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Prevention of seizures: How to Prevent Seizures – Neurology Center For Epilepsy & Seizures

How to Prevent Seizures – Neurology Center For Epilepsy & Seizures

While any person can have a seizure, people who have had two or more seizures without an identifiable cause are at higher risk of having additional seizures. Other conditions may also increase the risk of seizures. If you are at high risk for seizures or you have a child who is considered high-risk for seizures, you may be looking for seizure treatment New Jersey. Not all measures work for all people, and you may only be able to reduce the number of seizures rather than eliminate them. However, many people find the following things help reduce the number of seizures that they have.

Take All Medication as Prescribed

Anti-epileptic medications can be very effective at helping some people reduce or even eliminate seizures. The problem is that, once the seizures stop happening people often stop taking their medicines. That can actually cause withdrawal seizures. Trying to self-medicate by increasing dosages can also cause toxicity. That is why it is important to take the prescribed dose at the same time or times each day, and to follow your doctor’s instructions about what to do if you miss a dose.


Lack of sleep is a big contributing factor to seizures. Getting enough sleep can help you avoid seizures and reduce overall stress. Helping your kid get enough sleep can be difficult, especially for older kids who naturally want to stay up later but have to wake up early for school days. Enforcing an early bedtime for you or your kids may seem difficult, but it could help reduce seizures.

Eat Regular Meals

Skipping meals can lead to hypoglycemia, which can trigger seizures in some people. Eating meals at regular times and having healthy snacks between meals can help reduce your risk of seizures.

Avoid Alcohol and Drugs

When your children are small, it is easy to keep them from drinking or taking recreational drugs. However, as much as parents may want to ignore it, drugs and alcohol are often part of teenage life. You need to make sure your children are aware that alcohol and drug use can contribute to seizures. In addition, they may have negative interactions with anti-seizure medications. Even for adults, avoiding these triggers can be difficult. However, they simply are not worth risking triggering a seizure.


Exercise may be the single most-effective “medicine” that a doctor can suggest. It has overall health benefits that can tackle a variety of different conditions. While exercise is not directly linked to a reduction in seizures, it is linked to reducing stress levels. Stress is a known trigger for seizures, so incorporating regular exercise can help you manage that stress and avoid seizures.

Pay Attention to Fevers

While epilepsy and seizure disorders put people at high risk of having seizures, many children are at risk of having seizures if they have high fevers. If your child is experiencing a high fever, contact a medical professional for help on how to bring down body temperature.

Avoid Flashing Lights

Flashing lights are a commonly known seizure trigger. However, they actually only impact about 3% of people with epilepsy. If you have photosensitive epilepsy, you need to limit exposure to flashing lights. That can include video games.

Find a Good Neurologist

If you have epilepsy or another seizure-disorder, you need a pediatric neurologist to manage your care. A neurologist can investigate why the seizures are happening and help create a treatment protocol for you.

  • previous post: Treatment for Epilepsy in New Jersey
  • next post: How Much Can It Cost to Treat Epilepsy

How to Prevent Seizures

While there’s no one way to prevent a seizure, following a well-rounded treatment and management plan can help.

A seizure occurs due to abnormal or overactive electrical activity in the brain, which disrupts brain cells from effectively sending messages to each other.

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), if you’ve had two or more seizures, your doctor may diagnose you with epilepsy.

If you have epilepsy, or another condition that puts you at risk of recurring seizures, it’s important to take preventive measures to stop them from occurring.

Follow these tips to keep someone safe during a seizure.

What to do

In the case of a seizure, you can help a loved one by:

  • remaining calm
  • placing a pillow or cushion under their head
  • laying them on their side for protection if no cushioning is available
  • creating space to avoid injuries by moving surrounding furniture and objects
  • noting the time the seizure begins and ends
  • staying with your loved one for the entire seizure — they can last a few seconds or up to 2 to 3 minutes

What not to do

It’s just as important to know what not to do if your loved one is having a seizure. You can avoid further complications by not:

  • placing anything in their mouth in an attempt to prevent tongue biting — this may cause injuries
  • moving them to another room
  • restraining them
  • leaving them alone

When to call 911

While not all seizures require emergency medical attention, you should call 911 or local emergency services if:

  • it’s the first time this person has ever had a seizure
  • a child has a seizure of any duration
  • an adult has a seizure lasting longer than 5 minutes
  • the individual doesn’t wake up after a seizure
  • the individual experiences repeat seizures
  • the individual is injured during a seizure
  • the individual who had a seizure is pregnant

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Keep in mind that there are different types of seizures that may affect different parts of your brain. Each person’s experiences with seizures may vary, too.

