

Signs and symptoms during pregnancy – when to get help 

It is recommended that you contact your hospital or carer if you are worried or if you have any of the following during pregnancy: 

  • vaginal bleeding
  • less movement of your baby than usual
  • severe stomach pain
  • pain that doesn’t go away
  • leaking amniotic fluid (that is, if your waters break)
  • a high temperature
  • vomiting that will not stop
  • a headache that will not go away
  • vision loss or blurred vision
  • widespread itching of the skin
  • sudden swelling of face, hands and feet.

Read more about obstetric emergencies during pregnancy.

Where to get help

9 Early Pregnancy Signs (That You’re Not Imagining)

It’s easy to get the care you need.

See a Premier Physician Network provider near you.

If you’re trying to conceive, taking a pregnancy test at the right time is always your best bet to determine whether or not you’re pregnant. 

But even before it’s time to take a pregnancy test, you might notice symptoms. That’s because, even in early pregnancy, hormonal and physical changes can take place in your body. 

With all of the hormones rushing through a pregnant woman’s body, it’s no wonder that headaches are another common early sign of pregnancy.

Common Early Signs of Pregnancy

  1. Missed period. First and foremost, the most obvious sign of pregnancy is a missed period. For many women, that’s the first symptom they notice. A missed period occurs two weeks after conception.
  2. Extreme tiredness. Have you been feeling exhausted lately? Many women feel tired in early pregnancy. That’s because the pregnant body is working overtime to maintain the pregnancy and develop milk-producing glands in the breasts. Some pregnant women notice this fatigue even as early as one week after conception, making this one of the first noticeable signs of pregnancy.
  3. Sore, swollen breasts. If you’ve noticed that your breasts feel full, heavy or even tingly, you may want to consider the fact that you might be pregnant. This symptom may show up even as early as one or two weeks after conception.
  4. Nausea and/or vomiting. Feeling sick to your stomach? Pregnancy-related nausea and vomiting can start two to eight weeks after conception and continue throughout pregnancy.
  5. Frequent urination. Early on in pregnancy, women might feel that they’ve “gotta go” frequently. As the pregnancy hormone hCG (human chorionic gonadotropin) flows through the pregnant body, more blood flow enters the pelvic region, which then causes more frequent urination. 
  6. Intense cravings/aversions. Feeling especially hungry for a particular food? Can’t stand the sight of foods you usually enjoy? Food cravings or aversions are common throughout pregnancy. 
  7. Breast changes. Even at the very early stages of a pregnancy, some women notice a darkening of skin around their nipples.
  8. Headaches. With all of the hormones rushing through a pregnant woman’s body, it’s no wonder that headaches are another common early sign of pregnancy.
  9. Mood swings. Yelled at anyone lately? Mood swings are common for newly expectant mothers. That’s because hormonal changes can affect neurotransmitters in the brain. Pregnancy can cause women to feel extreme highs and lows. If you’re feeling stressed, try these stress-busting tips for pregnant mothers.    

What Else Could Be Going On?

Keep in mind that many of these symptoms can also be the signs of other conditions, such as your period being ready to start or a hormonal imbalance. They also can result from stress or occur when you change birth control pills, so they don’t always mean that you’re pregnant. Be sure to see your doctor if you suspect that you’re pregnant.

It’s easy to get the care you need.

See a Premier Physician Network provider near you.

Source: American Pregnancy Association; National Institute of Child Health and Human Development

Small Steps:
Moderate Workouts

Walking, yoga, swimming and dancing are good exercises to maintain health and boost fertility.

Pregnancy signs at two weeks

Tender breasts, feeling nauseous and tired, and food cravings can all be signs that you’re in the early stages of pregnancy. While it may still be too soon to tell, your body is already changing and these early symptoms could be your body’s way of hinting that you’re pregnant. You won’t be able to take a pregnancy test before you’ve missed your period but can look out for these pregnancy symptoms in the meantime.

Tender or tingling breasts

You may feel a prickling or tingling sensation in your breasts, particularly around your nipples. It happens because pregnancy hormones increase the blood supply to your breasts (Blackburn 2013, Murray and Hassall 2014).

This can be one of the earliest signs of pregnancy. You may notice how tender your breasts feel within a week or so of conception. Your usual bra may become uncomfortable, and feel more chafing than usual. However, sore breasts more commonly become noticeable about three weeks to four weeks after conception (Murray and Hassall 2014).

Darker vulva and vagina

Another early sign of pregnancy is the change in colour of your vulva and vagina. Your vulva and vagina will become darker and may have a blue or purple tinge as your pregnancy progresses (Geraghty and Pomeranz 2011 cited Hassall and Murray 2014).

The change is caused by the increased amount of blood being supplied to the tissues around your vagina. Midwives call this change in colour Chadwick’s sign (Geraghty and Pomeranz 2011 cited Murray and Hassall 2014).

Food cravings and aversions

At this early stage, you are more likely to experience a change in your appetite than cravings for particular foods (NHS 2016). You may notice a metallic taste in your mouth and be extra sensitive to the smells of food or cooking (Newson 2014, NHS 2016).

The pregnancy hormone, progesterone, may make you feel hungrier (Hirschberg 2012). However, it’s also normal to feel hungrier just before your period for the same reason – higher levels of progesterone. So increased appetite doesn’t necessarily mean you have conceived (Hirschberg 2012).

It’s more common to have a loss of appetite, especially if you’re starting to feel queasy because of morning sickness. You may be opting for certain foods that ease your symptoms, rather than because you crave them (Weigel et al 2011).

You may not be able to bear the taste of things that you used to enjoy. This might include coffee, tea, alcohol, spicy or fried foods and eggs. This can work to your advantage though, as you should not drink any alcohol at all during your pregnancy.

Morning sickness and nausea

Morning sickness can start two weeks after you’ve conceived, when you’re actually four weeks pregnant. It’s more common for it to start when you’re about six weeks pregnant, though (Blackburn 2013, Murray and Hassall 2014, NHS 2016).

You may feel nauseous, with or without vomiting, at any time of the day or night. Morning sickness usually starts to ease as you reach the end of the first trimester (Niebyl 2010), although about one woman in 10 still feels sick after week 20 (NHS 2015b).

The exact cause of morning sickness is unknown, but it’s thought to be connected to the rise in pregnancy hormones, human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) and oestrogen.

There’s also a theory that thyroid hormones play a part. If the body produces too many thyroid hormones during early pregnancy, when the embryo is developing, it may contribute to sickness (Forbes 2014).

Increased vaginal discharge

It’s possible that if you’re particularly in tune with your usual menstrual cycle, you will notice changes to your vaginal discharge at this early stage.

It’s common to have more vaginal discharge in pregnancy. It’s usually harmless, and not that different from the discharge that you had before you were pregnant.

The amount of discharge increases to discourage infections from travelling up your vagina (NHS 2015a). Don’t rinse out your vagina (douching), as this may irritate your skin and upset the natural, healthy balance of bacteria.

Pregnancy also makes you more likely to get thrush. Although this isn’t harmful to your baby, you’ll need treatment. If your vaginal discharge changes in appearance and smell, see your doctor.

Vaginal spotting

You may notice a slight pink or brown-coloured stain in your knickers, or when you wee, or feel slight cramping. It’s common to have some spotting or light bleeding between week six and week seven (Hasan et al 2010, Newson 2014).

Experts aren’t sure why spotting in very early pregnancy happens, but there’s a possibility that it’s caused by the fertilised egg implanting in your womb (Crafter and Brewster 2014), or the hormones that control your periods lingering on. Most spotting is painless, and you may only notice it when you wipe.

If you have bleeding that seems unusual, see your doctor, to be on the safe side. Bleeding that’s lighter, and brighter, or darker red than usual, or more watery, may be symptoms of an ectopic pregnancy. An ectopic pregnancy is when the embryo implants outside the womb, and it needs immediate treatment.

Feeling tired

You may start to feel tired right from the early stages of pregnancy, as your body gets ready to support your growing baby. You’ll find this lasts until you’re about 12 weeks pregnant (Blackburn 2013). You may also feel weepy and emotional, while at other times elated (NHS 2016, Raynor and Oates 2009).

Though fatigue is not a sure-fire symptom on its own, it’s a common pregnancy symptom, and often goes hand in hand with morning sickness (Gartland et al 2010, NHS 2015b).

