Pros and cons of in-vitro fertilization: What are the Pros and Cons of IVF
Pros and Cons of IVF
With In Vitro Fertilization, or IVF, medications are used to help stimulate the development and release of a woman’s eggs. The eggs and sperm are collected and placed together to fertilize in a laboratory dish. Once fertilized, the embryos are transferred into the woman’s uterus. Here are some of the pros and cons of IVF:
Fallopian Tubes Not Necessary
A woman’s fallopian tubes may become blocked due to a previous pelvic infection such as appendicitis or chlamydia. Once it has been determined that the fallopian tubes are blocked, IVF is the only possible treatment when attempting to conceive. IUI is not a viable option because it requires open and working fallopian tubes, allowing a fertilized egg to travel from the tube into the uterus where it may implant. IVF does not require the fallopian tubes to be present as it takes the eggs from the ovaries and implants the embryo directly into the uterus.
Low Sperm Count
If the quality of the man’s sperm or the sperm count is an issue, IUI is not a suitable option in most cases. IVF is a good option because it injects the sperm directly into the egg by ICSI (Intracytoplasmic Injection of the sperm into the egg), which facilitates successful fertilization of an egg.
Lowered Chance of Abnormality
Some couples may be at high risk of conceiving a baby with an abnormality. With the use of IVF, however, embryos can be tested before they are implanted in the uterus. This helps reduce the risk of the baby developing with a condition that either partner, or both, carries a gene for.
Getting pregnant with twins may not seem like a disadvantage to some, but the aim of fertility treatment is to give you one baby at a time. Even though only one embryo may be transferred to the uterus, it is possible than an embryo can split, resulting in two babies.
No/Fewer Eggs Collected Than Expected
Not every follicle will have an egg collected from it during the egg collection procedure. About 80-90% of follicles are expected to yield an egg, but sometimes fewer eggs are collected than expected. Occasionally, there are no eggs collected.
IVF treatment can be an emotional process. It can be both physically and emotionally demanding, so it is important to prioritize mental health during this time.
The North Carolina Center for Reproductive Medicine/Talbert Fertility Institute is the premiere center for reproductive health in North Carolina and the East Coast. Our team specializes in fertility testing, diagnosis, and treatment of infertility conditions. We’re experts in IVF, Tubal Ligation Reversal, Male Infertility, Intrauterine Insemination (IUI), Gestation Surrogacy, Family Balancing, and more. Contact us today.
What are the Pros and Cons of IVF
Couples experiencing fertility issues are faced with many decisions when it comes to the type of treatment that is most suitable for their situation. For some couples the choices are limited. This may depend on the reason for infertility, their age, or the likelihood of a particular procedure working for them. Other couples may be presented with a variety of choices. In this article, we’ll look at some of the pros and cons of IVF.
The typical couple, assuming the female has open tubes, is producing eggs and her partner has a suitable semen sample, will often start their fertility journey by trying artificial intrauterine insemination (also known as intrauterine insemination-IUI). If this procedure does not produce a pregnancy for them after 3-4 attempts, then the usual course is for the couple to consider more detailed types of treatments such as IVF. Typically, most couples end up deciding whether or not in vitro fertilization (IVF) is a viable option for them based on their personal and financial situation. This procedure of IVF has many pros and cons, which the couple should explore in detail and have a good understanding of, before making a decision.
The Pros of IVF
There are many benefits of having an IVF procedure. The biggest, of course, is having a baby! Couples who are unable to conceive naturally are now given a chance to start their family, thanks to IVF treatment. IVF is an exacted process that is tailored to a couple’s specific situation. This gives them a higher chance of becoming pregnant.
Depending on the type of fertility issue you are dealing with, IVF can increase your chance of a pregnancy, but not in all cases. Here are three situations where IVF offers big advantages:
Blocked fallopian tubes. Many couples are not aware that this is a problem until they are faced with infertility. After testing to find out where the problem lies, the female’s tubes are found to be blocked. Blocked fallopian tubes can result from a previous pelvic infection, such as appendicitis or chlamydia.
Once it is determined that the tubes are blocked, IVF is the only possible treatment when attempting for a pregnancy. IUI (artificial insemination) is not an option because this procedure requires that the female’s tubes are open and working. This infers they will allow the sperm and the egg to fertilize. The subsequent fertilized egg would then travel from the tube into the womb (uterus) where it may implant.
IVF does not need the tubes to be functioning or even present, as the procedure works around the tubes by taking the eggs from the ovaries in a small procedure. The embryo (fertilized egg) is then implanted directly into the uterus, where it then needs to “implant” in order for a successful pregnancy to occur.
Difficulty with the sperm’s ability to fertilize the egg. Male infertility is the cause of approximately 40% of couples needing assistance to have a baby. If there are significant issues with the quality of the man’s sperm (i.e. compromise in sperm count, motility or shape), then in most cases, IUI is not a suitable option. IVF, on the other hand, because it places the sperm and the egg within close proximately of each other, can facilitate the successful fertilization of the egg that may otherwise be unlikely to happen.
Lowered chance of baby abnormality. In some situations, couples are at high risk of conceiving a baby with an abnormality. For example, both partners may carry the gene for Cystic Fibrosis meaning that there would be a 1 in 4 chance of a baby being born with the condition. In this instance, with the use of IVF, the embryos can be tested for the condition before they are implanted into the uterus. Therefore it would reduce the risk of having a baby with this condition. These procedures are called Pre-Implantation Genetic Diagnosis (PGD) or Comparative Genomic Hybridization (CGH) and are treatment options for couples that are at high risk.
The Cons of IVF
As with any medical procedure, IVF has its downsides. The biggest downside is the fact that you cannot guarantee a pregnancy, no matter how good things may appear. This lack of certainty can cause severe emotional issues for couples because of the stress that can result from this journey.
No one wants to imagine that their IVF cycle is going to be anything other than perfect. Please don’t skip this section in the hope that it won’t happen to you. We sure hope that you don’t experience any of the risks of IVF on this list. But we do want you to be prepared just in case.
The risks of IVF to be considered are:
Cycle cancellation. Sometimes you just don’t react to the treatment prescribed for you the way we would expect. This might be due to an under-response or an over-response to the medication.
No/fewer eggs collected than expected. It is important to understand that not every follicle seen on an ultrasound scan will have an egg collected from it during the egg collection procedure. It is expected that approximately 80-90% of follicles will yield an egg. Occasionally, there are fewer eggs collected at the egg collection procedure than expected. Sometimes, there are no eggs collected during the egg collection procedure.
We started with more Follicles than we ended up with Eggs and Embryos – What Happened?Once the eggs have been collected, not every egg will fertilise, although it is expected that approximately 70-80% will fertilise. Even once an egg has been fertilised, it does not necessarily mean it will be suitable for transfer or freezing. These results are very individual.
Fertilisation failure. Sometimes we will get eggs from you at egg pick up, but none of them will fertilise, meaning no embryos will form. Fortunately, this doesn’t happen very often. This can sometimes be due to poor egg quality, or poor sperm quality.
Implantation failure. An embryo that had reached the stage of development that was expected was transferred back into your uterus. You took all the medications exactly as we asked. But now you are having a period. This is called Implantation failure. Cycle cancellation and fertilisation failure are fortunately rare, but implantation failure is common.
You’d think that the worst of it was over once you saw that positive pregnancy test! Miscarriage is the loss of the pregnancy before 20 weeks, and can happen at any stage, but is most common before 12 weeks of pregnancy. About one in five pregnancies will be lost through miscarriage. The chances of miscarriage are increased for older women, with as many as 50% of women over age 40 miscarrying.
Ectopic Pregnancy. An ectopic pregnancy is when the embryo implants outside the uterus and continues to develop. This may sound unusual given that the embryo is placed in the uterus at the time of transfer, but it can and does happen. The most common place by far is the fallopian tube. The chances of this happening are slightly higher in an IVF pregnancy, especially if the fallopian tubes are known to be damaged. It happens in about 1 in 100 pregnancies.
Multiple Pregnancy. “Hang on,” you say, “getting pregnant and having twins isn’t my idea of a problem – so why is it on the ‘cons’ list?” The aim of fertility treatment is to get you one baby at a time, so in some respects, a multiple pregnancy (and especially if it is more than twins) can be considered not a good outcome of IVF. There are some really good medical reasons why it isn’t good for you or your babies if there is more than one in your uterus at once. This is why we prefer to only transfer one embryo at a time. Even when we do transfer only one there is still a risk (although small) of an identical twin pregnancy as the embryo can split to form two babies.