This information can also help reduce the chances of developing related conditions, such as:

  • difficulty with thinking
  • injuries
  • death

Seizure prevention is dependent on an overall management and treatment plan, such as taking your prescribed medications and making lifestyle changes.

Talk with a doctor about incorporating the following measures into your overall treatment and management plan to help prevent seizures.

1. Take your medication as prescribed

Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) are prescription medications designed to help prevent seizures. It’s important to never stop taking these medications without a doctor’s approval — even if your condition seems to be improving.

In fact, not taking your medications properly puts you at risk of uncontrolled seizures.

Withdrawal seizures can occur if you skip medication. Medication toxicity from taking too much at a time can result in side effects, which may involve seizures.

2. Avoid consuming alcohol

Alcohol isn’t recommended for people with epilepsy, due to an increased risk of seizures. You may help prevent future episodes by avoiding alcohol.

If you’re experiencing alcohol misuse, be sure to talk with a healthcare professional about how to safely quit drinking.

3. Avoid substance misuse

In addition to alcohol avoidance, it’s important to avoid substance misuse as part of your seizure management plan.

Talk with a medical professional if you’re having challenges with using legal or illegal substances.

4. Practice stress management

Stress can be a trigger for seizures in epilepsy. It may help you reduce your risk of seizures if you manage your stress by:

  • getting enough sleep
  • exercising
  • taking time to relax

5. Maintain a sleep schedule

Waking up and going to bed at the same time every day can help you maintain a sleep schedule.

Tiredness and short-term sleep deprivation are considered triggers for seizures, so regular sleep can help prevent them.

6. Keep a consistent meal schedule

Hypoglycemia from skipping a meal can cause a seizure, particularly for people with diabetes.

It’s a good practice to keep a consistent meal schedule and have fast-acting sources of glucose on you at all times if you have diabetes.

7. Avoid flashing lights

According to the Epilepsy Society, it’s estimated that about 3% of people with epilepsy have a rare form called photosensitive epilepsy. With this type of epilepsy, seizures may be triggered by flashing lights or contrasting patterns of light.

If you’re photosensitive, such exposure to lights could trigger a seizure immediately.

While AEDs can help prevent seizures, it’s also important to avoid flashing lights and images, as well as those in geometric patterns. Playing video games with rapidly flashing graphics may also trigger seizures in some people.

If you’re suddenly exposed to flashing lights or patterns, quickly cover one or both eyes with your hand. According to the Epilepsy Society, this may help prevent the onset of a seizure.

8. Protect yourself from head injuries

Head injuries can lead to a single seizure or recurrent seizures in someone who doesn’t have epilepsy. The related seizures may occur weeks, months, or even up to a year after the injury.

According to the CDC, 1 in 10 people ages 15 and older who were hospitalized for a traumatic brain injury go on to develop epilepsy within 3 years.

A head injury can also trigger a seizure in someone who already has epilepsy. So, it’s important to protect yourself from future head injuries and the possibility of more related seizures.

Wear a helmet when bicycling, skating, or playing contact sports. Talk with a medical professional about stability exercises to help decrease your risk of falls.

9. Pay attention to fevers

Some children between the ages of 6 months and 5 years may be at risk of developing febrile seizures. These are triggered by fevers of 101°F (38°C) or higher and may accompany infections.

Not every child with a high fever will develop a febrile seizure, and the episode may occur hours later.

Call 911 or local emergency medical services if your child has a seizure. Children with febrile seizures may be at a higher risk of having future episodes, so medication may be necessary to prevent them.

A few options are available for treating seizures. It’s important to work with a doctor to develop the right epilepsy treatment plan for you.