Will I notice early pregnancy symptoms?

Some, but not all, women get the feeling that they’re pregnant a few days after they’ve conceived (Murray and Hassall 2014). So it’s possible that you may experience pregnancy symptoms as early as two weeks after conception. However, it’s more likely that you won’t feel anything for a little while longer yet.

It may be two weeks since you conceived, but your doctor will calculate that you’re four weeks pregnant. They’ll count your pregnancy from the first day of your last period. There’s no way of knowing for sure the exact date that the embryo implanted in your womb (uterus), which is when you conceived.

Every pregnancy is different, so it’s hard to predict if you’ll notice changes in your body, especially just two weeks after conception.

Early pregnancy symptoms such as tender breasts, tiredness and feeling sick, are easy to confuse with signs that your period is coming on. For most women, the first sign they notice is a missed period (Murray and Hassall 2014).

Is it too early to take a pregnancy test?

At two weeks, it may be. The more sensitive home pregnancy tests claim to detect low levels of pregnancy hormones as early as four days or five days before your period is due (NHS 2015c).

However, the most reliable sign of pregnancy is a missed period. You’ll get the most accurate result from your pregnancy test if you use it no earlier than the time when your period would be due.

Is a pregnancy test accurate?

Can you trust the result your pregnancy test shows you? Our video explains just how accurate pregnancy tests are.More pregnancy videos
If your period is late, and your test result is negative, try testing again in three days’ time. If you have an irregular cycle, it may be that you’ve tested a little too early.

You may also like

See all in Am I pregnant?

Last reviewed: March 2021


Blackburn ST. 2013. The prenatal period and placental physiology. In: Maternal, Fetal and Neonatal Physiology. A clinical perspective. 4th ed. Oxford: Elsevier Saunders, 61-2

Crafter H, Brewster J. 2014. Common problems associated with early and advanced pregnancy. In: Marshall JE, Raynor MD. eds. Myles Textbook for Midwives. 16th ed. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone, 222-42

Forbes S. 2014. Pregnancy sickness and parent-offspring conflict over thyroid function. J Theor Biol 355: 61-7. www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Accessed January 2017]

Gartland D, Brown S, Donath S, et al. 2010. Women’s health in early pregnancy: findings from an Australian nulliparous cohort study. ANZJOG 50(5):413-8

Hasan R, Baird DD, Herring AH et al. 2010. Patterns and predictors of vaginal bleeding in the first trimester of pregnancy. Ann Epidemiol 20(7):524-31. www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Accessed January 2017]

Hirschberg AL. 2012. Sex hormones, appetite and eating behaviour in women.Maturitas 71(3):248-56. www.n.b5z.net [Accessed January 2017]

Murray I, Hassall J. 2014. Change and adaptation in pregnancy. In: Marshall J, Raynor M. eds. Myles Textbook for Midwives chapter 9, 16th ed. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone, 143-77

Niebyl JR. 2010. Nausea and vomiting in pregnancy. N Eng J Med 363(16):1544-50

Newson L. 2014. Early pregnancy signs and symptoms Patient, Health information. patient.info [Accessed December 2016]

NHS. 2015a. Vaginal discharge in pregnancy NHS Choices, Pregnancy and baby. Health A-Z. www.nhs.uk [Accessed January 2017]

NHS. 2015b. Nausea and morning sickness. NHS Choices, Health A-Z. www.nhs.uk [Accessed January 2017]

NHS. 2015c. How soon can I do a pregnancy test? NHS Choices, Common health questions. www.nhs.uk [Accessed January 2017]

NHS. 2016. Signs and symptoms of pregnancy Health A-Z. Pregnancy and baby. www.nhs.uk [Accessed January 2017]

Raynor MD, Oates MR. 2014. Perinatal mental health. In: Marshall J, Raynor M. eds. Myles Textbook for Midwives, chapter 25, 16th ed. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone, 539-54

Weigel MM, Coe K, Castro NP et al. 2011. Food aversions and cravings during early pregnancy: association with nausea and vomiting. Ecol Food Nutr 50(3):197-214. www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Accessed January 2017]

13 Early Signs You May Be Pregnant

  • Early symptoms of pregnancy appear around 6-14 weeks after you conceive. 
  • Some early signs include nausea, a missed period, changes in breasts, and vaginal discharge. 
  • If you miss a period or suspect you’re pregnant, take a test immediately and contact your doctor. 
  • Visit Insider’s Health Reference library for more advice.

While every pregnancy is unique, there are some common symptoms you can expect early on including a missed period, breast tenderness, and nausea.  

Ellen Goldstein — an OB-GYN with the Reproductive Fertility Center in Hollywood — says most people will start to experience symptoms between weeks 6-14. However, symptoms may appear as early as a week after conception.

Here are 13 early pregnancy symptoms and why they happen.

1. A missed period

Not getting your period is one of the most obvious signs that you may be pregnant. It’s important to note, though, that this isn’t the most reliable way to tell, because you can still have light bleeding or spotting when you’re pregnant.  

You can also miss your period aside from pregnancy — such as stress, excessive exercise, and taking certain medications (including low-dose birth control pills).

2. Changes in your breasts

“As the pregnancy hormones estrogen and progesterone rise, you may notice your breasts becoming fuller, heavier, or more sensitive starting in the first trimester and this may last throughout pregnancy,” says Temeka Zore, a board-certified OB-GYN with the Spring Fertility clinic.

Goldstein notes that breast tenderness and sensitivity can occur right around the time of the missed period. Additionally, many women also notice an increase in breast size around weeks 6-8.

3. Unusual vaginal discharge

According to Zore, it’s not uncommon to experience increased vaginal discharge, (specifically a thin, clear or milky white discharge).

4. Morning sickness: Nausea and/or vomiting

An estimated 70%-80% of pregnant women experience  nausea and/or vomiting.  While this is often referred to as “morning sickness” it can strike any time, day or night.

Nausea is more common during the first trimester due to your human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) levels. HCG is a hormone produced during pregnancy that’s made by cells formed in the placenta/

Levels of HCG start to rise around weeks 5-6 and peak around weeks 9-10, according to Zore. These symptoms will typically subside after the first trimester when hCG levels will begin to fall.

5. Sudden craving changes


Doctors debunk the 25 biggest pregnancy myths

An estimated 50%-90% of pregnant women experience cravings for specific foods. Pregnancy cravings typically emerge during the first trimester and peak in intensity during the second trimester, likely because estrogen and progesterone are continuing to increase to help the baby grow.

A 2014 study found that the top pregnancy cravings include sweets, savory carbohydrates, meat, and fruits.

While there’s little scientific evidence to explain why these cravings happen, Zore says one widely accepted theory is that rapidly changing hormones during the first and second trimester could be the culprit.

6. Peeing more than normal

Over your first trimester, your uterus will grow, which will press on your bladder and cause the need to pee more often. Your pregnancy hormones also increase blood flow to your bladder which leads to increased urination. 

Mary Jane Minkin, MD, an OB-GYN at Yale-New Haven Hospital, also points out that you will also very likely be consuming more fluids early in your pregnancy to stay hydrated, which may mean more frequent trips to the bathroom, and an extra interruption in your sleep!

7. Spotting


What bleeding during pregnancy means and when it’s serious

An estimated 15% to 25% of pregnancies will involve bleeding early on. This bleeding is normal and often a result of when the embryo attaches to the uterine wall. Also called implantation bleeding, this spotting is usually lighter in flow than a period, and the color can vary from pink or red to brown. 

However, if you notice persistent, heavy, or otherwise abnormal vaginal bleeding, it’s best to consult your OB-GYN.

8. Cramps

Some people may have cramps during the first trimester. According to Goldstein, cramps early on in pregnancy are usually caused by the uterus expanding, which forces the muscles and ligaments supporting it to stretch out. 

Zore advises speaking with your OB-GYN if your cramps or abdominal pain is severe and does not go away after a few hours.

9. Constipation

Constipation is more common later in pregnancy, but it can still be an issue early on, too.

Goldstein recommends trying stool softeners and increasing your intake of soluble fiber. Some good sources of soluble fiber include:

  • Apples (4.2 grams in one medium fruit with skin)
  • Blackberries (3.1 grams in ½ cup)
  • Black beans (3.8 grams in ½ cup)
  • Oatmeal (2.4 grams in 1 cup)
  • Green peas (3.2 grams in ½ cup)

10. Tiredness or fatigue

“I tell my patients that they are ‘sleeping for two,'” says Minkin.