Baby Abnormalities. Approximately 2-3% of non-IVF conceived babies are born with some kind of abnormality. This might be minor (a large birthmark), or life-threatening (a heart defect), or cause long term problems for the child as it grows up (spina bifida). One of the concerns about the widespread use of IVF has been the question as to whether there is an increased risk of abnormalities in babies born after IVF.
The research that has been done to date to answer this question has produced some conflicting results, with some studies indicating no increase in risk, while others have shown as high as a doubling of the risk. Even if the risk is doubled the chance of a perfectly normal baby with IVF is about 96%.
Risks of Egg Pick Up. The egg pick up procedure is a surgical procedure and like all surgical procedures, it carries some risk. However, the procedure is considered low risk, and the majority of women suffer no ill effects. During the egg collection procedure, it is possible for the needle that is used to drain the fluid from the follicles in the ovary to puncture other structures nearby. We always perform our egg pick up procedures with an ultrasound monitor so that the tip of the needle can be seen at all times to minimize this. Structures that can be injured include major blood vessels, the bladder and the bowel.
Risks of Embryo Transfer. The embryo transfer procedure is very low in risk, similar to having a Pap smear test. Rarely, an infection can occur in the uterus (called endometritis) which produces pain, discharge, and bleeding. If left untreated, the infection could spread elsewhere and be potentially serious. It is treated with antibiotics, and sometimes admission to the hospital might be needed if the infection is particularly severe.
Ovarian Hyperstimulation Syndrome. Ovarian Hyper Stimulation Syndrome (OHSS) is a potentially serious complication of fertility treatments where the ovary is artificially stimulated. It occurs in about 5% of all IVF treatment cycles. It is severe in about 1% of all cycles. It generally begins to cause problems about 4 or 5 days after the egg pick up procedure.
To develop OHSS, you need to have had some form of stimulating drug. Generally, this is FSH injections, but it has been known to occur when clomiphene tablets are used. To trigger the onset of the problem, ovulation (or a trigger injection) must occur. OHSS lasts for about 10 days, but if you become pregnant, it can last for several months and tends to be worse.
The positive side of your first cycle is that regardless of the outcome, we have learned valuable information about how you react to treatment. We can, therefore, change what we do the next time so that you have a better chance of success.
As you can see, IVF has many pros and cons. Both of which need to be considered in order to determine the right decision for you and your partner. Even if IVF is your only option for achieving a pregnancy, it does not mean you have to take this journey. It is okay to remain childfree. Talk to your doctor about the risks to help you make a decision. Every couple will differ in what works for them and IVF is not always the only answer. Managing expectations is the key to maximizing the chance that the entire treatment goes as smoothly as possible. Hopefully, then, the desired outcome becomes a reality. Discuss the pros and cons of IVF with your specialist.
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Since IVF was pioneered by Sir Robert Edwards and Patrick Steptoe in 1978, IVF has helped million of people become parents. Here we outline some of the advantages and disadvantages associated with IVF.
Advantages of IVF
IVF helps many patients who would be otherwise unable to conceive. The ultimate advantage of IVF is achieving a successful pregnancy and a healthy baby. IVF can make this a reality for people who would be unable to have a baby otherwise:
Blocked tubes: For women with blocked or damaged fallopian tubes, IVF provides the best opportunity of having a child using their own eggs.
Older patients/ patients with a low ovarian reserve: IVF can be used to maximise the chance of older patients conceiving. At CREATE, we have great experience with older women and those with low ovarian reserve. We use Natural IVF to focus on quality of eggs, rather than quantity.
Male infertility: Couples with a male infertility problem will have a much higher chance of conceiving with IVF than conceiving naturally. We have a number of laboratory techniques to facilitate this including intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). We also have an experienced consultant urologist to advise men with fertility problems.
Unexplained infertility: 1 in 6 couples will suffer fertility problems and sometimes these remain undiagnosed after investigation. These patients may benefit from intervention.
PCOS: Polycystic ovary syndrome is common condition in which there is a hormone imbalance leading to irregular menstrual cycles. IVF has proved very successful in patients with PCOS, who will not conceive with ovulation induction.
Endometriosis: Patients with endometriosis, where parts of the womb lining grow outside the womb, may like to try IVF, as it has proved successful in this group.
Premature ovarian failure: Women with premature ovarian failure or menopause can have IVF treatment using donor eggs, which typically has high success rates.
It has been used for a long time and has a safe track record. The first ‘IVF baby’, Louise Brown, was born using natural IVF in 1978. Since then, the technology has advanced, and techniques refined in order to create safer and successful treatment. We use only the safest forms of IVF with fewer drugs in order to reduce the risk of side effects such as Ovarian Hyperstimulation Syndrome (OHSS).
IVF can be more successful than IUI and other forms of assisted reproductive technology. IVF success rates have been increasing since its conception, thanks to technological advances. Although IUI and other forms of assisted reproduction technology can be successful for some patients, on the whole they have not undergone the same level of improvement, and do not currently have as high success rates. IUI with donor sperm can however be a useful first option in single women and same-sex couples.
It can help single women and same-sex couples. For single women or same-sex couples who wish to have a child, IVF can provide a great opportunity for helping them to become parents if IUI has not been successful. IVF with donor sperm can help potential patients achieve this goal.
IVF can help to diagnose fertilisation problems. In some cases of unexplained infertility, there could be a problem with fertilisation. Cases such as these may not be diagnosed until fertilisation is attempted in the laboratory. Although this would be a disappointing outcome, it is useful to be able to uncover such problems so that solutions could be reached for future treatment with ICSI.
Unused embryos can be donated to research or another couple. If you are lucky enough to have embryos to spare, these can be used to help other people and even save lives. With the permission of the biological parents, unused embryos can be donated for research purposes, or to another couple to enable them to have a child.
Embryos can be used to screen for inherited diseases. For individuals who are known carriers of genetic disorders such as cystic fibrosis, Huntington’s disease and muscular dystrophy, IVF with pre-implantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) is one of the most reliable ways to ensure that a child conceived will not suffer from the disorder. Pre-implantation genetic screening (PGS) can improve the chances of a successful outcome, as it screens embryos for chromosomal disorders such as Down’s syndrome. Both of these techniques are available at our clinics.
Disadvantages of IVF
An IVF cycle may be unsuccessful. The success of IVF is not guaranteed, and patients often have to undergo more than one cycle of treatment before they are successful. This naturally varies woman to woman, and a fertility specialist will be able to give a more accurate and personalised likelihood of success. It is important to be realistic but positive about the chances of success.
There may be associated side effects and risks. As a medical treatment, IVF comes with a small chance of developing side effects, the most severe of these being severe ovarian hyper-stimulation syndrome (OHSS). Fortunately, the use of fewer or no drugs in natural and mild IVF cycles means that the already small likelihood of developing unwanted risk of OHSS is dramatically decreased or eliminated. CREATE Fertility takes the possibility of side effects very seriously.
Multiple pregnancy. In IVF treatments, there is often more than one embryo put back into the uterus, and this leads to a higher likelihood of multiple pregnancy; around 20-30% of IVF pregnancies can result in multiple pregnancies. Multiple pregnancies do carry associated health risks to mother and baby: there is an increased chance of premature labour, miscarriage, need for caesarean, stillbirth and infant health problems with multiple pregnancies. It is important for all fertility clinics to have robust single embryo transfer policies, to avoid the risks of multiple pregnancy. At CREATE, we have a low multiple birth rate and focus on the reduction of multiple births.
There is a slightly higher chance of ectopic pregnancy. With IVF treatment, the risk of an ectopic pregnancy doubles, to 1-3%, particularly in women with damaged fallopian tubes.
There is evidence that high oestrogen levels associated with high stimulation IVF can increase the risk of prematurity and low birth weight in babies. There is growing evidence that giving high stimulation during IVF increases the chance that a baby is born prematurely and with lower birth weight. This has been linked to long-term health problems for the child. It is theorised that high oestrogen levels can affect the intra-uterine environment. With drug-free and low drug approaches, it has been observed that babies born are more likely to be born at full term and with a higher birth weight than those born through high stimulation IVF associated with high oestrogen levels. This is one of the reasons why we are committed to Natural and Mild IVF, as we believe that the success of treatment is not just a live birth, but is a healthy full term live birth.