Prescription AEDs are first-line treatments for seizures. These drugs are also known as antiseizure medications or anticonvulsants, and they come in various types and brands.

Some AEDs treat partial seizures, for instance, while others treat more generalized ones.

AEDs can’t cure epilepsy, but they may help prevent future seizures. It’s also important to talk with a healthcare professional about possible side effects, such as:

  • fatigue
  • dizziness
  • difficulty with thinking

Some AEDs may pose long-term health issues, such as increasing your risk of osteoporosis.


According to the Epilepsy Foundation, 3 in 10 people with epilepsy either don’t have success with AED mediation or deal with bothersome side effects. For these people, implanting devices that send small electric currents to the brain may help prevent seizures. Options include:

  • vagus nerve stimulation
  • responsive neurostimulation
  • deep brain stimulation


If you’ve tried medications, devices, and other lifestyle changes but your seizures aren’t well-controlled, undergoing brain surgery may be an option. Common surgical procedures for epilepsy include:

  • focal resection, or the removal of a known area in your brain where seizures begin
  • disconnection surgery, or the removal of brain connections that cause seizures to spread from one side of the brain to the other

Not everyone who experiences seizures is a good candidate for surgery. Talk with a doctor about your options.

After you experience a seizure, your primary care doctor may refer you to a special type of neurologist known as a epileptologist. This type of doctor specializes in diagnosing, treating, and managing seizures.

Once you’ve had a seizure, you may be at risk of future episodes the rest of your life. A neurologist or epileptologist can help you come up with a seizure treatment and management plan. This likely includes:

  • medications or other treatments
  • lifestyle changes
  • other preventive measures

It’s also important to check in with your neurologist or epileptologist if you’re concerned with medication side effects, or if you continue to have seizures despite taking AEDs. They may recommend an alternative treatment to help.

Due to the intricate nature of seizures, there’s no way to completely prevent them once you’ve had one.

But taking AEDs and maintaining a healthy lifestyle are strategies that can help.

It’s important to never stop taking medications on your own without consulting a medical professional. Contact your doctor if you’re not happy with your current treatment plan. Together, you can discuss next steps.

Muscle cramps – treatment, symptoms, causes, diagnosis

  • Muscle cramps are involuntary and intense muscle contractions without a period of relaxation.
  • Almost everyone has experienced a seizure episode at least once in their life.
  • There are different types of seizures and different causes.
  • Many different medications can cause muscle cramps.
  • In most cases, muscle cramps can be stopped by relaxing (stretching) the muscle.
  • Muscle cramps can often be prevented by measures such as good nutrition with sufficient micronutrients and adequate fluid intake.

Muscle cramps is an involuntary and violent contraction of a muscle without a period of relaxation. When muscles that can be controlled voluntarily, such as the muscles of the arms or legs, are used, they alternately contract and relax as certain movements are made in the limbs. The muscles that support the head, neck and torso work in synchrony and maintain the position of the body. A muscle (or even a few muscle fibers) can be involuntarily in a state of spasm. If the spasm is strong and persistent, then this leads to the appearance of convulsions. Muscle cramps are often visualized or palpated in the region of the muscle involved.

Muscle cramps can last from a few seconds to a quarter of an hour, and sometimes longer. It is also not uncommon for the seizures to recur until the muscle relaxes. The spasmodic contractions may involve part of a muscle, the entire muscle, or several muscles that usually contract at the same time when performing movements, such as flexing several fingers. In some cases, cramps can be simultaneously in the antagonist muscles responsible for movements in opposite directions. Muscle cramps are widespread. Almost all people (according to some studies about 95% of people) have experienced seizures at some point in their lives. Muscle cramps are common in adults and become more common with age, but cramps can still occur in children. In any muscle (skeletal) in which voluntary movements are performed, there may be cramps. Cramps of the limbs, legs and feet, and especially the calf muscle, are very common.

Types and causes of muscle cramps

Skeletal muscle cramps can be divided into four main types. These include “true” seizures, tetanic seizures, contractures, and dystonic seizures. Seizures are classified according to the causes of the seizures and the muscle groups they affect.