Zore says fatigue is a common symptom in the first trimester as certain hormones surge and your body begins expending more energy to support the pregnancy. Specifically, progesterone is known to have sedative-like effects and is associated with fatigue.

Sleep deprivation during the first trimester has been linked to a number of health problems, so Mayo Clinic advises aiming for a minimum of eight hours of sleep per night.

11. Change in nipple color

You might notice that your nipples and areolas get darker during early pregnancy — Minkin says this is due to a rise in certain hormones, like estrogen, that affect skin pigmentation.

It’s also not uncommon for the veins in your breasts to darken as a result of increased blood flow to that area.

12. Mood swings

It’s not surprising that many pregnant women experience mood swings during the first trimester (between 6 and 10 weeks). 

During this stage, you’re experiencing a flood of hormones — specifically, estrogen and progesterone, both of which can impact your emotional health. Estrogen is present in the part of the brain that regulates mood and has been linked to anxiety and depression.

Not to mention, pregnancy is a life-changing event.

“You might think it’s your hormones making you irritable, euphoric, or sentimental,” says Goldstein, “but I would not discount the very real and understandable emotional weight that goes with the adjustment to expanding your family.”

13. Lower blood pressure

Don’t be surprised if your blood pressure starts to drop during the first or second trimester. According to Minkin and Zore, this sometimes happens because an increase in progesterone relaxes the walls of the blood vessels, and the blood vessels may dilate to accommodate the increased blood flow during pregnancy.

Insider’s takeaway 

The type and timeline of symptoms can vary significantly from pregnancy to pregnancy. However, some of the more common symptoms — like — breast changes, morning sickness, mood swings, cramps, fatigue, and spotting — start during the first trimester, when there are drastic changes in hormone levels. 

“Once you get a positive home test you should alert your OB-GYN, and they may have you come in for a blood test or ultrasound to confirm.”

When in doubt about any severe symptoms, always check in with your OB-GYN to rule out any pregnancy complications or other health issues.

How they’re different, and when to take a test

This article is also available in: português, español

You’ve recently had unprotected sex and now your period is later than usual.

Wondering if you’re pregnant? The tricky thing about figuring out if you have pregnancy symptoms is that many signs are similar to PMS symptoms.

It can also be difficult to know if your period is really late if you don’t know your average cycle length, or if your cycle length varies a lot.

Download Clue to get a better sense of your average cycle length.


over 2M+ ratings

Categories of pregnancy symptoms:

  • presumptive signs possibility of pregnancy

  • probable signs most likelihood of indicating pregnancy

  • positive signs confirmation of pregnancy (1)

Occasionally a person with an immense desire for, or fear of, pregnancy can develop presumptive, even probable, signs of pregnancy. This is known as a false pregnancy (pseudocyesis) and truly shows how the brain can influence physiology (1).

Sidenote: sympathetic pregnancy (also known as couvade syndrome) is when a non-pregnant partner experiences similar symptoms to the pregnant partner (2).

Most people notice the symptoms of pregnancy start about two weeks after conception, a couple of days after a missed period, or when there is a positive pregnancy test (1).

The most common early pregnancy symptoms are increased urinary frequency, tiredness, poor sleep, and back pain (3).

Presumptive signs of pregnancy — 

possibility of pregnancy

  • Amenorrhea (no period)

  • Nausea — with or without vomiting

  • Breast enlargement and tenderness

  • Fatigue

  • Poor sleep

  • Back pain

  • Constipation

  • Food cravings and aversions

  • Mood changes or “mood swings”

  • Heartburn

  • Nasal congestion

  • Shortness of breath

  • Lightheadedness

  • Elevated basal body temperature (BBT)

  • Spider veins

  • Reddening of the palms

Probable signs of pregnancy — 

most likelihood of indicating pregnancy

  • Increased frequency of urination

  • Soft cervix

  • Abdominal bloating/enlargement

  • Mild uterine cramping/discomfort without bleeding

  • Increased skin pigmentation in the face, stomach, and/or areola

Positive signs of pregnancy — 

confirmation of pregnancy

Vaginal bleeding

Vaginal bleeding occurs in 20 to 40% of pregnant people during their first trimester and can sometimes be confused with a light period (4,5).


Nausea during the beginning of pregnancy is commonly referred to as morning sickness due to a change in stomach function at this time — it usually, but not always, goes away in a few weeks (1). Even though it’s called “morning sickness,” nausea isn’t just confined to the morning.

Increase in urination

Increase in urination in early pregnancy can be due to hormonal changes influencing bladder function and urinary output (6). Additionally, the cervix becomes softer by the sixth week of pregnancy — known as Hegar’s sign—and can be detected by a physician during a pelvic exam (1).

Pregnancy tests detect the hormone human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), which is present in the blood and urine of a pregnant person. hCG is secreted by the placenta shortly after pregnancy begins (1). It’s best to take a pregnancy test to determine if you’re pregnant.

Article was originally published Nov. 27, 2017

13 Early Signs Of Pregnancy

If you’ve ever tried to conceive, you know it can be an exciting and sometimes agonizing process. After all, you have to wait an entire cycle to see if all that hard work actually paid off. If it didn’t, you’re back to starting over again—and that can make you even less patient with time.

Given that it’s really, really tough to wait to find out if you’re pregnant, you probably want to know upfront about the early signs of pregnancy—which is totally fair. This is a life-altering moment we’re talking about here.

Just know this: “The most reliable early sign of pregnancy is a positive pregnancy test,” says Christine Greves, MD, a board-certified ob-gyn at the Winnie Palmer Hospital for Women and Babies. Many potential symptoms of early pregnancy can be the result of a lot of other conditions, or can even be brought on by your period coming, making them less reliable than, say, actually missing your period, she points out.

Also, every woman—and every pregnancy—is different, Dr. Greves says. So, while your BFF might swear that her breasts immediately swelled the second she got pregnant, you probably won’t have the same experience.

All of that said, there are a few potential tip-offs that you could be expecting that don’t involve you needing to take a pregnancy test. (Although you should definitely do that to confirm the situation when it’s time.) Before that, keep this early pregnancy information in mind.

How early do pregnancy symptoms start?

Again, a missed period is really the biggest tip-off that you might be pregnant. Still, you can get other symptoms earlier than that, and before you can even take a pregnancy test to confirm the big news. It’s all due to—yep—hormones.

“Human chorionic gonadotropin, or HCG, is the hormone tested by a pregnancy test, and which contributes to the secretion of progesterone, the main hormone responsible for most pregnancy symptoms,” explains Jonathan Schaffir, MD, an ob-gyn at The Ohio State Wexner Medical Center. HCG starts entering your bloodstream about seven to 10 days after you conceive, but it “doesn’t reach levels that would show up on a pregnancy test until a couple of days before a period would be missed,” he says.

Still, the levels of HCG are pretty low at this point, although not so low that a test won’t pick it up. “The tests are very sensitive,” Dr. Greves says. At the same time, Dr. Schaffir says, it’s unlikely that you’d have extreme symptoms. But some women are more sensitive to changes in their bodies than others, or may experience certain symptoms like implantation bleeding or cramps five to six days after they become pregnant, says women’s health expert Jennifer Wider, MD.

What are the symptoms of early pregnancy?