IVF treatment can take an emotional/psychological toll. Going through IVF treatment can be a highly emotive and stressful experience. For patients undergoing treatment, it can be physically and emotionally demanding. For partners it can be difficult to watch a loved-one go through a stressful experience. It is important to prioritise your psychological health, and this is also good for the health of the body. Our short, lower-drug protocols should help to minimise the amount of stress.
IVF treatment can be expensive. IVF treatment is not cheap, and after paying for medication and blood tests, the costs can quickly mount up. It is good to have a clear idea of the costs involved before starting treatment, and to have your finances in order before beginning. With fewer drugs, the cost of a cycle is reduced at CREATE Fertility. There are also options for low-cost treatment, such as our sister clinic abc ivf.
Some patients may be concerned about ethical issues. The idea of selecting some embryos and potentially discarding others may not sit well with everybody. Before starting treatment, consider your own stance and what you would be comfortable with. If you are uncomfortable with the creation of multiple embryos, we can support your choice by using Natural Cycle IVF, or by freezing additional eggs rather than fertilising them to create embryos.
IUI vs. IVF: Pros and Cons
When it comes to building your family, not all fertility treatments are created equal. Assisted reproductive technology (ART) has come a long way since the first successful birth 40 years ago, and two of the most common – and most confused – procedures are intrauterine insemination (IUI) and the more commonly referenced in vitro fertilization (IVF). We’ll break down the process, as well as the pros and cons, for both.
The difference between IUI and IVF is actually quite broad – in fact, there are few similarities between them other than the end goal of a pregnancy.
What is IUI?
Intrauterine insemination (IUI) utilizes a catheter to transfer sperm – either the intended father’s or a donor’s – directly into the intended mother’s uterus. The process can technically be done with a surrogate, but this is rare because it would make her the biological mother. It can be done without medication, though fertility drugs like Gonadotropin or clomiphene are often used to induce ovulation and increase the number of eggs available.
Monitoring is done in the days leading up to the IUI to confirm the eggs have matured. A semen sample is provided so that it can be washed, separating the semen from the seminal fluid to maximize the number of sperm cells available for fertilization.
IUI Pros and Cons
- It’s a far less invasive process than IVF and may require little (if any) medication.
- It takes only a few minutes and there is very little discomfort.
- It is a relatively inexpensive procedure; without insurance, an IUI cycle is typically around $800. Monitoring and medication costs vary.
- The chances of getting pregnant with IUI are, unfortunately, fairly low – success rates can reach as high as 20%, but only when factoring age, diagnosis and whether fertility drugs were used.
- The risk of multiples is much higher. Because there is little control over how many eggs develop, it’s difficult to guarantee how many will ultimately fertilize.
What is IVF?
In vitro fertilization (IVF) is more complex than IUI. The intended mother’s eggs or a donor’s eggs are retrieved from her ovaries, combined with the intended father’s or donor’s sperm in a lab, and the resulting embryos are then transferred to the intended mother’s or a surrogate’s uterus.
IVF Pros and Cons
- Depending on the woman’s circumstances, the per-cycle IVF success rate is very high at 40% (natural conception has a per-cycle success rate closer to 20-35%).
- It allows for preimplantation genetic testing (PGT).
- 15 states currently mandate fertility coverage, including IVF, which helps absorb the cost of treatment.
- The medication required to stimulate the production of the woman’s eggs may have side effects, including headaches, mood swings and rashes.
- One cycle can cost upwards of $12,000 without insurance.
Without question, the success rate of IVF is what makes it the most popular form of assisted reproduction. Under the IVF umbrella fall egg donation and gestational surrogacy as well, which makes it an even more sought-after means of family building.
We know that you likely have many questions about what is the best option for you, and we’re here to assist. Contact us to learn more about our services and how we can help you navigate the world of ART.
What are the pros and cons of IVF?
Author Name: Dr. Ganesh Mhaske Mentor Name: Dr. Sutapan Samanta on April 08, 2020
IVF has made unbelievable strides in field of infertility in recent years. The whole world got startled with the first IVF baby, Louis brown in 1978 by untiring efforts of P. Steptoe and RG Edwards from London. In India “Harsha” is the first fully documented IVF baby born on 6th Aug 1986 in Mumbai.
15 % of all couples who intend to become parents are unable to do so by natural means. The ultimate advantage of IVF for those not so fortunate couples is achieving a successful pregnancy and a healthy baby. Since its inception IVF has provided the opportunity for pregnancies to more than 8 million of couples worldwide that would probably have never occurred.
In following situations where IVF offers big advantages:
1) Tubal factor Infertility
Sexually Transmitted Infections like Chlamydia and gonorrhea , abdominal or genital tuberculosis particularly in developing countries like India , and diseases such as endometriosis can cause Tubal scarring or blockage.
Two main treatment options available for tubal factor infertility are surgical and nonsurgical procedures. Patients opting for tubal surgery for blocked tubes should know that these procedures increase the risk of scar tissue and adhesions which leads to increased risk of ectopic pregnancy, a life threatening condition.
For women with blocked, functionally damaged fallopian tubes or previous tubal sterilization, IVF is the non-surgical option which provides the best opportunity of having a child with good outcome.
2) Male infertility Male infertility following low sperm production, abnormal sperm function or male partner having even nil sperm count (Azoospermia ) can get a baby following advanced IVF techniques . Following development of ICSI, only one normal sperm and ovum required to achieve pregnancy. ICSI is a boon and revolutionized the treatment of male factor infertility.
3) Premature ovarian failure
In young female with premature ovarian failure or peri-menopausal women with low ovarian reserve , IVF provides them a ray of hope that they can conceive or achieve a successful pregnancy and a healthy baby by using donor oocyte.
4) Pre-implantation genetic screening (PGS)
By advanced diagnostic technique like PGD ( Pre-implantation Genetic Diagnosis ) or CGH ( Comparative Genomic Hybridization ) Couple having family history of genetic disorder like mentally retarded baby (Down syndrome ) , cystic fibrosis, thalassemia or when one of the partner is carrier for these conditions in that case PGD provide assured way to improve pregnancy outcome.
5) In conditions like PCOD where women ovulates infrequently , unexplained infertility where basic fertility investigations for both partners remain normal , Endometriosis IVF always has upper hand in achieving successful pregnancy.
6) IVF has given hopes to single mother.
7) It provides freedom to couple to freeze their excess embryo which can be used for future frozen embryo transfer (FET) later on.
As someone says “EVERY COIN HAS TWO SIDES”, similarly IVF has certain disadvantages.
1. Multiple pregnancy and its associated risk to mother and baby Multiple pregnancies are the greatest avoidable risk of IVF. The health and financial burdens it places on mother and also risk of miscarriage, preterm birth, which is a leading cause of infant mortality. However it can be overcome by adopting SET (Single Embryo Transfer) cycle.
2. IVF cycle is costly and success of IVF is not guaranteed. In fact, less than 50 to 60 percent of all couples starting an IVF cycle will achieve a pregnancy and not all of the pregnancies will result in a baby. Hence proper selection of an IVF Centre is extremely necessary in terms of success rate and ethical practice.
3. Although rare IVF has certain risks, including ovarian hyper stimulation syndrome, infections and ovarian torsion. OHSS is potentially life threatening, however it can now be effectively prevented or managed in good set up and by experienced fertility specialist.
4. Ethical concerns about the treatment of leftover embryos after successful IVF pregnancy is also a concern in unregulated fertility clinics.
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6 Pros and Cons of IVF
IVF (In Vitro Fertilization) is one of the popularly known types of Assisted Reproductive Technology(ART) which is a combination of some surgical procedures and medications to help sperm fertilize an egg.
Other forms of ART are namely Gamete Intrafallopian Transfer(GIFT) and Zygote Intrafallopian Transfer(ZIFT)
The technology is used when the natural way of fertilization of the egg does not happen in a women’s uterus. This starts with doctors prescribed medicines that help make the eggs mature and ready for fertilization.
During the medication phase, you might have to go through a series of ultrasounds and blood tests to make sure the hormone levels are within the range and everything is going just fine in there. After several months of medication, the fertilized eggs are then taken out of the body and mixed with sperm in a special container in a lab, the process of mixing of eggs with the sperm is called ‘Insemination’.
After the fertilization happens which will be thoroughly monitored by the doctors, the fertilized eggs are then put back into the uterus. For pregnancy to happen, the fertilized eggs needs to attach itself to the lining of the uterus. The doctor will then advise you to rest for the rest of the day however, you can get back to your normal work a day later.