Types of muscle cramps

True cramps . True cramps involve part or all of a muscle or group of muscles that normally function together, such as the muscles involved in flexing several adjacent fingers. Most researchers agree that true cramps are caused by increased excitability of nerves that stimulate muscle contractions. They are overwhelmingly the most common type of skeletal muscle cramps. True seizures can occur in a variety of circumstances.

Injuries : Persistent muscle spasms may occur as a defense mechanism after an injury such as a broken bone. In this case, as a rule, spasm allows you to minimize movement and stabilize the area of ​​injury. Injury to just the muscle can also lead to muscle spasm.

Vigorous activity: true cramps are usually associated with active muscle loading and muscle fatigue (during sports or unusual activities). Such convulsions can occur both during the activity and after, sometimes many hours later. In addition, muscle fatigue from sitting or lying down for a long period of time in an awkward position or any repetitive movement can also cause cramps. Older people are more at risk of seizures during vigorous or strenuous physical activity.

Rest seizures : Rest seizures are very common, especially in the elderly, but can occur at any age, including childhood. Rest spasms often occur at night. Night cramps, while not life threatening, can be painful, disrupt sleep, and may recur frequently (i.e., many times a night and/or many nights a week). The actual cause of nighttime cramps is unknown. Sometimes these cramps are initiated by a movement that contracts the muscles. An example would be stretching the foot in bed, which shortens the calf muscle, where cramps are most common.

Dehydration : Sports and other strenuous exercise may cause excessive fluid loss through sweat. With this type of dehydration, the likelihood of true seizures increases. These cramps most often occur in warm weather and may be an early sign of heat stroke. Chronic dehydration due to diuretics and poor fluid intake can similarly lead to seizures, especially in the elderly. Seizures can also be associated with a lack of sodium.

Redistribution of fluids in the body: true convulsions can also be noted in conditions where there is an unusual distribution of fluid in the body. An example is cirrhosis of the liver, in which there is an accumulation of fluid in the abdominal cavity (ascites). Similarly, seizures are a relatively common complication of the rapid changes in body fluids that occur during dialysis for kidney failure.

Low levels of electrolytes in the blood (calcium, magnesium): low blood levels of calcium or magnesium directly increase the excitability of the nerve endings innervating the muscles. This may be a predisposing factor for the spontaneous true seizures that many older people experience, and these seizures are also common in pregnant women. Low levels of calcium and magnesium are common in pregnant women, especially if these minerals are not getting enough from the diet. Seizures occur in any circumstance that reduces the availability of calcium or magnesium in body fluids, such as diuretics, hyperventilation, excessive vomiting, lack of calcium and/or magnesium in the diet, insufficient absorption of calcium due to vitamin D deficiency, reduced parathyroid function.

Low potassium levels: Low blood potassium levels sometimes cause muscle cramps, although muscle weakness is more common in hypokalemia.


Tetany activates all nerve cells in the body, which then stimulate muscle contraction. In this type, convulsive contractions occur throughout the body. The name tetany comes from the spasms that occur when tetanus toxin affects the nerves. However, this name for this type of cramp is now widely used to refer to muscle cramps in other conditions, such as low blood levels of calcium and magnesium. Low levels of calcium and magnesium increase the activity of the nervous tissue non-specifically, which can lead to the appearance of tetanic seizures. Often these seizures are accompanied by signs of hyperactivity of other nerve functions in addition to muscle hyperstimulation. For example, low blood calcium not only causes muscle spasm in the hands and wrists, but it can also cause numbness and tingling sensations around the mouth and other areas of the body.

Occasionally, tetanic seizures are indistinguishable from true seizures. Additional changes in sensation or other nerve function may not be noticeable, as the pain of a cramp may mask other symptoms.


Contractures occur when the muscles cannot relax for an even longer period than in the main types of muscle cramps. Constant spasms are caused by the depletion of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) – the energy intracellular substrate of the cell. This prevents relaxation of the muscle fibers. The nerves are inactive in this type of muscle cramp.

Contracture may be the result of genetic inheritance (eg, McArdle disease, which is a defect in the breakdown of glycogen to sugar in muscle cells) or acquired conditions (eg, hyperthyroid myopathy, which is a muscle disease associated with an overactive thyroid gland) . Convulsions of the type of contractures are rare.