These symptoms aren’t necessarily a guarantee of pregnancy—taking a test is really the only way to confirm that—but they could be a sign that you’re expecting. Keep your eye out for these early pregnancy symptoms:

  • Increased urination. If you’re pretty aware of how often you pee, you might notice that you’re hitting the toilet a little more often than usual. “Pregnancy hormonal changes can cause the kidneys to expand and churn out more urine, which helps the body rid itself of waste more rapidly,” Dr. Wider says.
  • Fatigue. This is a tricky one, Dr. Greves says, given that you can feel tired from so many things, including being about to get your period. But, if you are pregnant, you can feel a little fatigued from high levels of the hormone progesterone and an increase of blood production in your body, Dr. Wider says.
  • Tender, swollen breasts and nipples. When you’re pregnant, increasing levels of progesterone can make your breast glands expand (so that you can breastfeed down the road), Dr. Schaffir explains. So, you might feel a little soreness or notice swelling early on.
  • Nausea with or without vomiting. Not everyone experiences nausea and/or vomiting with pregnancy. If you’re going to have them, it’s more likely that the symptoms will be more noticeable after your missed period due to increased levels of pregnancy hormones. “Nausea is thought to be a direct result of the HCG hormone, which peaks at eight to 10 weeks from the last menstrual period before declining,” Dr. Schaffir says. Still, you might notice you feel a little queasy before that. “Some women are more vulnerable to that than others,” Dr. Wider says.
  • Constipation. Pooping less than usual? You could be pregnant. “Progesterone relaxes the smooth muscle of your gut, slowing down transit time for food,” Dr. Greves says. As a result, you may feel a little stopped up.
  • Headache. This isn’t overly common and it’s a tough one to figure out given that—hello—you can get a headache for a ton of different reasons. When it comes to pregnancy, a headache can be “caused by a combination of a rise in hormones and an increase in blood volume,” Dr. Wider says.
  • Raised basal body temperature. This is due to a rise in progesterone levels, which stay high if your egg is fertilized, Dr. Wider says. You won’t necessarily feel any different, but you may notice a slightly increased temp if you’ve been tracking it.
  • Bloating or gas. This goes back to progesterone slowing down your GI tract: It can also cause you to feel gassy and bloated, Dr. Schaffir says.
  • Mild pelvic cramping. This can happen after the egg attaches to your uterine wall, Dr. Wider says, although not everyone may notice or feel this. “Sometimes it feels like menstrual cramps, making some women think that their period is on its way,” she says.
  • Spotting. Some women may notice a small amount of implantation bleeding (i.e. when the egg attaches to your uterine wall and causes some spotting), Dr. Schaffir says. This isn’t a lot of blood, though—it’s only a small amount—different from your period.
  • Food aversions. Suddenly don’t want your go-to breakfast? It could be a sign of pregnancy, and it’s usually linked to rising HCG levels, Dr. Schaffir says. It doesn’t last forever, though. “It usually improves at the end of the first trimester,” he says.
  • Mood swings. Not everyone experiences these, but you may feel a little moody or emotional if you’re sensitive to the effects of progesterone on your brain receptors, Dr. Schaffir says.
  • Nasal congestion. Your blood supply starts to increase during pregnancy, and that can trigger swelling in your nasal passages, Dr. Wider says. It’s unlikely to be major, but you may notice you’re a little congested, she says.

    How soon can you take a pregnancy test to know for sure if you’re pregnant?

    Again, at-home pregnancy tests look for the presence of HCG in your body, and this hormone can usually be detected in your pee 11 to 14 days after you conceive, Dr. Schaffir says.

    While plenty of pregnancy tests promise they can give results several days before your missed period, they’re not as reliable at that point. “Many tests are designed to give the best result after a woman’s period is late,” Dr. Wider says.

    Basically, if you can wait to test until you miss your period, you’ll get the most accurate results.

    The bottom line: There are several symptoms of early pregnancy you can be on the lookout for, but the best way to know for sure if you’re pregnant is to wait until your period is late to take a test.

    This content is created and maintained by a third party, and imported onto this page to help users provide their email addresses. You may be able to find more information about this and similar content at piano.io

    Earliest signs and early symptoms of pregnancy

    What are the signs of pregnancy?

    Every pregnancy is different so if you don’t have any of these early signs or symptoms of pregnancy, don’t worry. If you notice one or more of these pregnancy signs, take a pregnancy test.

    Your period is late

    A late period is the earliest sign of pregnancy. If your period is late, take a pregnancy test to check whether you are pregnant.

    You can keep track of your period by marking the days in a calendar or by using an app.


    About eight to ten days after ovulation, you might have some cramps in your lower tummy. You may also have a slight pink, red or brown staining around the time you expect your period. This is known as implantation bleeding and is caused by the fertilised egg settling into the lining of your womb.

    ‘I thought I’d had a period when I’d actually missed it and it was cramps/spotting.’ Tanya, mum-to-be

    Deep tiredness

    Even though your baby is still smaller than a peanut, the first few weeks of pregnancy can be draining, both physically and emotionally. You may have extreme tiredness, caused by changes in your body.

    Early pregnancy tiredness is not like ordinary tiredness – you may feel completely exhausted after a normal day’s activities. The best way to deal with this pregnancy symptom is to listen to your body and get more rest.

    Breast tenderness

    Some women have breast tenderness or a tingly feeling in their breasts during the early weeks of pregnancy. The skin around your nipples may look bumpier than usual, too. These bumps are called ‘Montgomery’s tubercules’ and they secrete an oily fluid to prepare your nipples for breastfeeding.

    Your breasts may also feel heavier. Many of these symptoms are because of the extra hormones that you have in your body during pregnancy.

    Funny taste in your mouth

    Have you suddenly gone off your favourite food or do you have a strange metallic taste in your mouth? These are signs of early pregnancy. Some women also complain about having too much saliva.

    Some women also report being more sensitive to smells

    Need to wee more often

    In early pregnancy, you may need to pass urine more often than usual because your womb is expanding and pressing on your bladder.

    The hormone progesterone also makes you need to wee more, as well as sometimes causing constipation.

    Feeling nauseous and/or being sick

    New pregnancy hormones are flooding your body and, for some women, the reaction to this is to feel sick. Some women feel slightly queasy and others may actually be sick. This is commonly known as morning sickness but it can happen at any time of the day.

    You might be more sensitive to smells, including food and cooking.

    If you can’t keep any food or water down talk to your midwife or GP because there is a risk that you may become dehydrated.


    Not all mums-to-be will get strange cravings but hormonal changes can trigger them in some women.

    Mood swings

    Hormones are natural chemicals that help your body manage your pregnancy, prepare it for the birth and help produce milk for your baby. The hormones oestrogen and progesterone flood your body in the first 12 weeks. It is these hormones that can also make you feel more emotional than normal.

    You may find that you are laughing one minute, then crying the next. Don’t worry, this is normal.

    Pregnancy brings anxieties and stresses as well as happiness. However, if you are feeling down or anxious for a large part of the day and it seems to be lasting longer than a couple of weeks it is important that you talk to your midwife or GP about how you are feeling.

    The much talked about glow of happiness can actually make women who are not feeling this very isolated. It is common to feel stress and anxiety in pregnancy and you need to keep an eye on your emotional well-being as well as your physical well-being.

    Download our Wellbeing Plan [PDF] to help you talk to your midwife about this.

    Other pregnancy symptoms

    The pregnancy symptoms above are just some of the most common but there are many others. Your pregnancy will be unique to you and your symptoms might be too. If you’re trying to get pregnant, listen to your body and look out for any changes.

    ‘One of my earliest signs of pregnancy is a rumbling tummy and feeling constantly hungry!’ Clio, mum of two

    What to do next

    If you’re experiencing one or more of the earliest signs and symptoms of pregnancy above, take a pregnancy test. However, if you haven’t missed a period yet it may be too early to tell, or your test result may be inaccurate.

    Positive pregnancy test

    If you have done a test and it was positive, read about the five things to do when you find out you’re pregnant.

    Negative pregnancy test

    A negative result might not be reliable if you took it too soon.

    If you do a home test very early and have a negative result, do another test in two to three days’ time if you still haven’t had your period. If you continue to get negative results and still don’t have a period, talk to your doctor.

    Getting pregnant can take longer than you were expecting. Find out how conception works.

    90,000 Early signs of pregnancy. Can I feel pregnancy before my period is delayed?

    Early signs of pregnancy. Can I feel pregnancy before my period is delayed?

    Many women dream of pregnancy, so they constantly listen to their body and try to find the first signs of pregnancy before the delay in menstruation. And, having received confirmation of pregnancy, they claim that they felt this long before passing the test and were simply sure that they were pregnant.Others do not attach importance to such early signs or try to ignore them. In order to understand at what time a woman can feel the first signs of pregnancy, and whether it is possible for early symptoms to appear before a delay in menstruation, it is necessary to understand the basic concepts of conception, ovulation, and fetal development.