Pros of In Vitro Fertilization (IVF)
If the natural way of reproduction is somehow not working, this is the proven and safe method which in itself is a gift of technology and medical science. Moreover, there are some advantages of IVF that might not be achieved otherwise
1. Solves the Problem of Blocked Fallopian Tubes
IVF is proved to be very effective and probably the only option for women whose fallopian tube is damaged or blocked. They can have their children using their own eggs with IVF.
2. Addresses Male infertility
If the male partner is facing the problem of infertility, there is a high chance of getting pregnant with IVF than naturally.
3. Unknown Infertility
Out of ten couples, almost two of them are likely to face the problem of infertility with unknown reasons. IVF is proved to be very effective with couples facing infertility problem that is undiagnosed.
4. Effective for Women with PCOS
Polycystic Ovarian Syndrom is a problem among women in reproductive age caused by genetic, environmental, and behavioral factors. Women with PCOS have high chances of not getting pregnant the natural way. IVF could be a better option for them.
Cons of In Vitro Fertilization (IVF)
The entire process of In Vitro Fertilization can be very emotional and the whole family could feel tremendous pressure regarding the health of the mother and the future child.
The doctor should be completely aware of your physical and emotional state throughout the process so it is highly recommended to be absolutely honest in sharing everything that you feel during the process. Both the partners should be present during every consultation/visits to the doctor.
Like any other medical procedure, IVF also comes with certain side effects, the most common and obvious being the erratic emotional state of the partners. However, this is a very safe, easy and medically proven way of reproduction.
After the embryos(fertilized eggs) are transferred to the uterus, women might go through some of the side effects
1. Side Effects(Normal)
- Breast Tenderness
- Mild Cramping and Bloating
- Abdominal Pain
2. Side Effects (Call your doctor immediately)
- Heavy vaginal bleeding
- Blood in urine
- High fever
- Mild to severe pelvic pain
Success Rate of IVF
Whether or not an IVF ends successfully depends upon a number of factors that include your lifestyle factors(any of the partners), maternal age, reproductive history etc. Those who go for IVF should be clear that getting pregnant is not considered a successful IVF procedure. Only if the pregnancy ends with a live birth, the IVF is considered a success. In the recent past, the live birth rate of each IVF cycle is seen to be
- Less than 20% – Maternity Age: 40+
- 23% to 27% – Maternity Age: 38-40
- 33% to 36% – Maternity Age: 35-37
- 40% to 43% – Maternity Age: 35 or less
(Last Updated On: March 5, 2021)
The Pros and Cons of In-Vitro Fertilization
What is In-Vitro Fertilization?
In-vitro fertilization is a procedure that allows couples who cannot conceive normally to have a child. The woman’s egg and man’s sperm are taken out of the body and fertilized in a laboratory, then put back into a woman who can carry the pregnancy to term.
Many moral and ethical concerns have been raised because of in-vitro fertilization. Those against the procedure say it is too much like playing God. Many women, however, have successfully delivered healthy babies as a result of in-vitro fertilization. Only you can decide if this procedure is the right one for you.
What are the Chances of Success with In-Vitro Fertilization?
“The chance of successful pregnancy with in vitro fertilization is directly related to the age of the woman who provides the egg. Most in vitro fertilization programs divide up their success rates according to age. For example, clinics will report pregnancy rates for women under and over the age of 35 years. There is certainly deterioration in the quality of eggs from the mid-thirties onwards. Some clinics divide up success rates further, and specifically report pregnancy rates for women between the ages of 35 and 37, 38 and 39, 39 to 42, and then over the age of 42.:
– Victoriafertility web site, August 2006
In-vitro has enjoyed a good success rate.
Some in-vitro procedures have been too effective, with women giving birth to twins, triplets, or even more babies at once. It’s a good idea to try the process with three or fewer eggs, on the chance that all the eggs will become successfully fertilized and produce children. In-vitro is a viable option for women who cannot naturally conceive.
What are the Dangers of In-Vitro Fertilization?
“One of the commonest serious side effects from using fertility drugs is a condition known as ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS). Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome becomes a risk in women who develop more than 20 follicles in response to the fertility drugs. In these circumstances the blood estrogen levels are often very high, and this combination causes OHSS.”
– Victoriafertility web site, August 2006
The most common danger of in-vitro is that it will not work. It is very disappointing and depressing for a couple who has tried many methods, only to fail again at in-vitro. There is nothing to suggest that in-vitro fertilization will make natural conception easier or harder for the woman in the future. Medically, the procedure is fairly safe. There is some pain associated with the process of removing the woman’s eggs, however, and there is a surgical procedure involved.
If you are considering in-vitro fertilization, it’s best to discuss your options with your doctor. In-vitro can be a rather invasive procedure. You’ll want to know what your chances are of having a successful pregnancy using this method before you decide to go ahead with in-vitro.
The Pros and Cons of In-Vitro Fertilization
Each woman has to make the decision regarding in-vitro for herself, with the support of her spouse. Many couples face reproductive challenges, and it’s a very common problem that is nothing to be ashamed of. Learn all about your own chances of success with in-vitro before you decide to go through with the procedure, which can be very costly and very invasive to a woman’s body. How much you want to conceive will determine whether or not in-vitro fertilization is right for you.
90,000 What is IVF: pros, cons, health effects
In Russia, 30% of married couples suffer from infertility. Until 1986, Russians were forced to put up with fate and look for other ways to have a child. But thanks to the new reproductive technology – IVF, this year the first child was born to an infertile mother. This method helps to become a parent, but is it really safe?
What is IVF and when is it used
IVF has become an assisted reproductive technology that helps a woman get pregnant.It is used by couples who have health problems and they will not do it naturally, or women after 40.
This type of artificial insemination is different from others: the egg and sperm are combined in a test tube, and not inside a woman. Then, a suitable embryo is placed in the mother’s uterus.
Before the procedure, both parents pass the necessary tests to know about the presence of contraindications and the possibility of a favorable outcome. If there are indications for IVF and the female body is prepared for the procedure with the help of hormonal drugs, pregnancy will occur within 2 weeks after fertilization.
Pros of IVF
Practice shows that the procedure of in vitro fertilization in 9 out of 10 cases gives positive results. Thanks to her, a woman with gynecological diseases against the background of inflammation, also with a removed fallopian tube and ovulation disorders, will become a mother. There are situations when partners are incompatible according to the doctor’s indications, but they want to have a child. IVF comes to the rescue.
A baby who was conceived as a result of artificial insemination has a 99% chance of being born healthy.During the entire period of pregnancy, doctors monitor the expectant mother and eliminate problems that arise at an early stage.
Read also 7 star couples who have gone through IVF
IVF has no age restrictions, so women from 40 to 50 years old have a chance to know motherhood. According to statistics, children born in this way are intellectually developed. The attitude towards them in the family is more reverent, the parents pay a lot of attention to them and study regularly. Women have long gone to the opportunity to become a mother, so they put all their efforts into their child.
Cons of IVF
People who consider IVF as a way to acquire their own baby pay attention to the positive characteristics of the procedure. But it also has negative consequences that those who want to become parents do not know about.
For a woman’s health, artificial insemination is dangerous with the risk of an ectopic pregnancy. The embryo can be fixed not in the uterus, but outside of it – in the fallopian tube or abdominal cavity.
In preparation for pregnancy and throughout its entire period, the hormonal drugs that she takes affect women’s health.They lead to malfunctions of the gastrointestinal tract and liver. Allergic reactions occur.
Cancer has become a serious consequence to consider when deciding on fertilization. Natalya Bogdanova, an oncologist and candidate of medical sciences, said that due to IVF, a woman’s body is exposed to strong hormonal effects. There is an increased risk of developing breast, ovarian, or brain cancer.
It is interesting that many began to talk about the development of cancer due to IVF after the news about Zhanna Frisk, Anastasia Zavorotnyuk and the wife of Konstantin Khabensky.They refer to the fact that it was after the birth of the child that celebrities learned about the disease.
The desire to have children is natural for a woman. But it is worth considering other ways to have a baby. The consequences of the procedure in the future will be irreparable. You need to protect your health and not be led by desires.
Also interesting How the birth of a daughter changed the life of Anastasia Zavorotnyuk 90,000 IVF: the pros and cons of the procedure
Treatment of infertility in modern reproductive medicine is carried out using in vitro fertilization technology.This method is used for serious hormonal disorders, male infertility against the background of reduced sperm activity, female tubal infertility.
IVF, like any other medical procedure, has its advantages and disadvantages. Let’s understand them in more detail.
What is IVF?