Dystonic seizures

The last category of seizures are dystonic seizures, in which muscles not involved in the intended movement are affected and contracted. Muscles that are involved in this type of cramp include antagonistic muscles that usually work in the opposite direction of the intended movement and/or others that enhance the movement. Some dystonic spasms usually affect small muscle groups (eyelids, cheeks, neck, larynx, etc.). The arms and hands may be affected during repetitive movements such as writing (writer’s cramp), playing a musical instrument. These activities can also lead to true cramps due to muscle fatigue. Dystonic seizures are not as common as true seizures.

Other types of seizures

Some seizures are caused by a number of nerve and muscle disorders. For example, these are diseases such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (Lou Gehrig’s disease), accompanied by muscle weakness and atrophy; radiculopathy in degenerative diseases of the spine (hernia, disc protrusion, osteophytes), when root compression is accompanied by pain, impaired sensitivity and sometimes convulsions. Seizures can also occur with peripheral nerve damage, such as diabetic neuropathy.

Crumpy . This type of cramps, as a rule, describes cramps in the calf muscle, and associate their appearance with muscle overstrain and the presence of degenerative changes in the spine (osteochondrosis of the lumbar spine, lumbar ischialgia). In addition, cramps are possible with disorders of the vascular circulation in the lower extremities (with obliterating endarteritis or post-thrombophlebitic syndrome). Also, various biochemical disorders in the triceps muscle of the leg can be the cause of cramps.

Many medicines can cause seizures. Strong diuretics such as furosemide or vigorous fluid removal from the body, even with less potent diuretics, can induce seizures as dehydration and sodium loss occur. At the same time, diuretics often cause loss of potassium, calcium and magnesium, which can also cause seizures.

Medicines such as donepezil (Aricept, which is used to treat Alzheimer’s disease) and neostigmine (Prostigmine, used for myasthenia gravis), asraloxifene (Evista) is used to prevent osteoporosis in postmenopausal women – may cause seizures. Tolcapone (Tasmar), which is used to treat Parkinson’s disease, has been shown to cause muscle cramps in at least 10% of patients. True seizures have been reported with nifedipine and the drugs Terbutaline (Brethine) and albuterol (Proventil, Ventolin). Some medicines used to lower cholesterol, such as lovastatin (Mevacor), can also cause seizures.

Seizures are sometimes observed in addicts during the cessation of sedatives.

A lack of certain vitamins can also lead directly or indirectly to muscle cramps. These include deficiencies in thiamine (B1), pantothenic acid (B5), and pyridoxine (B6). The exact role of deficiency of these vitamins in causing seizures is unknown.

Poor circulation in the legs leads to a lack of oxygen in the muscle tissue and can cause severe muscle pain (intermittent claudication) that occurs when walking. It usually occurs in the calf muscles. But the pain in vascular disorders in such cases is not caused by the muscle cramp itself. This pain may be more related to the buildup of lactic acid and other chemicals in muscle tissue. Cramps in the calf muscles can also be associated with a violation of the outflow of blood in varicose veins and, as a rule, cramps in the calf muscles occur at night.

Symptoms and diagnosis of muscle cramps

Characteristically, a cramp is often quite painful. As a rule, the patient has to stop activities and urgently take measures to relieve seizures; the person is unable to use the affected muscle during the seizure. Severe cramps may be accompanied by soreness and swelling, which can sometimes persist for up to several days after the cramp has subsided. At the time of the cramp, the affected muscles will bulge, feel hard and tender to the touch.

Diagnosis of seizures is usually not difficult, but finding out the causes may require both a thorough medical history and instrumental and laboratory examinations.


Most seizures can be interrupted by stretching the muscle. For many leg and foot cramps, this stretch can often be achieved by standing up and walking. With cramps in the calf muscles, it is possible to bend the ankle with the help of the hand, while lying in bed with the leg extended straight. In writing spasm, pressing the hand against the wall with the fingers down will stretch the flexors of the fingers.

A gentle muscle massage can also be performed to relax a spasmodic muscle. If the cramp is associated with fluid loss, as is often the case with strenuous exercise, rehydration and restoration of electrolyte levels is necessary.