    Ovulation and conception

    Ovulation occurs on the 14-15th day of the cycle. This is the period when the mature egg is released into the abdominal cavity. It is at this time that the probability of fertilization is high.Before ovulation, there can be no signs of pregnancy. If a ripe egg meets a sperm, this does not mean that pregnancy will necessarily occur. After ovulation, the egg begins to move along the fallopian tube towards the uterus. This process takes about a week, after which we can talk about the onset of pregnancy if the female reproductive cell is attached to the wall of the uterus. It is from this period that a woman can feel the first minor symptoms indicating the birth of a new life within.However, these signs do not appear in all women after conception. Also, such first signs do not always mean pregnancy.

    Pain in the lower abdomen and lower back

    One of the early signs of pregnancy can be pain in the lower abdomen. But often such unpleasant sensations arise in the fair sex in the middle of the cycle, exactly when ovulation occurs or before the onset of menstruation and in its first days, this is due to the contraction of the uterus during this period.In addition, if a woman is pregnant, she may feel periodically mild pulling pains in the lumbar region and uterus. In combination with a delay in menstruation, pain in the back and lower abdomen is a fairly accurate sign that a woman will soon become a mother. For pain in the early stages of pregnancy, doctors recommend having at home such drugs as Papaverine or No-shpu suppositories at home, which help relieve unpleasant symptoms. In this case, a woman must be sure that the pain is caused precisely by her pregnancy, since it should be remembered that these unpleasant sensations can be the first symptoms of various diseases, such as appendicitis.In this case, a woman should definitely consult a doctor for help as soon as possible. We must not forget that pain in the lower abdomen can be a manifestation of the onset of a miscarriage.

    Changes in breast sensitivity

    Increased breast sensitivity and its enlargement may also indicate that a woman is in a position. This symptom often appears a couple of weeks after conception. But for some of the fair sex, such symptoms occur constantly in the second half of the cycle and have nothing to do with pregnancy.In this case, you need to listen to yourself and to changes in your own body. Swelling and soreness may indicate that a woman’s breasts are preparing to milk and feed her baby. During the second trimester of pregnancy, colostrum can be secreted from the mammary glands, which is milk that contains many useful substances. However, colostrum appears in small quantities, to replace it, 4-5 days after the birth of the baby, breast milk begins to be released from the nipples.

    A manifestation of pregnancy can also be considered an increase in the size of the nipples, which darken by the end of the first trimester, and hyperpigmentation appears on the skin around. You should not be upset about changes in the skin and the size of the breasts and nipples, since after giving birth, after about six months, your figure will return to its previous shape.


    Some women keep a basal temperature chart, which can help determine the presence of pregnancy in the early stages.This method is reliable enough and can be trusted. By measuring the basal temperature, you can also determine the onset of ovulation, and if conception has occurred, this can be easily confirmed before the delay in menstruation by examining the values ​​of this temperature, which in case of pregnancy will be kept around 37 or slightly higher. Some women also have such a symptom as an increased body temperature, however, usually, it does not rise above 37, 3- 37, 4. Such a symptom may indicate the presence of an infectious or chronic disease, but in the case when the temperature rises due to that the woman will soon become a mother, her analyzes will be in perfect order.These pregnancy symptoms are often accompanied by drowsiness, malaise, chills, and rapid fatigue.

    Sensitive tests

    Today, there are tests with a high sensitivity to the content of hCG in the urine, which can show the presence of pregnancy 7-10 days after conception, even before the onset of a delay in menstruation. To do this, it is better to conduct the test in the morning, since in the early stages of pregnancy it is at this time that the highest level of hCG is contained in the urine. If you do not want to wait for the first days of a delay in menstruation, remember that it is better not to go to the toilet 6-7 hours before the test, only then you can hope to get reliable results.To do this, before going to bed, you must refrain from excessive fluid intake. Due to the low hCG content in the early stages of pregnancy, the second strip may be barely noticeable, but even if it is very light, you will most likely become a happy mom soon. Try repeating the test after a few days, as the hCG level will increase every day. You can take a fairly sensitive blood test for the content of this hormone in the body, which can confirm pregnancy as early as 10 days after conception.

    Manifestation of toxicosis

    One of the signs of pregnancy is nausea and vomiting. However, toxicosis rarely occurs in women before menstruation is delayed. Most often, nausea appears in the middle of the first trimester. For doctors, it remains a mystery why some expectant mothers feel great during pregnancy, while others are simply haunted by bouts of nausea and vomiting, which causes physical and psychological discomfort for women in position. Some argue that the absence of toxicosis indicates that the body does not reject the fetus, the child develops normally, there is no threat of miscarriage.Others consider the presence of such an unpleasant sensation as nausea as evidence of the mother’s good immunity, therefore, everything is in order with the baby. However, one thing is clear – severe toxicosis has a negative effect on both the pregnant woman and her child.

    Doubtful symptoms

    There are also unreliable pregnancy symptoms, which appear within a few weeks after conception. But these questionable signs are not a basis for diagnosing pregnancy.These include: irritability, apathy, low blood pressure, insomnia. The manifestation of such symptoms may indicate the presence of diseases, improper daily routine, or poor nutrition. If you suspect pregnancy, you should still not take pills to get rid of, for example, insomnia. Better try to calm down, drink 20-25 drops of valerian in the evening, which will help you sleep and will not have a negative effect.

    All of these symptoms may indicate early pregnancy.However, it should be remembered that the main symptom is still a delay in menstruation. And effective methods for determining pregnancy are a test, a blood test for the level of hCG and a gynecologist’s examination. Listen to your feelings, but do not forget to see your doctor if you suspect pregnancy.

    If the pregnancy is confirmed, then very soon you will need special underwear for expectant mothers, cosmetics for stretch marks and pigmentation on the skin will also come in handy. Closer to the expected date of birth, mothers begin to prepare a dowry for the baby.In the online store of children’s goods Lapsi, you can buy everything you need for babies: strollers for newborns, cribs for newborns, infant carriers and car seats, discharge kits, toys and other baby products.

    90,000 2nd week of pregnancy after conception: sensations and development of the fetus

    As you know, the 2nd embryonic week of pregnancy from conception is the 4th week of the menstrual cycle and the 4th week of the obstetric period, which is counted from the 1st day of the last menstruation to simplify the management of pregnancy.Ideally, ovulation, during which the sperm fertilizes the egg, takes place on days 12-16 of a 28-day cycle, but due to various factors, it can shift. Therefore, the date of birth is also calculated based on the obstetric term. We are talking about embryonic development.

    Despite the fact that pregnancy after conception lasts already 2 weeks, most expectant mothers may not even know about the development of a new life in them. There is no delay in menstruation yet, and women at this time may confuse their feelings with PMS.What happens in the body?

    What do the two stripes mean

    Right now, during the formation of the chorion, the so-called “pregnancy hormone” – human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) begins to be produced. It stimulates the increased production of progesterone and other hormones important for maintaining pregnancy, preventing the onset of menstruation. The level of hCG in the blood is still low, and in the urine it is even lower. Therefore, gynecologists prefer to prescribe a blood test for hCG after a delay in the next menstruation, which is especially important with “floating” ovulation and an irregular cycle.And it should be carried out at least twice, with a break of several days, to make sure that the implantation was successful and the pregnancy continues. With a positive development of the situation, hCG indicators will grow rapidly.

    Among women, tests that determine the level of hCG in urine are especially popular. They are available in strip, inkjet, tablet and electronic form and are sold in pharmacies and stores. All of them contain reagents that, upon contact with urine, depending on the presence / absence of the proper concentration of the “pregnancy hormone”, stain one or two test strips or display digital hCG indicators on the screen of an electronic device.

    Unfortunately, positive results of such tests cannot be attributed to the definite symptoms of 2 weeks of pregnancy. Despite the fact that some manufacturers guarantee an accuracy of up to 99.9% 3 days before the expected period, this method of determination is not entirely correct. It is possible that a particularly sensitive test will show a reliable picture already in the middle of the 2nd week of pregnancy. But the result can also be false positive or false negative. After all, blastocyst implantation can take place later than the average data and, therefore, after this analysis.And pregnancy can stop altogether due to unfavorable factors in the development of the fetus. Finally, home research is often flawed, which skews the results.

    A laboratory blood test for hCG is the most accurate. However, not everything is clear here either. For example, with an ectopic pregnancy, hCG is increased, but not as much as it happens with a successful pregnancy. A high level of hCG can indicate both the conception of twins and the health problems of a woman.An incorrect picture develops in the presence of diabetes mellitus and tumors, when receiving hormone therapy before conception, after IVF.