In vitro fertilization is a modern technology used in the field of reproductive medicine.With its help, doctors manage to achieve the conception of an embryo outside the human body. Sperm and eggs are mixed in the laboratory, after which the embryos are transferred to an incubator. The strongest of the formed zygotes are selected for the purpose of implantation into the mother’s body and subsequent natural gestation. ECO technology has an efficiency of up to 50%.
If the cause of infertility is associated with pathologies of the male reproductive system, then the ICSI procedure is performed along with IVF. Its essence lies in the forced fertilization of an egg with one sperm, which is selected according to morphological characteristics and speed of movement.The ICSI method made it possible for men with the most serious pathologies of sperm formation to become parents of their own child.
Advantages and disadvantages of in vitro fertilization
The advantages and disadvantages of IVF have been of concern to society from the very beginning of the procedure. Reproductive technology, which has helped many infertile couples become happy parents, is being discussed not only in the media, but also in religious and scientific circles.
The benefits of IVF are beyond doubt.The procedure provides the possibility of childbearing to barren people who have already lost all hope. The practice of in vitro fertilization shows that children born after the procedure do not differ from babies conceived naturally. The process of fertilization of an egg and bearing a baby under the IVF program is controlled by doctors-embryologists and reproductive specialists. The risk of genetic pathologies is minimized.
Opponents of IVF name a number of shortcomings, which, in their opinion, are the reason for the prohibition of the use of this technology.Let’s sort them out in order.
- IVF procedure is unnatural. An absolutely baseless argument. Conception during in vitro fertilization, although it is carried out outside the body, is at the same time natural. After the embryo is implanted into the mother’s body, the development of the fetus occurs in the same way as during normal conception.
- IVF is expensive. Yes, indeed, this technology requires high material costs. You need to pay for maintenance therapy, collection of tests and the IVF procedure itself.But there is a significant plus here – most of the costs are borne by the state. Compulsory health insurance quotas help to cover the costs of IVF, so expectant parents only have to pay for medications and tests.
- Artificial insemination is a sin. The official church does not consider IVF a sin, since the procedure is performed for medical reasons and the sperm of the woman’s legal husband is taken for it.
- In vitro fertilization is dangerous for the baby and mother.This fact has not been officially confirmed. Egg collection and implantation of the finished embryo have practically no traumatic consequences for the mother.
The problem of female infertility is quite acute for Russia. According to statistics, about 15% of married couples face it. Now they have a great opportunity to become parents with little or no risk – thanks to in vitro fertilization.
Benefits of IVF – artificial insemination method
Treatment of male and female infertility
IVF is the most widespread and effective method of combating female and male infertility.This technology is widely used in the USA, Israel, Germany, France, Austria, Spain, Finland and other developed countries. Thanks to improved protocols, the effectiveness of one IVF procedure in the world’s leading reproductive centers is at least 50%, and in some it reaches 70%. At the same time, IVF is becoming more and more safe both in the short and long term.
IVF (in vitro fertilization) is a complex of assisted reproductive technologies, the unifying and key link of which is the process of fusion of the egg and sperm in the laboratory, outside the woman’s body.The IVF method, introduced into world medicine 40 years ago, is recognized as an international standard in the fight against female and male infertility. All these years, with the accumulation of experience, the IVF technique has been improved and supplemented.
In general, the IVF scheme can be represented as follows:
- diagnostics of a couple who applied for artificial insemination followed by therapy for gynecological, urological and other diseases;
- follicular stimulation according to one of the protocols using the sequential use of a complex of hormonal drugs.This allows you to get up to 15-20 mature eggs in one cycle. In the future, these eggs or embryos formed after their fusion with the sperm can be cryopreserved. If the first IVF attempt is unsuccessful, they can be used in the future without repeated preliminary preparation of partners.
IVF without stimulation or with minimal stimulation of folliculogenesis – a new word in reproductology. Even a short hormonal course allows you to get up to 8 mature eggs in one cycle.In any case, only follicles that are ready for this are susceptible to accelerated maturation, so the procedure for hormonal preparation for IVF does not affect their main supply, does not deplete the ovaries and does not bring menopause. However, mini-stimulation and non-stimulation IVF programs are especially relevant for patients over the age of 35 years with a small supply of follicles;
- obtaining genetic material for IVF. Men can provide it after natural ejaculation. If this is not possible, the sperm are removed by biopsy of the testicle or epididymis.The modern method of obtaining eggs is a minimally invasive and painless puncture of the ovary with the thinnest needle through the vagina under the control of an ultrasound machine;
- The embryological stage is carried out in the laboratory using microscopic and sometimes microsurgical techniques. For fertilization, only structurally ideal, motile and active spermatozoa are selected. In the traditional IVF modification, they independently penetrate into the egg. To increase the effectiveness of the procedure, especially in cases of male infertility, when the number of viable germ cells is small, the technique of intracytoplasmic injection is used.It consists in injecting the head of the healthiest sperm into the cytoplasm of the egg cell, since it is it that contains all the genetic information of the future father;
Within a few days after the fusion of the parents’ germ cells, the formed embryo is in the incubator. After it has 4-8 cells and is ready for transfer into the uterine cavity, it is diagnosed to exclude genetic and chromosomal abnormalities, as well as to determine gender;
- The embryos selected at the previous stage are transferred to the uterus.Assisted hatching is often performed before this. This is a new microsurgical procedure that is widely used abroad and increases the effectiveness of IVF. It consists in applying a microscopic notch to the shell of the egg, which facilitates the exit and implantation of the embryo into the wall of the uterus;
- The stages of embryo engraftment are monitored using ultrasound and analysis of certain hormones.
The advantages of in vitro fertilization can be judged by the scheme presented above.They are numerous and undeniable:
- the opportunity to have a child for people suffering from infertility is the main and undoubted advantage of IVF;
- Parents-to-be are planning a pregnancy and preparing carefully for it. They undergo a preliminary examination, sanitize all foci of infection, and bring chronic diseases into a state of compensation. Drinking alcoholic beverages, smoking, unauthorized use of drugs before and after conception are guaranteed.All this reduces the risk of pregnancy complications and increases the chance of having a healthy baby;
- for IVF, the most viable eggs and spermatozoa without structural abnormalities are selected;
- pre-implantation diagnostics allows you to select healthy embryos for transplantation into the uterus, without hereditary diseases and chromosomal abnormalities. In addition, in many countries, patients are given the option of choosing an embryo of a particular sex;
- is significantly higher the probability of having twins, which after IVF reaches 50%, since very often several embryos take root.If necessary, some of them can be removed;
- donor sperm or eggs can be used, if necessary and partners are ready for this option.
IVF is the most widespread and effective method of combating female and male infertility. This technology is widely used in the USA, Israel, Germany, France, Austria, Spain, Finland and other developed countries. Thanks to improved protocols, the effectiveness of one IVF procedure in the world’s leading reproductive centers is at least 50%, and in some it reaches 70%.At the same time, IVF is becoming more and more safe both in the short and long term.
Cryopreservation of embryos
An in vitro fertilization program is very often accompanied by the receipt of more embryos than is required for one transfer. If desired, they can be saved for subsequent IVF attempts, because it is not known whether pregnancy will occur in this cycle, and whether it will develop. In addition, in the future, a married couple may decide to give birth to another child, therefore, in order not to burden the mother’s body once again, many clinics offer services for cryopreservation of embryos.
Cryopreservation is a way of storing biomaterial under low temperature conditions for a long time, which implies the possibility of defrosting and restoring its biological functions. Cryopreservation has been used in the perinatal center since 2011; over 7 years of practice, 728 cycles have been successfully performed.
Since 2018, the embryo cryopreservation service has been carried out within the framework of the basic compulsory health insurance (MHI) program.
Experts recommend that patients carry out cryopreservation of embryos at:
The final decision on the necessity and possibilities of freezing is made by the doctor and the embryologist individually for each couple.
“Pros” and “cons” of cryopreservation of embryos
The cryopreservation program has a number of significant advantages:
- increase in the individual likelihood of pregnancy;
- reduction in the number of repeated ovarian stimulation and follicle punctures, which significantly reduces the drug load on the female body;
- prevention of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome;
- Possibility of donor transfer of embryos to other infertile families.
90,077 Significant savings in patients’ funds for the purchase of additional drugs;
90,077 the possibility of conceiving a child in a few years, including after the treatment of oncological diseases;
However, an important disadvantage of the program is the likelihood of losing part of the embryos during freezing and thawing. For this reason, each couple should discuss with specialists all the details and features of cryopreservation in order to preserve a larger number of embryos.