Muscle relaxants may be used in the short term in certain situations to allow muscles to relax during injury or other conditions (eg, radiculopathy). These drugs include cyclobenzaprine (Flexeril), orphenadrine (NORFLEX), and baclofen (Lioresal).

In recent years, injections of therapeutic doses of botulinum toxin (Botox) have been successfully used for certain dystonic muscle disorders that are localized in a limited group of muscles. A good response may last several months or more, and injections may be repeated.

Treatment of seizures that are associated with specific diseases, usually focuses on the treatment of the underlying disease.

In cases where seizures are severe, frequent, prolonged, difficult to treat, or not associated with an obvious cause, both additional investigation and more intensive treatment are required.

Prevention of seizures

Adequate nutrition with sufficient fluids and electrolytes is essential to prevent possible seizures, especially during strenuous exercise or during pregnancy.

Night cramps and other rest cramps can often be prevented with regular stretching exercises, especially if done before bed.

Magnesium and calcium supplements are also good for preventing seizures, but caution is required when prescribing them in the presence of renal insufficiency. In the presence of hypovitaminosis, it is necessary to take vitamins of group B, vitamin D, E.

If the patient is taking diuretics, it is necessary to take potassium supplements.

Recently, the only drug that is widely used for the prevention, and sometimes for the treatment of seizures, is quinine. Quinine has been used for many years in the treatment of malaria. The action of quinine is due to a decrease in muscle excitability. However, quinine has a number of serious side effects that limit its use to all groups of patients (nausea, vomiting, headaches, heart rhythm disturbances, hearing impairment, etc.).

Leg cramps | causes, treatment, diagnosis and prevention

Leg cramps are common and can affect anyone at any age. This is an extremely uncomfortable sensation where the muscles in the legs contract involuntarily and cannot relax, which can cause severe pain and discomfort. Although seizures are rarely a serious problem, they can significantly affect a person’s quality of life, especially if they occur too often or during sleep. In this article, we’ll look at why leg cramps occur, as well as ways to prevent and treat them.


  • Essence of pathology
  • Varieties of convulsions
  • Danger
  • Causes
  • Night cramps
  • Diagnostics
  • Treatment
  • Prophylaxis

The essence of the pathology

When leg cramps appear, unpleasant painful sensations, severe discomfort and inability to move often occur. This phenomenon most often occurs in the elderly, pregnant women and professional athletes. Cramps are characterized by severe muscle spasm, in which muscle tissue becomes elastic and dense to the touch. Spasm can spread to the entire limb, but most often occurs in the calf muscles. If the symptoms appear regularly, are accompanied by pain and negatively affect the quality of life, you should consult a doctor to find out the causes of seizures and prescribe timely treatment.

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Types of cramps

There are several types of leg cramps. First, are idiopathic , which appear without a specific cause, and are secondary , which can be caused by a variety of factors, both natural and pathological.

Depending on the nature of muscle contraction, convulsions can be divided into epileptic and non-epileptic . Epileptic seizures are manifested by the simultaneous activation of a group of neurons in the brain and excessive stimulation of peripheral muscles. Non-epileptic seizures may occur for other reasons.

There are also hereditary krumps, which are a more stable variant of idiopathic seizures.

What is the danger?

Many people think that leg cramps are something minor and do not go to the doctor about this. However, if a person suffers from cramps often, this can lead to complications, since cramps can be the first sign of an emerging pathology in the body. Although generalized epileptic seizures are very dangerous, persistent local muscle spasms can also indicate the initial stage of metabolic disorders that can lead to serious diseases such as diabetes mellitus , arthritis , varicose veins , which can be fatal if not treated. Therefore, it is important to see a doctor if frequent cramps cause anxiety and interfere with a comfortable state.

Causes of leg cramps

Leg cramps can be due to various reasons. One of them is the increased activity of the cerebral cortex, as well as a decrease in the nerve conduction of the fibers and the level of ATP in the blood. These processes can be caused by various factors, such as intense physical activity, traumatic brain injury, stressful situations and wearing uncomfortable shoes. However, the most common source of leg cramps is varicose veins . The diagnosis is carried out by a phlebologist who will help determine the factors that provoked the appearance of seizures in a particular case.