    You ask, why then not use the most evidence-based method of confirming the onset of pregnancy – transvaginal ultrasound? Alas, at 2 weeks, such a study is not informative: the ovum is still too small, its size is only 1 mm.

    2 weeks pregnant: sensations

    Are there signs and symptoms by which you can judge the development of new life in your body? Alas, usually the first 2 weeks are the most imperceptible in terms of sensations.And we will suspect pregnancy most likely only after a delay in menstruation.

    It so happens that the implantation of an embryo into the endometrium of the uterus is accompanied by scanty smearing secretions (normally – within 1-2 days; if longer, an urgent need to consult a doctor). In the 2nd week of pregnancy, the belly may be swollen and slightly sore, and breast tenderness may worsen. But this is very similar to the manifestations of PMS and does not affect the figure in any way. So, most likely, you will not feel the change.

    The most important thing at this time is to stay calm and avoid unnecessary physical and emotional stress in order to allow the embryo to take root. If you are not an athlete, and have been at the fitness club or gym on an irregular basis, avoid strenuous exercise and lifting dumbbells. Practice yoga for pregnant women, swimming, and long walks – anything that strengthens muscles and improves oxygen saturation in the body.

    It is possible that your mood under the influence of changes in hormonal levels will change during the day from anxiety and tearfulness to a state of euphoria.Sometimes it may seem to you that everything is wrong, and the whole world is against you. To restore calmness and harmony with oneself and others, breathing exercises, meditation, listening to calm musical compositions and recordings of sounds of nature will help.

    Try to devote more time to yourself. Sleep at least 8 hours a day, and preferably more, as with the development of fetal immunity, a feeling of fatigue may increase.

    Fetal development

    By the second week of pregnancy, the fertilized egg has already changed from a zygote to a blastocyst.Approximately 7-10 days after conception, it contains up to 200 cells (!) And finally gets to the uterus. First, the blastocyst is attached to the mucous layer of the uterus, and then implanted into it. The whole process takes up to 40 hours.

    Having penetrated into the endometrial layer, the blastocyst gradually overgrows with it. In the photo of the scientist Nilsson Lennart, with multiple magnification, the embryo looks like a small bulge in the uterine cavity. What’s going on inside?

    Now a fertilized egg is a ball, the contents of which (embryoblast) will eventually develop into a child and into some auxiliary (extraembryonic) organs.The outer layer, the trophoblast, will become the placenta. After another couple of weeks, after full immersion, the embryo will begin to receive nutrients directly from the mother’s blood. In the meantime, the question of nutrition will be dealt with by the uterine glands and the decay products of the endometrium.

    The rudiments of vital systems are gradually being laid. Formed:

    1. chorion (additional protection of the embryo and part of the future placenta),
    2. primary yolk sac ,
    3. amnion (the liquid in it will prevent the growing parts of the fetus from sticking together, allow it to move and exclude blows and concussions),
    4. amniotic stem .

    The most complex perturbations occur with the cells of the embryo in the form of cleavages, evictions, migrations, etc. A fetus at 2 weeks gestation is working hard to create favorable conditions for its further development. The erection of a gigantic “house” in comparison with the embryo, inside of which the fetus will reliably hide, is proceeding rapidly. But the most interesting thing is that cells are not only a building material: each of them has its own content and carries a specific functionality.Some of the cells, while developing, will be responsible for the formation of organs, others for the formation of the fetal body, and so on.

    Immunity squared

    A fertilized egg is the result of the fusion of two sex cells (from mom and dad), so the female body perceives the male “half” as a foreign body. The immune mechanisms that guard the safety of our health would simply have to expel the “outsider”. But clever nature has taken care of this too. According to the latest data from scientists, several protein molecules, including EPF, become immunosuppressants during pregnancy, suppressing the mother’s immunity to the baby.Such protection begins to form on an increasing basis almost immediately from the moment of conception. After implantation, for a long time, there is a truce between my father’s and mother’s antibodies.

    An interesting picture is emerging: a woman’s immunity decreases only in relation to the fetus, gradually ceasing to perceive it as something extraneous (until the intrauterine development of the child is completed and he is ready for birth). At the same time, the immunity of the expectant mother to the effects of external factors grows.At the same time, viruses and internal infections that are not cured before pregnancy can still be dangerous to the fetus.

    Of course, the protection mechanisms for women and children are much more complex. Some failures in them can even lead to miscarriage – premature spontaneous abortion. For example, when a woman develops antibodies to hCG. But, the more the reasons for such problems are revealed by scientists, the faster they find ways to solve them.

    90,000 First signs of pregnancy | Family Clinic A-Media

    Signs of pregnancy

    Pregnancy is an important and joyful event in a woman’s life.Someone manages to conceive a child immediately, someone – only after unsuccessful attempts and a long treatment for infertility. But as soon as it is decided to have a child, the woman is looking forward to seeing two strips in the pregnancy test. And time drags on! The first signs of pregnancy much earlier than any test can tell a woman that she is already pregnant.

    If you have any problems or doubts, please contact our clinic in St. Petersburg. We will help you not only to accurately establish the presence and duration of pregnancy, but also to predict possible complications of bearing a child using modern methods.

    When do the first signs of pregnancy appear?

    Approximately six to seven days after conception, the first symptoms of pregnancy can be detected. It is important to know when you ovulated. About a week after the sperm and egg met, hormonal changes in the body reach a level when they become noticeable to both the woman and, sometimes, others. Anxiety, irritability, tearfulness can accompany it from the first days of pregnancy to childbirth.

    What are the first signs of pregnancy?

    A woman can notice pregnancy symptoms in the early days. A week after conception, the fertilized egg is introduced into the lining of the uterus. The process is sometimes accompanied by slight bleeding (or bleeding). Scanty pinkish discharge (so-called implantation bleeding) is the first symptom of pregnancy. But more often than not, a woman does not pay attention to them.

    Cramps and aching pains in the lower abdomen also warn of pregnancy.They are determined by the tone of the uterus, which will soon become a cozy home for the child.

    One of the most reliable signs of pregnancy is considered to be an increase in basal temperature. Let us remind you how to measure it. In the morning, while lying in bed, insert the thermometer into the rectum. During ovulation, the temperature usually rises to 37 ° C or more, and then drops. And when pregnancy occurs, it will remain elevated. Although there are exceptions, this happens with diseases of various kinds.

    Women often tell that they guessed about pregnancy from changes in their breasts.The bra suddenly became tight, the breasts were very sensitive, the areola circles darkened, droplets of liquid began to stand out from the nipples.

    Many expectant mothers from the first days feel sleepy and fatigued.

    It happens that women become sensitive to odors and experience uncharacteristic addiction to some kind of food. Sometimes in the first days after conception, nausea appears in the morning (and not only).

    You may experience only one or more of the above pregnancy symptoms.Sometimes the early symptoms are minor and you may not want to pay attention to them. Perhaps most of these feelings will remain with you until the birth. Or maybe you will not guess before the delay about your position, or, conversely, you will come up with signs of pregnancy, hoping for a long-awaited event. However, signs of pregnancy at a later date will dispel doubts anyway.

    What are the signs of later pregnancy?

    Signs of pregnancy are divided today into presumptive, probable and reliable.

    Presumptive signs are those that we talked about above. A woman’s condition may even resemble a cold.

    More accurate criteria for determining pregnancy are likely pregnancy symptoms.

    The first signal that prompts a test is usually a delay in menstruation. But keep in mind: even with a regular cycle, there are failures. Delay can be promoted by stress, illness, lack of sleep, diet, lactation, etc. There are situations when pregnancy is accompanied by a discharge that is mistaken for menstruation.This often happens when there is a threat of termination of pregnancy.

    The probable signs of pregnancy also include an increase in sensitivity and engorgement of the breast, increased urination (especially at night).

    Some of the probable signs of pregnancy can be determined only at a doctor’s appointment. These include an increase in volume, a change in the shape and consistency of the uterus.

    Pregnancy is, in addition, established using a laboratory blood test for the presence of the hCG hormone, which increases rapidly in the expectant mother.

    Reliable signs confirm the indisputability of pregnancy. These include a clear sensation of the child’s movements, listening to his heartbeat, probing parts of his body through the stomach. But you will feel these symptoms at a later date.