How is cryopreservation carried out?
- In different centers for the treatment of infertility, the cryopreservation procedure can be carried out at different stages of embryonic development: fertilized eggs, four- or eight-cell embryos, blastocysts.The main condition is their good quality to increase the likelihood of survival after thawing and freezing.
- At the beginning of the program, the embryos are placed in a cryoprotective medium with special drugs that protect cells from damage. These substances do not cause the formation of ice crystals inside the embryos, but allow the cytoplasm of the cells to be in a gel-like state and subsequently restore their properties.
- Next, the embryos are transferred into microcontainers – plastic tubes with individual markers, each of which may contain 4-5 units, placed in a cryobank and cooled.In this case, the cooling process can be carried out in two ways: slow and ultra-fast freezing (vitrification).
- Frozen embryos are stored for as long as necessary – from several months to several decades, and the storage period should be paid for in advance. At the end of this period, each couple must decide the further fate of their embryos: they can be disposed of, stored further, transferred to the uterus, left for scientific research, transported to another clinic, or donated to another infertile couple.
- If necessary, thaw the material, the tubes are removed from liquid nitrogen, thawed at room temperature, the embryos are removed from the cryoprotectant and placed in a special favorable environment. The day of transfer depends on the stage at which the embryos were frozen: blastocysts and cleavage embryos can be transferred into the uterus on the same day, and less developed embryos should be observed within 24 hours after evaluating their cleavage ability.
- Cryopreserved embryo transfer can be carried out in a natural, stimulated cycle or cycle with hormone replacement therapy.All of these methods have a similar frequency of implantation and pregnancy, so their choice depends on the opinion of the doctor and the reproductive problems of the couple.
Does cryopreservation of embryos affect the result of IVF and child development?
- The very process of storing embryos in frozen form does not affect their further development of embryos.
- In general, the result of the transfer depends on many factors: age, the correctness of drug support, the number of embryos transferred, and the number of complications (miscarriages, undeveloped and ectopic pregnancies) is comparable to the standard IVF program.
- Babies born as a result of pregnancy using thawed embryos are no different from others: this is confirmed by the huge number of babies born as a result of “cryo-pregnancies”.
Of course, we understand that you want to get results faster. In your case, the keyword is faster, in ours, the result. Embryologists day and night raise embryos, fertility doctors your endometrium, trust us so that in the future you can raise your son or daughter!
How IVF is carried out in stages: preparation, duration, evaluation of effectiveness
IVF is a complex process.It can be schematically represented by the following stages:
Stage 1 – monitoring the growth and maturation of follicles using ultrasound and (if indicated) hormonal studies.
At this stage, the induction of superovulation is carried out (that is, the stimulation of the maturation of several eggs in one menstrual cycle). For the successful implementation of IVF, it is necessary to obtain several mature eggs at once during one menstrual cycle.Such an opportunity, providing a better chance of success, is provided by the use of hormonal drugs – triptorelin (decapeptyl / dipherelin), buserelin or orgalutran; Puregon / Gonal or Menopur; rot / choragon or ovitrel. These drugs allow you to control the course of the menstrual cycle and calculate the time of egg maturation with extreme precision.
However, the introduction of these drugs, as well as any other drug, can be an allergic reaction, both local (redness, infiltration) and general.These groups of hormonal drugs (GnRH agonists, urinary or recombinant gonadotropins) are analogs of human hormones involved in the growth and maturation of the egg. They have a narrowly targeted effect (ensure the maturation of eggs), practically without other side effects.
The day of the start of monitoring (the first stage of the IVF program) depends on the woman’s age, the functional state of the ovaries. Women under the age of 35, as a rule, are included in the treatment cycle from 19-21 days of the menstrual cycle, preceding the cycle of stimulation (induction of superovulation).From this time, the introduction of drugs (decapeptyl / diferelin / busereli) begins, which prepares the ovaries for stimulation. From the 1-3 day of the next menstrual cycle, drugs are used (Puregon / Gonal / Menopur, Pregnyl and their analogues), which directly stimulate the growth of follicles and the maturation of eggs, as well as the growth of the endometrium – the inner layer of the uterus, where the embryo will subsequently be implanted.
Women over 35-40 years old, as a rule, are included in the treatment cycle from the 1st day of the menstrual cycle.The menstrual cycle is counted from the first day of your period. The day of arrival (the beginning of the treatment cycle) is always agreed with the reproductive physician (possibly by phone). All procedures are performed on an outpatient basis.
The administration of drugs is performed by trained nursing staff. Treatment room services are provided according to the schedule all days of the week, including weekends and holidays (by appointment). When visiting the treatment room, please wear removable shoes.
Step 2 – Puncture or aspiration of follicular fluid containing mature eggs.
Follicular puncture is performed transvaginally (through the fornix of the vagina) under the control of ultrasound. Due to its minimal trauma, transvaginal ovarian puncture is performed on an outpatient basis, under general anesthesia, after which the patient rests in the day hospital ward for 2-3 hours and, after being examined by the attending physician, goes home.
Puncture of the ovaries is performed on an empty stomach. On the day of the puncture, both spouses come to the ART department.
Stage 3 – embryological. The eggs obtained during the puncture of the follicles are placed in special dishes with a nutrient medium. During the embryological stage, culture dishes are kept in an incubator, where conditions are maintained similar to those in the mother’s body (exactly the same temperature and content of carbon dioxide, oxygen).After receiving the eggs from the woman, the husband donates sperm.
For IVF, only spermatozoa are selected that make translational movements. Fertilization of oocytes is carried out 4-6 hours after follicle puncture. Only one sperm out of tens of thousands is needed to fertilize one egg.
A prerequisite before donating sperm is preliminary abstinence from sexual activity for 2-7 days. In most men, with 3-5 days of abstinence, sperm composition and sperm quality are the best.
Spermatogenesis largely depends on the impact of adverse factors. The quality of sperm significantly deteriorates under the influence of nicotine, alcohol, occupational hazards, stressful situations, with nervous and general fatigue, with acute and chronic diseases. When planning treatment in an IVF medical center, it is necessary to exclude the influence of harmful factors or minimize it. It must be remembered that the composition of the sperm is completely renewed within three months.
Therefore, the longer a man manages to maintain a healthy lifestyle, the better the result.
Stage 4 – transfer of embryos into the uterine cavity. The embryo transfer is carried out with a special atraumatic catheter, without resorting to the expansion of the cervical canal, therefore this procedure is painless and does not require anesthesia.
It is recommended to transfer 2 embryos into the uterine cavity, since when transferring a larger number, the likelihood of a multiple pregnancy is higher.
Embryo transfer can be performed already on the second or third day after fertilization. If there are more than 3 high-quality embryos by the third day of cultivation, the transfer can be performed at later stages, up to the formation of a morula or blastocyst (preimplantation stages of embryo development), that is, on the fourth to fifth day after fertilization.
In this case, as a rule, no more than 2 embryos are transferred, since with prolonged cultivation additional criteria for assessing the quality of the embryo appear, thus, the chance of implantation is higher.
After embryo transfer, women do not need bed rest, as it has been proven that this is not a factor that increases the frequency of pregnancy.
90,000 a brief description of the process, advantages and disadvantages, medical advice
The problem of infertility in married couples becomes more acute every year. And the number of such families, unfortunately, is increasing. Today 30% of all married couples cannot conceive a child. Therefore, in vitro fertilization (IVF) for such spouses is the solution to this problem.This is a complicated and expensive procedure, but despite this, people come to a decision to perform such an operation and find money to pay. When there is a question about such a difficult decision, you need to find out about all the pros and cons of IVF.
What is artificial insemination?
In the modern world, not all women can boast of absolute health. This is due to environmental pollution, frequent stress, genetic diseases and other factors that affect health.
But fortunately, discoveries in the field of medicine made it possible to solve the problem of infertility through artificial insemination. So, there was a reproductive technology – IVF.
IVF fertilization – what is it? The essence of this process lies in the fact that conception itself does not occur in the female body, but in a test tube. Then the fertilized egg is implanted into a woman or a surrogate mother.
Indications for fertilization with a donor egg
- Absence of a fallopian tube.
- Inflammation and other gynecological diseases.
- Menstrual irregularities, lack of ovulation.
Thanks to artificial insemination, many children were born. This significantly reduced the demographic problem in the country, as the birth rate increased.