There are a number of common causes of daytime and nighttime leg cramps, including:

  1. Deficiency, deficiency of vitamins and minerals that can occur due to dehydration, strenuous exercise or malnutrition. Symptoms can be caused by a lack of B vitamins and magnesium.
  2. Hypoglycemia, which may occur in people with diabetes mellitus, especially when insulin is administered. Treatment should be carried out only by a specialist who will select an individual therapy regimen and dosage of insulin.
  3. Excessive exercise, especially in athletes such as football players, basketball players and weightlifters.
  4. Seizures can occur with thrombophlebitis and varicose veins, regardless of the stage of development of these diseases.
  5. Atherosclerosis, which puts high pressure on the entire circulatory system, especially the heart and blood vessels. The basis of its development may be hereditary predisposition, unhealthy lifestyle, bad habits and high cholesterol.
  6. Diseases of the heart and blood vessels can negatively affect blood flow and lead to swelling, pain and cramps in the legs both at night and during the day.
  7. Hormonal changes can cause leg cramps in women during pregnancy, when taking oral contraceptives, during menopause, or during puberty during drastic changes in hormonal levels.
  8. With increased stress on the central nervous system, frequent stress and sleep disturbances, muscle spasms can also occur, which can go away on their own after the cause is eliminated.

In addition to diseases, cramps can be caused by other factors, for example:

  1. Wearing beautiful but uncomfortable shoes with heels, which can lead to varicose veins and cause swelling and painful muscle spasms.
  2. An unbalanced diet devoid of essential nutrients can lead to chronic digestive diseases and beriberi, which can also cause painful cramps.
  3. Uncontrolled use of antibiotics, anti-inflammatory and pain medications can also cause seizures.

Nocturnal leg cramps

Often, leg twitching syndrome is characteristic of some diseases and can develop suddenly. Muscle spasms occur at night, causing discomfort during sleep. This condition can be short-term or long-term and accompanied by weakness in the muscles after an attack. Chronic venous insufficiency is one of the common symptoms of this condition and the elderly and pregnant women are especially vulnerable. In some cases, it may be a symptom of epilepsy or other neurological conditions. Even the most well-rested people experience twitching of the feet and toes at night, which can be caused by a deficiency of trace minerals such as sodium and others. Leg cramps can also occur when muscles are overloaded, dehydrated, or stay in one position for a long time. In most cases, such attacks are idiopathic, that is, they occur without apparent reason, and do not pose a health risk. However, they can be symptoms of serious diseases such as venous insufficiency or arterial dysfunction. Nocturnal spasms most often occur in the calf muscles and may be accompanied by sharp pain, tissue hardening, discomfort, redness and swelling, and muscle weakness.

Diagnosis may sometimes require a procedure using lower extremity fluid samples. To treat this symptom, it is often necessary to do moderate exercise and provide a good diet, including mineral elements and other micronutrients. Controlling body weight and wearing comfortable shoes can also help. In some cases, it is necessary to consult a surgeon to identify the cause of this condition. Nighttime attacks of leg cramps are often accompanied by heaviness in the legs and require timely treatment. If you experience such a symptom, you should not self-medicate and take any medication for seizures. It is necessary to contact a phlebologist in a timely manner to find out the cause of this condition.


During the initial consultation with a phlebologist, it is necessary to tell in detail about the possible causes of seizures, their location and duration. The doctor will order a series of tests, including laboratory blood and urine tests, ultrasound of blood vessels, and electromyography, to find out the causes of spasms. Further treatment of leg cramps will depend on the results of the diagnosis.


In order to receive a prescription for tablets for leg cramps, you need to see a doctor who will conduct a preliminary examination and find out why this condition has occurred. It is possible to stop an attack of seizures with medication, then a complex treatment is prescribed, which is designed to eliminate the occurrence of such a symptom. In most cases, treatment is carried out using conservative methods.

Depending on the occurrence, different groups of drugs may be prescribed, such as:

  • multivitamin complexes;
  • preparations for relaxing tense muscles;
  • means to improve blood supply;
  • painkillers.