    Whether you doubt pregnancy or not – in any case, you need to consult a doctor about your condition. Our gynecologists will help you go through this joyful and anxious period of your life, and if the long-awaited pregnancy has not yet come, do everything possible for a successful conception.

    See also : Preparing for pregnancy, Diseases that prevent pregnancy, Management of pregnancy.

    How to recognize early pregnancy. Infographics | INFOGRAPHICS

    Very often pregnancy comes as a surprise, both for the woman herself and for her environment. Some, on the contrary, plan a pregnancy for a long time and listen to all the changes in their body, sometimes, taking wishful thinking. How to accurately determine pregnancy in the early stages, our infographics will tell you.

    Symptoms of pregnancy

    Well, of course, based on symptoms alone, it is impossible to determine pregnancy for sure. Although they might suggest doing a test. Let’s consider the main symptoms in more detail:

    1. Sensitive breasts. Within a few days after conception, a pregnant woman may notice the first changes. The nipples become more sensitive than usual. This also applies to the rest of the chest. But sensitive breasts are not always a sign of pregnancy.Similar sensations can occur during ovulation or before menstruation.

    2. Delay of menstruation. One of the main signs indicating pregnancy, but not 100%. Perhaps you are experiencing a climate change, hormonal imbalance, or diseases in the gynecological field. This is a serious symptom and it is best to consult a doctor. However, a delay of no more than five days is considered normal. It may happen that you are pregnant, but your period continues to go. Here you can only advise: after unprotected intercourse, listen to your body and do a pregnancy test.

    3. Frequent urination. Is one of the symptoms of pregnancy. But it can also be a symptom of illness, hypothermia, stress, etc.

    4. Darkening of the nipple areola. Usually occurs no earlier than two weeks later. However, darkening can be caused by the influence of sex hormones in a non-pregnant woman.

    5. Increased salivation. Usually appears with nausea in the first three months of pregnancy.Also, salivation is a characteristic symptom in almost all diseases of the oral cavity, gastrointestinal tract, and even with inflammation of the trigeminal nerve.

    Types of tests

    Any symptom typical of pregnancy can be a harbinger of a disease. Therefore, you need to listen to your body, but you should not diagnose yourself based on symptoms alone. Moreover, medicine has long allowed women to determine pregnancy with an accuracy of up to 100%.For a more effective result in the early stages, you can donate blood for the pregnancy hormone hCG (chorionic gonadotropin). With each day of pregnancy, the amount of this hormone in the body increases, but at a very early stage only very sensitive tests can catch it. Pregnancy can be determined by the level of hCG in the blood within a few days after conception.

    If for one reason or another you cannot go to a medical facility, then home tests will help. Of course, a few days after conception, such a test will show nothing.All tests for determining hCG in urine should be done no earlier than a week before the start of menstruation. The cheapest test strips will show a valid result only from the first day of the delay. More expensive tests – inkjet or tablet, can determine pregnancy just a week before critical days. In general, in order not to guess on the coffee grounds – whether it is too early to do the test, or is it already time – you need to know some values. These home tests have a sensitivity of 10 to 25 Mme / ml. So the lower the number, the more sensitive the test.For example, a 10-point test can show pregnancy as early as four weeks. What week you can have is easy to calculate, you need to remember the first day of your last menstruation – this will be the starting point.

    Test Results

    Any pregnancy test can show both false positive and false negative results. False negative results are usually associated with improper test performance, violation of instructions. Or too little pregnancy.It may be that the second stripe is poorly expressed. This is possible if you got the test before the expected delay, or if you have an ectopic pregnancy. False positive test results are rare, but possible. It can occur due to taking medications containing hCG, tumors, recent miscarriage, etc.

    The most accurate result will be shown by ultrasound. It will confirm the pregnancy and help exclude the ectopic. You can do it no earlier than 3.5-4 weeks after conception.If you do not know when conception occurred, then you can count about 5-6 weeks from the beginning of the last menstruation. There is no point in going to the ultrasound before this time. It is better to consult a gynecologist, and he will prescribe the necessary examinations in the early stages of pregnancy.

    See also:

    90,000 Pregnancy symptoms

    Pregnancy is always a great time in the life of any woman! With the conception of a future baby, everything changes dramatically and a new meaning of life appears.Let’s learn a little more about this process and learn some of the necessary points related to observation during this period.

    Symptoms of pregnancy

    Symptoms of pregnancy are individual and different for each woman. It is very important to be able to identify the signs of pregnancy, since each of them can indicate not only pregnancy, but also a disease.

    1. Delayed menstruation or menstrual irregularities

    Without a doubt, delayed menstruation is the most famous and common pregnancy symptom that prompts a woman to take a pregnancy test.During pregnancy, a woman has a monthly delay in menstruation. Many pregnant women experience bleeding, however, as a rule, menstruation ends quickly and is less intense than usual. A delay in menstruation can be attributed to many other reasons besides pregnancy. However, if you have an active sex life and you have a delay, it is better to take a pregnancy test.

    2. Increase in basal temperature

    So, if you have some signs of pregnancy, then try to measure basal temperature.The main purpose of measurements is to determine the day of ovulation, i.e. the period when conception is most likely. It is necessary to measure basal temperature every day, starting from 5-6 days of the menstrual cycle. A sharp jump towards an increase in basal temperature indicates ovulation. The basal temperature in the rectum is measured using an ordinary thermometer. A prerequisite is that it must be measured in the morning, immediately after waking up, without getting out of bed. If the thermometer shows a temperature of 37 degrees and above, then there is every reason to suspect one of the signs of pregnancy.

    3. Nausea, aversion to odors, toxicosis

    Due to this very sign of pregnancy, many women begin to suspect that they will soon become a mother. Indeed, toxicosis for expectant mothers is a common thing. Interestingly, the exact causes of toxicosis have not yet been clarified. There are three main theories. First, intoxication occurs in the body of the expectant mother. And in such a simple way, the body is trying to get rid of harmful substances. The second theory is that a woman’s body reacts in this way to a “foreign body”, that is, to a fetus.And the third theory of the onset of toxicosis is psychological.

    Some researchers believe that toxicosis occurs more often in women who are not psychologically ready to become a mother. But, be that as it may, toxicosis was and remains one of the main signs of early pregnancy. But sometimes, unfortunately, women mistake poisoning and intestinal infection for toxicosis.

    4. Breast tenderness

    Breast swelling or tenderness is a sign of pregnancy that appears 1 to 2 weeks after conception.A woman can notice how her breasts have changed – they react to every, even minor touch, hurt, or swell.

    Often yellowish discharge from the nipples “joins” the discomfort in the mammary glands. This is colostrum. If a woman is in a position, then this should be regarded as a sign of pregnancy, but if not, then such a condition may require consultation with a mammologist.

    Other causes: hormonal imbalances, birth control pills, premenstrual syndrome (PMS) also cause breast swelling and tenderness.

    5. Frequent urge to urinate

    Frequent urination during the day and at night is a common early sign of pregnancy. The uterus enlarges, thus putting pressure on the bladder, and you begin to feel like you want to use the toilet more often than usual. By the way, this can also cause constipation in expectant mothers. It should be noted that there are no other painful sensations (pains, cuts, burning).

    6. Skin changes

    During pregnancy, a woman suffers from hormonal imbalance, resulting in skin problems.Sometimes spots, freckles appear on the skin, the skin around the nipples becomes darker.

    7. Increased vaginal discharge, the appearance of thrush

    Hormonal imbalance in the body can also cause thrush and an increase in vaginal discharge. This is due to the fact that during pregnancy, the concentration of hydrogen ions in the vaginal secretion increases, which protect the body of the expectant mother from harmful microorganisms entering it.

    8.Headaches and migraines

    A sudden increase in hormone levels in the body can cause headaches in early pregnancy, weakness, and mood swings.

    9. Pain in the lumbar region and lower abdomen

    Indeed, some women have this sign of pregnancy in the early stages. Low back pain can become not only a sign of early pregnancy, but also a symptom of threatened abortion (threatened miscarriage).The same can be said for lower abdominal pain. If this is regarded as a sign of pregnancy, then, most likely, there is a threat of termination.