Before the embryo is inserted into the woman’s uterus, it is carefully examined for the absence of pathologies and any genetic abnormalities. Therefore, you can be sure that children conceived using the IVF procedure will be absolutely healthy.
IVF conception process
The IVF procedure is used not only for the purpose of conception itself, but also for a successful outcome in childbirth. A woman first needs to undergo a course of hormonal drugs prescribed by a doctor.
Attention: it is necessary to choose the clinic in which the procedure will be performed carefully. After all, a woman risks not only her health, but also her life. When a doctor takes an egg, bleeding may open, and an unqualified specialist may infect an infection.There are times when the embryo is implanted incorrectly, an ectopic pregnancy occurs.
Step-by-step IVF fertilization process:
- Removal of a female egg.
- The egg is artificially fertilized.
- The inseminated egg is placed in an incubator.
- An embryo is formed in it.
- The embryo is introduced into the woman’s body.
- Development of the baby in the womb.
But everything does not always work out right away. Couples have to apply again and again to repeat the procedure until a positive result is obtained.Since this is the only way to get pregnant, a woman on the way to realizing her dream, especially if it is delayed for a long time, may face psychological trauma, she may experience depression or neurosis. But, after carefully weighing all the pros and cons of IVF, couples still choose this method.
In order for a woman to develop several eggs, she needs to start taking special pills. She should undergo an ultrasound scan, which will track the increase in follicles.And also the doctor observes and assesses the hormonal background of a woman and its changes. The specialist analyzes how many fertilization attempts were made, the patient’s age and other indicators. So he concludes which of the stimulation methods is suitable for a woman.
The egg is grown in a special medium that is as close as possible to the natural one. Once the egg is mature, it is removed from the uterus by puncturing it in the wall of the abdominal cavity (laparoscopy) or using a new method – through the vagina.
Then, 2-3 hours later, the egg is combined with the sperm and fertilization takes place. Then the embryo is attached to the wall of the uterus.
If the procedure was successful, then after a couple of weeks the woman can take a pregnancy test, which will show a positive result. When the patient visits the ultrasound room, the specialist will tell her how many embryos have taken root and what is their developmental period.
Pros and cons of IVF stimulation
The biggest advantage of the IVF procedure is, of course, the birth of a child.This is an advantage of IVF, but there are also disadvantages. They are mainly related to the health of the mother. So, for example, at the very beginning, a woman should take hormonal drugs that affect the increase in the number of eggs. In this regard, vomiting, dizziness, malaise, weakness, abdominal pain, and even weight gain may occur.
The IVF procedure has a negative effect on a woman’s body in the following:
- Impaired functioning of the thyroid gland – it cannot cope with the hormones that have been added to the body.
- Negatively affects blood vessel permeability.
- Violation of the heart and vascular system.
Also, the disadvantages of the IVF procedure include the high cost. Not every childless couple can afford this method.
Freezing embryos with IVF: pros and cons
Freezing of embryos (cryopreservation) helps to preserve most of the biological material. Main advantages:
- A woman does not need to undergo hormone therapy again.
- Suitable for those who cannot tolerate hyperstimulation.
- Frozen embryos are stored for a long time.
- It is much cheaper to freeze once than to go through all the stages each time.
- Recommended for people with cancer to collect material before chemotherapy irradiation.
- Embryos can be offered to other couples.
These were the advantages of frozen embryos after IVF, and the disadvantage is that during freezing and thawing, not all embryos are preserved and survive.
To do or not to do is the question
There is a lot of controversy about the benefits and harms of artificial insemination. Some argue that children conceived with the IVF method often suffer from cancer. And others say that such children will subsequently also have problems with conception. IVF fertilization, the pros and cons have not yet been fully understood, but there are features that are worth paying attention to:
- First of all, this is an artificial stimulation of enhancing the work of the ovaries.
- A woman is deliberately induced to temporarily menopause.
- From taking hormonal drugs, a woman experiences mood swings.
- The embryo is examined at the genetic level.
- Chromosomal abnormalities should definitely not be.
- It is possible to get the desired gender of the baby or babies.
When the level of hormones is disturbed in the body of the expectant mother, then she may experience various ailments, headaches, vomiting and nausea.Often, IVF fertilization is multiple pregnancy, that is, several embryos take root in the uterus at once. But bearing for a woman is not always feasible due to the weakening of the body with hormonal therapy.
It happens that the doctor decides to extract part of the embryos for medical reasons. And such a procedure does not always end favorably, a miscarriage may occur.
Usually married couples who do not conceive naturally due to any diseases apply for IVF fertilization.For example, pregnancy can occur if the fallopian tubes are damaged, the partner has low sperm activity, or there is an abnormal structure of the genitals. And they can also become parents of a couple who have genetic abnormalities, diabetes mellitus or endometriosis. Even the environment in the uterus that is not suitable for conception will not affect the successful outcome.
Contraindications to IVF
Still, not all women can undergo artificial insemination.Cons and pros of IVF in these cases do not matter. There are the following contraindications to the procedure:
- There is a mental disorder in the expectant mother.
- There are lesions on the walls of the uterus, due to which it is impossible to fix the embryo.
- A malignant tumor was diagnosed in the organs of the reproductive system.
- The inflammatory process is progressing.
These contraindications apply to women. Any man can become a father.The main thing is that there are active sperm in the semen.
Why is IVF worth doing?
Today, if attempts to cure infertility are unsuccessful, then IVF is the most effective method. Even if the pregnancy did not come from the first time, then from the third or fourth it should definitely work out. Couples need to be patient and wait.
Children after IVF are born healthy and do not differ at all from those who are conceived naturally. It even happens, on the contrary, that such children are smarter and stronger.
Pros and cons of IVF and reviews of real people suggest that some have to do from 5 to 8 attempts, and yet the result is positive. Others manage to get pregnant right away, and this does not affect the course of pregnancy or childbirth in any way. Children, judging by the feedback from their parents, are born healthy and strong.
After all the pros and cons of IVF have been considered in detail, it is worth doing such procedures for all infertile couples unambiguously. As you can see, the disadvantages are only in the general condition of the woman and weight gain.But these problems are temporary and completely solvable, and the birth of a small copy of two loving people is something for which it is worth a little patience.
90,000 Children from the cryostat. What is the risk of egg freezing
Children from the cryostat. What is the risk of egg freezing
Children from a cryostat. What is the risk of egg freezing – Russia News Agency, 12/14/2019
Children from a cryostat. What is the risk of freezing oocytes
Cryopreservation of oocytes was developed for purely medical purposes.Now that this procedure has become commercial, more and more women are using it in the world … RIA Novosti, 12/14/2019
discoveries – ria science
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MOSCOW, Dec 14 – RIA Novosti, Tatyana Pichugina. Oocyte cryopreservation was developed for purely medical purposes. Now that this procedure has become commercial, more and more women around the world use it as a means of planning pregnancy. As far as it is justified – in the material of RIA Novosti. From the test tube to the refrigerator Initially, the cryopreservation method was used mainly in the IVF (in vitro fertilization) procedure in order to preserve excess embryos.A woman is given artificial ovarian hyperstimulation with hormonal drugs. As a result, not one or two, but a dozen eggs (oocytes) mature in her. They are removed gently by surgery and selected from four to five of the highest quality. Then the doctor, under a microscope, introduces into the cytoplasm of cells the same pre-selected sperm cells tested for viability. Fertilization occurs. At the blastocyst stage (several tens of cells), some of the embryos are implanted into the patient’s uterus, and some are frozen to be used again if the implanted ones for some reason have not taken root.It is safer for a woman and cheaper than repeated IVF. Why the egg survives Progress in this area is due to the method of vitrification (vitrification) – rapid freezing of the egg, in which the liquid in it is replaced with a cryoprotectant. At low temperatures, it remains amorphous, like glass, and does not damage living material – unlike an aqueous solution that fills the egg.A mixture of organic compounds based on glycerin is used as a cryoprotectant. It interacts with the cell membrane and controls the concentrations of intra- and extracellular electrolytes, displacing water.During defrosting, the cryoprotectant is removed from the cell, slowly adjusting its concentration in the solution and thus lowering the osmotic pressure. Unlike slow freezing, when the material is gradually cooled and then placed in liquid nitrogen, when quickly frozen, it is immediately lowered into the cryostat. This method gives better results: after thawing, more eggs are stored and fertilized, more embryos take root. Cryopreservation procedures have improved significantly in recent years. After thawing, the viability of up to 90 percent of the samples.Now this method gives positive results with the same probability as implantation of embryos that have not gone through the freezing cycle. In addition, cells frozen in this way retain viability for many years. Successes and Fears For several years, freezing of female eggs (oocytes) and embryos is not an experimental method, but quite a massive one. From a purely medical application, it has become part of the egg and embryo donor banking industry. Those who submitted the material there can use it themselves in the future, or they can give permission for sale or use for scientific purposes.Cryopreservation has allowed many childless couples to experience the joy of a fulfilling family life. It is also the only way to become a mother for women who are not allowed to do this by medical indications. Cryopreservation is used by those who in the future are at risk of infertility, for example, with a decrease in fertility, who will have surgery, other treatment, which then will not allow IVF. This is especially true for cancer patients. If the patient needs emergency chemotherapy, the pregnancy has to be postponed.In addition, they may be limited in the use of hormonal drugs used in IVF. There is also a downside to the coin. Increasingly, women who have decided to postpone the birth of a child for career reasons or because of problems in their personal lives resort to cryopreservation. In the West, this is called “socially motivated egg freezing” and is seen as the “second great breakthrough” in birth control after the massive proliferation of hormonal contraceptives. As of 2017, in the United States, the bank of frozen embryos and oocytes for non-medical reasons contained more than 11 thousand samples.At the same time, polls show that frozen eggs for social reasons are worried about this. They are concerned not only with the likelihood of success of such a procedure, the issue of a sufficient number of preserved oocytes, but also the lack of information about the consequences of such a step, psychological support. At the same time, not everyone who used the “social” freeze will demand their material. According to the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology, as of 2018, only 7.6 percent of women applied to the Center for Reproductive Medicine in Brussels, the largest in the EU, to thaw their eggs: 43 out of 563.Of these, only a third became pregnant. Indeed, postponing the birth of a child is not the most correct life strategy. Since the optimal age for both pregnancy and cryopreservation of eggs is up to 35 years. At this time, the percentage of successful defrosting, fertilization and gestation is higher. At a later age, more low-quality eggs are detected, with morphological abnormalities, damage to the cytoplasm. According to some calculated models, women aged 34, 37 and 42 years old will need ten, twenty and 61 oocytes, respectively, to achieve a 75 percent probability of a successful pregnancy.A successful outcome also depends on other factors: heredity, past pathologies, stress. Scientists are also worried about the long-term consequences for children born from frozen eggs. This procedure can disrupt the integrity of the spindle during cell division of the embryo, lead to abnormalities in the number of chromosomes, fragmentation of the DNA molecule, acceleration of its methylation and gene expression. Experiments with animals indicate such a risk. Scientists from the University of Copenhagen (Denmark), analyzing the research data, found that when conceiving using cryopreservation of embryos, the risk of developing a larger fetus is slightly increased.Another Danish study has received an international response. After analyzing the histories of about a million children born between 1996 and 2012, the authors of the work showed that freezing of embryos is associated with a small but statistically distinguishable risk of 2.4 percent of developing cancer in childhood compared with natural childbirth. limitations of this study. In particular, the study is small, it covers only 3356 children born using cryopreservation, of which 14 were diagnosed with cancer.This is too little to draw conclusions. Smoking during pregnancy has also been associated with increased risk of cancer in offspring. In any case, this disease in childhood remains a very rare diagnosis.
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https: // xn – c1acbl2abdlkab1og.xn – p1ai / awards /
FSUE MIA “Russia Today”
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USA, Moscow, Brussels, discoveries – RIA Science, Health, Biology
MOSCOW, Dec 14 – RIA Novosti, Tatyana Pichugina. Oocyte cryopreservation was developed for purely medical purposes. Now that this procedure has become commercial, more and more women around the world use it as a means of planning pregnancy. To what extent this is justified – in the material of RIA Novosti.
From a test tube to a refrigerator
Initially, the cryopreservation method was used mainly in IVF (in vitro fertilization) to preserve excess embryos.
A woman is given artificial ovarian hyperstimulation with hormonal drugs. As a result, not one or two, but a dozen eggs (oocytes) mature in her. They are removed gently by surgery and selected from four to five of the highest quality. Then the doctor, under a microscope, introduces into the cytoplasm of cells the same pre-selected sperm cells tested for viability. Fertilization occurs.
At the blastocyst stage (several tens of cells), some of the embryos are implanted into the patient’s uterus, and some are frozen to be used again if the implanted ones for some reason have not taken root.It is safer for a woman and cheaper than repeated IVF.
Why the egg cell survives
Progress in this area is due to the method of vitrification (vitrification) – rapid freezing of the egg, in which the liquid in it is replaced by a cryoprotectant. At low temperatures, it remains amorphous, like glass, and does not damage living material – unlike an aqueous solution that fills the egg.
A mixture of organic compounds based on glycerin is used as a cryoprotectant.It interacts with the cell membrane and controls the concentrations of intra- and extracellular electrolytes, displacing water. During thawing, the cryoprotectant is removed from the cell by slowly adjusting its concentration in the solution and thus reducing the osmotic pressure.
Unlike slow freezing, when the material is gradually cooled and then placed in liquid nitrogen, with fast freezing, it is immediately lowered into a cryostat. This method gives the best results: after thawing, more eggs are stored and fertilized, more embryos take root.
Cryopreservation procedures have been greatly improved in recent years. After thawing, the viability of up to 90 percent of the samples. Now this method gives positive results with the same probability as implantation of embryos that have not gone through the freezing cycle. In addition, cells frozen in this way remain viable for many years.
May 4, 2018, 08:35 ScienceRussian scientists were the first in the world to restore the frozen heart of a frog
Successes and fears
For several years now, the freezing of female eggs (oocytes) and embryos is not an experimental method, but quite a massive one.From a purely medical application, it has become part of the egg and embryo donor banking industry. Those who submitted the material there can use it themselves in the future, or they can give permission for sale or use for scientific purposes.
Cryopreservation has allowed many childless couples to experience the joy of a fulfilling family life. It is also the only way to become a mother for women who are not allowed to do so by medical reasons.
Cryopreservation is used by those who are at risk of infertility in the future, for example, with a decrease in fertility, who will have to undergo surgery, other treatment, which then will not allow the IVF procedure.This is especially true for cancer patients. If the patient needs emergency chemotherapy, the pregnancy has to be postponed. In addition, they may be limited in the use of hormonal drugs used in IVF.
October 4, 2017, 16:31 Increasingly, women who have decided to postpone the birth of a child for career reasons or because of problems in their personal lives resort to cryopreservation. In the West, this is called “social egg freezing” and is considered the “second great breakthrough” in birth control after the massive spread of hormonal contraceptives.As of 2017, the bank of frozen embryos and oocytes in the United States for non-medical reasons contained more than 11 thousand samples.
At the same time, polls show that frozen eggs for social reasons are worried about this. They are concerned not only with the likelihood of success of such a procedure, the issue of a sufficient number of preserved oocytes, but also the lack of information about the consequences of such a step, psychological support.
At the same time, not everyone who took advantage of the “social” freeze will claim their material.According to the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology, as of 2018, only 7.6 percent of women applied to the Center for Reproductive Medicine in Brussels, the largest in the EU, to thaw their eggs: 43 out of 563. Of these, only a third became pregnant.
Indeed, postponing the birth of a child is not the most correct life strategy. Since the optimal age for both pregnancy and cryopreservation of eggs is up to 35 years. At this time, the percentage of successful defrosting, fertilization and gestation is higher.At a later age, more poor-quality eggs are revealed, with morphological abnormalities, damage to the cytoplasm.
According to some calculation models, women aged 34, 37 and 42 years old will need ten, twenty and 61 oocytes, respectively, to achieve a 75 percent chance of a successful pregnancy. A successful outcome also depends on other factors: heredity, past pathologies, stress.
Scientists are also worried about the long-term effects on babies born from frozen eggs.This procedure can disrupt the integrity of the spindle during cell division of the embryo, lead to abnormalities in the number of chromosomes, fragmentation of the DNA molecule, acceleration of its methylation and gene expression. Experiments with animals indicate such a risk. Scientists from the University of Copenhagen (Denmark), analyzing the research data, found that when conceiving using cryopreservation of embryos, the risk of developing a larger fetus is slightly increased. Another Danish study has received an international response. After analyzing the histories of about a million children born between 1996 and 2012, the authors of showed that freezing of embryos is associated with a small but statistically distinguishable risk of 2.4 percent of developing cancer in childhood compared with natural childbirth.