    Pregnancy. Frequently asked questions I trimester

    Frequently Asked Questions About Pregnancy


    What are the first signs of pregnancy?

    A delay in the next menstruation, as a rule, is the first signal of pregnancy.But this only applies to women with a regular menstrual cycle. Other signs (symptoms) may include: increased urination, fatigue, nausea and / or vomiting, and warm breasts. All of these symptoms are signs of a normal pregnancy. Most pregnancy tests are sensitive 9-12 days after conception and are readily available at most pharmacies. Pregnancy tests (blood tests), which can be done in a healthcare facility’s laboratory, can determine if you are pregnant from the 8th to 11th day after conception.

    How long after fertilization is the egg implanted (attached to the wall of the uterus)?

    A fertilized egg enters the uterus at the stage of 2- to 8-cell embryos and floats freely in the uterine cavity for about 90-150 hours, about 4-7 days after conception. Most embryos are implanted at the morula stage, when the embryo is already composed of many cells. This occurs, on average, on the 6th day after conception.However, there is a big difference at the time of implantation. This can happen between the 16th and 30th day of the menstrual cycle. After implantation, the embryo activates changes in the endometrium (the inner lining of the uterus) causing a lining change in the endometrium, which is called decidualization (the formation of a decidual membrane that falls off during childbirth). After that, the rapid development of physiological changes begins, which lead to the onset of metabolic processes in the “mother-placenta” system. Until this time, the mother’s medications usually do not affect the pregnancy.

    What is the most accurate pregnancy test?

    All pregnancy tests are based on the detection of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). This hormone is produced by the syncytiotrophoblast (the outer structure that forms the primary villi that contact the maternal bloodstream) from the moment of implantation. The increase in the concentration of hCG in both the blood and urine of pregnant women occurs rather quickly.It can be detected both in blood and urine, 8-9 days after conception.

    There are several types of pregnancy tests: professional tests – quantitative determination of serum concentration, qualitative tests to determine the presence of hCG in serum and urine. A blood test is the most sensitive and specific method that determines the concentration of 1, 2 or 5 mIU / ml. Pregnancy tests that use urine vary in sensitivity and specificity, based on hCG units set as a cutoff for a positive test result, typically 2-5 mIU / ml.

    Over-the-counter pregnancy tests can give positive results at 20 mIU / ml, about 2 to 3 days before most women expect to start their period. Such tests are accurate, widely available, and analysis can be completed in approximately 3-5 minutes. All such tests are based on antibody recognition of the hCG beta subunit.

    It should be borne in mind that falsely high concentrations of the hormone hCG can be in cases of cystic drift or other placental abnormalities.In addition, test results may remain positive for several weeks after termination of pregnancy, miscarriage or childbirth. False negative results may be due to improper test preparation, unconcentrated urine, and certain medications.

    Another reason for a short-term increase in hCG levels can be pregnancies in which the correct implantation of the egg did not occur. As a result of this, many test instructions claim 99% accuracy on the first day of the next monthly period that has not begun.It is important to know that the first results are not to be considered final; When using home pregnancy tests, it is best to wait 1 week after missing your period to get a more accurate result.

    Serum pregnancy tests can be performed in a variety of ways. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is the most popular in many clinical laboratories. This test measures your total beta-hCG levels. Radioimmunoassay is still used in some laboratories.

    The hCG level doubles approximately every 2 days in early pregnancy. Nevertheless, it should be noted that even an increase of only 33% may indicate a normally developing pregnancy. Growth continues until days 60 to 70, then declines to very low levels by days 100 to 130 and never decreases thereafter until the pregnancy is over.

    Is uterine contractions normal during pregnancy?

    At the beginning of pregnancy, contractions, spasms, can be a manifestation of hormonal changes, that is, the norm; later in pregnancy, this may indicate a growing uterus.Contractions that are different from those in previous pregnancies (repeat pregnancies), increased contractions, a combination of contractions and vaginal bleeding can be a sign of an ectopic pregnancy, threatened abortion, or missed miscarriage.

    Other unpleasant symptoms, but which are normal during pregnancy, and not necessarily signs of illness, include nausea, vomiting, bowel problems, increased urination, heart palpitations, heart murmurs, swelling in the ankle, shortness of breath.

    Why do pregnant women get tired quickly, often feel tired?

    Fatigue in early pregnancy is normal. Significant changes take place in the body, which leads to a feeling of fatigue and an increased need for sleep. Low blood pressure, decreased blood sugar, hormonal changes, the hypnotic effect of progesterone, metabolic changes, and physiological anemia of pregnancy also contribute to fatigue.Women should consult with their health care provider to determine if any medication is needed, such as vitamin and / or supplemental iron supplementation.

    Signs of pregnancy before menstruation is delayed

    To determine pregnancy before the onset of menstruation, you need to listen carefully to your feelings. Changes in the hormonal background, in particular the production of progesterone and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), cause changes in the body of the expectant mother already in the early stages.

    1. Increased sensitivity to odors

    During pregnancy, the woman’s body is rebuilt to bear the baby, it becomes more sensitive. Therefore, the usual smells, which you did not pay attention to before, after conception can cause you a sharp rejection and even nausea.

    2. Early toxicosis

    Toxicosis in early pregnancy, even before delay, is a common occurrence.In this case, nausea and vomiting occurs on an empty stomach, it can be caused by food intake or unpleasant odors.

    3. Drawing pain or heaviness in the lower abdomen

    Hormone-induced blood flow to the uterus and attachment to the wall of the ovum can cause heaviness and tingling in the lower abdomen. Some women feel this process as a feeling of fullness, some as a pulling pain, as if during menstruation.

    4. Bloody spotting

    If menstruation is still far away, and you find yellowish-brown spotting on your linen, do not rush to panic.This is a sign that the fertilized egg is attached to the wall of the uterus. Not everyone has such discharge and largely depends on the state of the epithelium.

    5. Mood swings

    Already in the first weeks of pregnancy, the hormonal background in women changes. This can cause sharp emotional leaps: from joy to unreasonable sadness and fear, from calmness to irritability and tears.

    6. Change in taste preferences

    Suddenly you want olives that you didn’t like before? Can’t eat your usual food? Hormones are to blame.It may be time to buy a pregnancy test.

    7. Frequent urination

    Increased blood supply to the uterus and the entire genitourinary system as a whole activates the kidneys and bladder. Because of this, a pregnant woman often has to get up at night to use the toilet.

    8. Basal temperature rise

    Basal temperature is the lowest body temperature that can be measured after sleep. Its rise to 37 degrees indicates ovulation.If the temperature stays at the same level for two weeks, then you may be expecting a baby.

    9. Fatigue and slight malaise

    The increased production of progesterone often provokes weakness, drowsiness, irritability and headaches. Even 8-9 hours of sleep does not give you vigor. Because of this, a woman feels absent-minded, forgetful; it becomes more difficult to focus on work or household chores. Another reason for weakness is a decrease in immunity.Therefore, in the early stages of pregnancy, more than 80% of expectant mothers suffer from mild colds.

    Read also: How to deal with b with fatigue during pregnancy

    10. Breast tenderness and swelling

    Already in the fourth obstetric week of pregnancy, the body begins to prepare for lactation. The breast increases, it becomes more sensitive, so a woman may experience painful sensations even from a light touch.

    11. Low back pain

    Increased blood flow in the lower body and enlargement of the uterus often cause pulling pain or lumbago in the lower back. They occur when walking, sitting and even lying down.

    12. Increased appetite and problems with the digestive tract

    Due to the increased load, the body spends a lot of resources, so the expectant mother often feels hunger. In addition, hormones during pregnancy and blood flow to the pelvic organs weaken the intestines – bloating, constipation, or, conversely, a disorder appears.

    See also: Diarrhea during pregnancy: what to do for the expectant mother?

    13. Puffiness

    Progesterone slows down the excretion of salts and fluids from the body. They accumulate, causing increased swelling of the extremities.

    See also: Edema during pregnancy: what should the expectant mother do?

    14. Surges or pressure drops

    A sharp change in hormonal levels strongly affects blood pressure.It can fall, causing weakness and dizziness, or increase, causing headaches of varying severity, facial flushing, ringing in the ears, and nausea.

    Keep in mind that signs of pregnancy before your period is delayed can be confused with malaise, ovulation, the onset of your menstrual cycle, the effects of stress or other problems.